Journal: Cardiovasc Diabetol

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Abstract

Impact of pitavastatin on new-onset diabetes mellitus compared to atorvastatin and rosuvastatin: a distributed network analysis of 10 real-world databases.

Seo WW, Seo SI, Kim Y, Yoo JJ, ... Jin ES, Kim SE
Background
Statin treatment increases the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NODM); however, data directly comparing the risk of NODM among individual statins is limited. We compared the risk of NODM between patients using pitavastatin and atorvastatin or rosuvastatin using reliable, large-scale data.
Methods
Data of electronic health records from ten hospitals converted to the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model (n = 14,605,368 patients) were used to identify new users of pitavastatin, atorvastatin, or rosuvastatin (atorvastatin + rosuvastatin) for ≥ 180 days without a previous history of diabetes or HbA1c level ≥ 5.7%. We conducted a cohort study using Cox regression analysis to examine the hazard ratio (HR) of NODM after propensity score matching (PSM) and then performed an aggregate meta-analysis of the HR.
Results
After 1:2 PSM, 10,238 new pitavastatin users (15,998 person-years of follow-up) and 18,605 atorvastatin + rosuvastatin users (33,477 person-years of follow-up) were pooled from 10 databases. The meta-analysis of the HRs demonstrated that pitavastatin resulted in a significantly reduced risk of NODM than atorvastatin + rosuvastatin (HR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59-0.87). In sub-analysis, pitavastatin was associated with a lower risk of NODM than atorvastatin or rosuvastatin after 1:1 PSM (HR 0.69; CI 0.54-0.88 and HR 0.74; CI 0.55-0.99, respectively). A consistently low risk of NODM in pitavastatin users was observed when compared with low-to-moderate-intensity atorvastatin + rosuvastatin users (HR 0.78; CI 0.62-0.98).
Conclusions
In this retrospective, multicenter active-comparator, new-user, cohort study, pitavastatin reduced the risk of NODM compared with atorvastatin or rosuvastatin.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 23 May 2022; 21:82
Seo WW, Seo SI, Kim Y, Yoo JJ, ... Jin ES, Kim SE
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 23 May 2022; 21:82 | PMID: 35606846
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Abstract

Association of the atherogenic index of plasma with cardiovascular risk beyond the traditional risk factors: a nationwide population-based cohort study.

Kim SH, Cho YK, Kim YJ, Jung CH, ... Lee SJ, Ihm SH
Background
The atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) is composed of triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and is a novel marker for assessing the risk of atherogenicity and cardiometabolic health. An association between AIP and greater frequency of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and high cardiovascular (CV) disease risk has been reported. However, only few studies have examined the correlation between AIP and CV risk in general populations. We thus aimed to evaluate the relationship between AIP and CV diseases using a large-scale population dataset from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort (NHIS-HEALS).
Methods
A total of 514,866 participants were enrolled from the NHIS-HEALS and classified according to the AIP quartiles. We performed univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses to determine the association between AIP and MACEs, CV events, and CV mortality.
Results
During follow-up, we documented 12,133, 11,055, and 1942 cases of MACEs, CV events, and CV mortality, respectively. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios [HRs; 95% confidence interval (CI)] for MACEs gradually and significantly increased with the AIP quartiles [1.113 (1.054-1.175) in Q2, 1.175 (1.113-1.240) in Q3, and 1.278 (1.209-1.350) in Q4], following an adjustment for the conventional CV risk factors, including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking, physical activities, household income, fasting glucose, systolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate. In subgroup analyses, the association of AIP with MACEs and CV events was particularly outstanding in patients with diabetes.
Conclusions
AIP was significantly associated with CV risks after adjusting for the traditional risk factors. Therefore, it may be used as an effective mass screening method to identify patients at a high risk of CV events.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 22 May 2022; 21:81
Kim SH, Cho YK, Kim YJ, Jung CH, ... Lee SJ, Ihm SH
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 22 May 2022; 21:81 | PMID: 35599307
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Abstract

Alteration of circulating platelet-related and diabetes-related microRNAs in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a stepwise hypoglycaemic clamp study.

Eyileten C, Wicik Z, Keshwani D, Aziz F, ... Postula M, Sourij H
Background
In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) an association between severe hypoglycaemic episodes and the risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality has been previously established.
Methods
We aimed to investigate the influence of hypoglycaemia on several diabetes-related and platelet-related miRNAs selected based on bioinformatic analysis and literature search, including hsa-miR-16, hsa-miR-34a, hsa-miR-129-2, hsa-miR-15a, hsa-miR-15b, hsa-miR-106a, miR-223, miR-126. Selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR in 14 patients with T2DM on metformin monotherapy, without established CV disease and antiplatelet therapy during a stepwise hypoglycaemic clamp experiment and a follow-up 7 days after the clamp event. In order to identify which pathways and phenotypes are associated with validated miRNAs we performed target prediction on genes expressed with high confidence in platelets.
Results
Circulating levels of miR-106a-5p, miR-15b, miR-15a, miR-16-5p, miR-223 and miR-126 were increased after euglycaemic clamp followed by hypoglycaemic clamp, each with its distinctive time trend. On the contrary, miR-129-2-3p, miR-92a-3p and miR-34a-3p remained unchanged. MiR-16-5p was negatively correlated with interleukin (IL)-6, intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM) (p = 0.002, p < 0.001, p = 0.016, respectively), whereas miR-126 was positively correlated with VCAM (p < 0.001). There were negative correlations between miR-16-5p, miR-126 and coagulation factors, including factor VIII and von Willebrand factor (vWF). Among all studied miRNAs, miR-126, miR-129-2-3p and miR-15b showed correlation with platelet function. Bioinformatic analysis of platelet-related targets of analyzed miRNAs showed strong enrichment of IL-2 signaling. We also observed significant enrichment of pathways and diseases related to cancer, CV diseases, hyperglycemia, and neurological diseases.
Conclusions
Hypoglycaemia can significantly influence the expression of platelet-enriched miRNAs, with a time trend paralleling the time course of platelet activation. This suggests miRNAs could be exploited as biomarkers for platelet activation in response to hypoglycaemia, as they are probably released by platelets upon activation by hypoglycaemic episodes. Should they hold their promise in clinical endpoint studies, platelet-derived miRNAs might become helpful markers of CV risk in subjects with diabetes. Trial registration The study was registered at clinical trials.gov; Impact of Hypoglycaemia in Patients With DIAbetes Mellitus Type 2 on PLATElet Activation (Diaplate), trial number: NCT03460899.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 20 May 2022; 21:79
Eyileten C, Wicik Z, Keshwani D, Aziz F, ... Postula M, Sourij H
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 20 May 2022; 21:79 | PMID: 35596173
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Abstract

Association of PCSK9 with inflammation and platelet activation markers and recurrent cardiovascular risks in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI with or without diabetes.

Song L, Zhao X, Chen R, Li J, ... Zhao H, Yan H
Background
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) has been shown to be predictive of cardiovascular outcomes in stable coronary artery disease with diabetes. We aimed to assess the relationship between PCSK9 and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients with or without diabetes, as well as the relationships between PCSK9 and metabolism, inflammation and platelet activation markers.
Methods
A total of 1027 patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and without prior lipid-lowering therapy were consecutively enrolled and the baseline plasma PCSK9 levels were determined by ELISA. Patients were divided into high and low PCSK9 groups according to PCSK9 median. All patients were followed up for the occurrence of MACEs. The associations of PCSK9 with metabolism, inflammation and platelet activation markers and MACEs were evaluated.
Results
PCSK9 levels were positively correlated with triglycerides, high-sensitivity C reactive protein, soluble CD40 ligand and soluble P-selectin levels, and the correlations were stronger in diabetic patients than in non-diabetic patients. In diabetic patients receiving ticagrelor, PCSK9 levels were positively correlated with maximal platelet aggregation measured by light transmittance aggregometry and maximum amplitude of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet-fibrin clots measured by thrombelastography in the maintenance phase of treatment, whereas no correlations were found in non-diabetic patients. During a median follow-up of 2.0 years, 155 (15.1%) MACEs occurred. The Kaplan-Meier analysis displayed that the patients with high PCSK9 levels had lower event-free survival rate than those with low PCSK9 levels (P = 0.030). When participants were categorized into 4 subgroups according to PCSK9 levels and diabetes status, high PCSK9 levels plus diabetes subgroup had the lowest cumulative event-free survival rate (P = 0.043). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that high PCSK9 levels were independently associated with MACEs in diabetic patients (hazard ratio 2.283, 95% confidence interval: 1.094-4.764, P = 0.028), but not in the whole cohort or non-diabetic patients.
Conclusions
The study showed that high PCSK9 levels were independently associated with MACEs in STEMI patients with diabetes undergoing primary PCI, and the association may be due to stronger correlations of PCSK9 with inflammation and platelet activation markers in diabetic patients.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 20 May 2022; 21:80
Song L, Zhao X, Chen R, Li J, ... Zhao H, Yan H
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 20 May 2022; 21:80 | PMID: 35596184
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Abstract

Comparison of cardiovascular outcomes between SGLT2 inhibitors in diabetes mellitus.

Suzuki Y, Kaneko H, Okada A, Itoh H, ... Yasunaga H, Komuro I
Background
There have been scarce data comparing cardiovascular outcomes between individual sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. We aimed to compare the subsequent cardiovascular risk between individual SGLT2 inhibitors.
Methods
We analyzed 25,315 patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) newly taking SGLT2 inhibitors (empagliflozin: 5302, dapagliflozin: 4681, canagliflozin: 4411, other SGLT2 inhibitors: 10,921). We compared the risks of developing heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), angina pectoris (AP), stroke, and atrial fibrillation (AF) between individual SGLT2 inhibitors.
Results
Median age was 52 years, and 82.5% were men. The median fasting plasma glucose and HbA1c levels were 149 (Q1-Q3:127-182) mg/dL and 7.5 (Q1-Q3:6.9-8.6) %. During a mean follow-up of 814 ± 591 days, 855 HF, 143 MI, 815 AP, 340 stroke, and 139 AF events were recorded. Compared with empagliflozin, the risk of developing HF, MI, AP, stroke, and AF was not significantly different in dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and other SGLT inhibitors. For developing HF, compared with empagliflozin, hazard ratios of dapagliflozin, canagliflozin, and other SGLT2 inhibitors were 1.02 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-1.27), 1.08 (95% CI 0.87-1.35), and 0.88 (95% CI 0.73-1.07), respectively. Wald tests showed that there was no significant difference in the risk of developing HF, MI, AP, stroke, and AF among individual SGLT2 inhibitors. We confirmed the robustness of these results through a multitude of sensitivity analyses.
Conclusion
The risks for subsequent development of HF, MI, AP, stroke, and AF were comparable between individual SGLT2 inhibitors. This is the first study comparing the wide-range cardiovascular outcomes of patients with DM treated with individual SGLT2 inhibitors using large-scale real-world data.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 May 2022; 21:67
Suzuki Y, Kaneko H, Okada A, Itoh H, ... Yasunaga H, Komuro I
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 May 2022; 21:67 | PMID: 35585590
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Abstract

Association of magnitude of weight loss and weight variability with mortality and major cardiovascular events among individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Huang S, Shi K, Ren Y, Wang J, ... Yang ZG, Li Y
Background
Weight management is strongly promoted for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) by current guidelines. However, the prognostic impact of weight loss achieved without behavioural intervention on the mortality and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes in diabetic patients is still contested.
Methods
We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases for studies that investigated the association of weight loss or weight variability with mortality and CV outcomes. Results of studies that measured weight loss by percentage weight loss from baseline and stratified it as > 10% and 5-10% or studies that computed weight variability were pooled using random effects model. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.
Results
Thirty eligible studies were included in the systematic review and 13 of these were included in the meta-analysis. Large weight loss (> 10%) was associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio (HR) 2.27, 95% CI 1.51-3.42), composite of major CV events (pooled HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.38-2.12) and CV mortality (pooled HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.27-1.76) among T2DM patients. Moderate weight loss showed no significant association with all-cause mortality (pooled HR 1.17, 95% CI 0.97-1.41) or CV outcomes (pooled HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.94-1.33). Weight variability was associated with high hazard of all-cause mortality (pooled HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.52-1.56).
Conclusions
Large weight loss and large fluctuations in weight are potential markers of increased risk of mortality and CV events in T2DM patients. Maintaining a stable weight may have positive impact in these patients.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 16 May 2022; 21:78
Huang S, Shi K, Ren Y, Wang J, ... Yang ZG, Li Y
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 16 May 2022; 21:78 | PMID: 35578337
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Abstract

Infarct size, inflammatory burden, and admission hyperglycemia in diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with SGLT2-inhibitors: a multicenter international registry.

