Journal: J Cardiovasc Magn Reson

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Abstract

Myocardial iron overload by cardiovascular magnetic resonance native segmental T1 mapping: a sensitive approach that correlates with cardiac complications.

Meloni A, Martini N, Positano V, De Luca A, ... Sinagra G, Pepe A
Background
We compared cardiovascular magnetic resonance segmental native T1 against T2* values for the detection of myocardial iron overload (MIO) in thalassaemia major and we evaluated the clinical correlates of native T1 measurements.
Methods
We considered 146 patients (87 females, 38.7 ± 11.1 years) consecutively enrolled in the Extension-Myocardial Iron Overload in Thalassaemia Network. T1 and T2* values were obtained in the 16 left ventricular (LV) segments. LV function parameters were quantified by cine images. Post-contrast late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and T1 images were acquired.
Results
64.1% of segments had normal T2* and T1 values while 10.1% had pathologic T2* and T1 values. In 526 (23.0%) segments, there was a pathologic T1 and a normal T2* value while 65 (2.8%) segments had a pathologic T2* value but a normal T1 and an extracellular volume (ECV) ≥ 25% was detected in 16 of 19 segments where ECV was quantified. Global native T1 was independent from gender or LV function but decreased with increasing age. Patients with replacement myocardial fibrosis had significantly lower native global T1. Patients with cardiac complications had significantly lower native global T1.
Conclusions
The combined use of both segmental native T1 and T2* values could improve the sensitivity for detecting MIO. Native T1 is associated with cardiac complications in thalassaemia major.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 13 Jun 2021; 23:70
Meloni A, Martini N, Positano V, De Luca A, ... Sinagra G, Pepe A
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 13 Jun 2021; 23:70 | PMID: 34120634
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Abstract

Identification of high risk clinical and imaging features for intracranial artery dissection using high-resolution cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Shi Z, Tian X, Tian B, Meddings Z, ... Teng Z, Lu J
Background
Intracranial artery dissection (IAD) often causes headache and cerebral vascular ischemic events. The imaging characteristics of IAD remain unclear. This study aims to characterize the appearance of culprit and non-culprit IAD using high-resolution cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (hrCMR) and quantify the incremental value of hrCMR in identifying higher risk lesions.
Methods
Imaging data from patients who underwent intervention examination or treatment using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) and hrCMR using a 3 T CMR system within 30 days after the onset of neurological symptoms were collected. The CMR protocol included diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), black blood T1-, T2- and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted sequences. Lesions were classified as culprit and non-culprit according to imaging findings and patient clinical presentations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the difference between culprit and non-culprit lesions and complementary value of hrCMR in identifying higher risk lesions.
Results
In total, 75 patients were included in this study. According to the morphology, lesions could be classified into five types: Type I, classical dissection (n = 50); Type II, fusiform aneurysm (n = 1); Type III, long dissected aneurysm (n = 3); Type IV, dolichoectatic dissecting aneurysm (n = 9) and Type V, saccular aneurysm (n = 12). Regression analyses showed that age and hypertension were both associated with culprit lesions (age: OR, 0.83; 95% CI 0.75-0.92; p < 0.001 and hypertension: OR, 66.62; 95% CI 5.91-751.11; p = 0.001). Hematoma identified by hrCMR was significantly associated with culprit lesions (OR, 16.80; 95% CI 1.01-280.81; p = 0.037). Moreover, 17 cases (16 lesions were judged to be culprit) were diagnosed as IAD but not visible in DSA and 15 were Type I lesion.
Conclusion
hrCMR is helpful in visualizing and characterizing IAD. It provides a significant complementary value over DSA for the diagnosis of IAD.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 13 Jun 2021; 23:74
Shi Z, Tian X, Tian B, Meddings Z, ... Teng Z, Lu J
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 13 Jun 2021; 23:74 | PMID: 34120627
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Abstract

Regional adiposity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and left ventricular strain: an analysis from the Dallas Heart Study.

Kondamudi N, Thangada N, Patel KV, Ayers C, ... Neeland IJ, Pandey A
Background
Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), high body mass index, and excess visceral adiposity are each associated with impairment in left ventricular (LV) peak circumferential strain (Ecc), an intermediate phenotype that precedes the development of clinical heart failure (HF). However, the association of regional fat distribution and CRF with Ecc independent of each other and other potential confounders is not known.
Methods
Participants from the Dallas Heart Study Phase 2 who underwent dual energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment of regional fat distribution, CRF assessment by submaximal treadmill test, and Ecc quantification by tissue-tagged cardiovascular magnetic resonance were included in the analysis. The cross-sectional associations of measures of regional adiposity, namely visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), and lower-body fat (LBF) with Ecc after adjustment for CRF and other potential confounders (independent variables) were assessed using multivariable linear regression analysis.
Results
The study included 1089 participants (55% female, 39% black). In the unadjusted analysis, higher VAT was associated with greater impairment in Ecc. After adjustment for baseline risk factors, CRF, parameters of LV structure and function, and other fat depots such as SAT and LBF, higher VAT remained associated with greater impairment in Ecc (β: 0.19, P = 0.002). SAT and LBF were not significantly associated with Ecc, however, CRF remained associated with Ecc in the fully adjusted model including all fat depots (β: - 0.15, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
VAT and CRF are each independently associated with impairment in Ecc, suggesting that higher VAT burden and low CRF mediate pathological cardiac remodeling through distinct mechanisms.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 13 Jun 2021; 23:78
Kondamudi N, Thangada N, Patel KV, Ayers C, ... Neeland IJ, Pandey A
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 13 Jun 2021; 23:78 | PMID: 34120624
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Abstract

Prognostic value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance left ventricular volumetry and geometry in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

Urzua Fresno CM, Folador L, Shalmon T, Hamad FMD, ... Yan AT, Deva DP
Background
Current indications for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation for sudden cardiac death prevention rely primarily on left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF). Currently, two different contouring methods by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) are used for LVEF calculation. We evaluated the comparative prognostic value of these two methods in the ICD population, and if measures of LV geometry added predictive value.
Methods
In this retrospective, 2-center observational cohort study, patients underwent CMR prior to ICD implantation for primary or secondary prevention from January 2005 to December 2018. Two readers, blinded to all clinical and outcome data assessed CMR studies by: (a) including the LV trabeculae and papillary muscles (TPM) (trabeculated endocardial contours), and (b) excluding LV TPM (rounded endocardial contours) from the total LV mass for calculation of LVEF, LV volumes and mass. LV sphericity and sphere-volume indices were also calculated. The primary outcome was a composite of appropriate ICD shocks or death.
Results
Of the 372 consecutive eligible patients, 129 patients (34.7%) had appropriate ICD shock, and 65 (17.5%) died over a median duration follow-up of 61 months (IQR 38-103). LVEF was higher when including TPM versus excluding TPM (36% vs. 31%, p < 0.001). The rate of appropriate ICD shock or all-cause death was higher among patients with lower LVEF both including and excluding TPM (p for trend = 0.019 and 0.004, respectively). In multivariable models adjusting for age, primary prevention, ischemic heart disease and late gadolinium enhancement, both LVEF (HR per 10% including TPM 0.814 [95%CI 0.688-0.962] p = 0.016, vs. HR per 10% excluding TPM 0.780 [95%CI 0.639-0.951] p = 0.014) and LV mass index (HR per 10 g/m2 including TPM 1.099 [95%CI 1.027-1.175] p = 0.006; HR per 10 g/m2 excluding TPM 1.126 [95%CI 1.032-1.228] p = 0.008) had independent prognostic value. Higher LV end-systolic volumes and LV sphericity were significantly associated with increased mortality but showed no added prognostic value.
Conclusion
Both CMR post-processing methods showed similar prognostic value and can be used for LVEF assessment. LVEF and indexed LV mass are independent predictors for appropriate ICD shocks and all-cause mortality in the ICD population.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jun 2021; 23:72
Urzua Fresno CM, Folador L, Shalmon T, Hamad FMD, ... Yan AT, Deva DP
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jun 2021; 23:72 | PMID: 34108003
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Abstract

