Journal: Circ Heart Fail

Sorted by: date / impact
Abstract

Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock: Results From the RESCUE Registry.

Yang JH, Choi KH, Ko YG, Ahn CM, ... Choi SH, Gwon HC
Background
In the current era of mechanical circulatory support, limited data are available on prognosis of cardiogenic shock (CS) caused by various diseases. We investigated the characteristics and predictors of in-hospital mortality in Korean patients with CS.
Methods
The RESCUE study (Retrospective and Prospective Observational Study to Investigate Clinical Outcomes and Efficacy of Left Ventricular Assist Device for Korean Patients With CS) is a multicenter, retrospective, and prospective registry of patients that presented with CS. Between January 2014 and December 2018, 1247 patients with CS were enrolled from 12 major centers in Korea. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality.
Results
In-hospital mortality rate was 33.6%. The main causes of shock were ischemic heart disease (80.7%), dilated cardiomyopathy (6.1%), myocarditis (3.2%), and nonischemic ventricular arrhythmia (2.5%). Vasopressors were used in 1081 patients (86.7%). The most frequently used vasopressor was dopamine (63.4%) followed by norepinephrine (57.3%). An intraaortic balloon pump was used in 314 patients (25.2%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator in 496 patients (39.8%). In multivariable analysis, age ≥70years (odds ratio [OR], 2.73 [95% CI, 1.89-3.94], P<0.001), body mass index <25 kg/m2 (OR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.08-2.16], P=0.017), cardiac arrest at presentation (OR, 2.16 [95% CI, 1.44-3.23], P<0.001), vasoactive-inotrope score >80 (OR, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.54-4.95], P<0.001), requiring continuous renal replacement therapy (OR, 4.14 [95% CI, 2.88-5.95], P<0.001), mechanical ventilator (OR, 3.17 [95% CI, 2.16-4.63], P<0.001), intraaortic balloon pump (OR, 1.55 [95% CI, 1.07-2.24], P=0.020), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (OR, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.25-2.76], P=0.002) were independent predictors for in-hospital mortality.
Conclusions
The in-hospital mortality of patients with CS remains high despite the high utilization of mechanical circulatory support. Age, low body mass index, cardiac arrest at presentation, amount of vasopressor, and advanced organ failure requiring various support devices were poor prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02985008.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e008141
Yang JH, Choi KH, Ko YG, Ahn CM, ... Choi SH, Gwon HC
Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e008141 | PMID: 34129366
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Impact of Insulin Treatment on the Effect of Eplerenone: Insights From the EMPHASIS-HF Trial.

Ferreira JP, Lamiral Z, McMurray JJV, Swedberg K, ... Pitt B, Zannad F
Background
Patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and insulin-treated diabetes have a high risk of cardiovascular complications. Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists may mitigate this risk. We aim to explore the effect of eplerenone on cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients with diabetes, including those treated with insulin in the EMPHASIS-HF trial (Eplerenone in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure and Mild Symptoms).
Methods
The primary outcome was the composite of heart failure hospitalization or cardiovascular death. Cox models with treatment-by-diabetes subgroup interaction terms were used.
Results
The median follow-up was 21 (10-33) months. Of the 2737 patients included, 623 (23%) had non-insulin-treated diabetes, 236 (9%) had insulin-treated diabetes and 1878 did not have diabetes. Patients with insulin-treated diabetes were younger, more often women, with higher body mass index, waist circumference, more frequent ischemic heart failure cause, impaired kidney function, and longer diabetes duration. Compared with patients without diabetes, those with insulin-treated diabetes had a 2-fold higher risk of having a primary outcome event. The hazard ratio (95% CI) for the effect of eplerenone, compared with placebo, on the primary outcome was 0.31 (0.19-0.50) in insulin-treated diabetes, 0.69 (0.50-0.93) in non-insulin-treated diabetes, and 0.72 (0.58-0.88) in patients without diabetes; interaction P=0.007. The annualized number needed-to-treat-to-benefit with regards to the primary outcome was 3 (95% CI, 3-4) in patients with insulin-treated diabetes, 16 (13-19) in patients with diabetes not receiving insulin, and 26 (24-28) in patients without diabetes.
Conclusions
Patients with insulin-treated diabetes experienced a greater benefit from eplerenone than those with diabetes not treated with insulin and people without diabetes. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00232180.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e008075
Ferreira JP, Lamiral Z, McMurray JJV, Swedberg K, ... Pitt B, Zannad F
Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e008075 | PMID: 34129365
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Potential Role of Natriuretic Response to Furosemide Stress Test During Acute Heart Failure.

Caravaca Pérez P, Nuche J, Morán Fernández L, Lora D, ... Arribas Ynsaurriaga F, Delgado JF
Background
Poor natriuresis has been associated with a poorer response to diuretic treatment and worse prognosis in acute heart failure. Recommendations on how and when to measure urinary sodium (UNa) are lacking. We aim to evaluate UNa quantification after a furosemide stress test (FST) capacity to predict appropriate decongestion during acute heart failure hospitalization.
Methods
Patients underwent an FST on day-1 of admission, and UNa was measured 2 hours after, dividing patients into low or high UNa based on the sample median value. A semiquantitative composite congestive score (CCS; 0-9) and NT pro-BNP (N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide) quantification were assessed before the FST and at day 5 after the FST.
Results
Median UNa after FST in the 65 patients included was 113 (97-122) mmol/L. At day 5, a lower proportion of patients with a low UNa reached a 30% decrease in NT-proBNP levels (21 [66%] for low UNa versus 31 [94%] for high UNa; P=0.005) and an appropriate grade of decongestion (CCS<3) (20 [62%] for low UNa versus 32 [97%] for high UNa; P<0.001). A UNa>83 mmol/L 2 hours after FST had a 96% sensitivity to predict an NT-proBNP reduction ≥30% and 95% to predict a CCS<3 at day 5. Low UNa patients presented a lower cumulative diuresis and weight loss and presented more often with prolonged hospitalization, worsening heart failure, and readmission because of acute heart failure or death at 6 months.
Conclusions
Low natriuresis after an FST identified patients at a higher risk of an inadequate diuretic response and an inappropriate decongestion. FST-guided diuretic treatment might help to improve decongestion, shorten hospitalizations, and to reduce adverse outcomes.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e008166
Caravaca Pérez P, Nuche J, Morán Fernández L, Lora D, ... Arribas Ynsaurriaga F, Delgado JF
Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e008166 | PMID: 34129364
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Remote Hemodynamic Monitoring Equally Reduces Heart Failure Hospitalizations in Women and Men in Clinical Practice: A Sex-Specific Analysis of the CardioMEMS Post-Approval Study.