Paolisso P, Bergamaschi L, Santulli G, Gallinoro E, ... Barbato E, Pizzi C
Background
The inflammatory response occurring in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has been proposed as a potential pharmacological target. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I) currently receive intense clinical interest in patients with and without diabetes mellitus (DM) for their pleiotropic beneficial effects. We tested the hypothesis that SGLT2-I have anti-inflammatory effects along with glucose-lowering properties. Therefore, we investigated the link between stress hyperglycemia, inflammatory burden, and infarct size in a cohort of type 2 diabetic patients presenting with AMI treated with SGLT2-I versus other oral anti-diabetic (OAD) agents.
Methods
In this multicenter international observational registry, consecutive diabetic AMI patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) between 2018 and 2021 were enrolled. Based on the presence of anti-diabetic therapy at the admission, patients were divided into those receiving SGLT2-I (SGLT-I users) versus other OAD agents (non-SGLT2-I users). The following inflammatory markers were evaluated at different time points: white-blood-cell count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-platelet ratio (NPR), and C-reactive protein. Infarct size was assessed by echocardiography and by peak troponin levels.
Results
The study population consisted of 583 AMI patients (with or without ST-segment elevation): 98 SGLT2-I users and 485 non-SGLT-I users. Hyperglycemia at admission was less prevalent in the SGLT2-I group. Smaller infarct size was observed in patients treated with SGLT2-I compared to non-SGLT2-I group. On admission and at 24 h, inflammatory indices were significantly higher in non-SGLT2-I users compared to SGLT2-I patients, with a significant increase in neutrophil levels at 24 h. At multivariable analysis, the use of SGLT2-I was a significant predictor of reduced inflammatory response (OR 0.457, 95% CI 0.275-0.758, p = 0.002), independently of age, admission creatinine values, and admission glycemia. Conversely, peak troponin values and NSTEMI occurrence were independent predictors of a higher inflammatory status.
Conclusions
Type 2 diabetic AMI patients receiving SGLT2-I exhibited significantly reduced inflammatory response and smaller infarct size compared to those receiving other OAD agents, independently of glucose-metabolic control. Our findings are hypothesis generating and provide new insights on the cardioprotective effects of SGLT2-I in the setting of coronary artery disease.
Trial registration
Data are part of the ongoing observational registry: SGLT2-I AMI PROTECT.
Clinicaltrials
gov Identifier: NCT05261867.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 15 May 2022; 21:77
Paolisso P, Bergamaschi L, Santulli G, Gallinoro E, ... Barbato E, Pizzi C
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 15 May 2022; 21:77 | PMID: 35570280
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Abstract

Cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus: progress toward personalized management.

Ma CX, Ma XN, Guan CH, Li YD, Mauricio D, Fu SB
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the main cause of death among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To effectively prevent the development of CVDs in T2DM, considerable effort has been made to explore novel preventive approaches, individualized glycemic control and cardiovascular risk management (strict blood pressure and lipid control), together with recently developed glucose-lowering agents and lipid-lowering drugs. This review mainly addresses the important issues affecting the choice of antidiabetic agents and lipid, blood pressure and antiplatelet treatments considering the cardiovascular status of the patient. Finally, we also discuss the changes in therapy principles underlying CVDs in T2DM.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 14 May 2022; 21:74
Ma CX, Ma XN, Guan CH, Li YD, Mauricio D, Fu SB
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 14 May 2022; 21:74 | PMID: 35568946
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Abstract

Prognostic impact of changes in aortic stiffness for cardiovascular and mortality outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro cohort study.

Cardoso CRL, Leite NC, Salles GF
Background
The prognostic importance of changes in aortic stiffness for the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and mortality has never been investigated in patients with type 2 diabetes. We aimed to evaluate it in a cohort of 417 patients.
Methods
Changes in aortic stiffness were assessed by 2 carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (CF-PWV) measurements performed over a 4-year period. Multivariable Cox analysis examined the associations between changes in CF-PWV, evaluated as a continuous variable with splines and as categorical ones (quartiles and stable/reduction/increase subgroups), and the occurrence of total cardiovascular events (CVEs), major adverse CVEs (MACEs), and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.
Results
Over a median follow-up of 8.2 years after the 2nd CF-PWV measurement, there were 101 total CVEs (85 MACEs) and 135 all-cause deaths (64 cardiovascular). As a continuous variable, the lowest risk nadir was at -2.5%/year of CF-PWV change, with significantly higher risks of mortality associated with CF-PWV increases, but no excess risks at extremes of CF-PWV reduction. Otherwise, in categorical analyses, patients in the 1st quartile (greatest CF-PWV reductions) had excess risks of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratios [HRs]: 2.0-2.7), whereas patients in 3rd quartile had higher risks of all outcomes (HRs: 2.0-3.2), in relation to the lowest risk 2nd quartile subgroup. Patients in the 4th quartile had higher risks of all-cause mortality. Categorization as stable/reduction/increase subgroups was confirmatory, with higher risks at greater reductions (HRs: 1.7-3.3) and at greater increases in CF-PWV (HRs: 1.9-3.4), in relation to those with stable CF-PWV.
Conclusions
Changes in aortic stiffness, mainly increases and possibly also extreme reductions, are predictors of adverse cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 14 May 2022; 21:76
Cardoso CRL, Leite NC, Salles GF
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 14 May 2022; 21:76 | PMID: 35568947
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Abstract

Prediabetes and insulin resistance in a population of patients with heart failure and reduced or preserved ejection fraction but without diabetes, overweight or hypertension.

Son TK, Toan NH, Thang N, Le Trong Tuong H, ... Van Minh H, Valensi P
Background
The relationships between glucose abnormalities, insulin resistance (IR) and heart failure (HF) are unclear, especially regarding to the HF type, i.e., HF with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) ejection fraction. Overweight, diabetes and hypertension are potential contributors to IR in persons with HF. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of prediabetes and IR in a population of Vietnamese patients with HFrEF or HFpEF but no overweight, diabetes or hypertension, in comparison with healthy controls, and the relation between prediabetes or IR and HF severity.
Methods
We conducted a prospective cross-sectional observational study in 190 non-overweight normotensive HF patients (114 with HFrEF and 76 with HFpEF, 92.6% were ischemic HF, mean age was 70.1 years, mean BMI 19.7 kg/m2) without diabetes (neither known diabetes nor newly diagnosed by OGTT) and 95 healthy individuals (controls). Prediabetes was defined using 2006 WHO criteria. Glucose and insulin levels were measured fasting and 2 h after glucose challenge. IR was assessed using HOMA-IR and several other indexes.
Results
Compared to controls, HF patients had a higher prevalence of prediabetes (63.2% vs 22.1%) and IR (according to HOMA-IR, 55.3% vs 26.3%), higher HOMA-IR, insulin/glucose ratio after glucose and FIRI, and lower ISIT0 and ISIT120 (< 0.0001 for all comparisons), with no difference for body weight, waist circumference, blood pressure and lipid parameters. Prediabetes was more prevalent (69.3% vs 53.9%, p = 0.03) and HOMA-IR was higher (p < 0.0001) in patients with HFrEF than with HFpEF. Among both HFrEF and HFpEF patients, those with prediabetes or IR had a more severe HF (higher NYHA functional class and NT-proBNP levels, lower ejection fraction; p = 0.04-< 0.0001) than their normoglycemic or non-insulinresistant counterparts, with no difference for blood pressure and lipid parameters.
Conclusion
In non-diabetic non-overweight normotensive patients with HF, the prevalence of prediabetes is higher with some trend to more severe IR in those with HFrEF than in those with HFpEF. Both prediabetes and IR are associated with a more severe HF. The present data support HF as a culprit for IR. Intervention strategies should be proposed to HF patients with prediabetes aiming to reduce the risk of incident diabetes. Studies should be designed to test whether such strategies may translate into an improvement of further HF-related outcomes.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 14 May 2022; 21:75
Son TK, Toan NH, Thang N, Le Trong Tuong H, ... Van Minh H, Valensi P
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 14 May 2022; 21:75 | PMID: 35568879
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Abstract

Increased frequency of proangiogenic tunica intima endothelial kinase 2 (Tie2) expressing monocytes in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Reijrink M, van Ark J, Lexis CPH, Visser LM, ... Wolffenbuttel BHR, Hillebrands JL
Background
Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have an increased risk for developing macrovascular disease (MVD) manifested by atherosclerosis. Phenotypically and functionally different monocyte subsets (classical; CD14++CD16-, non-classical; CD14+CD16++, and intermediate; CD14++CD16+) including pro-angiogenic monocytes expressing Tie2 (TEMs) can be identified. Here we investigated monocyte heterogeneity and its association with T2DM and MVD.
Methods
Individuals with (N = 51) and without (N = 56) T2DM were recruited and allocated to \"non-MVD\" or \"with MVD\" (i.e., peripheral or coronary artery disease) subgroups. Blood monocyte subsets were quantified based on CD14, CD16 and Tie2 expression levels. Plasma levels of Tie2-ligands angiopoietin-1 and angiopoietin-2 were determined using ELISA. Carotid endarterectomy samples from individuals with (N = 24) and without (N = 22) T2DM were stained for intraplaque CD68+ macrophages (inflammation) and CD34+ (angiogenesis), as plaque vulnerability markers.
Results
Monocyte counts were similar between individuals with T2DM and healthy controls (non-diabetic, non-MVD). Non-classical monocytes were reduced (p < 0.05) in T2DM, whereas the percentage of TEMs within the intermediate subset was increased (p < 0.05). T2DM was associated with increased angiopoietin-1 (p < 0.05) and angiopoietin-2 (p = 0.0001) levels. Angiopoietin-2 levels were higher in T2DM individuals with MVD compared with non-MVD (p < 0.01). Endarterectomized plaques showed no differences in macrophage influx and microvessel number between individuals with and without T2DM.
Conclusions
Monocyte subset distribution is altered in T2DM with reduced non-classical monocytes and increased TEM percentage in the intermediate monocyte subset. Increased angiopoietin-2 levels together with increased frequency of TEMs might promote plaque vulnerability in T2DM which could however not be confirmed at tissue level in advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 12 May 2022; 21:72
Reijrink M, van Ark J, Lexis CPH, Visser LM, ... Wolffenbuttel BHR, Hillebrands JL
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 12 May 2022; 21:72 | PMID: 35549955
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Abstract

Differential prognostic burden of cardiovascular disease and lower-limb amputation on the risk of all-cause death in people with long-standing type 1 diabetes.

Camoin M, Velho G, Saulnier PJ, Potier L, ... Marre M, Mohammedi K
Background
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and nontraumatic lower-limb amputation (LLA) each results in reduced life expectancy in patients with type 1 diabetes, but the differential burden between these conditions is unknown. We compared the effects of CVD and LLA on the risk of mortality in people with type 1 diabetes.
Methods
We used pooled data from the SURGENE, GENEDIAB, and GENESIS prospective cohorts. Data were divided into: 1/absence of CVD (myocardial infarction and/or stroke) nor LLA, 2/history of CVD alone without LLA, 3/LLA alone without CVD or 4/both conditions at baseline. Participants with baseline history of peripheral artery disease were excluded from groups 1 and 2. The study endpoint was any death occurring during follow-up, regardless of the causes.
Results
Among 1169 participants (male 55%, age 40 ± 13 years, diabetes duration 23 ± 11 years), CVD, LLA or both were present at baseline in 49 (4.2%), 62 (5.3%) and 20 (1.7%) subjects, respectively. All-cause death occurred in 304 (26%) participants during 17-year follow-up, corresponding to 18,426 person-years and an incidence rate of 16 (95%CI, 15-18) per 1000 person-years. The risk of death increased in individuals with baseline history of CVD (adjusted HR 2.00 [95% CI 1.34-3.01], p = 0.0008) or LLA (2.26 [1.56-3.28], p < 0.0001), versus no condition, with an additive effect in people with both conditions (5.32 [3.14-9.00], p < 0.0001). No incremental risk of death was observed in people with CVD versus LLA (0.87 [0.54-1.41]). Compared with no condition, CVD and LLA were similarly associated with reduced life expectancy during follow-up: 2.79 (95% CI 1.26-4.32) and 3.38 (1.87-4.88) years, respectively. Combined conditions expose to 7.04 (4.76-9.31) less years of life expectancy (all p < 0.0001).
Conclusions
CVD and LLA conferred a similar burden regarding mortality in type 1 diabetes population. Our findings encourage a careful consideration of people with type 1 diabetes and LLA as usually recommended for those with CVD, in terms of management of risk factors, treatments and prevention.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 09 May 2022; 21:71
Camoin M, Velho G, Saulnier PJ, Potier L, ... Marre M, Mohammedi K
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 09 May 2022; 21:71 | PMID: 35534880
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Abstract

Prognostic significance of metabolomic biomarkers in patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease.