First-phase ejection fraction by cardiovascular magnetic resonance predicts outcomes in aortic stenosis.

Gu H, Bing R, Chin C, Fang L, ... Dweck MR, Chowienczyk P
Background
First-phase ejection fraction (EF1; the ejection fraction measured during active systole up to the time of maximal aortic flow) measured by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is a powerful predictor of outcomes in patients with aortic stenosis. We aimed to assess whether cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) might provide more precise measurements of EF1 than TTE and to examine the correlation of CMR EF1 with measures of fibrosis.
Methods
In 141 patients with at least mild aortic stenosis, we measured CMR EF1 from a short-axis 3D stack and compared its variability with TTE EF1, and its associations with myocardial fibrosis and clinical outcome (aortic valve replacement (AVR) or death).
Results
Intra- and inter-observer variation of CMR EF1 (standard deviations of differences within and between observers of 2.3% and 2.5% units respectively) was approximately 50% that of TTE EF1. CMR EF1 was strongly predictive of AVR or death. On multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, the hazard ratio for CMR EF1 was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.89-0.97, p = 0.001) per % change in EF1 and, apart from aortic valve gradient, CMR EF1 was the only imaging or biochemical measure independently predictive of outcome. Indexed extracellular volume was associated with AVR or death, but not after adjusting for EF1.
Conclusions
EF1 is a simple robust marker of early left ventricular impairment that can be precisely measured by CMR and predicts outcome in aortic stenosis. Its measurement by CMR is more reproducible than that by TTE and may facilitate left ventricular structure-function analysis.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jun 2021; 23:73
Gu H, Bing R, Chin C, Fang L, ... Dweck MR, Chowienczyk P
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jun 2021; 23:73 | PMID: 34107986
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Abstract

T2-mapping increase is the prevalent imaging biomarker of myocardial involvement in active COVID-19: a Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance study.

Galea N, Marchitelli L, Pambianchi G, Catapano F, ... Catalano C, Francone M
Background
Early detection of myocardial involvement can be relevant in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients to timely target symptomatic treatment and decrease the occurrence of the cardiac sequelae of the infection. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical value of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in characterizing myocardial damage in active COVID-19 patients, through the correlation between qualitative and quantitative imaging biomarkers with clinical and laboratory evidence of myocardial injury.
Methods
In this retrospective observational cohort study, we enrolled 27 patients with diagnosis of active COVID-19 and suspected cardiac involvement, referred to our institution for CMR between March 2020 and January 2021. Clinical and laboratory characteristics, including high sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT), and CMR imaging data were obtained. Relationships between CMR parameters, clinical and laboratory findings were explored. Comparisons were made with age-, sex- and risk factor-matched control group of 27 individuals, including healthy controls and patients without other signs or history of myocardial disease, who underwent CMR examination between January 2020 and January 2021.
Results
The median (IQR) time interval between COVID-19 diagnosis and CMR examination was 20 (13.5-31.5) days. Hs-cTnT values were collected within 24 h prior to CMR and resulted abnormally increased in 18 patients (66.6%). A total of 20 cases (74%) presented tissue signal abnormalities, including increased myocardial native T1 (n = 11), myocardial T2 (n = 14) and extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (n = 10), late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) (n = 12) or pericardial enhancement (n = 2). A CMR diagnosis of myocarditis was established in 9 (33.3%), pericarditis in 2 (7.4%) and myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries in 3 (11.11%) patients. T2 mapping values showed a moderate positive linear correlation with Hs-cTnT (r = 0.58; p = 0.002). A high degree positive linear correlation between ECV and Hs-cTnT was also found (r 0.77; p < 0.001).
Conclusions
CMR allows in vivo recognition and characterization of myocardial damage in a cohort of selected COVID-19 individuals by means of a multiparametric scanning protocol including conventional imaging and T1-T2 mapping sequences. Abnormal T2 mapping was the most commonly abnormality observed in our cohort and positively correlated with hs-cTnT values, reflecting the predominant edematous changes characterizing the active phase of disease.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jun 2021; 23:68
Galea N, Marchitelli L, Pambianchi G, Catapano F, ... Catalano C, Francone M
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jun 2021; 23:68 | PMID: 34107985
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Abstract

Demographic, multi-morbidity and genetic impact on myocardial involvement and its recovery from COVID-19: protocol design of COVID-HEART-a UK, multicentre, observational study.

Gorecka M, McCann GP, Berry C, Ferreira VM, ... Greenwood JP, COVID-HEART investigators
Background
Although coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is primarily a respiratory illness, myocardial injury is increasingly reported and associated with adverse outcomes. However, the pathophysiology, extent of myocardial injury and clinical significance remains unclear.
Methods
COVID-HEART is a UK, multicentre, prospective, observational, longitudinal cohort study of patients with confirmed COVID-19 and elevated troponin (sex-specific > 99th centile). Baseline assessment will be whilst recovering in-hospital or recently discharged, and include cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging, quality of life (QoL) assessments, electrocardiogram (ECG), serum biomarkers and genetics. Assessment at 6-months includes repeat CMR, QoL assessments and 6-min walk test (6MWT). The CMR protocol includes cine imaging, T1/T2 mapping, aortic distensibility, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and adenosine stress myocardial perfusion imaging in selected patients. The main objectives of the study are to: (1) characterise the extent and nature of myocardial involvement in COVID-19 patients with an elevated troponin, (2) assess how cardiac involvement and clinical outcome associate with recognised risk factors for mortality (age, sex, ethnicity and comorbidities) and genetic factors, (3) evaluate if differences in myocardial recovery at 6 months are dependent on demographics, genetics and comorbidities, (4) understand the impact of recovery status at 6 months on patient-reported QoL and functional capacity.
Discussion
COVID-HEART will provide detailed characterisation of cardiac involvement, and its repair and recovery in relation to comorbidity, genetics, patient-reported QoL measures and functional capacity.
Clinical trial registration
ISRCTN 58667920. Registered 04 August 2020.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jun 2021; 23:77
Gorecka M, McCann GP, Berry C, Ferreira VM, ... Greenwood JP, COVID-HEART investigators
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jun 2021; 23:77 | PMID: 34112195
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Abstract

The implications of magnetic resonance angiography artifacts caused by different types of intracranial flow diverters.