DeFilippis EM, Henderson J, Axsom KM, Costanzo MR, ... Brett ME, Givertz MM
Background
Response to pharmacological and device-based therapy for heart failure (HF) may vary by sex. We examined sex differences in response to ambulatory hemodynamic monitoring in clinical practice using the CardioMEMS PAS (Post-Approval Study).
Methods
The CardioMEMS PAS was a prospective, single-arm, multicenter, open-label study of 1200 adults with New York Heart Association class III HF and at least 1 HF hospitalization (HFH) within 12 months who underwent pulmonary artery pressure sensor implantation between 2014 and 2017. Changes in pulmonary artery pressure over time were stratified by ejection fraction <40% and sex. Clinical outcomes including HFH rate at 12 months, 1-year mortality, and quality of life were examined in women and men.
Results
Four hundred fifty-two women (38% of total) enrolled in the PAS were less likely to be White (78% versus 86%) and more likely to have nonischemic cardiomyopathy (44% versus 34%) and had significantly higher SBP (132 versus 124 mm Hg), mean ejection fraction (44% versus 36%), and pulmonary vascular resistance (3.2 versus 2.6 WU) than men (P<0.001 for all). There were similar reductions in pulmonary artery pressure from baseline to 12 months in both men and women for the whole cohort and for subgroups with HF with reduced ejection fraction and HF with preserved ejection fraction. Both sexes experienced significant decreases in HFH over 12 months (men: HR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.40-0.52]; women: HR, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.33-0.46]). In adjusted models, there were no significant differences in change in HFH between men and women (interaction P=0.13) or all-cause mortality at 1 year (adjusted HR, 1.25 [95% CI, 0.88-1.77]).
Conclusions
Women and men enrolled in the CardioMEMS PAS had similar reductions from baseline in pulmonary artery pressure over 1 year and experienced similar reductions in HFH. Hemodynamic monitoring provides similar benefit with regard to HF events in both women and men. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02279888.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e007892
DeFilippis EM, Henderson J, Axsom KM, Costanzo MR, ... Brett ME, Givertz MM
Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e007892 | PMID: 34129363
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Cardiolipin Remodeling Defects Impair Mitochondrial Architecture and Function in a Murine Model of Barth Syndrome Cardiomyopathy.

Zhu S, Chen Z, Zhu M, Shen Y, ... Kunfu O, Fang X
Background
Cardiomyopathy is a major clinical feature in Barth syndrome (BTHS), an X-linked mitochondrial lipid disorder caused by mutations in Tafazzin (TAZ), encoding a mitochondrial acyltransferase required for cardiolipin remodeling. Despite recent description of a mouse model of BTHS cardiomyopathy, an in-depth analysis of specific lipid abnormalities and mitochondrial form and function in an in vivo BTHS cardiomyopathy model is lacking.
Methods
We performed in-depth assessment of cardiac function, cardiolipin species profiles, and mitochondrial structure and function in our newly generated Taz cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice and Cre-negative control mice (n≥3 per group).
Results
Taz cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice recapitulate typical features of BTHS and mitochondrial cardiomyopathy. Fewer than 5% of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout mice exhibited lethality before 2 months of age, with significantly enlarged hearts. More than 80% of cardiomyocyte-specific knockout displayed ventricular dilation at 16 weeks of age and survived until 50 weeks of age. Full parameter analysis of cardiac cardiolipin profiles demonstrated lower total cardiolipin concentration, abnormal cardiolipin fatty acyl composition, and elevated monolysocardiolipin to cardiolipin ratios in Taz cardiomyocyte-specific knockout, relative to controls. Mitochondrial contact site and cristae organizing system and F1F0-ATP synthase complexes, required for cristae morphogenesis, were abnormal, resulting in onion-shaped mitochondria. Organization of high molecular weight respiratory chain supercomplexes was also impaired. In keeping with observed mitochondrial abnormalities, seahorse experiments demonstrated impaired mitochondrial respiration capacity.
Conclusions
Our mouse model mirrors multiple physiological and biochemical aspects of BTHS cardiomyopathy. Our results give important insights into the underlying cause of BTHS cardiomyopathy and provide a framework for testing therapeutic approaches to BTHS cardiomyopathy, or other mitochondrial-related cardiomyopathies.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e008289
Zhu S, Chen Z, Zhu M, Shen Y, ... Kunfu O, Fang X
Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e008289 | PMID: 34129362
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Levels of Trimethylamine N-Oxide Remain Elevated Long Term After Left Ventricular Assist Device and Heart Transplantation and Are Independent From Measures of Inflammation and Gut Dysbiosis.