Karagiannidis E, Moysidis DV, Papazoglou AS, Panteris E, ... Theodoridis G, Sianos G
Background
Diabetes mellitus (DM) and coronary artery disease (CAD) constitute inter-related clinical entities. Biomarker profiling emerges as a promising tool for the early diagnosis and risk stratification of either DM or CAD. However, studies assessing the predictive capacity of novel metabolomics biomarkers in coexistent CAD and DM are scarce.
Methods
This post-hoc analysis of the CorLipid trial (NCT04580173) included 316 patients with CAD and comorbid DM who underwent emergency or elective coronary angiography due to acute or chronic coronary syndrome. Cox regression analyses were performed to identify metabolomic predictors of the primary outcome, which was defined as the composite of major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (MACCE: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, major bleeding), repeat unplanned revascularizations and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Linear regression analyses were also performed to detect significant predictors of CAD complexity, as assessed by the SYNTAX score.
Results
After a median 2-year follow up period (IQR = 0.7 years), the primary outcome occurred in 69 (21.8%) of patients. Acylcarnitine ratio C4/C18:2, apolipoprotein (apo) B, history of heart failure (HF), age > 65 years and presence of acute coronary syndrome were independent predictors of the primary outcome in diabetic patients with CAD (aHR = 1.89 [1.09, 3.29]; 1.02 [1.01, 1.04]; 1.28 [1.01, 1.41]; 1.04 [1.01, 1.05]; and 1.12 [1.05-1.21], respectively). Higher levels of ceramide ratio C24:1/C24:0, acylcarnitine ratio C4/C18:2, age > 65 and peripheral artery disease were independent predictors of higher CAD complexity (adjusted β = 7.36 [5.74, 20.47]; 3.02 [0.09 to 6.06]; 3.02 [0.09, 6.06], respectively), while higher levels of apoA1 were independent predictors of lower complexity (adjusted β= - 0.65 [- 1.31, - 0.02]).
Conclusions
In patients with comorbid DM and CAD, novel metabolomic biomarkers and metabolomics-based prediction models could be recruited to predict clinical outcomes and assess the complexity of CAD, thereby enabling the integration of personalized medicine into routine clinical practice. These associations should be interpreted taking into account the observational nature of this study, and thus, larger trials are needed to confirm its results and validate them in different and larger diabetic populations.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 07 May 2022; 21:70
Karagiannidis E, Moysidis DV, Papazoglou AS, Panteris E, ... Theodoridis G, Sianos G
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 07 May 2022; 21:70 | PMID: 35525960
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Impact:
Abstract

Effects of diabetes mellitus on left ventricular function and remodeling in hypertensive patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: assessment with 3.0 T MRI feature tracking.

Zhang G, Shi K, Yan WF, Li XM, ... Guo YK, Yang ZG
Background
Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is a major health burden worldwide with high morbidity and mortality. Comorbidities of HFrEF complicate treatment and lead to poor prognosis, among which hypertension (HTN) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are common and frequently cooccur. DM was found to have additive effects on cardiac function and structure in hypertensive patients, while its effects on the HFrEF cohort in the context of HTN remain unclear.
Methods
A total of 171 patients with HFrEF were enrolled in our study, consisting of 51 HFrEF controls, 72 hypertensive HFrEF patients (HTN-HFrEF [DM-]) and 48 hypertensive HFrEF patients with comorbid DM (HTN-HFrEF [DM+]). Cardiac MRI-derived left ventricular (LV) strains, including global radial (GRPS), circumferential (GCPS) and longitudinal (GLPS) peak strain, and remodeling parameters were measured and compared among groups. The determinants of impaired LV function and LV remodeling in HFrEF patients were investigated by multivariable linear regression analyses.
Results
Despite a similar LV ejection fraction, patients in the HTN-HFrEF (DM+) and HTN-HFrEF (DM-) groups showed a higher LV mass index and LV remodeling index than those in the HFrEF control group (all p < 0.05). Compared with the HTN-HFrEF (DM-) and HFrEF control groups, the HTN-HFrEF (DM+) group exhibited the most severe GLPS impairment (p < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates in HFrEF patients, DM was found to be an independent determinant of impaired LV strains in all three directions (GRPS [β = - 0.189; p = 0.011], GCPS [β = 0.217; p = 0.005], GLPS [β = 0.237; p = 0.002]). HTN was associated with impaired GLPS (β = 0.185; p = 0.016) only. However, HTN rather than DM was associated with LV remodeling in HFrEF patients in the multivariable regression analysis (p < 0.05).
Conclusions
DM aggravated LV longitudinal dysfunction in hypertensive HFrEF patients without further changes in LV remodeling, indicating that HFrEF patients with comorbid HTN and DM may have a hidden high-risk phenotype of heart failure that requires more advanced and personalized management.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 06 May 2022; 21:69
Zhang G, Shi K, Yan WF, Li XM, ... Guo YK, Yang ZG
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 06 May 2022; 21:69 | PMID: 35524215
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Impact:
Abstract

Triglyceride-glucose index as a marker in cardiovascular diseases: landscape and limitations.

Tao LC, Xu JN, Wang TT, Hua F, Li JJ
The triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index has been identified as a reliable alternative biomarker of insulin resistance (IR). Recently, a considerable number of studies have provided robust statistical evidence suggesting that the TyG index is associated with the development and prognosis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Nevertheless, the application of the TyG index as a marker of CVD has not systemically been evaluated, and even less information exists regarding the underlying mechanisms associated with CVD. To this end, in this review, we summarize the history of the use of the TyG index as a surrogate marker for IR. We aimed to highlight the application value of the TyG index for a variety of CVD types and to explore the potential limitations of using this index as a predictor for cardiovascular events to improve its application value for CVD and provide more extensive and precise supporting evidence.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 06 May 2022; 21:68
Tao LC, Xu JN, Wang TT, Hua F, Li JJ
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 06 May 2022; 21:68 | PMID: 35524263
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Impact:
Abstract

Relationship of cumulative exposure to the triglyceride-glucose index with ischemic stroke: a 9-year prospective study in the Kailuan cohort.

Wang X, Feng B, Huang Z, Cai Z, ... Wu S, Chen Y
Background
A single measurement of the triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index, a simple and reliable surrogate marker of insulin resistance, is associated with ischemic stroke. However, evidence for an effect of a long-term elevation in TyG index on ischemic stroke is limited. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between cumulative TyG index exposure and the risk of ischemic stroke.
Methods
A total of 54,098 participants in the Kailuan study who had not experienced ischemic stroke underwent three measurements of fasting blood glucose and triglycerides during 2006-2007, 2008-2009, and 2010-2011. Cumulative exposure to TyG index was calculated as the weighted sum of the mean TyG index value for each time interval (value × time). Participants were placed into four groups according to the quartile of the weighted mean: Q1 group, < 32.01; Q2 group, 32.01-34.45; Q3 group, 34.45-37.47; and Q4 group, ≥ 37.47. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess the relationships of the cumulative TyG index with incident ischemic stroke by calculating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs).
Results
There were 2083 incident ischemic stroke events over the 9 years of follow-up. The risk of ischemic stroke increased with the quartile of cumulative TyG index. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, participants in groups Q4, Q3, and Q2 had significantly higher risks of ischemic stroke, with HRs (95% CIs) of 1.30 (1.12-1.52), 1.26 (1.09-1.45), and 1.09 (0.94-1.27), respectively (Ptrend < 0.05), compared with the Q1 group. The longer duration of high TyG index exposure was significantly associated with increased ischemic stroke.
Conclusions
High cumulative TyG index is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke. This finding implies that monitoring and the maintenance of an appropriate TyG index may be useful for the prevention of ischemic stroke.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 03 May 2022; 21:66
Wang X, Feng B, Huang Z, Cai Z, ... Wu S, Chen Y
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 03 May 2022; 21:66 | PMID: 35505313
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Impact:
Abstract

Time trends (2001-2019) and sex differences in incidence and in-hospital mortality after lower extremity amputations among patients with type 1 diabetes in Spain.

Lopez-de-Andres A, Jimenez-Garcia R, Hernández-Barrera V, de-Miguel-Diez J, ... Omaña-Palanco R, Carabantes-Alarcon D
Background
We examined trends in incidence (2001-2019), clinical characteristics, and in-hospital outcomes following major and minor lower extremity amputations (LEAs) among type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients in Spain and attempted to identify sex differences.
Methods
Retrospective cohort study using data from the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database. We estimated the incidence of the LEA procedure stratified by type of LEA. Joinpoint regression was used to estimate incidence trends, and logistic regression was used to estimate factors associated with in-hospital mortality (IHM).
Results
LEA was coded in 6011 patients with T1DM (66.4% minor and 33.6% major). The incidence of minor LEA decreased by 9.55% per year from 2001 to 2009 and then increased by 1.50% per year, although not significantly, through 2019. The incidence of major LEA decreased by 13.39% per year from 2001 to 2010 and then remained stable through 2019. However, incidence increased in men (26.53% per year), although not significantly, from 2017 to 2019. The adjusted incidence of minor and major LEA was higher in men than in women (IRR 3.01 [95% CI 2.64-3.36] and IRR 1.85 [95% CI 1.31-2.38], respectively). Over the entire period, for those who underwent a minor LEA, the IHM was 1.58% (2.28% for females and 1.36% for males; p = 0.045) and for a major LEA the IHM was 8.57% (10.52% for females and 7.59% for males; p = 0.025). IHM after minor and major LEA increased with age and the presence of comorbid conditions such as peripheral arterial disease, ischemic heart disease or chronic kidney disease. Female sex was associated with a higher IHM after major LEA (OR 1.37 [95% CI 1.01-1.84]).
Conclusions
Our data show a decrease in incidence rates for minor and major LEA in men and women with T1DM and a slight, albeit insignificant, increase in major LEA in men with T1DM in the last two years of the study. The incidence of minor and major LEA was higher in men than in women. Female sex is a predictor of IHM in patients with T1DM following major LEA.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 03 May 2022; 21:65
Lopez-de-Andres A, Jimenez-Garcia R, Hernández-Barrera V, de-Miguel-Diez J, ... Omaña-Palanco R, Carabantes-Alarcon D
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 03 May 2022; 21:65 | PMID: 35505344
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Impact:
Abstract

Semaglutide reduces cardiovascular events regardless of metformin use: a post hoc subgroup analysis of SUSTAIN 6 and PIONEER 6.

Husain M, Consoli A, De Remigis A, Pettersson Meyer AS, Rasmussen S, Bain S
Background
Cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) are conducted on a background of standard of care including metformin. These analyses sought to determine whether the cardiovascular (CV) effects of semaglutide and other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) vary according to baseline metformin use.
Methods
A post hoc analysis was conducted using pooled SUSTAIN 6 and PIONEER 6 CVOT data in subjects with and without metformin use at baseline. Additionally, a trial-level meta-analysis was conducted using data from seven CVOTs with GLP-1RAs-SUSTAIN 6, PIONEER 6, HARMONY OUTCOMES, LEADER, REWIND, EXSCEL and AMPLITUDE-O-including adults with type 2 diabetes at high CV risk, and a primary endpoint of time to first major adverse CV event (MACE).
Results
In the post hoc analysis, the no-metformin subgroup was older, with a higher body mass index, lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher CV risk at baseline vs the metformin subgroup. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the reduction in risk of MACE with semaglutide vs placebo in the metformin and no-metformin subgroups were 0.70 (0.55;0.89) and 0.86 (0.60;1.22), respectively. No significant interaction between the treatment effect on MACE and metformin subgroup was observed. Findings for other CV endpoints were similar. In the meta-analysis, treatment effect (GLP-1RA vs placebo) on CV outcomes was no different with vs without baseline metformin (overall ratio between the hazard ratios for metformin vs no-metformin 1.09 [0.96;1.22]).
Conclusion
These findings indicate that the CV outcomes for semaglutide were similar regardless of baseline metformin use, which may also apply to all GLP-1RAs. Trial registration SUSTAIN 6 (NCT01720446), PIONEER 6 (NCT02692716).