Halitcan B, Bige S, Sinan B, Ilkay A, ... Fatih A, Anil A
Background
Serial cerebral angiographic imaging is necessary to ensure cerebral aneurysm occlusion after flow diverter placement. Time-of-flight (TOF)-magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is used for this purpose due to its lack of radiation, contrast media and complications. The comparative diagnostic yield of TOF-MRA for different flow diverters has not been previously analyzed.
Purpose
To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of TOF-MRA in cerebral aneurysms treated w divertersith different flow diverters.
Materials and methods
Flow-diverted patients whose cerebral follow-up MRA and digital subtraction angiograms (DSA) were obtained within 6 weeks were retrospectively identified. The DSA (as gold standard) and MRA images of these patients were compared by two readers (blinded to both patient data and endovascular procedure data) for residual aneurysms and the status of the parent artery for each type of flow diverter. In a second group of patients, magnetic susceptibility artifacts were manually measured and compared for different FDs.
Results
Seventy-six patients (85 aneurysms) were included in group one, and 86 patients (95 aneurysms) were included in group 2. TOF-MRA and DSA showed almost perfect agreement for residual aneurysms (κ = 0.88, p < 0.001) (positive predictive value (PPV) = 1.00, specificity = 1.00, negative predictive value (NPV) = 0.89, sensitivity = 0.89). Intermodality agreement (κ = 0.97 vs. κ = 0.74, p < 0.005) and sensitivity (0.97 vs. 0.77, NPV: 0.96 vs. 0.77) were highest with nitinol stents. MRA and DSA showed no agreement for occluded or stenotic parent vessels (κ = 0.13, p = 0.015, specificity = 0.44, NPV = 1.00, sensitivity = 1.00). Specificity was lower in chromium-cobalt based FDs than in nitinol devices (specificity = 0.08 vs. 0.60). Chromium-cobalt stents generated the largest artifacts (p < 0.005). The size of the device-related artifact, in millimeters, increased in respective order, for the Silk, Derivo, Pipeline and Surpass devices.
Conclusion
Unlike DSA, TOF-MRA is susceptible to dissimilarities between flow diverters. MRA is not well-suited for research studies comparing different flow diverters. Nitinol FDs appear to be advantageous for TOF-MRA follow-up so as not to miss small aneurysm remnants or clinically relevant parent artery stenosis.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 06 Jun 2021; 23:69
Halitcan B, Bige S, Sinan B, Ilkay A, ... Fatih A, Anil A
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 06 Jun 2021; 23:69 | PMID: 34092251
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Abstract

Cardiac biomarkers in chronic kidney disease are independently associated with myocardial edema and diffuse fibrosis by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Arcari L, Engel J, Freiwald T, Zhou H, ... Nagel E, Puntmann VO
Background
High sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and NT-pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) are often elevated in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with both cardiovascular remodeling and outcome. Relationship between these biomarkers and quantitative imaging measures of myocardial fibrosis and edema by T1 and T2 mapping remains unknown.
Methods
Consecutive patients with established CKD and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 59 ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 276) were compared to age/sex matched patients with eGFR ≥ 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 (n = 242) and healthy controls (n = 38). Comprehensive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) with native T1 and T2 mapping, myocardial ischemia and scar imaging was performed with venous sampling immediately prior to CMR.
Results
Patients with CKD showed significant cardiac remodeling in comparison with both healthy individuals and non-CKD patients, including a stepwise increase of native T1 and T2 (p < 0.001 between all CKD stages). Native T1 and T2 were the sole imaging markers independently associated with worsening CKD in patients [B = 0.125 (95% CI 0.022-0.235) and B = 0.272 (95% CI 0.164-0.374) with p = 0.019 and < 0.001 respectively]. At univariable analysis, both hs-cTnT and NT-pro BNP significantly correlated with native T1 and T2 in groups with eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 and eGFR < 29 ml/min/1.73 m2 groups, with associations being stronger at lower eGFR (NT-pro BNP (log transformed, lg10): native T1 r = 0.43 and r = 0.57, native T2 r = 0.39 and r = 0.48 respectively; log-transformed hs-cTnT(lg10): native T1 r = 0.23 and r = 0.43, native T2 r = 0.38 and r = 0.58 respectively, p < 0.001 for all, p < 0.05 for interaction). On multivariable analyses, we found independent associations of native T1 with NT-pro BNP [(B = 0.308 (95% CI 0.129-0.407), p < 0.001 and B = 0.334 (95% CI 0.154-0.660), p = 0.002 for eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 and eGFR < 29 ml/min/1.73 m2, respectively] and of T2 with hs-cTnT [B = 0.417 (95% CI 0.219-0.650), p < 0.001 for eGFR < 29 ml/min/1.73 m2].
Conclusions
We demonstrate independent associations between cardiac biomarkers with imaging markers of interstitial expansion, which are CKD-group specific. Our findings indicate the role of diffuse non-ischemic tissue processes, including excess of myocardial fluid in addition to diffuse fibrosis in CKD-related adverse remodeling.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 06 Jun 2021; 23:71
Arcari L, Engel J, Freiwald T, Zhou H, ... Nagel E, Puntmann VO
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 06 Jun 2021; 23:71 | PMID: 34092229
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Abstract

Patients who do not fulfill criteria for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy but have unexplained giant T-wave inversion: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance mid-term follow-up study.

Li S, He J, Xu J, Zhuang B, ... Zhao S, Lu M
Background
Patients who have unexplained giant T-wave inversions but do not meet criteria for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (left ventricular (LV) wall thickness < 1.5 cm) demonstrate LV apical morphological features that differ from healthy subjects. Currently, it remains unknown how the abnormal LV apical morphology in this patient population changes over time. The purpose of this study was to investigate LV morphological and functional changes in these patients using a mid-term cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) exam.
Methods
Seventy-one patients with unexplained giant T-wave inversion who did not fulfill HCM criteria were studied. The mean interval time of the follow-up CMR was 24.4 ± 8.3 months. The LV wall thickness was measured in each LV segment according to the American Heart Association 17-segmented model. The apical angle (ApA) was also measured. A receiver operating curve (ROC) was used to identify the predictive values of the CMR variables.
Results
Of 71 patients, 16 (22.5%) progressed to typical apical HCM, while 55 (77.5%) did not progress to HCM criteria. The mean apical wall thickness was significantly different between the two groups at both baseline and follow-up, with the apical HCM group having greater wall thickness at both time points (all p < 0.001). There was a significant difference between the two groups in the change of ApA (- 1.5 ± 2.7°/yr vs. - 0.7 ± 2.0°/yr, p < 0.001) over time. The combination of mean apical wall thickness and ApA proved to be the best predictor for fulfilling criteria for apical HCM with a threshold value of 8.1 mm and 90° (sensitivity 93.8%, specificity 85.5%).
Conclusions
CMR metrics identify predictors for progression to HCM in patients with unexplained giant T-wave inversion.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jun 2021; 23:67
Li S, He J, Xu J, Zhuang B, ... Zhao S, Lu M
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jun 2021; 23:67 | PMID: 34078401
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Abstract