Yuzefpolskaya M, Bohn B, Javaid A, Mondellini GM, ... Colombo PC, Demmer RT
Background
Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-a gut-derived metabolite-is elevated in heart failure (HF) and linked to poor prognosis. We investigated variations in TMAO in HF, left ventricular assist device (LVAD), and heart transplant (HT) and assessed its relation with inflammation, endotoxemia, oxidative stress, and gut dysbiosis.
Methods
We enrolled 341 patients. TMAO, CRP (C-reactive protein), IL (interleukin)-6, TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor alpha), ET-1 (endothelin-1), adiponectin, lipopolysaccharide, soluble CD14, and isoprostane were measured in 611 blood samples in HF (New York Heart Association class I-IV) and at multiple time points post-LVAD and post-HT. Gut microbiota were assessed via 16S rRNA sequencing among 327 stool samples. Multivariable regression models were used to assess the relationship between TMAO and (1) New York Heart Association class; (2) pre- versus post-LVAD or post-HT; (3) biomarkers of inflammation, endotoxemia, oxidative stress, and microbial diversity.
Results
ln-TMAO was lower among HF New York Heart Association class I (1.23 [95% CI, 0.52-1.94] µM) versus either class II, III, or IV (1.99 [95% CI, 1.68-2.30], 1.97 [95% CI, 1.71-2.24], and 2.09 [95% CI, 1.83-2.34] µM, respectively; all P<0.05). In comparison to class II-IV, ln-TMAO was lower 1 month post-LVAD (1.58 [95% CI, 1.32-1.83] µM) and 1 week and 1 month post-HT (0.97 [95% CI, 0.60-1.35] and 1.36 [95% CI, 1.01-1.70] µM). ln-TMAO levels in long-term LVAD (>6 months: 1.99 [95% CI, 1.76-2.22] µM) and HT (>6 months: 1.86 [95% CI, 1.66-2.05] µM) were not different from symptomatic HF. After multivariable adjustments, TMAO was not associated with biomarkers of inflammation, endotoxemia, oxidative stress, or microbial diversity.
Conclusions
TMAO levels are increased in symptomatic HF patients and remain elevated long term after LVAD and HT. TMAO levels were independent from measures of inflammation, endotoxemia, oxidative stress, and gut dysbiosis.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e007909
Yuzefpolskaya M, Bohn B, Javaid A, Mondellini GM, ... Colombo PC, Demmer RT
Circ Heart Fail: 30 May 2021; 14:e007909 | PMID: 34129361
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Exception Status Listing in the New Adult Heart Allocation System: A New Solution to an Old Problem?

Topkara VK, Clerkin KJ, Fried JA, Griffin J, ... Sayer G, Uriel N
Background
One of the goals of the revised 6-tiered US adult heart allocation policy was to improve risk stratification of patients to lower exception status utilization for transplant listing. We sought to define the characteristics and outcomes of waitlisted patients using exception status and to examine region- and center-level differences in utilization of exception status in the new heart allocation system.
Methods
This retrospective cohort analysis of the United Network for Organ Sharing database included adult waitlisted patients for heart transplant between October 18, 2018, and June 30, 2020, in the United States, stratified by use of exception status versus standard criteria.
Results
Out of 6351 patients, 1907 (30.0%) were waitlisted under exception status. Patients using exception status were more likely to have a nonischemic cause of heart failure, blood type O, United Network for Organ Sharing status 2 at listing and were less likely to have a durable left ventricular assist device at listing. Exception status utilization varied significantly between and within United Network for Organ Sharing regions. Listing by exception criteria was associated with a significantly higher incidence of heart transplantation compared with listing by standard criteria (hazard ratio, 1.25 [1.15-1.38], P<0.001), without increased risk of death or delisting for worsening clinical status (hazard ratio, 0.83 [0.65-1.05], P=0.12) after multivariable adjustment.
Conclusions
The status tiers of the new heart allocation system may not fully capture medical urgency and complexity of waitlisted patients as assessed by transplant physicians and review committees and may limit the ability to develop a heart allocation score.



Circ Heart Fail: 27 May 2021:CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007916; epub ahead of print
Topkara VK, Clerkin KJ, Fried JA, Griffin J, ... Sayer G, Uriel N
Circ Heart Fail: 27 May 2021:CIRCHEARTFAILURE120007916; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34044577
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Association Between Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibition, Cardiovascular Biomarkers, and Cardiac Remodeling in Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction.

Murphy SP, Prescott MF, Maisel AS, Butler J, ... Solomon SD, Januzzi JL
Background : Sacubitril/valsartan (S/V) treatment is associated with reverse cardiac remodeling and reductions in biomarkers reflecting ventricular wall stress and myocardial injury, such as N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and soluble suppressor of tumorigenicity-2 (sST2). How longitudinal changes in these biomarkers analyzed collectively are associated with cardiac remodeling in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) treated with S/V is uncertain. Methods : In a prospective study of S/V in patients with HFrEF, this pre-specified exploratory analysis included patients with serially collected biomarkers and echocardiographic measures of cardiac remodeling through 12 months of treatment. A multivariate Latent Growth Curve model assessed associations between simultaneous changes in biomarkers and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and left atrial volume index (LAVi). Results : 715 out of 794 total study participants were included (mean age 65 years, 73% male). Mean baseline LVEF and LAVi were 29% and 40 ml/m2, respectively. Adjusted geometric mean baseline concentrations for biomarkers included NT-proBNP of 649 pg/ml, hs-cTnT of 15.9 ng/L and sST2 of 24.7 ng/ml. Following initiation of S/V, circulating concentrations of NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT and sST2 significantly decreased within 30 days and remained significantly different than baseline at all subsequent timepoints. From baseline to month 12, decreases in adjusted biomarker concentrations averaged -27.9% (95% CI: -35.1% to -20.7%; p<.001) for NT-proBNP; -6.7% (95% CI: -8.8% to -4.7%; p<.001) for hs-cTnT; and -1.6% (95% CI: -2.9% to -0.4%; p<.001) for sST2. NT-proBNP concentrations were predictive of later changes in hs-cTnT. The magnitude of reductions in NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT concentrations associated with improvements in LVEF and LAVi. There was no association between changes in sST2 and changes in other measures. Conclusions : Following initiation of S/V, NT-proBNP, hs-cTnT and sST2 concentrations decreased significantly. Longitudinal changes in NT-proBNP and hs-cTnT together associated with LA and LV reverse remodeling. Registration : URL: ClinicalTrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT02887183.



Circ Heart Fail: 14 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Murphy SP, Prescott MF, Maisel AS, Butler J, ... Solomon SD, Januzzi JL
Circ Heart Fail: 14 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33998243
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Clinical Outcomes Associated With Acute Mechanical Circulatory Support Utilization in Heart Failure Related Cardiogenic Shock.