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 28 Apr 2022; 21:64
Husain M, Consoli A, De Remigis A, Pettersson Meyer AS, Rasmussen S, Bain S
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 28 Apr 2022; 21:64 | PMID: 35484580
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Abstract

Mechanisms underlying the blood pressure lowering effects of dapagliflozin, exenatide, and their combination in people with type 2 diabetes: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial.

van Ruiten CC, Smits MM, Kok MD, Serné EH, ... Nieuwdorp M, IJzerman RG
Background
Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) lower blood pressure (BP). When SGLT2i and GLP-1RA are combined, synergistic effects on BP have been observed. The mechanisms underlying these BP reductions are incompletely understood. The aim of this study was to assess the mechanisms underlying the BP reduction with the SGLT2i dapagliflozin, GLP-1RA exenatide, and dapagliflozin-exenatide compared with placebo in people with obesity and type 2 diabetes.
Methods
Sixty-six people with type 2 diabetes were randomized to 16 weeks of dapagliflozin 10 mg/day, exenatide 10 µg twice daily, dapagliflozin-exenatide, or placebo treatment. The effect of treatments on estimates of: (1) plasma volume (calculated by Strauss formula, bioimpedance spectroscopy, hematocrit, (2) autonomic nervous system activity (heart rate variability), (3) arterial stiffness (pulse wave applanometry), (4) systemic hemodynamic parameters including peripheral vascular resistance, cardiac output and stroke volume (all derived from non-invasively systemic hemodynamic monitoring), and (5) natriuresis (24-hour urine collection) were assessed after 10 days and 16 weeks of treatment.
Results
After 10 days, dapagliflozin reduced systolic BP (SBP) by - 4.7 mmHg, and reduced plasma volume. After 16 weeks, dapagliflozin reduced SBP by - 4.4 mmHg, and reduced sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Exenatide had no effect on SBP, but reduced parasympathetic nervous system activity after 10 days and 16 weeks. After 10 days, dapagliflozin-exenatide reduced SBP by - 4.2 mmHg, and reduced plasma volume. After 16 weeks, dapagliflozin-exenatide reduced SBP by - 6.8 mmHg, and the reduction in plasma volume was still observed, but SNS activity was unaffected.
Conclusions
The dapagliflozin-induced plasma volume contraction may contribute to the initial SBP reduction, while a reduction in SNS activity may contribute to the persistent SBP reduction. Dapagliflozin-exenatide resulted in the largest decrease in SBP. The effect on plasma volume was comparable to dapagliflozin monotherapy, and SNS activity was not reduced, therefore other mechanisms are likely to contribute to the blood pressure lowering effect of this combination, which need further investigation. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03361098.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 28 Apr 2022; 21:63
van Ruiten CC, Smits MM, Kok MD, Serné EH, ... Nieuwdorp M, IJzerman RG
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 28 Apr 2022; 21:63 | PMID: 35484607
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Impact:
Abstract

Nine-fold higher risk of acute myocardial infarction in subjects with type 1 diabetes compared to controls in Norway 1973-2017.

Saeed M, Stene LC, Ariansen I, Tell GS, ... Joner G, Skrivarhaug T
Background
We aimed to study the cumulative incidence and risk factors (sex, age, calendar year of diabetes onset, country of origin and educational level) of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in subjects with type 1 diabetes and matched controls.
Methods
A nationwide cohort of subjects with type 1 diabetes diagnosed at age < 15 years in Norway during 1973-2000 was followed until the first AMI event, emigration, death or 31st of December 2017. The Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry was linked to five nationwide registries, and up to ten sex- and age-matched controls per case were included.
Results
Among 7086 subjects with type 1 diabetes, 170 (2.4%) were identified with incident AMI, compared to 193 (0.3%) of 69,356 controls. Mean age and diabetes duration at first AMI was 40.8 years and 30.6 years, respectively. The probability of AMI after 40 years of follow-up was 8.0% in subjects with type 1 diabetes and 1.1% in controls, aHR 9.05 (95% CI 7.18-11.41). In type 1 diabetes, male sex (aHR 1.45), higher age at onset of diabetes and lower education (higher compared to lower, aHR 0.38) were significantly associated with higher risk of AMI. There was no significant time trend in AMI by calendar year of diabetes onset.
Conclusions
We found nine-fold excess risk of AMI in subjects with type 1 diabetes, and three-fold higher risk in subjects with low versus high education. These results highlight a strengthened focus on prevention of cardiovascular disease, and diabetes education tailored to the subjects\' educational background.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:59
Saeed M, Stene LC, Ariansen I, Tell GS, ... Joner G, Skrivarhaug T
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:59 | PMID: 35477506
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Impact:
Abstract

Sleep duration predicts subsequent long-term mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes: a large single-center cohort study.

Li CI, Lin CC, Liu CS, Lin CH, Yang SY, Li TC
Background
Sleep duration is associated with mortality. However, prior studies exploring whether sleep duration predicts subsequent long-term mortality in patients with diabetes are limited. This study aims to examine whether metabolic factors affect the associations between baseline sleep duration and subsequent risks of all-cause, expanded, and non-expanded cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortalities among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).
Methods
A total of 12,526 T2D patients aged 30 years and older, with a follow-up period ≥ 3 years, were identified from the Diabetes Case Management Program of a medical center in Taiwan. Sleep duration was measured using computerized questionnaires by case managers, and the time frame for this question was 1 month prior to the interview date. Sleep duration in relation to subsequent mortality from all causes, expanded CVD, and non-expanded CVD was examined using Cox proportional hazard models.
Results
Within 10 years of follow-up, 2918 deaths (1328 CVD deaths and 1590 non-CVD deaths) were recorded. A J-shaped association was observed for all-cause, expanded CVD, and non-expanded CVD mortalities, and the lowest risks were observed for patients with 5-7 h of sleep. The significant joint effects included sleep duration of more or less than 7 h with age ≥ 65 years [adjusted HRs: 4.00 (3.49-4.60)], diabetes duration ≥ 5 years [1.60 (1.40-1.84)], age at diabetes diagnosis ≤ 45 years [1.69 (1.38-2.07)], insulin use [1.76 (1.54-2.03)], systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure > 130/85 mmHg [1.24 (1.07-1.43)], triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL [1.38 (1.22-1.56)], HbA1c ≥ 7% [1.31 (1.13-1.52)], and body mass index < 27 kg/m2 [1.31 (1.17-1.45)] for all-cause mortality.
Conclusion
A J-shaped association was observed between sleep duration and all-cause and expanded CVD mortality, and a sleep duration of 5-7 h had the lowest mortality risk. Sleep duration also showed significant synergistic interactions with diabetes duration but shared an antagonistic interaction with age and obesity.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:60
Li CI, Lin CC, Liu CS, Lin CH, Yang SY, Li TC
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:60 | PMID: 35477572
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Impact:
Abstract

Serum metabolomic profiles associated with subclinical and clinical cardiovascular phenotypes in people with type 2 diabetes.

Huang Z, Klaric L, Krasauskaite J, McLachlan S, ... Wilson JF, Price JF
Background
Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is the leading cause of death in diabetes, but the full range of biomarkers reflecting atherosclerotic burden and CVD risk in people with diabetes is unknown. Metabolomics may help identify novel biomarkers potentially involved in development of atherosclerosis. We investigated the serum metabolomic profile of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured using ankle brachial index (ABI), in people with type 2 diabetes, compared with the profile for symptomatic CVD in the same population.
Methods
The Edinburgh Type 2 Diabetes Study is a cohort of 1,066 individuals with type 2 diabetes. ABI was measured at baseline, years 4 and 10, with cardiovascular events assessed at baseline and during 10 years of follow-up. A panel of 228 metabolites was measured at baseline using nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry, and their association with both ABI and prevalent CVD was explored using univariate regression models and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO). Metabolites associated with baseline ABI were further explored for association with follow-up ABI and incident CVD.
Results
Mean (standard deviation, SD) ABI at baseline was 0.97 (0.18, N = 1025), and prevalence of CVD was 35.0%. During 10-year follow-up, mean (SD) change in ABI was + 0.006 (0.178, n = 436), and 257 CVD events occurred. Lactate, glycerol, creatinine and glycoprotein acetyls levels were associated with baseline ABI in both univariate regression [βs (95% confidence interval, CI) ranged from - 0.025 (- 0.036, - 0.015) to - 0.023 (- 0.034, - 0.013), all p < 0.0002] and LASSO analysis. The associations remained nominally significant after adjustment for major vascular risk factors. In prospective analyses, lactate was nominally associated with ABI measured at years 4 and 10 after adjustment for baseline ABI. The four ABI-associated metabolites were all positively associated with prevalent CVD [odds ratios (ORs) ranged from 1.29 (1.13, 1.47) to 1.49 (1.29, 1.74), all p < 0.0002], and they were also positively associated with incident CVD [ORs (95% CI) ranged from 1.19 (1.02, 1.39) to 1.35 (1.17, 1.56), all p < 0.05].
Conclusions
Serum metabolites relating to glycolysis, fluid balance and inflammation were independently associated with both a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and with symptomatic CVD in people with type 2 diabetes. Additional investigation is warranted to determine their roles as possible etiological and/or predictive biomarkers for atherosclerotic CVD.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:62
Huang Z, Klaric L, Krasauskaite J, McLachlan S, ... Wilson JF, Price JF
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:62 | PMID: 35477395
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Impact:
Abstract

Heterogeneous treatment effects of intensive glycemic control on major adverse cardiovascular events in the ACCORD and VADT trials: a machine-learning analysis.

Edward JA, Josey K, Bahn G, Caplan L, ... Ghosh D, Raghavan S
Background
Evidence to guide type 2 diabetes treatment individualization is limited. We evaluated heterogeneous treatment effects (HTE) of intensive glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes Study (ACCORD) and the Veterans Affairs Diabetes Trial (VADT).
Methods
Causal forests machine learning analysis was performed using pooled individual data from two randomized trials (n = 12,042) to identify HTE of intensive versus standard glycemic control on MACE in patients with type 2 diabetes. We used variable prioritization from causal forests to build a summary decision tree and examined the risk difference of MACE between treatment arms in the resulting subgroups.
Results
A summary decision tree used five variables (hemoglobin glycation index, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting glucose, age, and body mass index) to define eight subgroups in which risk differences of MACE ranged from - 5.1% (95% CI - 8.7, - 1.5) to 3.1% (95% CI 0.2, 6.0) (negative values represent lower MACE associated with intensive glycemic control). Intensive glycemic control was associated with lower MACE in pooled study data in subgroups with low (- 4.2% [95% CI - 8.1, - 1.0]), intermediate (- 5.1% [95% CI - 8.7, - 1.5]), and high (- 4.3% [95% CI - 7.7, - 1.0]) MACE rates with consistent directions of effect in ACCORD and VADT alone.
Conclusions
This data-driven analysis provides evidence supporting the diabetes treatment guideline recommendation of intensive glucose lowering in diabetes patients with low cardiovascular risk and additionally suggests potential benefits of intensive glycemic control in some individuals at higher cardiovascular risk.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:58
Edward JA, Josey K, Bahn G, Caplan L, ... Ghosh D, Raghavan S
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:58 | PMID: 35477454
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Impact:
Abstract

Plasma phosphate and all-cause mortality in individuals with and without type 2 diabetes: the Dutch population-based lifelines cohort study.

van der Vaart A, Cai Q, Nolte IM, van Beek APJ, ... van Dijk PR, de Borst MH
Introduction
Individuals with type 2 diabetes have a substantially elevated cardiovascular risk. A higher plasma phosphate level promotes vascular calcification, which may adversely affect outcomes in individuals with type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that the association between plasma phosphate and all-cause mortality is stronger in individuals with type 2 diabetes, compared to those without diabetes.
Methods
We analysed the association between plasma phosphate and all-cause mortality in the Dutch population-based Lifelines cohort and in subgroups with and without type 2 diabetes, using multivariable Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Effect modification was tested using multiplicative interaction terms.
Results
We included 57,170 individuals with 9.4 [8.8-10.4] years follow-up. Individuals within the highest phosphate tertile (range 1.00-1.83 mmol/L) were at higher risk of all-cause mortality (fully adjusted HR 1.18 [95% CI 1.02-1.36], p = 0.02), compared with the intermediate tertile (range 0.85-0.99 mmol/L). We found significant effect modification by baseline type 2 diabetes status (p-interaction = 0.003). Within the type 2 diabetes subgroup (N = 1790), individuals within the highest plasma phosphate tertile had an increased mortality risk (HR 1.73 [95% CI 1.10-2.72], p = 0.02 vs intermediate tertile). In individuals without diabetes at baseline (N = 55,380), phosphate was not associated with mortality (HR 1.12 [95% CI 0.96-1.31], p = 0.14). Results were similar after excluding individuals with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2.
Discussion
High-normal plasma phosphate levels were associated with all-cause mortality in individuals with type 2 diabetes. The association was weaker and non-significant in those without diabetes. Measurement of phosphate levels should be considered in type 2 diabetes; whether lowering phosphate levels can improve health outcomes in diabetes requires further study.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:61
van der Vaart A, Cai Q, Nolte IM, van Beek APJ, ... van Dijk PR, de Borst MH
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 27 Apr 2022; 21:61 | PMID: 35477475
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Impact:
Abstract

Physicians\' misperceived cardiovascular risk and therapeutic inertia as determinants of low LDL-cholesterol targets achievement in diabetes.