Pulmonary arterial banding in mice may be a suitable model for studies on ventricular mechanics in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Dufva MJ, Boehm M, Ichimura K, Truong U, ... Spiekerkoetter E, Kheyfets VO
Background
The role of interventricular mechanics in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and its relation to right ventricular (RV) dysfunction has been largely overlooked. Here, we characterize the impact of maintained pressure overload in the RV-pulmonary artery (PA) axis on myocardial strain and left ventricular (LV) mechanics in pediatric PAH patients in comparison to a preclinical PA-banding (PAB) mouse model. We hypothesize that the PAB mouse model mimics important aspects of interventricular mechanics of pediatric PAH and may be beneficial as a surrogate model for some longitudinal and interventional studies not possible in children.
Methods
Balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images of 18 PAH and 17 healthy (control) pediatric subjects were retrospectively analyzed using CMR feature-tracking (FT) software to compute measurements of myocardial strain. Furthermore, myocardial tagged-CMR images were also analyzed for each subject using harmonic phase flow analysis to derive LV torsion rate. Within 48 h of CMR, PAH patients underwent right heart catheterization (RHC) for measurement of PA/RV pressures, and to compute RV end-systolic elastance (RV_Ees, a measure of load-independent contractility). Surgical PAB was performed on mice to induce RV pressure overload and myocardial remodeling. bSSFP-CMR, tagged CMR, and intra-cardiac catheterization were performed on 12 PAB and 9 control mice (Sham) 7 weeks after surgery with identical post-processing as in the aforementioned patient studies. RV_Ees was assessed via the single beat method.
Results
LV torsion rate was significantly reduced under hypertensive conditions in both PAB mice (p = 0.004) and pediatric PAH patients (p < 0.001). This decrease in LV torsion rate correlated significantly with a decrease in RV_Ees in PAB (r = 0.91, p = 0.05) and PAH subjects (r = 0.51, p = 0.04). In order to compare combined metrics of LV torsion rate and strain parameters principal component analysis (PCA) was used. PCA revealed grouping of PAH patients with PAB mice and control subjects with Sham mice. Similar to LV torsion rate, LV global peak circumferential, radial, and longitudinal strain were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced under hypertensive conditions in both PAB mice and children with PAH.
Conclusions
The PAB mouse model resembles PAH-associated myocardial mechanics and may provide a potential model to study mechanisms of RV/LV interdependency.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jun 2021; 23:66
Dufva MJ, Boehm M, Ichimura K, Truong U, ... Spiekerkoetter E, Kheyfets VO
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jun 2021; 23:66 | PMID: 34078382
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Abstract

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance detects microvascular dysfunction in a mouse model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Ku MC, Kober F, Lai YC, Pohlmann A, ... Carrier L, Niendorf T
Background
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) related myocardial vascular remodelling may lead to the reduction of myocardial blood supply and a subsequent progressive loss of cardiac function. This process has been difficult to observe and thus their connection remains unclear. Here we used non-invasive myocardial blood flow sensitive CMR to show an impairment of resting myocardial perfusion in a mouse model of naturally occurring HCM.
Methods
We used a mouse model (DBA/2 J; D2 mouse strain) that spontaneously carries variants in the two most susceptible HCM genes-Mybpc3 and Myh7 and bears the key features of human HCM. The C57BL/6 J (B6) was used as a reference strain. Mice with either B6 or D2 backgrounds (male: n = 4, female: n = 4) underwent cine-CMR for functional assessment at 9.4 T. Left ventricular (LV) wall thickness was measured in end diastolic phase by cine-CMR. Quantitative myocardial perfusion maps (male: n = 5, female: n = 5 in each group) were acquired from arterial spin labelling (cine ASL-CMR) at rest. Myocardial perfusion values were measured by delineating different regions of interest based on the LV segmentation model in the mid ventricle of the LV myocardium. Directly after the CMR, the mouse hearts were removed for histological assessments to confirm the incidence of myocardial interstitial fibrosis (n = 8 in each group) and small vessel remodelling such as vessel density (n = 6 in each group) and perivascular fibrosis (n = 8 in each group).
Results
LV hypertrophy was more pronounced in D2 than in B6 mice (male: D2 LV wall thickness = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm vs B6 LV wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.0 mm, p < 0.001; female: D2 LV wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.1 mm vs B6 LV wall thickness = 0.8 ± 0.1 mm, p < 0.01). The resting global myocardial perfusion (myocardial blood flow; MBF) was lower in D2 than in B6 mice (end-diastole: D2 MBFglobal = 7.5 ± 0.6 vs B6 MBFglobal = 9.3 ± 1.6 ml/g/min, p < 0.05; end-systole: D2 MBFglobal = 6.6 ± 0.8 vs B6 MBFglobal = 8.2 ± 2.6 ml/g/min, p < 0.01). This myocardial microvascular dysfunction was observed and associated with a reduction in regional MBF, mainly in the interventricular septal and inferior areas of the myocardium. Immunofluorescence revealed a lower number of vessel densities in D2 than in B6 (D2 capillary = 31.0 ± 3.8% vs B6 capillary = 40.7 ± 4.6%, p < 0.05). Myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF) was significantly higher in D2 LV versus B6 LV mice (D2 CVF = 3.7 ± 1.4% vs B6 CVF = 1.7 ± 0.7%, p < 0.01). Furthermore, a higher ratio of perivascular fibrosis (PFR) was found in D2 than in B6 mice (D2 PFR = 2.3 ± 1.0%, B6 PFR = 0.8 ± 0.4%, p < 0.01).
Conclusions
Our work describes an imaging marker using cine ASL-CMR with a potential to monitor vascular and myocardial remodelling in HCM.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 30 May 2021; 23:63
Ku MC, Kober F, Lai YC, Pohlmann A, ... Carrier L, Niendorf T
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 30 May 2021; 23:63 | PMID: 34053450
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Impact:
Abstract

Serial T1 mapping of right ventricle in pulmonary hypertension: comparison with histology in an animal study.