Hernandez-Montfort J, Sinha SS, Thayer KL, Whitehead EH, ... Burkhoff D, Kapur NK
Background
Cardiogenic shock occurring in the setting of advanced heart failure (HF-CS) is increasingly common. However, recent studies have focused almost exclusively on acute myocardial infarction-related CS. We sought to define clinical, hemodynamic, metabolic, and treatment parameters associated with clinical outcomes among patients with HF-CS, using data from the Cardiogenic Shock Working Group registry.
Methods
Patients with HF-CS were identified from the multicenter Cardiogenic Shock Working Group registry and divided into 3 outcome categories assessed at hospital discharge: mortality, heart replacement therapy (HRT: durable ventricular assist device or orthotopic heart transplant), or native heart survival. Clinical characteristics, hemodynamic, laboratory parameters, drug therapies, acute mechanical circulatory support device (AMCS) utilization, and Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention stages were compared across the 3 outcome cohorts.
Results
Of the 712 patients with HF-CS identified, 180 (25.3%) died during their index admission, 277 (38.9%) underwent HRT (durable ventricular assist device or orthotopic heart transplant), and 255 (35.8%) experienced native heart survival without HRT. Patients who died had the highest right atrial pressure and heart rate and the lowest mean arterial pressure of the 3 outcome groups (P<0.01 for all). Biventricular and isolated left ventricular congestion were common among patients who died or underwent HRT, respectively. Lactate, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and aspartate aminotransferase were highest in patients with HF-CS experiencing in-hospital death. Intraaortic balloon pump was the most commonly used AMCS device in the overall cohort and among patients receiving HRT. Patients receiving >1 AMCS device had the highest in-hospital mortality rate irrespective of the number of vasoactive drugs used. Mortality increased with deteriorating Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention stages (stage B: 0%, stage C: 10.7%, stage D: 29.4%, stage E: 54.5%, 1-way ANOVA=<0.001).
Conclusions
Patients with HF-CS experiencing in-hospital mortality had a high prevalence of biventricular congestion and markers of end-organ hypoperfusion. Substantial heterogeneity exists with use of AMCS in HF-CS with intraaortic balloon pump being the most common device used and high rates of in-hospital mortality after exposure to >1 AMCS device.



Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007924
Hernandez-Montfort J, Sinha SS, Thayer KL, Whitehead EH, ... Burkhoff D, Kapur NK
Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007924 | PMID: 33905259
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Framework to Classify Reverse Cardiac Remodeling With Mechanical Circulatory Support: The Utah-Inova Stages.

Shah P, Psotka M, Taleb I, Alharethi R, ... Kfoury AG, Drakos SG
Background
Variable definitions and an incomplete understanding of the gradient of reverse cardiac remodeling following continuous flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation has limited the field of myocardial plasticity. We evaluated the continuum of LV remodeling by serial echocardiographic imaging to define 3 stages of reverse cardiac remodeling following LVAD.
Methods
The study enrolled consecutive LVAD patients across 4 study sites. A blinded echocardiographer evaluated the degree of structural (LV internal dimension at end-diastole [LVIDd]) and functional (LV ejection fraction [LVEF]) change after LVAD. Patients experiencing an improvement in LVEF ≥40% and LVIDd ≤6.0 cm were termed responders, absolute change in LVEF of ≥5% and LVEF <40% were termed partial responders, and the remaining patients with no significant improvement in LVEF were termed nonresponders.
Results
Among 358 LVAD patients, 34 (10%) were responders, 112 (31%) partial responders, and the remaining 212 (59%) were nonresponders. The use of guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure was higher in partial responders and responders. Structural changes (LVIDd) followed a different pattern with significant improvements even in patients who had minimal LVEF improvement. With mechanical unloading, the median reduction in LVIDd was -0.6 cm (interquartile range [IQR], -1.1 to -0.1 cm; nonresponders), -1.1 cm (IQR, -1.8 to -0.4 cm; partial responders), and -1.9 cm (IQR, -2.9 to -1.1 cm; responders). Similarly, the median change in LVEF was -2% (IQR, -6% to 1%), 9% (IQR, 6%-14%), and 27% (IQR, 23%-33%), respectively.
Conclusions
Reverse cardiac remodeling associated with durable LVAD support is not an all-or-none phenomenon and manifests in a continuous spectrum. Defining 3 stages across this continuum can inform clinical management, facilitate the field of myocardial plasticity, and improve the design of future investigations.



Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007991
Shah P, Psotka M, Taleb I, Alharethi R, ... Kfoury AG, Drakos SG
Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007991 | PMID: 33947201
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Current Limitations of Invasive Exercise Hemodynamics for the Diagnosis of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Baratto C, Caravita S, Soranna D, Faini A, ... Parati G, Vachiéry JL
Background
Exercise hemodynamics can differentiate heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) from noncardiac dyspnea. However, respiratory pressure swings may impact hemodynamic measurements, potentially leading to misdiagnosis of HFpEF. Moreover, threshold values for abnormal hemodynamic response indicative of HFpEF are not universally accepted. Thus, we sought to evaluate the impact of respiratory pressure swings on hemodynamic data interpretation as well as the concordance among 3 proposed exercise hemodynamic criteria for HFpEF: (1) end-expiratory pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWPexp) ≥25 mm Hg; (2) PAWPexp/cardiac output slope >2 mm Hg/L per minute; and (3) respiratory-averaged (avg) mean pulmonary artery pressure >30 mm Hg, total pulmonary resistanceavg >3 WU, PAWPavg ≥20 mm Hg.
Methods
Fifty-seven patients with unexplained dyspnea (70% women, 70±9 years) underwent exercise cardiac catheterization. The difference between end-expiratory and averaged hemodynamic values, as well as the concordance among the 3 hemodynamic definitions of HFpEF, were assessed.
Results
End-expiratory hemodynamics measurements were higher than values averaged across the respiratory cycle. During exercise, a larger proportion of patients exceeded the threshold of 25 mm Hg for PAWPexp rather than for PAWPavg (70% versus 53%, P<0.01). The concordance of 3/3 HFpEF exercise hemodynamic criteria was recorded in 70% of patients. PAWPexp/cardiac output slope identified HFpEF more frequently than the other 2 criteria (81% versus 64% to 69%), incorporating over 97% of abnormal responses to the latter. Patients with 3/3 positive criteria had worse clinical, gas-exchange, and hemodynamic profiles.
Conclusions
Respiratory pressure swings impact on the exercise hemodynamic definitions of HFpEF that provide discordant results in 30% of patients. Equivocal diagnoses of HFpEF might be limited by adopting the most sensitive and inclusive criterion alone (ie, PAWPexp/cardiac output slope).



Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007555
Baratto C, Caravita S, Soranna D, Faini A, ... Parati G, Vachiéry JL
Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007555 | PMID: 33951935
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Bridging With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Under the New Heart Allocation System: A United Network for Organ Sharing Database Analysis.