Morieri ML, Lamacchia O, Manzato E, Giaccari A, Avogardo A, Lipid-Lowering-Relevance Study Group
Background
Greater efforts are needed to overcome the worldwide reported low achievement of LDL-c targets. This survey aimed to dissect whether and how the physician-based evaluation of patients with diabetes is associated with the achievement of LDL-c targets.
Methods
This cross-sectional self-reported survey interviewed physicians working in 67 outpatient services in Italy, collecting records on 2844 patients with diabetes. Each physician reported a median of 47 records (IQR 42-49) and, for each of them, the physician specified its perceived cardiovascular risk, LDL-c targets, and the suggested refinement in lipid-lowering-treatment (LLT). These physician-based evaluations were then compared to recommendations from EAS/EASD guidelines.
Results
Collected records were mostly from patients with type 2 diabetes (94%), at very-high (72%) or high-cardiovascular risk (27%). Physician-based assessments of cardiovascular risk and of LDL-c targets, as compared to guidelines recommendation, were misclassified in 34.7% of the records. The misperceived assessment was significantly higher among females and those on primary prevention and was associated with 67% lower odds of achieving guidelines-recommended LDL-c targets (OR 0.33, p < 0.0001). Peripheral artery disease, target organ damage and LLT-initiated by primary-care-physicians were all factors associated with therapeutic-inertia (i.e., lower than expected probability of receiving high-intensity LLT). Physician-suggested LLT refinement was inadequate in 24% of overall records and increased to 38% among subjects on primary prevention and with misclassified cardiovascular risk.
Conclusions
This survey highlights the need to improve the physicians\' misperceived cardiovascular risk and therapeutic inertia in patients with diabetes to successfully implement guidelines recommendations into everyday clinical practice.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 26 Apr 2022; 21:57
Morieri ML, Lamacchia O, Manzato E, Giaccari A, Avogardo A, Lipid-Lowering-Relevance Study Group
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 26 Apr 2022; 21:57 | PMID: 35473579
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Impact:
Abstract

Angiographic complete revascularization versus incomplete revascularization in patients with diabetes mellitus.

Hwang D, Park J, Yang HM, Yang S, ... Koo BK, Kim HS
Background
Considering the nature of diabetes mellitus (DM) in coronary artery disease, it is unclear whether complete revascularization is beneficial or not in patients with DM. We investigated the clinical impact of angiographic complete revascularization in patients with DM.
Methods
A total of 5516 consecutive patients (2003 patients with DM) who underwent coronary stenting with 2nd generation drug-eluting stent were analyzed. Angiographic complete revascularization was defined as a residual SYNTAX (SYNergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with TAXus and cardiac surgery) score of 0. The patient-oriented composite outcome (POCO, including all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, and any revascularization) and target lesion failure (TLF) at three years were analyzed.
Results
Complete revascularization was associated with a reduced risk of POCO in DM population [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.93, p = 0.016], but not in non-DM population (adjusted HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.69-1.17, p = 0.423). The risk of TLF was comparable between the complete and incomplete revascularization groups in both DM (adjusted HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.49-1.16, p = 0.195) and non-DM populations (adjusted HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.75-1.63, p = 0.611). The independent predictors of POCO were incomplete revascularization, multivessel disease, left main disease and low ejection fraction in the DM population, and old age, peripheral vessel disease, and low ejection fraction in the non-DM population.
Conclusions
The clinical benefit of angiographic complete revascularization is more prominent in patients with DM than those without DM after three years of follow-up. Relieving residual disease might be more critical in the DM population than the non-DM population. Trial registration The Grand Drug-Eluting Stent registry NCT03507205.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 19 Apr 2022; 21:56
Hwang D, Park J, Yang HM, Yang S, ... Koo BK, Kim HS
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 19 Apr 2022; 21:56 | PMID: 35439958
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Impact:
Abstract

The relationships between FLAIS, a novel insulin sensitivity index, and cardiovascular risk factors in a population-based study.

Karczewska-Kupczewska M, Nikołajuk A, Kondraciuk M, Stachurska Z, ... Kowalska I, Kamiński K
Background
Insulin resistance is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Recently, we have developed a novel index, FLAIS (Fasting Laboratory Assessment of Insulin Sensitivity), which accurately reflects insulin sensitivity, measured with hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, in different groups of subjects. The aim of the present study was to assess the relationship of FLAIS with cardiovascular risk factors in a population-based study.
Methods
The study group comprised 339 individuals from the ongoing Białystok Plus study, without previously known diabetes. Clinical examination, oral glucose tolerance test and the measurement of blood laboratory parameters were performed.
Results
Prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) was diagnosed in 165 individuals whereas type 2 diabetes was diagnosed in 19 subjects. FLAIS was lower in individuals with prediabetes and diabetes in comparison with individuals with normal glucose tolerance. FLAIS was significantly related to waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in the entire study group and in the subgroups with normal glucose tolerance and with prediabetes/diabetes. HOMA-IR, QUICKI and Matsuda index were not related to blood pressure and LDL-cholesterol in individuals with normal glucose tolerance. Majority of the adjusted models with FLAIS were characterized by better fit with the data in comparison with other indices for all cardiovascular risk factors except waist circumference.
Conclusions
FLAIS represents useful index to assess the cluster of insulin resistance-associated cardiovascular risk factors in general population.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 19 Apr 2022; 21:55
Karczewska-Kupczewska M, Nikołajuk A, Kondraciuk M, Stachurska Z, ... Kowalska I, Kamiński K
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 19 Apr 2022; 21:55 | PMID: 35439985
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Impact:
Abstract

Bilirubin as an indicator of cardiometabolic health: a cross-sectional analysis in the UK Biobank.

Seyed Khoei N, Wagner KH, Sedlmeier AM, Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Freisling H
Background
Mildly elevated bilirubin, a by-product of hemoglobin breakdown, might mitigate cardiometabolic risk factors including adiposity, dyslipidemia, and high blood pressure (BP). We investigated the cross-sectional relationship between (total) bilirubin and baseline cardiometabolic risk factors in 467,519 UK Biobank study participants.
Methods
We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to estimate associations between bilirubin levels and risk factors of cardiometabolic diseases including body mass index (BMI), waist and hip circumferences (WC, HC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fat mass (FM), and trunk FM, and the blood lipids: apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), apolipoprotein B (apoB), apoB/apoA-I, lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL/HDL, TC/HDL, triglycerides (TG). Log-transformed bilirubin was modelled with restricted cubic splines and predicted mean values with 99% confidence intervals (CI) for each risk marker were estimated, separately. Second, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) for dimension reduction to in turn six anthropometric traits (height, weight, BMI, WC, HC, and WHR) and all above lipids. Last, we estimated associations (99%CI) between bilirubin and three components of the metabolic syndrome, i.e. WC, TG, and BP using logistic regression.
Results
After multivariable adjustments, higher levels of bilirubin were inversely associated with indicators of general adiposity (BMI and FM) and of body fat distribution (WC, HC, WHR, and trunk FM) in both men and women. For example, women with mildly elevated bilirubin (95th percentile equal to 15.0 µmol/L), compared to women with low bilirubin (5th percentile equal to 4.5 µmol/L), had on average a 2.0 kg/m2 (99% CI 1.9-2.1) lower BMI. Inverse associations were also observed with dyslipidemia among men and women. For example, mildly elevated bilirubin among men (95th percentile equal to 19.4 µmol/L) compared to low levels of bilirubin (5th percentile equal to 5.5 µmol/L) were associated with approx. 0.55 mmol/L (99% CI 0.53-0.56) lower TG levels, with similar inverse associations among women. Multiple-trait analyses using PCA confirmed single-trait analyses. Men and women with mildly elevated bilirubin levels ≥ 17.1 µmol/L, compared to low-normal bilirubin < 10 µmol/L had 13% (99% CI 8%-18%) and 11% (99% CI 4%-17%) lower odds of exceeding systolic BP levels of ≥ 130 mm Hg, respectively.
Conclusions
Higher levels of bilirubin were inversely associated with cardiometabolic risk factors including adiposity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 Apr 2022; 21:54
Seyed Khoei N, Wagner KH, Sedlmeier AM, Gunter MJ, Murphy N, Freisling H
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 Apr 2022; 21:54 | PMID: 35436955
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Abstract

Associations between the triglyceride-glucose index and cardiovascular disease in over 150,000 cancer survivors: a population-based cohort study.

Jung MH, Yi SW, An SJ, Yi JJ, ... Jung HO, Youn HJ
Background
The prevention of subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) is an essential part of cancer survivorship care. We conducted the present study to investigate the association between the TyG index (a surrogate marker of insulin resistance) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in cancer survivors.
Methods
Adult cancer patients, who underwent routine health examinations during 2009-2010 and were survived for more than 5 years as of January 1, 2011, were followed for hospitalization of CVD (either ischemic heart disease, stroke, or heart failure) until December 2020. Cox model was used to calculate hazard ratios associated with baseline TyG index (loge [fasting triglyceride (mg) × fasting glucose (mg)/2]) for the CVD hospitalization.
Results
A total of 155,167 cancer survivors (mean age 59.9 ± 12.0 years, female 59.1%) were included in this study. A graded positive association was observed between TyG and CVD hospitalization. An 8% elevated risk for CVD hospitalization was observed for a TyG index of 8-8.4 (aHR 1.08 [95% CI 1.01-1.14]); 10% elevated risk for a TyG index of 8.5-8.9 (aHR 1.10 [95% CI 1.03-1.17]); 23% elevated risk for a TyG index of 9.0-9.4 (aHR 1.23 [95% CI 1.15-1.31]); 34% elevated risk for a TyG index of 9.5-9.9 (aHR 1.34 [95% CI 1.23-1.47]); and 55% elevated risk for a TyG index ≥ 10 compared to the reference group (TyG index < 8). Per 1-unit increase in the TyG index, a 16% increase in CVD hospitalization and a 45% increase in acute myocardial infarction hospitalization were demonstrated. Graded positive associations were evident for atherosclerotic CVD subtypes, such as ischemic heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke, but not for hemorrhagic stroke or heart failure.
Conclusions
The TyG index may serve as a simple surrogate marker for the risk stratification of future CVD events, particularly atherosclerotic subtypes, in cancer survivors.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 16 Apr 2022; 21:52
Jung MH, Yi SW, An SJ, Yi JJ, ... Jung HO, Youn HJ
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 16 Apr 2022; 21:52 | PMID: 35429972
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Abstract

The associations of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis using fatty liver index and BARD score with cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients with new-onset type 2 diabetes: a nationwide cohort study.

Park J, Kim G, Kim BS, Han KD, ... Jin SM, Kim JH
Background
Although both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), evidence is lacking as to whether the presence of NAFLD confers an additional risk of CVD in patients with T2DM. We investigated the associations between hepatic steatosis and/or fibrosis and risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, heart failure (HF), and mortality in patients with new-onset T2DM.
Methods
Using the Korean National Health Insurance dataset, we included 139,633 patients diagnosed with new-onset T2DM who underwent a national health screening from January 2009 to December 2012. Hepatic steatosis and advanced hepatic fibrosis were determined using cutoff values for fatty liver index (FLI) and BARD score. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models.
Results
During the median follow-up of 7.7 years, there were 3,079 (2.2%) cases of MI, 4,238 (3.0%) cases of ischemic stroke, 4,303 (3.1%) cases of HF, and 8,465 (6.1%) all-cause deaths. Hepatic steatosis defined as FLI ≥ 60 was associated with increased risk for MI (HR [95% CI], 1.28 [1.14-1.44]), stroke (1.41 [1.25-1.56]), HF (1.17 [1.07-1.26]), and mortality (1.41 [1.32-1.51]) after adjusting for well-known risk factors. Compared to the group without steatosis, the group with steatosis and without fibrosis (BARD < 2) and the group with both steatosis and fibrosis (BARD ≥ 2) showed gradual increased risk for MI, stroke, HF, and mortality (all p for trends < 0.001).
Conclusion
Hepatic steatosis and/or advanced fibrosis as assessed by FLI or BARD score were significantly associated with risk of CVD and mortality in new-onset T2DM.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 16 Apr 2022; 21:53
Park J, Kim G, Kim BS, Han KD, ... Jin SM, Kim JH
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 16 Apr 2022; 21:53 | PMID: 35429980
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Abstract

Liraglutide preserves CD34 stem cells from dysfunction Induced by high glucose exposure.