Kim PK, Hong YJ, Shim HS, Im DJ, ... Choi BW, Lee HJ
Background
Right ventricular (RV) free wall fibrosis is an important component of adverse remodeling with RV dysfunction in pulmonary hypertension (PH). However, no previous reports have compared cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) findings and histological analysis for RV free wall fibrosis in PH. We aimed to assess the feasibility of CMR T1 mapping with extracellular volume fraction (ECV) for evaluating the progression of RV free wall fibrosis in PH, and compared imaging findings to histological collagen density through an animal study.
Methods
Among 42 6-week-old Wistar male rats, 30 were classified according to disease duration (baseline before monocrotaline injection, and 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks after injection) and 12 were used to control for aging (4 and 8 weeks after the baseline). We obtained pre and post-contrast T1 maps for native T1 and ECV of RV and left ventricular (LV) free wall for six animals in each disease-duration group. Collagen density of RV free wall was calculated with Masson\'s trichrome staining. The Kruskall-Wallis test was performed to compare the groups. Native T1 and ECV to collagen density were analyzed with Spearman\'s correlation.
Results
The mean values of native T1, ECV and collagen density of the RV free wall at baseline were 1541 ± 33 ms, 17.2 ± 1.3%, and 4.7 ± 0.5%, respectively. The values of RV free wall did not differ according to aging (P = 0.244, 0.504 and 0.331, respectively). However, the values significantly increased according to disease duration (P < 0.001 for all). Significant correlations were observed between native T1 and collagen density (r = 0.770, P < 0.001), and between ECV and collagen density for the RV free wall (r = 0.815, P < 0.001) in PH. However, there was no significant difference in native T1 and ECV values for the LV free wall according to the disease duration from the baseline (P = 0.349 and 0.240, respectively).
Conclusions
We observed significantly increased values for native T1 and ECV of the RV free wall without significant increase of the LV free wall according to the disease duration of PH, and findings were well correlated with histological collagen density.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 26 May 2021; 23:64
Kim PK, Hong YJ, Shim HS, Im DJ, ... Choi BW, Lee HJ
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 26 May 2021; 23:64 | PMID: 34039372
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Impact:
Abstract

2D cine vs. 3D self-navigated free-breathing high-resolution whole heart cardiovascular magnetic resonance for aortic root measurements in congenital heart disease.

Nussbaumer C, Bouchardy J, Blanche C, Piccini D, ... Schwitter J, Rutz T
Background
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is considered the method of choice for evaluation of aortic root dilatation in congenital heart disease. Usually, a cross-sectional 2D cine stack is acquired perpendicular to the vessel\'s axis. However, this method requires a considerable patient collaboration and precise planning of image planes. The present study compares a recently introduced 3D self-navigated free-breathing high-resolution whole heart CMR sequence (3D self nav) allowing a multiplanar retrospective reconstruction of the aortic root as an alternative to the 2D cine technique for determination of aortic root diameters.
Methods
A total of 6 cusp-commissure (CuCo) and cusp-cusp (CuCu) enddiastolic diameters were measured by two observers on 2D cine and 3D self nav cross-sectional planes of the aortic root acquired on a 1.5 T CMR scanner. Asymmetry of the aortic root was evaluated by the ratio of the minimal to the maximum 3D self nav CuCu diameter. CuCu diameters were compared to standard transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) aortic root diameters.
Results
Sixty-five exams in 58 patients (32 ± 15 years) were included. Typically, 2D cine and 3D self nav spatial resolution was 1.1-1.52 × 4.5-7 mm and 0.9-1.153 mm, respectively. 3D self nav yielded larger maximum diameters than 2D cine: CuCo 37.2 ± 6.4 vs. 36.2 ± 7.0 mm (p = 0.006), CuCu 39.7 ± 6.3 vs. 38.5 ± 6.5 mm (p < 0.001). CuCu diameters were significantly larger (2.3-3.9 mm, p < 0.001) than CuCo and TTE diameters on both 2D cine and 3D self nav. Intra- and interobserver variabilities were excellent for both techniques with bias of -0.5 to 1.0 mm. Intra-observer variability of the more experienced observer was better for 3D self nav (F-test p < 0.05). Aortic root asymmetry was more pronounced in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV: 0.73 (interquartile (IQ) 0.69; 0.78) vs. 0.93 (IQ 0.9; 0.96), p < 0.001), which was associated to a larger difference of maximum CuCu to TTE diameters: 5.5 ± 3.3 vs. 3.3 ± 3.8 mm, p = 0.033.
Conclusion
Both, the 3D self nav and 2D cine CMR techniques allow reliable determination of aortic root diameters. However, we propose to privilege the 3D self nav technique and measurement of CuCu diameters to avoid underestimation of the maximum diameter, particularly in patients with asymmetric aortic roots and/or BAV.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 26 May 2021; 23:65
Nussbaumer C, Bouchardy J, Blanche C, Piccini D, ... Schwitter J, Rutz T
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 26 May 2021; 23:65 | PMID: 34039356
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Impact:
Abstract

3D whole-heart grey-blood late gadolinium enhancement cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging.

Milotta G, Munoz C, Kunze KP, Neji R, ... Prieto C, Botnar RM
Purpose
To develop a free-breathing whole-heart isotropic-resolution 3D late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequence with Dixon-encoding, which provides co-registered 3D grey-blood phase-sensitive inversion-recovery (PSIR) and complementary 3D fat volumes in a single scan of < 7 min.
Methods
A free-breathing 3D PSIR LGE sequence with dual-echo Dixon readout with a variable density Cartesian trajectory with acceleration factor of 3 is proposed. Image navigators are acquired to correct both inversion recovery (IR)-prepared and reference volumes for 2D translational respiratory motion, enabling motion compensated PSIR reconstruction with 100% respiratory scan efficiency. An intermediate PSIR reconstruction is performed between the in-phase echoes to estimate the signal polarity which is subsequently applied to the IR-prepared water volume to generate a water grey-blood PSIR image. The IR-prepared water volume is obtained using a water/fat separation algorithm from the corresponding dual-echo readout. The complementary fat-volume is obtained after water/fat separation of the reference volume. Ten patients (6 with myocardial scar) were scanned with the proposed water/fat grey-blood 3D PSIR LGE sequence at 1.5 T and compared to breath-held grey-blood 2D LGE sequence in terms of contrast ratio (CR), contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), scar depiction, scar transmurality, scar mass and image quality.
Results
Comparable CRs (p = 0.98, 0.40 and 0.83) and CNRs (p = 0.29, 0.40 and 0.26) for blood-myocardium, scar-myocardium and scar-blood respectively were obtained with the proposed free-breathing 3D water/fat LGE and 2D clinical LGE scan. Excellent agreement for scar detection, scar transmurality, scar mass (bias = 0.29%) and image quality scores (from 1: non-diagnostic to 4: excellent) of 3.8 ± 0.42 and 3.6 ± 0.69 (p > 0.99) were obtained with the 2D and 3D PSIR LGE approaches with comparable total acquisition time (p = 0.29). Similar agreement in intra and inter-observer variability were obtained for the 2D and 3D acquisition respectively.
Conclusion
The proposed approach enabled the acquisition of free-breathing motion-compensated isotropic-resolution 3D grey-blood PSIR LGE and fat volumes. The proposed approach showed good agreement with conventional 2D LGE in terms of CR, scar depiction and scan time, while enabling free-breathing acquisition, whole-heart coverage, reformatting in arbitrary views and visualization of both water and fat information.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 23 May 2021; 23:62
Milotta G, Munoz C, Kunze KP, Neji R, ... Prieto C, Botnar RM
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 23 May 2021; 23:62 | PMID: 34024276
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Impact:
Abstract