Nordan T, Critsinelis AC, Mahrokhian SH, Kapur NK, ... Couper GS, Kawabori M
Background
The effect of the new donor heart allocation system on survival following bridging to transplantation with venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation remains unknown. The new allocation system places extracorporeal membrane oxygenation-supported candidates at the highest status.
Methods
The United Network for Organ Sharing database was queried for adults bridged to single-organ heart transplantation with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation from October 2006 to February 2020. Association between implementation of the new system and recipient survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier estimates, Cox proportional hazards models, and propensity score matching.
Results
Of 364 recipients included, 173 and 191 were transplanted under new and old systems, respectively. Compared with the old system, waitlist time was halved under the new system (5 versus 10 days, P<0.01); recipients also demonstrated lower rates of prior cardiac surgery (32.9% versus 44.5%, P=0.03) and preoperative ventilation (30.6% versus 42.4%, P=0.02). Unadjusted 180-day survival was 90.2% (95% CI, 84.7%-94.2%) and 69.6% (95% CI, 62.6%-76.1%) under the new and old systems, respectively. Cox proportional hazards analysis demonstrated listing and transplantation under the new system to be an independent predictor of post-transplant survival (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.34 [95% CI 0.20-0.59]). Propensity score matching demonstrated a similar trend (hazard ratio, 0.36 [95% CI, 0.19-0.66]). Candidates listed under the new system were significantly less likely to experience waitlist mortality or deterioration (subhazard ratio, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.25-0.58]) and more likely to survive to transplant (subhazard ratio, 4.29 [95% CI, 3.32-5.54]).
Conclusions
Recipients transplanted following extracorporeal membrane oxygenation bridging to transplantation under the new system achieve greater 180-day survival compared with the old and demonstrate less preoperative comorbidity. Waitlist outcomes have also improved significantly under the new allocation system.



Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007966
Nordan T, Critsinelis AC, Mahrokhian SH, Kapur NK, ... Couper GS, Kawabori M
Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007966 | PMID: 33951934
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Estimated Health Care Utilization and Expenditures in Individuals With Heart Failure From the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

Klein S, Jiang S, Morey JR, Pai A, ... Lala A, Ferket BS
Background
Heart failure (HF) constitutes a growing burden for public health and the US health care system. While the prevalence of HF is increasing, differences in health care utilization and expenditures within various sociodemographic groups remain poorly defined.
Methods
We used the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey to assess annual health care utilization and expenditures from 2012 to 2017. Health care utilization was based on the annual frequency of various health care encounters. Annual total and out-of-pocket expenditures were evaluated for hospital inpatient stays, emergency room visits, outpatient visits, office-based medical provider visits, prescribed medicines, dental visits, home health aid visits, and other medical expenses. We performed univariable and multivariable regression analysis based on patient characteristics including sociodemographic and comorbidity variables.
Results
Our results showed that total health care expenditures among patients with HF were $21 177 (95% CI, $18 819-$24 736) per year as compared with $5652 (95% CI, $5469-$5837) in those without HF (P<0.001). Total expenditures within the population with HF were primarily being driven by expenditures associated with inpatient hospitalizations. Increasing number of comorbid conditions was associated with significant increases in total health care expenditures. Older age, female sex, earlier study years, number of comorbidities, higher level of education, and increasing family income brackets independently raised out-of-pocket expenditures.
Conclusions
Our findings of increased health care utilization and expenditures based on sex, age, increasing number of comorbidities, wealthier income status, and increased education attainment level may be used for efforts aimed at better distributing health care resources to improve health outcomes in HF.



Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007763
Klein S, Jiang S, Morey JR, Pai A, ... Lala A, Ferket BS
Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e007763 | PMID: 33980040
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Intersection of Heart Failure and Pregnancy: Beyond Peripartum Cardiomyopathy.

DeFilippis EM, Haythe JH, Walsh MN, Kittleson MM
Heart failure (HF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in pregnant women in the United States. Although peripartum cardiomyopathy is the most common diagnosis for pregnant women with HF, women with preexisting cardiomyopathies and systolic dysfunction are also at risk as the hemodynamic demands of pregnancy can lead to decompensation, arrhythmia, and rarely death. The differential diagnosis of HF in pregnancy is broad and includes Takotsubo or stress cardiomyopathy, exacerbation of a preexisting cardiomyopathy, such as familial cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, or left ventricular noncompaction. This review will explore the implications of pregnancy in women with preexisting cardiomyopathies and de novo HF, risk assessment and preconception planning, decisions about contraception, the safety of HF medications and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators during pregnancy, pregnancy in women with left ventricular assist devices and following heart transplantation.



Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e008223
DeFilippis EM, Haythe JH, Walsh MN, Kittleson MM
Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e008223 | PMID: 33980039
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Ferric Carboxymaltose in Heart Failure With Iron Deficiency: Rationale and Design.

Mentz RJ, Ambrosy AP, Ezekowitz JA, Lewis GD, ... Hernandez AF, HEART-FID Trial Investigators
Background
Iron deficiency (ID) has a prevalence of ≈40% to 50% among patients in heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction and is associated with worse prognosis. Several trials demonstrated that intravenous ferric carboxymaltose leads to early and sustained improvement in patient-reported outcomes and functional capacity in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction with ID, yet morbidity and mortality data are limited.
Methods
The objective of the HEART-FID trial (Ferric Carboxymaltose in Heart Failure With Iron Deficiency) is to assess efficacy and safety of ferric carboxymaltose compared with placebo as treatment for symptomatic HF with reduced ejection fraction with ID. HEART-FID is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial enrolling ≈3014 patients at ≈300 international centers. Eligible patients are aged ≥18 years in stable chronic HF with New York Heart Association functional class II to IV symptoms, ejection fraction ≤40%, ID (ferritin <100 ng/mL or ferritin 100-300 ng/mL with a transferrin saturation <20%), and documented HF hospitalization or elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Consented patients are assigned to ferric carboxymaltose or placebo at baseline, with repeated visits/assessments every 6 months for additional study drug based on hemoglobin and iron indices for the trial duration. The primary end point is a hierarchical composite of death and HF hospitalization at 12 months and change from baseline to 6 months in the 6-minute walk test distance.
Conclusions
The HEART-FID trial will inform clinical practice by clarifying the role of long-term treatment with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose, added to usual care, in ambulatory patients with symptomatic HF with reduced ejection fraction with ID. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03037931.



Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e008100
Mentz RJ, Ambrosy AP, Ezekowitz JA, Lewis GD, ... Hernandez AF, HEART-FID Trial Investigators
Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e008100 | PMID: 34003690
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Association of Health Insurance Payer Type and Outcomes After Durable Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: An Analysis of the STS-INTERMACS Registry.

Khatana SAM, Hanff TC, Nathan AS, Dayoub EJ, ... Giri J, Groeneveld PW
Background
Due to the high cost of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy, payer type may be an important factor in determining eligibility. How payer type influences outcomes after LVAD implantation is unclear. We, therefore, aimed to study the association of health insurance payer type with outcomes after durable LVAD implantation.
Methods
Using STS-INTERMACS (Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support), we studied nonelderly adults receiving a durable LVAD from 2016 to 2018 and compared all-cause mortality and postindex hospitalization adverse event episode rate by payer type. Multivariable Fine-Gray and generalized linear models were used to compare the outcomes.
Results
Of the 3251 patients included, 26.0% had Medicaid, 24.9% had Medicare alone, and 49.1% had commercial insurance. Compared with commercially insured patients, mortality did not differ for patients with Medicaid (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.00 [95% CI, 0.75-1.34], P=0.99) or Medicare (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.09 [95% CI, 0.84-1.41], P=0.52). Medicaid was associated with a significantly lower adjusted incidence rate (incidence rate ratio, 0.88 [95% CI, 0.78-0.99], P=0.041), and Medicare was associated with a significantly higher adjusted incidence rate (incidence rate ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.03-1.30], P=0.011) of adverse event episodes compared with commercially insured patients.
Conclusions
All-cause mortality after durable LVAD implantation did not differ significantly by payer type. Payer type was associated with the rate of adverse events, with Medicaid associated with a significantly lower rate, and Medicare with a significantly higher rate of adverse event episodes compared with commercially insured patients.



Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e008277
Khatana SAM, Hanff TC, Nathan AS, Dayoub EJ, ... Giri J, Groeneveld PW
Circ Heart Fail: 29 Apr 2021; 14:e008277 | PMID: 33993721
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Race- and Sex-Specific Population Attributable Fractions of Incident Heart Failure: A Population-Based Cohort Study From the Lifetime Risk Pooling Project.

Sinha A, Ning H, Carnethon MR, Allen NB, ... Lloyd-Jones DM, Khan SS
Background
Race- and sex-specific differences in heart failure (HF) risk may be related to differential burden and effect of risk factors. We estimated the population attributable fraction (PAF), which incorporates both prevalence and excess risk of HF associated with each risk factor (obesity, hypertension, diabetes, current smoking, and hyperlipidemia), in specific race-sex groups.
Methods
A pooled cohort was created using harmonized data from 6 US longitudinal population-based cohorts. Baseline measurements of risk factors were used to determine prevalence. Relative risk of incident HF was assessed using a piecewise constant hazards model adjusted for age, education, other modifiable risk factors, and the competing risk of death from non-HF causes. Within each race-sex group, PAF of HF was estimated for each risk factor individually and for all risk factors simultaneously.
Results
Of 38 028 participants, 55% were female and 22% Black. Hypertension had the highest PAF among Black men (28.3% [95% CI, 18.7%-36.7%]) and women (25.8% [95% CI, 16.3%-34.2%]). In contrast, PAF associated with obesity was the highest in White men (21.0% [95% CI, 14.6%-27.0%]) and women (17.9% [95% CI, 12.8%-22.6%]). Diabetes disproportionately contributed to HF in Black women (PAF, 16.4% [95% CI, 12.7%-19.9%]). The cumulative PAF of all 5 risk factors was the highest in Black women (51.9% [95% CI, 39.3%-61.8%]).
Conclusions
The observed differences in contribution of risk factors across race-sex groups can inform tailored prevention strategies to mitigate disparities in HF burden. This novel competing risk analysis suggests that a sizeable proportion of HF risk may not be associated with modifiable risk factors.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e008113
Sinha A, Ning H, Carnethon MR, Allen NB, ... Lloyd-Jones DM, Khan SS
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e008113 | PMID: 33761754
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Metabolically Healthy/Unhealthy Overweight/Obesity Associations With Incident Heart Failure in Postmenopausal Women: The Women\'s Health Initiative.

Cordola Hsu AR, Xie B, Peterson DV, LaMonte MJ, ... Wong ND, WHI Investigators
Background
Obesity is associated with an increased risk of heart failure (HF); however, how metabolic weight groups relate to HF risk, especially in postmenopausal women, has not been demonstrated.
Methods
We included 19 412 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 without cardiovascular disease from the Women\'s Health Initiative. Normal weight was defined as a body mass index ≥18.5 and <25 kg/m2 and waist circumference <88 cm and overweight/obesity as a body mass index ≥25 kg/m2 or waist circumference ≥88 cm. Metabolically healthy was based on <2 and unhealthy ≥2 cardiometabolic traits: triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL, systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥85 mm Hg or blood pressure medication, fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL or diabetes medication, and HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) <50 mg/dL. Risk factor-adjusted Cox regression examined the hazard ratios (HRs) for incident hospitalized HF among metabolically healthy normal weight (reference), metabolically unhealthy normal weight, metabolically healthy overweight/obese, and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese.
Results
Among our sample, 455 (2.34%) participants experienced HF hospitalizations over a mean follow-up time of 11.3±1.1 years. Compared with metabolically healthy normal weight individuals, HF risk was greater in metabolically unhealthy normal weight (HR, 1.66 [95% CI, 1.01-2.72], P=0.045) and metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese individuals (HR, 1.95 [95% CI, 1.35-2.80], P=0.0004), but not metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.78-1.71], P=0.48). Subdividing the overweight/obese into separate groups showed HRs for metabolically unhealthy obese of 2.62 (95% CI, 1.80-3.83; P<0.0001) and metabolically healthy obese of 1.52 (95% CI, 0.98-2.35; P=0.06).
Conclusions
Metabolically unhealthy overweight/obese and metabolically unhealthy normal weight are associated with an increased risk of HF in postmenopausal women.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007297
Cordola Hsu AR, Xie B, Peterson DV, LaMonte MJ, ... Wong ND, WHI Investigators
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007297 | PMID: 33775111
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic Role of Prior Heart Failure Hospitalization Among Patients Hospitalized for Worsening Chronic Heart Failure.