Sforza A, Vigorelli V, Rurali E, Perrucci GL, ... Genovese S, Vinci MC
Background
Glucagon like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have shown to reduce mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Since the impairment in number and function of vasculotrophic circulating CD34+ hematopoietic stem progenitor cells (HSPCs) in T2D has been reported to increase cardiovascular (CV) risk, we hypothesized that one of the mechanisms whereby GLP-1 RAs exert CV protective effects may be related to the ability to improve CD34+ HSPC function.
Methods
In cord blood (CB)-derived CD34+ HSPC, the expression of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) mRNA, receptor protein and intracellular signaling was evaluated by RT-qPCR and Western Blot respectively. CD34+ HSPCs were exposed to high glucose (HG) condition and GLP-1RA liraglutide (LIRA) was added before as well as after functional impairment. Proliferation, CXCR4/SDF-1α axis activity and intracellular ROS production of CD34+ HSPC were evaluated.
Results
CD34+ HSPCs express GLP-1R at transcriptional and protein level. LIRA treatment prevented and rescued HSPC proliferation, CXCR4/SDF-1α axis activity and metabolic imbalance from HG-induced impairment. LIRA stimulation promoted intracellular cAMP accumulation as well as ERK1/2 and AKT signaling activation. The selective GLP-1R antagonist exendin (9-39) abrogated LIRA-dependent ERK1/2 and AKT phosphorylation along with the related protective effects.
Conclusion
We provided the first evidence that CD34+ HSPC express GLP-1R and that LIRA can favorably impact on cell dysfunction due to HG exposure. These findings open new perspectives on the favorable CV effects of GLP-1 RAs in T2DM patients.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 09 Apr 2022; 21:51
Sforza A, Vigorelli V, Rurali E, Perrucci GL, ... Genovese S, Vinci MC
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 09 Apr 2022; 21:51 | PMID: 35397526
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Impact:
Abstract

Report from the CVOT Summit 2021: new cardiovascular, renal, and glycemic outcomes.

Schnell O, Battelino T, Bergenstal R, Blüher M, ... Wysham C, Standl E
The 7th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial (CVOT) Summit on Cardiovascular, Renal, and Glycemic Outcomes, was held virtually on November 18-19, 2021. Pursuing the tradition of the previous summits, this reference congress served as a platform for in-depth discussion and exchange on recently completed CVOTs. This year\'s focus was placed on the outcomes of EMPEROR-Preserved, FIGARO-DKD, AMPLITUDE-O, SURPASS 1-5, and STEP 1-5. Trial implications for diabetes and obesity management and the impact on new treatment algorithms were highlighted for endocrinologists, diabetologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and general practitioners. Discussions evolved from outcome trials using SGLT2 inhibitors as therapy for heart failure, to CVOTs with nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists and GLP-1 receptor agonists. Furthermore, trials for glycemic and overweight/obesity management, challenges in diabetes management in COVID-19, and novel guidelines and treatment strategies were discussed.Trial registration The 8th Cardiovascular Outcome Trial Summit will be held virtually on November 10-11, 2022 ( http://www.cvot.org ).

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 08 Apr 2022; 21:50
Schnell O, Battelino T, Bergenstal R, Blüher M, ... Wysham C, Standl E
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 08 Apr 2022; 21:50 | PMID: 35395808
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Impact:
Abstract

Metformin and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I and T trajectories in type 2 diabetes patients: a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial.

Stultiens JMG, Top WMC, Kimenai DM, Lehert P, ... Kooy A, Meex SJR
Background
Metformin has favorable effects on cardiovascular outcomes in both newly onset and advanced type 2 diabetes, as previously reported findings from the UK Prospective Diabetes Study and the HOME trial have demonstrated. Patients with type 2 diabetes present with chronically elevated circulating cardiac troponin levels, an established predictor of cardiovascular endpoints and prognostic marker of subclinical myocardial injury. It is unknown whether metformin affects cardiac troponin levels. The study aimed to evaluate cardiac troponin I and T trajectories in patients with diabetes treated either with metformin or placebo.
Methods
This study is a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial (HOME trial) that included 390 patients with advanced type 2 diabetes randomized to 850 mg metformin or placebo up to three times daily concomitant to continued insulin treatment. Cardiac troponin I and T concentrations were measured at baseline and after 4, 17, 30, 43 and 52 months. We evaluated cardiac troponin trajectories by linear mixed-effects modeling, correcting for age, sex, smoking status and history of cardiovascular disease.
Results
This study enrolled 390 subjects, of which 196 received metformin and 194 received placebo. In the treatment and placebo groups, mean age was 64 and 59 years; with 50% and 58% of subjects of the female sex, respectively. Despite the previously reported reduction of macrovascular disease risk in this cohort by metformin, linear mixed-effects regression modelling did not reveal evidence for an effect on cardiac troponin I and cardiac troponin T levels [- 8.4% (- 18.6, 3.2), p = 0.150, and - 4.6% (- 12, 3.2), p = 0.242, respectively]. A statistically significant time-treatment interaction was found for troponin T [- 1.6% (- 2.9, - 0.2), p = 0.021] but not troponin I concentrations [- 1.5% (- 4.2, 1.2), p = 0.263].
Conclusions
In this post-hoc analysis of a 4.3-year randomized controlled trial, metformin did not exert a clinically relevant effect on cardiac troponin I and cardiac troponin T levels when compared to placebo. Cardioprotective effects of the drug observed in clinical studies are not reflected by a reduction in these biomarkers of subclinical myocardial injury. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00375388.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 04 Apr 2022; 21:49
Stultiens JMG, Top WMC, Kimenai DM, Lehert P, ... Kooy A, Meex SJR
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 04 Apr 2022; 21:49 | PMID: 35379238
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Abstract

Predictive value of the stress hyperglycemia ratio in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: insights from a multi-center observational study.

Xu W, Yang YM, Zhu J, Wu S, ... Zhang H, Shao XH
Background
Stress hyperglycemia is a strong predictor of adverse outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Recently, the stress hyperglycemia ratio (SHR) has been designed as an index to identify acute hyperglycemia with true risk; however, data regarding the impact of SHR on the prognosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains limited. This study aimed to evaluate the predictive value of the SHR in patients with acute STEMI and to assess whether it can improve the predictive efficiency of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score.
Methods
This study included 7476 consecutive patients diagnosed with acute STEMI across 274 emergency centers. After excluding 2052 patients due to incomplete data, 5417 patients were included in the final analysis. Patients were divided into three groups according to SHR tertiles (SHR1, SHR2, and SHR3) and were further categorized based on diabetes status. All patients were followed up for major cardiovascular adverse events (MACEs) and all-cause mortality.
Results
After 30 days of follow-up, 1547 MACEs (28.6%) and 789 all-cause deaths (14.6%) occurred. The incidence of MACEs was highest among patients in the SHR3 group with diabetes mellitus (DM) (42.6%). Kaplan-Meier curves demonstrated that patients with SHR3 and DM also had the highest risk for MACEs when compared with other groups (p < 0.001). Moreover, C-statistics improved significantly when SHR3 was added into the original model: the ΔC-statistics (95% confidence interval) were 0.008 (0.000-0.013) in the total population, 0.010 (0.003-0.017) in the DM group, and 0.007 (0.002-0.013) in the non-DM group (all p < 0.05). In the receiver operating characteristic analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) for the original TIMI risk score for all-cause death was 0.760. When an SHR3 value of 1 point was used to replace the history of DM, hypertension, or angina in the original TIMI risk score, the Delong test revealed significant improvements in the AUC value (∆AUC of 0.009, p < 0.05), especially in the DM group (∆AUC of 0.010, p < 0.05).
Conclusion
The current results suggest that SHR is independently related to the risks of MACEs and mortality in patients with STEMI. Furthermore, SHR may aid in improving the predictive efficiency of the TIMI risk score in patients with STEMI, especially those with DM.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 29 Mar 2022; 21:48
Xu W, Yang YM, Zhu J, Wu S, ... Zhang H, Shao XH
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 29 Mar 2022; 21:48 | PMID: 35351149
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Impact:
Abstract

Association of SGLT2 inhibitors with cardiovascular, kidney, and safety outcomes among patients with diabetic kidney disease: a meta-analysis.

Kaze AD, Zhuo M, Kim SC, Patorno E, Paik JM
Background
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the cardiovascular, kidney, and safety outcomes of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) among patients with diabetic kidney disease (DKD).
Methods
We searched electronic databases for major randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials published up to September 30, 2021 and reporting on cardiovascular and kidney outcomes of SGLT2i in patients with DKD. DKD was defined as chronic kidney disease in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to estimate pooled hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for clinical outcomes including major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE: myocardial infarction [MI], stroke, and cardiovascular death), kidney composite outcomes (a combination of worsening kidney function, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes), hospitalizations for heart failure (HHF), deaths and safety events (mycotic infections, diabetic ketoacidosis [DKA], volume depletion, amputations, fractures, urinary tract infections [UTI], acute kidney injury [AKI], and hyperkalemia).
Results
A total of 26,106 participants with DKD from 8 large-scale trials were included (median age: 65.2 years, 29.7-41.8% women, 53.2-93.2% White, median follow-up: 2.5 years). SGLT2i were associated with reduced risks of MACE (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.75-0.93), kidney composite outcomes (HR 0.66, 95% CI 0.58-0.75), HHF (HR 0.62, 95% CI 0.55-0.71), cardiovascular death (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74-0.96), MI (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.92), stroke (HR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97), and all-cause death (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.77-0.96), with no significant heterogeneity detected. Similar results were observed among participants with reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR: < 60 mL/min/1.73m2). The relative risks (95% CI) for adverse events were 3.89 (1.42-10.62) and 2.50 (1.32-4.72) for mycotic infections in men and women respectively, 3.54 (0.82-15.39) for DKA, and 1.29 (1.13-1.48) for volume depletion.
Conclusions
Among adults with DKD, SGLT2i were associated with reduced risks of MACE, kidney outcomes, HHF, and death. With a few exceptions of more clear safety signals, we found overall limited data on the associations between SGLT2i and safety outcomes. More research is needed on the safety profile of SGLT2i in this population.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 23 Mar 2022; 21:47
Kaze AD, Zhuo M, Kim SC, Patorno E, Paik JM
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 23 Mar 2022; 21:47 | PMID: 35321742
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Impact:
Abstract

High fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio with type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with poor prognosis in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: 5-year findings from a large cohort.

Wang P, Yuan D, Zhang C, Zhu P, ... Gao R, Yuan J
Background
Inflammation plays a crucial role in coronary atherosclerosis progression, and growing evidence has demonstrated that the fibrinogen-to-albumin ratio (FAR), as a novel inflammation biomarker, is associated with the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). However, the long-term risk of cardiovascular events remains indistinct in patients with different level of FAR and different glycemic metabolism status. This study was to assess 5-year clinical outcomes of diabetic and non-diabetic patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with different level of FAR.
Methods
We consecutively enrolled 10,724 patients with CAD hospitalized for PCI and followed up for the major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) covering all-cause mortality, cardiac mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, non-fatal ischemic stroke, and unplanned coronary revascularization. FAR was computed using the following formula: Fibrinogen (g/L)/Albumin (g/L). According to the optimal cut-off value of FAR for MACCE prediction, patients were divided into higher level of FAR (FAR-H) and lower level of FAR (FAR-L) subgroups, and were further categorized into four groups as FAR-H with DM and non-DM, and FAR-L with DM and non-DM.
Results
5298 patients (58.36 ± 10.36 years, 77.7% male) were ultimately enrolled in the present study. A total of 1099 (20.7%) MACCEs were documented during the 5-year follow-up. The optimal cut-off value of FAR was 0.0783 by the surv_cutpoint function. Compared to ones with FAR-H and DM, patients with FAR-L and non-DM, FAR-H and non-DM, FAR-L and DM had decreased risk of MACCEs [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 0.75, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.89, P = 0.001; HR: 0.78, 95% CI 0.66-0.93, P = 0.006; HR: 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97, P = 0.019; respectively]. Notably, non-diabetic patients with lower level of FAR also had lower all-cause mortality and cardiac mortality risk than those in the FAR-H/DM group (HR: 0.41, 95% CI 0.27-0.63, P < 0.001; HR: 0.30, 95% CI 0.17-0.53, P < 0.001; respectively). Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis also indicated the highest risk of MACCEs in patients with FAR-H and DM than others (P for trend = 0.005). In addition, post-hoc analysis revealed consistent effects on 5-year MACCE across various subgroups.
Conclusion
In this real-world cohort study, higher level of FAR combined with DM was associated with worse 5-year outcomes among patients with CAD undergoing PCI. The level of FAR may help to identify high-risk individuals in this specific population, where more precise risk assessment should be performed.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 21 Mar 2022; 21:46
Wang P, Yuan D, Zhang C, Zhu P, ... Gao R, Yuan J
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 21 Mar 2022; 21:46 | PMID: 35313877
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Impact:
Abstract

High pericoronary adipose tissue attenuation on computed tomography angiography predicts cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: post-hoc analysis from a prospective cohort study.