Impact of pulmonary valve replacement on left ventricular rotational mechanics in repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

Harrington JK, Ghelani S, Thatte N, Valente AM, ... Sleeper LA, Powell AJ
Background
In repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF), abnormal left ventricular (LV) rotational mechanics are associated with adverse clinical outcomes. We performed a comprehensive analysis of LV rotational mechanics in rTOF patients using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) prior to and following surgical pulmonary valve replacement (PVR).
Methods
In this single center retrospective study, we identified rTOF patients who (1) had both a CMR ≤ 1 year before PVR and ≤ 5 years after PVR, (2) had no other intervening procedure between CMRs, (3) had a body surface area > 1.0 m2 at CMR, and (4) had images suitable for feature tracking analysis. These subjects were matched to healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects. CMR feature tracking analysis was performed on a ventricular short-axis stack of balanced steady-state free precession images. Measurements included LV basal and apical rotation, twist, torsion, peak systolic rates of rotation and torsion, and timing of events. Associations with LV torsion were assessed.
Results
A total of 60 rTOF patients (23.6 ± 7.9 years, 52% male) and 30 healthy control subjects (20.8 ± 3.1 years, 50% male) were included. Compared with healthy controls, rTOF patients had lower apical and basal rotation, twist, torsion, and systolic rotation rates, and these parameters peaked earlier in systole. The only parameters that were correlated with LV torsion were right ventricular (RV) end-systolic volume (r = - 0.28, p = 0.029) and RV ejection fraction (r = 0.26, p = 0.044). At a median of 1.0 year (IQR 0.5-1.7) following PVR, there was no significant change in LV rotational parameters versus pre-PVR despite reductions in RV volumes, RV mass, pulmonary regurgitation, and RV outflow tract obstruction.
Conclusion
In this comprehensive study of CMR-derived LV rotational mechanics in rTOF patients, rotation, twist, and torsion were diminished compared to controls and did not improve at a median of 1 year after PVR despite favorable RV remodeling.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 23 May 2021; 23:61
Harrington JK, Ghelani S, Thatte N, Valente AM, ... Sleeper LA, Powell AJ
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 23 May 2021; 23:61 | PMID: 34024274
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Impact:
Abstract

Comparing cardiovascular magnetic resonance strain software packages by their abilities to discriminate outcomes in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Zhang Y, Mui D, Chirinos JA, Zamani P, ... Chen Y, Han Y
Background
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) myocardial strain analysis using feature tracking (FT) is an increasingly popular method to assess cardiac function. However, different software packages produce different strain values from the same images and there is little guidance regarding which software package would be the best to use. We explored a framework under which different software packages could be compared and used based on their abilities to differentiate disease from health and differentiate disease severity based on outcome.
Method
To illustrate this concept, we compared 4-chamber left ventricular (LV) peak longitudinal strain (GLS) analyzed from retrospective electrocardiogram gated cine imaging performed on 1.5 T CMR scanners using three CMR post-processing software packages in their abilities to discriminate a group of 45 patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) from 26 controls without cardiovascular disease and to discriminate disease severity based on outcomes. The three different post-processing software used were SuiteHeart, cvi42, and DRA-Trufistrain.
Results
All three software packages were able to distinguish HFpEF patients from controls. 4-chamber peak GLS by SuiteHeart was shown to be a better discriminator of adverse outcomes in HFpEF patients than 4-chamber GLS derived from cvi42 or DRA-Trufistrain.
Conclusion
We illustrated a framework to compare feature tracking GLS derived from different post-processing software packages. Publicly available imaging data sets with outcomes would be important to validate the growing number of CMR-FT software packages.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 19 May 2021; 23:55
Zhang Y, Mui D, Chirinos JA, Zamani P, ... Chen Y, Han Y
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 19 May 2021; 23:55 | PMID: 34011382
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Impact:
Abstract

Four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance in tetralogy of Fallot: a systematic review.

Elsayed A, Gilbert K, Scadeng M, Cowan BR, Pushparajah K, Young AA
Background
Patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) often develop cardiovascular dysfunction and require regular imaging to evaluate deterioration and time interventions such as pulmonary valve replacement. Four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (4D flow CMR) enables detailed assessment of flow characteristics in all chambers and great vessels. We performed a systematic review of intra-cardiac 4D flow applications in rTOF patients, to examine clinical utility and highlight optimal methods for evaluating rTOF patients.
Methods
A comprehensive literature search was undertaken in March 2020 on Google Scholar and Scopus. A modified version of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) tool was used to assess and score the applicability of each study. Important clinical outcomes were assessed including similarities and differences.
Results
Of the 635 articles identified, 26 studies met eligibility for systematic review. None of these were below 59% applicability on the modified CASP score. Studies could be broadly classified into four groups: (i) pilot studies, (ii) development of new acquisition methods, (iii) validation and (vi) identification of novel flow features. Quantitative comparison with other modalities included 2D phase contrast CMR (13 studies) and echocardiography (4 studies). The 4D flow study applications included stroke volume (18/26;69%), regurgitant fraction (16/26;62%), relative branch pulmonary artery flow(4/26;15%), systolic peak velocity (9/26;35%), systemic/pulmonary total flow ratio (6/26;23%), end diastolic and end systolic volume (5/26;19%), kinetic energy (5/26;19%) and vorticity (2/26;8%).
Conclusions
4D flow CMR shows potential in rTOF assessment, particularly in retrospective valve tracking for flow evaluation, velocity profiling, intra-cardiac kinetic energy quantification, and vortex visualization. Protocols should be targeted to pathology. Prospective, randomized, multi-centered studies are required to validate these new characteristics and establish their clinical use.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 19 May 2021; 23:59
Elsayed A, Gilbert K, Scadeng M, Cowan BR, Pushparajah K, Young AA
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 19 May 2021; 23:59 | PMID: 34011372
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Impact:
Abstract

Left ventricular fibro-fatty replacement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: prevalence, patterns, and association with arrhythmias.