Blumer V, Mentz RJ, Sun JL, Butler J, ... O\'Connor CM, Greene SJ
Background
Hospitalization for heart failure (HF) is associated with increased risk of death among patients with chronic HF. The degree to which hospitalization for HF is a distinct biologic entity with independent prognostic value versus a marker of higher risk chronic HF patients is unclear.
Methods
After excluding patients with new-onset HF, the ASCEND-HF trial (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide in Decompensated Heart Failure) included 4205 patients hospitalized for worsening chronic HF with reduced or preserved ejection fraction. The present analysis compared patients by presence or absence of prior HF hospitalization within 12 months and by timing of prior HF hospitalization relative to index hospitalization. Associations with 180-day all-cause mortality were assessed, including adjustment for 27 prespecified clinical factors.
Results
Overall, 2241 (53.3%) patients had a HF hospitalization within the prior 12 months and 1964 (46.7%) did not. Mortality rates at 180 days were 15.5% and 11.9%, respectively. In unadjusted analyses, prior HF hospitalization was associated with increased risk of 180-day mortality (HR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.14-1.59]; P<0.01). After adjustment, the point estimate was attenuated and the association not statistically significant (HR, 1.18 [95% CI, 0.99-1.40]; P=0.064). Similarly, after adjustment, compared with patients without prior hospitalization, prior HF hospitalization was not associated with mortality, irrespective of timing (0-4 months: HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.87-1.39], P=0.41; 4-8 months: HR, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.70-1.27]; P=0.72; 8-12 months: HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 0.74-1.51], P=0.77; >12 months: HR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.63-1.06], P=0.12).
Conclusions
In this cohort of patients hospitalized for worsening HF, prior HF hospitalization was not associated with 180-day mortality after comprehensively accounting for patient characteristics measured during the index patient visit. Clinical confounders measured at the point-of-care may explain previously observed associations between prior HF hospitalization and mortality, and these clinical factors may be a more direct means of predicting patient survival. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT00475852.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007871
Blumer V, Mentz RJ, Sun JL, Butler J, ... O'Connor CM, Greene SJ
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007871 | PMID: 33775110
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Characteristics and Outcomes of COVID-19 in Patients on Left Ventricular Assist Device Support.

Birati EY, Najjar SS, Tedford RJ, Houston BA, ... Moss N, Genuardi MV
Background
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to afflict millions of people worldwide. Patients with end-stage heart failure and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) may be at risk for severe COVID-19 given a high prevalence of complex comorbidities and functional impaired immunity. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with end-stage heart failure and durable LVADs.
Methods
The Trans-CoV-VAD registry is a multi-center registry of LVAD and cardiac transplant patients in the United States with confirmed COVID-19. Patient characteristics, exposure history, presentation, laboratory data, course, and clinical outcomes were collected by participating institutions and reviewed by a central data repository. This report represents the participation of the first 9 centers to report LVAD data into the registry.
Results
A total of 40 patients were included in this cohort. The median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 46-68), 14 (35%) were women, and 21 (52%) were Black. Among the most common presenting symptoms were cough (41%), fever, and fatigue (both 38%). A total of 18% were asymptomatic at diagnosis. Only 43% of the patients reported either subjective or measured fever during the entire course of illness. Over half (60%) required hospitalization, and 8 patients (20%) died, often after lengthy hospitalizations.
Conclusions
We present the largest case series of LVAD patients with COVID-19 to date. Understanding these characteristics is essential in an effort to improve the outcome of this complex patient population.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007957
Birati EY, Najjar SS, Tedford RJ, Houston BA, ... Moss N, Genuardi MV
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007957 | PMID: 33813838
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Two-Year Follow Up of the LATERAL Clinical Trial: A Focus on Adverse Events.

Wieselthaler GM, Klein L, Cheung AW, Danter MR, ... Maltais S, McGee EC
Background
The LATERAL trial validated the safety and efficacy of the thoracotomy approach for implantation of the HeartWare HVAD System, leading to Food and Drug Administration approval. We sought to analyze 24-month adverse event (AE) rates, including a temporal analysis of the risk profile, associated with the thoracotomy approach for the HVAD system.
Methods
AEs from the LATERAL trial were evaluated over 2 years postimplant. Data was obtained from the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support database for 144 enrolled United States and Canadian patients. Temporal AE profiles were expressed as events per patient year.
Results
During 162.5 patient years of support, there were 25 driveline infections (0.15 events per patient year), 50 gastrointestinal bleeds (0.31 events per patient year), and 21 strokes (0.13 events per patient year). Longitudinal AE analysis at follow-up intervals of <30 and 30 to 180 days, and 6 to 12 and 12 to 24 months revealed the highest AE rate at <30 days, with a decrease in total AEs within the first 6 months. After 6 months, most AE rates either stabilized or decreased through 2 years, including a 95% overall freedom from disabling stroke.
Conclusions
Two-year follow-up of the LATERAL trial revealed a favorable morbidity profile in patients supported with the HVAD system, as AE rates were more likely to occur in the first 30 days postimplant, and overall AE rates were significantly reduced after 6 months. Importantly, 2-year freedom from disabling stroke was 95%. These data further support the improving AE profile of patients on long-term HVAD support. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02268942.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e006912
Wieselthaler GM, Klein L, Cheung AW, Danter MR, ... Maltais S, McGee EC
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e006912 | PMID: 33866829
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Global Differences in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction: The PARAGON-HF Trial.