Ichikawa K, Miyoshi T, Osawa K, Nakashima M, ... Yoshida M, Ito H
Background
Pericoronary adipose tissue (PCAT) attenuation on coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) is a non-invasive biomarker for pericoronary inflammation. We aimed to investigate the prognostic value of PCAT attenuation in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
We included 333 T2DM patients (mean age, 66 years; male patients, 211; mean body mass index, 25 kg/m2) who underwent clinically indicated coronary CTA and examined their CT findings, coronary artery calcium score, pericardial fat volume, stenosis (> 50% luminal narrowing), high-risk plaque features of low-attenuation plaque and/or positive remodelling and/or spotty calcification, and PCAT attenuation. We assessed PCAT attenuation in Hounsfield units (HU) of proximal 40-mm segments of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and right coronary artery (RCA). Cardiovascular events were defined as cardiac death, hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, late coronary revascularisation, and hospitalisation for heart failure.
Results
During a median follow-up of 4.0 years, we observed 31 cardiovascular events. LAD-PCAT attenuation was significantly higher in patients with cardiovascular events than in those without (- 68.5 ± 6.5 HU vs - 70.8 ± 6.1 HU, p = 0.045), whereas RCA-PCAT attenuation was not (p = 0.089). High LAD-PCAT attenuation (> - 70.7 HU; median value) was significantly associated with cardiovascular events in a model that included adverse CTA findings, such as significant stenosis and/or high-risk plaque (hazard ratio; 2.69, 95% confidence interval; 1.17-0.20, p = 0.020). After adding LAD-PCAT attenuation to the adverse CTA findings, the C-statistic and global chi-square values increased significantly from 0.65 to 0.70 (p = 0.037) and 10.9-15.0 (p = 0.043), respectively.
Conclusions
In T2DM patients undergoing clinically indicated coronary CTA, high LAD-PCAT attenuation could significantly predict cardiovascular events. This suggests that assessing LAD-PCAT attenuation can help physicians identify high-risk T2DM patients.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 Mar 2022; 21:44
Ichikawa K, Miyoshi T, Osawa K, Nakashima M, ... Yoshida M, Ito H
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 Mar 2022; 21:44 | PMID: 35303857
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Impact:
Abstract

Triglyceride-glucose index and common carotid artery intima-media thickness in patients with ischemic stroke.

Miao M, Zhou G, Bao A, Sun Y, ... You S, Zhong C
Background
Triglyceride glucose (TyG) index was recently reported to be associated with an increased risk of the development and recurrence of cardiovascular events, and atherosclerosis is a main speculative mechanism. However, data on the relationship between TyG index and atherosclerosis, especially in the setting of ischemic stroke, is rare. We aimed to explore the association between TyG index and carotid atherosclerosis in patients with ischemic stroke.
Methods
A total of 1523 ischemic stroke patients with TyG index and carotid artery imaging data were enrolled in this analysis. The TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglyceride (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. Carotid atherosclerosis was measured by common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), and abnormal cIMT was defined as a mean cIMT and maximum cIMT value ≥ 1 mm. Multivariable logistic regression models and restricted cubic spline models were used to assess the relationships between TyG index and abnormal cIMT. Risk reclassification and calibration of models with TyG index were analyzed.
Results
The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) in quartile 4 versus quartile 1 of TyG index were 1.56 (1.06-2.28) for abnormal mean cIMT and 1.46 (1.02-2.08) for abnormal maximum cIMT, respectively. There were linear relationships between TyG index and abnormal mean cIMT (P for linearity = 0.005) and abnormal maximum cIMT (P for linearity = 0.027). In addition, the TyG index provided incremental predictive capacity beyond established risk factors, shown by an increase in net reclassification improvement and integrated discrimination improvement (all P < 0.05).
Conclusions
A higher TyG index was associated with carotid atherosclerosis measured by cIMT in patients with ischemic stroke, suggesting that TyG could be a promising atherosclerotic marker.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 Mar 2022; 21:43
Miao M, Zhou G, Bao A, Sun Y, ... You S, Zhong C
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 Mar 2022; 21:43 | PMID: 35303881
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Abstract

Direct cardiac effects of SGLT2 inhibitors.

Chen S, Coronel R, Hollmann MW, Weber NC, Zuurbier CJ
Sodium-glucose-cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2is) demonstrate large cardiovascular benefit in both diabetic and non-diabetic, acute and chronic heart failure patients. These inhibitors have on-target (SGLT2 inhibition in the kidney) and off-target effects that likely both contribute to the reported cardiovascular benefit. Here we review the literature on direct effects of SGLT2is on various cardiac cells and derive at an unifying working hypothesis. SGLT2is acutely and directly (1) inhibit cardiac sodium transporters and alter ion homeostasis, (2) reduce inflammation and oxidative stress, (3) influence metabolism, and (4) improve cardiac function. We postulate that cardiac benefit modulated by SGLT2i\'s can be commonly attributed to their inhibition of sodium-loaders in the plasma membrane (NHE-1, Nav1.5, SGLT) affecting intracellular sodium-homeostasis (the sodium-interactome), thereby providing a unifying view on the various effects reported in separate studies. The SGLT2is effects are most apparent when cells or hearts are subjected to pathological conditions (reactive oxygen species, inflammation, acidosis, hypoxia, high saturated fatty acids, hypertension, hyperglycemia, and heart failure sympathetic stimulation) that are known to prime these plasmalemmal sodium-loaders. In conclusion, the cardiac sodium-interactome provides a unifying testable working hypothesis and a possible, at least partly, explanation to the clinical benefits of SGLT2is observed in the diseased patient.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 Mar 2022; 21:45
Chen S, Coronel R, Hollmann MW, Weber NC, Zuurbier CJ
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 18 Mar 2022; 21:45 | PMID: 35303888
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Abstract

Remnant lipoprotein cholesterol is associated with incident new onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) in renal transplant recipients: results of the TransplantLines Biobank and cohort Studies.

Szili-Torok T, Sokooti S, Osté MCJ, Gomes-Neto AW, ... Bakker SJL, Tietge UJF
Background
New onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a frequent and serious complication of renal transplantation resulting in worse graft and patient outcomes. The pathophysiology of NODAT is incompletely understood, and no prospective biomarkers have been established to predict NODAT risk in renal transplant recipients (RTR). The present work aimed to determine whether remnant lipoprotein (RLP) cholesterol could serve as such a biomarker that would also provide a novel target for therapeutic intervention.
Methods
This longitudinal cohort study included 480 RTR free of diabetes at baseline. 53 patients (11%) were diagnosed with NODAT during a median [interquartile range, IQR] follow-up of 5.2 [4.1-5.8] years. RLP cholesterol was calculated by subtracting HDL and LDL cholesterol from total cholesterol values (all directly measured).
Results
Baseline remnant cholesterol values were significantly higher in RTR who subsequently developed NODAT (0.9 [0.5-1.2] mmol/L vs. 0.6 [0.4-0.9] mmol/L, p = 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that higher RLP cholesterol values were associated with an increased risk of incident NODAT (log rank test, p < 0.001). Cox regression demonstrated a significant longitudinal association between baseline RLP cholesterol levels and NODAT (HR, 2.27 [1.64-3.14] per 1 SD increase, p < 0.001) that remained after adjusting for plasma glucose and HbA1c (p = 0.002), HDL and LDL cholesterol (p = 0.008) and use of immunosuppressive medication (p < 0.001), among others. Adding baseline remnant cholesterol to the Framingham Diabetes Risk Score significantly improved NODAT prediction (change in C-statistic, p = 0.01).
Conclusions
This study demonstrates that baseline RLP cholesterol levels strongly associate with incident NODAT independent of several other recognized risk factors.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 15 Mar 2022; 21:41
Szili-Torok T, Sokooti S, Osté MCJ, Gomes-Neto AW, ... Bakker SJL, Tietge UJF
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 15 Mar 2022; 21:41 | PMID: 35296331
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Abstract

The effect of DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 receptor agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors on cardiorenal outcomes: a network meta-analysis of 23 CVOTs.

Giugliano D, Longo M, Signoriello S, Maiorino MI, ... Chiodini P, Esposito K
Background
Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) and sodium glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors reduce cardiorenal outcomes. We performed a network meta-analysis to compare the effect on cardiorenal outcomes among GLP-1 RAs, SGLT-2 inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors.
Methods
We searched the PUBMED, Embase and Cochrane databases for relevant studies published up until 10 December 2021. Cardiovascular and renal outcome trials reporting outcomes on GLP-1RA, SGLT-2 inhibitors and DPP-4 inhibitors in patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus were included. The primary outcome was major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE); other outcomes were cardiovascular and total death, nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI), nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure (HHF), and renal outcome.
Results
Twenty-three trials enrolling a total number of 181,143 participants were included. DPP-4 inhibitors did not lower the risk of any cardiorenal outcome when compared with placebo and were associated with higher risks of MACE, HHF, and renal outcome when compared with the other two drug classes. SGLT-2 inhibitors significantly reduced cardiovascular (RR = 0.88) and total (RR = 0.87) death, as compared with DPP-4 inhibitors, while GLP-1 RA reduced total death only (RR = 0.87). The comparison between GLP-1RA and SGLT-2 inhibitors showed no difference in their risks of MACE, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, CV and total death; SGLT-2 inhibitors were superior to GLP-1RA in reducing the risk of HHF and the renal outcome (24% and 22% lower risk, respectively). Only GLP-1RA reduced the risk of nonfatal stroke (RR = 0.84), as compared with placebo. There was no head-to-head trial directly comparing these antidiabetic drug classes.
Conclusions
SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1RA are superior to DPP-4 inhibitors in reducing the risk of most cardiorenal outcomes; SGLT-2 inhibitors are superior to GLP-1RA in reducing the risk of HHF and renal events; GLP-1RA only reduced the risk of nonfatal stroke. Both SGLT-2 inhibitors and GLP-1RA should be the preferred treatment for type 2 diabetes and cardiorenal diseases.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 15 Mar 2022; 21:42
Giugliano D, Longo M, Signoriello S, Maiorino MI, ... Chiodini P, Esposito K
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 15 Mar 2022; 21:42 | PMID: 35296336
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Abstract

Sex-specific associations of fat mass and muscle mass with cardiovascular disease risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes living with overweight and obesity: secondary analysis of the Look AHEAD trial.

Terada T, Reed JL, Vidal-Almela S, Mistura M, Kamiya K, Way KL
Background
Distinguishable sex differences exist in fat mass and muscle mass. High fat mass and low muscle mass are independently associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in people living with type 2 diabetes; however, it is unknown if the association between fat mass and CVD risk is modified by muscle mass, or vice versa. This study examined the sex-specific interplay between fat mass and muscle mass on CVD risk factors in adults with type 2 diabetes living with overweight and obesity.
Methods
Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures were used to compute fat mass index (FMI) and appendicular muscle mass index (ASMI), and participants were separated into high-fat mass vs. low-fat mass and high-muscle mass vs. low-muscle mass. A two-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA: high-FMI vs. low-FMI by high-ASMI vs. low-ASMI) was performed on CVD risk factors (i.e., hemoglobin A1C [A1C]; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; triglycerides; systolic and diastolic blood pressure; cardiorespiratory fitness, depression and health related-quality of life [HR-QoL]) at baseline and following a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for females and males separately, with a primary focus on the fat mass by muscle mass interaction effects.
Results
Data from 1,369 participants (62.7% females) who completed baseline DXA were analyzed. In females, there was a fat mass by muscle mass interaction effect on A1C (p = 0.016) at baseline. Post-hoc analysis showed that, in the low-FMI group, A1C was significantly higher in low-ASMI when compared to high-ASMI (60.3 ± 14.1 vs. 55.5 ± 13.5 mmol/mol, p = 0.023). In the high-FMI group, there was no difference between high-ASMI and low-ASMI (56.4 ± 12.5 vs. 56.5 ± 12.8 mmol/mol, p = 0.610). In males, only high-FMI was associated with higher A1C when compared to low-FMI (57.1 ± 14.4 vs. 54.2 ± 12.0 mmol/mol, p = 0.008) at baseline. Following ILI, there were significant fat mass by muscle mass interaction effects on changes in the mental component of HR-QoL in males.
Conclusion
Considering that A1C predicts future CVD, strategies to lower A1C may be especially important in females with low fat and low muscle mass living with type 2 diabetes. Our results highlight the complicated and sex-specific contribution of fat mass and muscle mass to CVD risk factors.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 14 Mar 2022; 21:40
Terada T, Reed JL, Vidal-Almela S, Mistura M, Kamiya K, Way KL
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 14 Mar 2022; 21:40 | PMID: 35292039
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Abstract

Glycemic control and atrial fibrillation: an intricate relationship, yet under investigation.