Zghaib T, Te Riele ASJM, James CA, Rastegar N, ... Kamel IR, Zimmerman SL
Background
Left ventricular (LV) fibrofatty infiltration in arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) has been reported, however, detailed cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) characteristics and association with outcomes are uncertain. We aim to describe LV findings on CMR in ARVD/C patients and their relationship with arrhythmic outcomes.
Methods
CMR of 73 subjects with ARVD/C according to the 2010 Task Force Criteria (TFC) were analyzed for LV involvement, defined as ≥ 1 of the following features: LV wall motion abnormality, LV late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LV fat infiltration, or LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50%. Ventricular volumes and function, regional wall motion abnormalities, and the presence of ventricular fat or fibrosis were recorded. Findings on CMR were correlated with arrhythmic outcomes.
Results
Of the 73 subjects, 50.7% had CMR evidence for LV involvement. Proband status and advanced RV dysfunction were independently associated with LV abnormalities. The most common pattern of LV involvement was focal fatty infiltration in the sub-epicardium of the apicolateral LV with a \"bite-like\" pattern. LGE in the LV was found in the same distribution and most often had a linear appearance. LV involvement was more common with non-PKP2 genetic mutation variants, regardless of proband status. Only RV structural disease on CMR (HR 3.47, 95% CI 1.13-10.70) and prior arrhythmia (HR 2.85, 95% CI 1.33-6.10) were independently associated with arrhythmic events.
Conclusion
Among patients with 2010 TFC for ARVD/C, CMR evidence for LV abnormalities are seen in half of patients and typically manifest as fibrofatty infiltration in the subepicardium of the apicolateral wall and are not associated with arrhythmic outcomes.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 19 May 2021; 23:58
Zghaib T, Te Riele ASJM, James CA, Rastegar N, ... Kamel IR, Zimmerman SL
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 19 May 2021; 23:58 | PMID: 34011348
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Impact:
Abstract

Defining the optimal temporal and spatial resolution for cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging feature tracking.

Backhaus SJ, Metschies G, Billing M, Schmidt-Rimpler J, ... Kelle S, Schuster A
Background
Myocardial deformation analyses using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) feature tracking (CMR-FT) have incremental value in the assessment of cardiac function beyond volumetric analyses. Since guidelines do not recommend specific imaging parameters, we aimed to define optimal spatial and temporal resolutions for CMR cine images to enable reliable post-processing.
Methods
Intra- and inter-observer reproducibility was assessed in 12 healthy subjects and 9 heart failure (HF) patients. Cine images were acquired with different temporal (20, 30, 40 and 50 frames/cardiac cycle) and spatial resolutions (high in-plane 1.5 × 1.5 mm through-plane 5 mm, standard 1.8 × 1.8 x 8mm and low 3.0 × 3.0 x 10mm). CMR-FT comprised left ventricular (LV) global and segmental longitudinal/circumferential strain (GLS/GCS) and associated systolic strain rates (SR), and right ventricular (RV) GLS.
Results
Temporal but not spatial resolution did impact absolute strain and SR. Maximum absolute changes between lowest and highest temporal resolution were as follows: 1.8% and 0.3%/s for LV GLS and SR, 2.5% and 0.6%/s for GCS and SR as well as 1.4% for RV GLS. Changes of strain values occurred comparing 20 and 30 frames/cardiac cycle including LV and RV GLS and GCS (p < 0.001-0.046). In contrast, SR values (LV GLS/GCS SR) changed significantly comparing all successive temporal resolutions (p < 0.001-0.013). LV strain and SR reproducibility was not affected by either temporal or spatial resolution, whilst RV strain variability decreased with augmentation of temporal resolution.
Conclusion
Temporal but not spatial resolution significantly affects strain and SR in CMR-FT deformation analyses. Strain analyses require lower temporal resolution and 30 frames/cardiac cycle offer consistent strain assessments, whilst SR measurements gain from further increases in temporal resolution.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 16 May 2021; 23:60
Backhaus SJ, Metschies G, Billing M, Schmidt-Rimpler J, ... Kelle S, Schuster A
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 16 May 2021; 23:60 | PMID: 34001175
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Impact:
Abstract

Long-term prognostic value of whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography.

Nakamura S, Ishida M, Nakata K, Ichikawa Y, ... Dohi K, Sakuma H
Background
Coronary magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) allows non-ionizing visualization of luminal narrowing in coronary artery disease (CAD). Although a prior study showed the usefulness of CMRA for risk stratification in short-term follow-up, the long-term prognostic value of CMRA remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term prognostic value of CMRA.
Methods
A total of 506 patients without history of myocardial infarction or prior coronary artery revascularization underwent free-breathing whole-heart CMRA between 2009 and 2015. Images were acquired using a 1.5 T or 3 T scanner and visually evaluated as the consensus decisions of two observers. Obstructive CAD on CMRA was defined as luminal narrowing of ≥ 50% in at least one coronary artery. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) comprised cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and unstable angina.
Results
Obstructive CAD on CMRA was observed in 214 patients (42%). During follow-up (median, 5.6 years), 31 MACE occurred. Kaplan-Meier curve analysis revealed a significant difference in event-free survival between patients with and without obstructive CAD for MACE (log-rank, p = 0.003) and cardiac death (p = 0.012). Annualized event rates for MACE in patients with no obstructive CAD, 1-vessel disease, 2-vessel disease, and left-main or 3-vessel disease were 0.6%, 1.5%, 2.3%, and 3.6%, respectively (log-rank, p = 0.003). Cox proportional hazard regression analysis showed that, among obstructive CAD on CMRA and clinical risk factors (age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, and family history of CAD), obstructive CAD and diabetes were significant predictors of MACE (hazard ratios, 2.9 [p = 0.005] and 2.2 [p = 0.034], respectively). In multivariate analysis, obstructive CAD remained an independent predictor (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.6 [p = 0.010]) after adjusting for diabetes. Addition of obstructive CAD to clinical risk factors significantly increased the global chi-square result from 8.3 to 13.8 (p = 0.022).
Conclusions
In long-term follow-up, free breathing whole heart CMRA allows non-invasive risk stratification for MACE and cardiac death and provides incremental prognostic value over conventional risk factors in patients without a history of myocardial infarction or prior coronary artery revascularization. The presence and severity of obstructive CAD detected by CMRA were associated with worse prognosis. Importantly, patients without obstructive CAD on CMRA displayed favorable prognosis.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 16 May 2021; 23:56
Nakamura S, Ishida M, Nakata K, Ichikawa Y, ... Dohi K, Sakuma H
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 16 May 2021; 23:56 | PMID: 33993891
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Impact:
Abstract

Clinical comparison of sub-mm high-resolution non-contrast coronary CMR angiography against coronary CT angiography in patients with low-intermediate risk of coronary artery disease: a single center trial.