Tromp J, Claggett BL, Liu J, Jackson AM, ... Lam CSP, PARAGON-HF Investigators
Background
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a global public health problem with important regional differences. We investigated these differences in the PARAGON-HF trial (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Global Outcomes in HFpEF), the largest and most inclusive global HFpEF trial.
Methods
We studied differences in clinical characteristics, outcomes, and treatment effects of sacubitril/valsartan in 4796 patients with HFpEF from the PARAGON-HF trial, grouped according to geographic region.
Results
Regional differences in patient characteristics and comorbidities were observed: patients from Western Europe were oldest (mean 75±7 years) with the highest prevalence of atrial fibrillation/flutter (36%); Central/Eastern European patients were youngest (mean 71±8 years) with the highest prevalence of coronary artery disease (50%); North American patients had the highest prevalence of obesity (65%) and diabetes (49%); Latin American patients were younger (73±9 years) and had a high prevalence of obesity (53%); and Asia-Pacific patients had a high prevalence of diabetes (44%), despite a low prevalence of obesity (26%). Rates of the primary composite end point of total hospitalizations for HF and death from cardiovascular causes were lower in patients from Central Europe (9 per 100 patient-years) and highest in patients from North America (28 per 100 patient-years), which was primarily driven by a greater number of total hospitalizations for HF. The effect of treatment with sacubitril-valsartan was not modified by region (interaction P>0.05).
Conclusions
Among patients with HFpEF recruited worldwide in PARAGON-HF, there were important regional differences in clinical characteristics and outcomes, which may have implications for the design of future clinical trials. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01920711.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007901
Tromp J, Claggett BL, Liu J, Jackson AM, ... Lam CSP, PARAGON-HF Investigators
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007901 | PMID: 33866828
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Trends in 30- and 90-Day Readmission Rates for Heart Failure.

Khan MS, Sreenivasan J, Lateef N, Abougergi MS, ... Fonarow GC, Butler J
Background
The impact of hospital readmission reduction program (HRRP) on heart failure (HF) outcomes has been debated. Limited data exist regarding trends of HF readmission rates beyond 30 days from all-payer sources. The aim of this study was to investigate temporal trends of 30- and 90-day HF readmissions rates from 2010 to 2017 in patients from all-payer sources.
Methods
The National Readmission Database was utilized to identify HF hospitalizations between 2010 and 2017. In the primary analysis, a linear trend in 30-day and 90-day readmissions from 2010 to 2017 was assessed. While in the secondary analysis, a change in aggregated 30- and 90-day all-cause and HF-specific readmissions pre-HRRP penalty phase (2010-2012) and post-HRRP penalties (2013-2017) was compared. Subgroup analyses were performed based on (1) Medicare versus non-Medicare insurance, (2) low versus high HF volume, and (3) HF with reduced versus preserved ejection fraction (heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction). Multiple logistic and adjusted linear regression analyses were performed for annual trends.
Results
A total of 6 669 313 index HF hospitalizations for 30-day, and 5 077 949 index HF hospitalizations for 90-day readmission, were included. Of these, 1 213 402 (18.2%) encounters had a readmission within 30 days, and 1 585 445 (31.2%) encounters had a readmission within 90 days. Between 2010 and 2017, both 30 and 90 days adjusted HF-specific and all-cause readmissions increased (8.1% to 8.7%, P trend 0.04, and 18.3% to 19.9%, P trend <0.001 for 30-day and 14.8% to 16.0% and 30.9% to 34.6% for 90-day, P trend <0.001 for both, respectively). Readmission rates were higher during the post-HRRP penalty period compared with pre-HRRP penalty phase (all-cause readmission 30 days: 18.6% versus 17.5%, P<0.001, all-cause readmission 90 days: 32.0% versus 29.9%, P<0.001) across all subgroups except among the low-volume hospitals.
Conclusions
The rates of adjusted HF-specific and all-cause 30- and 90-day readmissions have increased from 2010 to 2017. Readmissions rates were higher during the HRRP phase across all subgroups except the low-volume hospitals.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e008335
Khan MS, Sreenivasan J, Lateef N, Abougergi MS, ... Fonarow GC, Butler J
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e008335 | PMID: 33866827
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Right Heart Phenotype in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Guazzi M, Naeije R
The health burden of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is increasingly recognized. Despite improvements in diagnostic algorithms and established knowledge on the clinical trajectory, effective treatment options for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction remain limited, mainly because of the high mechanistic heterogeneity. Diagnostic scores, big data, and phenomapping categorization are proposed as key steps needed for progress. In the meantime, advancements in imaging techniques combined to high-fidelity pressure signaling analysis have uncovered right ventricular dysfunction as a mediator of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction progression and as major independent determinant of poor outcome. This review summarizes the current understanding of the pathophysiology of right ventricular dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction covering the different right heart phenotypes and offering perspectives on new treatments targeting the right ventricle in its function and geometry.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007840
Guazzi M, Naeije R
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007840 | PMID: 33866826
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Increased Risk of Congestive Heart Failure Following Carbon Monoxide Poisoning.

Huang CC, Chen TH, Ho CH, Chen YC, ... Chang CP, Guo HR
Background
Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) is an important public health issue around the world. It may increase the risk of myocardial injury, but the association between COP and congestive heart failure (CHF) remains unclear. We conducted a study incorporating data from epidemiological and animal studies to clarify this issue.
Methods
Using the National Health Insurance Database of Taiwan, we identified patients with COP diagnosed between 1999 and 2012 and compared them with patients without COP (non-COP cohort) matched by age and the index date at a 1:3 ratio. The comparison for the risk of CHF between the COP and non-COP cohorts was made using Cox proportional hazards regression. We also established a rat model to evaluate cardiac function using echocardiography and studied the pathological changes following COP.
Results
The 20 942 patients in the COP cohort had a higher risk for CHF than the 62 826 members in the non-COP cohort after adjusting for sex and underlying comorbidities (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.01 [95% CI, 1.74-2.32]). The increased risk of CHF persisted even after 2 years of follow-up (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.55-2.21]). In the animal model, COP led to a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction on echocardiography and damage to cardiac cells with remarkable fibrotic changes.
Conclusions
Our epidemiological data showed an increased risk of CHF was associated with COP, which was supported by the animal study. We suggest close follow-up of cardiac function for patients with COP to facilitate early intervention and further studies to identify other long-term effects that have not been reported in the literature.



Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007267
Huang CC, Chen TH, Ho CH, Chen YC, ... Chang CP, Guo HR
Circ Heart Fail: 30 Mar 2021; 14:e007267 | PMID: 33866825
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.