Papazoglou AS, Kartas A, Moysidis DV, Tsagkaris C, ... Papadakis M, Giannakoulas G
Atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) constitute two major closely inter-related chronic cardiovascular disorders whose concurrent prevalence rates are steadily increasing. Although, the pathogenic mechanisms behind the AF and DM comorbidity are still vague, it is now clear that DM precipitates AF occurrence. DM also affects the clinical course of established AF; it is associated with significant increase in the incidence of stroke, AF recurrence, and cardiovascular mortality. The impact of DM on AF management and prognosis has been adequately investigated. However, evidence on the relative impact of glycemic control using glycated hemoglobin levels is scarce. This review assesses up-to-date literature on the association between DM and AF. It also highlights the usefulness of glycated hemoglobin measurement for the prediction of AF and AF-related adverse events. Additionally, this review evaluates current anti-hyperglycemic treatment in the context of AF, and discusses AF-related decision-making in comorbid DM. Finally, it quotes significant remaining questions and sets some future strategies with the potential to effectively deal with this prevalent comorbidity.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 13 Mar 2022; 21:39
Papazoglou AS, Kartas A, Moysidis DV, Tsagkaris C, ... Papadakis M, Giannakoulas G
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 13 Mar 2022; 21:39 | PMID: 35287684
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Abstract

Effects of liraglutide vs. lifestyle changes on soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2) and galectin-3 in obese subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes after comparable weight loss.

Simeone P, Tripaldi R, Michelsen A, Ueland T, ... Halvorsen B, Santilli F
Background
Soluble suppression of tumorigenesis-2 (sST2) and galectin (Gal)-3 are two biomarkers related to inflammation, metabolic disturbances and to myocardial fibrosis that characterize several cardiac pathological conditions. Increased circulating levels of these molecules have been associated with risk of cardiovascular death. Treatment with liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analog, is associated with weight loss, improved glycemic control, and reduced cardiovascular risk. We wanted to assess (I) potential differences between subjects with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and healthy controls in sST2 and Gal-3 circulating levels, and their relationship with glycemic control and markers of beta cell function and myocardial injury; (II) whether liraglutide treatment modulates these markers in subjects with prediabetes or early T2DM independently of weight loss; (III) whether baseline levels of any of these two molecules may predict the response to liraglutide treatment.
Methods
Forty metformin-treated obese subjects (BMI ≥ 30) with prediabetes [impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or both (n = 23)] or newly diagnosed T2DM (n = 17), were randomized to liraglutide or lifestyle counseling until achieving a comparable weight loss (7% of initial body weight). Thirteen subjects were enrolled as healthy controls for baseline sST2 and Gal-3 levels.
Results
Baseline sST2 levels were comparable between controls and obese patients (p = 0.79) whereas Gal-3 levels were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls (p < 0.001). Liraglutide treatment, but not weight loss achieved by lifestyle counseling, decreased plasma sST2 levels (- 9%, beta = - 14.9, standard deviation 6.9, p = 0.037) while Gal-3 levels did not change. A reduction in serum hs-Troponin I was observed after intervention, due to a 19% (p = 0.29) increase in the lifestyle arm, and a 25% decrease (p = 0.033) in the liraglutide arm (between-group difference p = 0.083). Lower baseline Gal-3 levels predicted a better improvement in beta cell function after liraglutide treatment.
Conclusions
Liraglutide-induced reduction in sST2 and possibly hs-TnI suggests that in obese patients with prediabetes or early T2DM this drug may have a positive effect on (cardiac) fibrosis, whereas plasma level of Gal-3 before liraglutide initiation may predict response to the drug in terms of beta cell function improvement. Trial registration Eudract: 2013-001356-36.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 11 Mar 2022; 21:36
Simeone P, Tripaldi R, Michelsen A, Ueland T, ... Halvorsen B, Santilli F
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 11 Mar 2022; 21:36 | PMID: 35277168
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Abstract

Additive effect of aortic regurgitation degree on left ventricular strain in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus evaluated via cardiac magnetic resonance tissue tracking.

Shen LT, Jiang L, Zhu YW, Shen MT, ... Li Y, Yang ZG
Background
Type 2 diabetes mellitus causes left ventricular (LV) remodeling and increases the risk of aortic regurgitation (AR), which causes further heart damage. This study aimed to investigate whether AR aggravates LV deformation dysfunction and to identify independent factors affecting the global peak strain (PS) of LV remodeling in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who presented with AR and those without T2DM.
Methods
In total, 215 patients with T2DM and 83 age- and sex-matched healthy controls who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance examination were included. Based on the echocardiogram findings, T2DM patients with AR were divided into three groups (mild AR [n = 28], moderate AR [n = 21], and severe AR [n = 17]). LV function and global strain parameters were compared, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify the independent indicators of LV PS.
Results
The T2DM patients with AR had a lower LV global PS, peak systolic strain rate (PSSR), and peak diastolic strain rate (PDSR) in three directions than those without AR and non-T2DM controls. Patients without AR had a lower PS (radial and longitudinal) and PDSR in three directions and higher PSSR (radial and longitudinal) than healthy controls. Further, regurgitation degree was an independent factor of LV global radial, circumferential, and longitudinal PS.
Conclusion
AR may aggravate LV stiffness in patients with T2DM, resulting in lower LV strain and function. Regurgitation degree and sex were independently correlated with LV global PS in patients with T2DM and AR.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 11 Mar 2022; 21:37
Shen LT, Jiang L, Zhu YW, Shen MT, ... Li Y, Yang ZG
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 11 Mar 2022; 21:37 | PMID: 35277181
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Abstract

Association between triglyceride glucose index and carotid artery plaque in different glucose metabolic states in patients with coronary heart disease: a RCSCD-TCM study in China.

Li Z, He Y, Wang S, Li L, ... Gao S, Yu C
Background
The triglyceride glucose (TyG) index serves as a surrogate indicator of insulin resistance. However, there is limited evidence on the association between the TyG index and carotid artery plaque (CAP) in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD).
Methods
The 10,535 CHD patients were divided according to TyG index quartiles (Q1: TyG index < 8.52; Q2: 8.52 ≤ TyG index < 8.93; Q3: 8.93 ≤ TyG index ≤ 9.40; Q4: TyG index > 9.40). The presence or absence of CAP was determined by carotid ultrasonography. Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the TyG index and CAP in CHD patients. The relationship between the TyG index and CAP in according to sex, age groups, and glucose metabolism states were also assessed.
Results
The baseline analysis showed that there were significant differences in related parameters among CHD patients divided into four groups according to the quartile of the TyG index. In the multi-adjusted modles, compared to Q1 of the TyG index, the odds ratios (OR) for Q4 of the TyG index for CAP were 1.37 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.28-1.47) in CHD patients. The association between the TyG index and CAP in female (OR: 1.35; 95% CI 1.29-1.43) was higher than that in male (OR: 1.20; 95% CI 1.13-1.27). The OR value of middle-aged (≤ 60 years old) patients (OR: 1.34; 95% CI 1.26-1.42) was higher than that in elderly (> 60 years old) patients (OR: 1.16; 95% CI 1.11-1.22). In different glucose metabolism states, the TyG index of CHD patients was significantly related to the risk of CAP, with the highest OR value observed for diabetes (OR: 1.36; 95% CI 1.26-1.46).
Conclusions
The TyG index and CAP showed a significant association in CHD patients. This association between TyG index and CAP in CHD patients is higher in female than in male, and the association in middle-aged and elderly patients is higher than that in elderly patients. In the condition of DM, the association between TyG index and carotid artery plaque in CHD patients is higher.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 10 Mar 2022; 21:38
Li Z, He Y, Wang S, Li L, ... Gao S, Yu C
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 10 Mar 2022; 21:38 | PMID: 35277186
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Abstract

Lower miR-21/ROS/HNE levels associate with lower glycemia after habit-intervention: DIAPASON study 1-year later.

La Sala L, Tagliabue E, Mrakic-Sposta S, Uccellatore AC, ... Rossi-Bernardi L, Luzi L
Background
The prevalence of prediabetes is increasing in the global population and its metabolic derangements may expose to a higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its cardiovascular burden. Lifestyle modifications might have considerable benefits on ameliorating metabolic status. Alternative biomarkers, such as circulating miR-21, has been recently discovered associated with dysglycemia. Here we evaluated, in a longitudinal cohort of dysglycemic population the relation between the circulating miR-21/ROS/HNE levels and the habit-intervention (HI) after 1 year of follow-up.
Methods
1506 subjects from DIAPASON study were screened based on the Findrisc score. Of them, 531 subjects with Findrisc ≥ 9 were selected for dysglycemia (ADA criteria) and tested for circulating miR-21, ROS and HNE levels, as damaging-axis. 207 subjects with dysglycemia were re-evaluated after 1-year of habit intervention (HI). Repeated measures tests were used to evaluate changes from baseline to 1-year of follow-up. The associations between glycemic parameters and miR-21/ROS/HNE were implemented by linear regression and logistic regression models.
Results
After HI, we observed a significant reduction of miR-21/ROS/HNE axis in dysglycemic subjects, concomitantly with ameliorating of metabolic parameters, including insulin resistance, BMI, microalbuminuria, reactive hyperemia index and skin fluorescence. Significant positive interaction was observed between miR-21 axis with glycaemic parameters after HI. Lower miR-21 levels after HI, strongly associated with a reduction of glycemic damaging-axis, in particular, within-subjects with values of 2hPG < 200 mg/dL.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrated that HI influenced the epigenetic changes related to miR-21 axis, and sustain the concept of reversibility from dysglycemia. These data support the usefulness of novel biological approaches for monitoring glycemia as well as provide a screening tool for preventive programmes.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 04 Mar 2022; 21:35
La Sala L, Tagliabue E, Mrakic-Sposta S, Uccellatore AC, ... Rossi-Bernardi L, Luzi L
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 04 Mar 2022; 21:35 | PMID: 35246121
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Abstract

The effect of empagliflozin on growth differentiation factor 15 in patients with heart failure: a randomized controlled trial (Empire HF Biomarker).

Omar M, Jensen J, Kistorp C, Højlund K, ... Schou M, Møller JE
Background
Plasma growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) biomarker levels increase in response to inflammation and tissue injury, and increased levels of GDF-15 are associated with increased risk of mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, which improve outcome in HFrEF, have been shown to increase plasma GDF-15 in diabetic patients. We aimed to investigate the effect of empagliflozin on GDF-15 in HFrEF patients.
Methods
This Empire HF Biomarker substudy was from the multicentre, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Empire HF trial that included 190 patients from June 29, 2017, to September 10, 2019. Stable ambulatory HFrEF patients with ejection fraction of ≤ 40% were randomly assigned (1:1) to empagliflozin 10 mg once daily, or matching placebo for 12 weeks. Changes from baseline to 12 weeks in plasma levels of GDF-15, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and high-sensitive troponin T (hsTNT) were assessed.
Results
A total of 187 patients who were included in this study, mean age was 64 ± 11 years; 85% male, 12% with type 2 diabetes, mean ejection fraction 29 ± 8, with no differences between the groups. Baseline median plasma GDF-15 was 1189 (918-1720) pg/mL with empagliflozin, and 1299 (952-1823) pg/mL for placebo. Empagliflozin increased plasma GDF-15 compared to placebo (adjusted between-groups treatment effect; ratio of change (1·09 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.15]: p = 0.0040). The increase in plasma GDF15 was inversely associated with a decrease in left ventricular end-systolic (R = - 0.23, p = 0.031), and end-diastolic volume (R = - 0.29, p = 0.0066). There was no change in plasma hsCRP (1.09 [95%CI, 0.86-1.38]: p = 0.48) or plasma hsTNT (1.07 [95%CI, 0.97-1.19]: p = 0.18) compared to placebo. Patients with diabetes and treated with metformin demonstrated no increase in plasma GDF-15 with empagliflozin, p for interaction = 0·01.
Conclusion
Empagliflozin increased plasma levels of GDF-15 in patients with HFrEF, with no concomitant increase in hsTNT nor hsCRP.
Trial registration
The Empire HF trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03198585.

© 2022. The Author(s).

Cardiovasc Diabetol: 26 Feb 2022; 21:34
Omar M, Jensen J, Kistorp C, Højlund K, ... Schou M, Møller JE
Cardiovasc Diabetol: 26 Feb 2022; 21:34 | PMID: 35219331
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Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.