Hajhosseiny R, Rashid I, Bustin A, Munoz C, ... Prieto C, Botnar RM
Background
The widespread clinical application of coronary cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) angiography (CMRA) for the assessment of coronary artery disease (CAD) remains limited due to low scan efficiency leading to prolonged and unpredictable acquisition times; low spatial-resolution; and residual respiratory motion artefacts resulting in limited image quality. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated highly undersampled acquisitions with image-based navigators and non-rigid motion correction to enable high resolution (sub-1 mm3) free-breathing, contrast-free 3D whole-heart coronary CMRA with 100% respiratory scan efficiency in a clinically feasible and predictable acquisition time.
Objectives
To evaluate the diagnostic performance of this coronary CMRA framework against coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with suspected CAD.
Methods
Consecutive patients (n = 50) with suspected CAD were examined on a 1.5T CMR scanner. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of coronary CMRA against coronary CTA for detecting a ≥ 50% reduction in luminal diameter.
Results
The 50 recruited patients (55 ± 9 years, 33 male) completed coronary CMRA in 10.7 ± 1.4 min. Twelve (24%) had significant CAD on coronary CTA. Coronary CMRA obtained diagnostic image quality in 95% of all, 97% of proximal, 97% of middle and 90% of distal coronary segments. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy were: per patient (100%, 74%, 55%, 100% and 80%), per vessel (81%, 88%, 46%, 97% and 88%) and per segment (76%, 95%, 44%, 99% and 94%) respectively.
Conclusions
The high diagnostic image quality and diagnostic performance of coronary CMRA compared against coronary CTA demonstrates the potential of coronary CMRA as a robust and safe non-invasive alternative for excluding significant disease in patients at low-intermediate risk of CAD.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 16 May 2021; 23:57
Hajhosseiny R, Rashid I, Bustin A, Munoz C, ... Prieto C, Botnar RM
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 16 May 2021; 23:57 | PMID: 33993890
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Impact:
Abstract

Comparison of single-voxel H-cardiovascular magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques for in vivo measurement of myocardial creatine and triglycerides at 3T.

Sourdon J, Roussel T, Costes C, Viout P, ... Kober F, Rapacchi S
Background
Single-voxel proton cardiovascular magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-CMRS) benefits from 3 T to detect metabolic abnormalities with the quantification of intramyocardial fatty acids (FA) and creatine (Cr). Conventional point resolved spectroscopy (PRESS) sequence remains the preferred choice for CMRS, despite its chemical shift displacement error (CSDE) at high field (≥ 3 T). Alternative candidate sequences are the semi-adiabatic Localization by Adiabatic SElective Refocusing (sLASER) recommended for brain and musculoskeletal applications and the localized stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). In this study, we aim to compare these three single-voxel 1H-CMRS techniques: PRESS, sLASER and STEAM for reproducible quantification of myocardial FA and Cr at 3 T. Sequences are compared both using breath-hold (BH) and free-breathing (FB) acquisitions.
Methods
CMRS accuracy and theoretical CSDE were verified on a purposely-designed fat-water phantom. FA and Cr CMRS data quality and reliability were evaluated in the interventricular septum of 10 healthy subjects, comparing repeated BH and free-breathing with retrospective gating.
Results
Measured FA/W ratio deviated from expected phantom ratio due to CSDE with all sequences. sLASER supplied the lowest bias (10%, vs -28% and 27% for PRESS and STEAM). In vivo, PRESS provided the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in FB scans (27.5 for Cr and 103.2 for FA). Nevertheless, a linear regression analysis between the two BH showed a better correlation between myocardial Cr content measured with sLASER compared to PRESS (r = 0.46; p = 0.03 vs. r = 0.35; p = 0.07) and similar slopes of regression lines for FA measurements (r = 0.94; p < 0.001 vs. r = 0.87; p < 0.001). STEAM was unable to perform Cr measurement and was the method with the lowest correlation (r = 0.59; p = 0.07) for FA. No difference was found between measurements done either during BH or FB for Cr, FA and triglycerides using PRESS, sLASER and STEAM.
Conclusion
When quantifying myocardial lipids and creatine with CMR proton spectroscopy at 3 T, PRESS provided higher SNR, while sLASER was more reproducible both with single BH and FB scans.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 12 May 2021; 23:53
Sourdon J, Roussel T, Costes C, Viout P, ... Kober F, Rapacchi S
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 12 May 2021; 23:53 | PMID: 33980263
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Impact:
Abstract

Multivendor comparison of global and regional 2D cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking strains vs tissue tagging at 3T.

Militaru S, Panovsky R, Hanet V, Amzulescu MS, ... Vanoverschelde JJ, Gerber BL
Background
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) 2D feature tracking (FT) left ventricular (LV) myocardial strain has seen widespread use to characterize myocardial deformation. Yet, validation of CMR FT measurements remains scarce, particularly for regional strain. Therefore, we aimed to perform intervendor comparison of 3 different FT software against tagging.
Methods
In 61 subjects (18 healthy subjects, 18 patients with chronic myocardial infarction, 15 with dilated cardiomyopathy, and 10 with LV hypertrophy due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or aortic stenosis) were prospectively compared global (G) and regional transmural peak-systolic Lagrangian longitudinal (LS), circumferential (CS) and radial strains (RS) by 3 FT software (cvi42, Segment, and Tomtec) among each other and with tagging at 3T. We also evaluated the ability of regional LS, CS, and RS by different FT software vs tagging to identify late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) in the 18 infarct patients.
Results
GLS and GCS by all 3 software had an excellent agreement among each other (ICC = 0.94-0.98 for GLS and ICC = 0.96-0.98 for GCS respectively) and against tagging (ICC = 0.92-0.94 for GLS and ICC = 0.88-0.91 for GCS respectively), while GRS showed inconsistent agreement between vendors (ICC 0.10-0.81). For regional LS, the agreement was good (ICC = 0.68) between 2 vendors but less vs the 3rd (ICC 0.50-0.59) and moderate to poor (ICC 0.44-0.47) between all three FT software and tagging. Also, for regional CS agreement between 2 software was higher (ICC = 0.80) than against the 3rd (ICC = 0.58-0.60), and both better agreed with tagging (ICC = 0.70-0.72) than the 3rd (ICC = 0.57). Regional RS had more variation in the agreement between methods ranging from good (ICC = 0.75) to poor (ICC = 0.05). Finally, the accuracy of scar detection by regional strains differed among the 3 FT software. While the accuracy of regional LS was similar, CS by one software was less accurate (AUC 0.68) than tagging (AUC 0.80, p < 0.006) and RS less accurate (AUC 0.578) than the other two (AUC 0.76 and 0.73, p < 0.02) to discriminate segments with LGE.
Conclusions
We confirm good agreement of CMR FT and little intervendor difference for GLS and GCS evaluation, with variable agreement for GRS. For regional strain evaluation, intervendor difference was larger, especially for RS, and the diagnostic performance varied more substantially among different vendors for regional strain analysis.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 12 May 2021; 23:54
Militaru S, Panovsky R, Hanet V, Amzulescu MS, ... Vanoverschelde JJ, Gerber BL
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 12 May 2021; 23:54 | PMID: 33980259
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Impact:
Abstract

False lumen pressure estimation in type B aortic dissection using 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance: comparisons with aortic growth.

Marlevi D, Sotelo JA, Grogan-Kaylor R, Ahmed Y, ... Nordsletten DA, Burris NS
Background
Chronic type B aortic dissection (TBAD) is associated with poor long-term outcome, and accurate risk stratification tools remain lacking. Pressurization of the false lumen (FL) has been recognized as central in promoting aortic growth. Several surrogate imaging-based metrics have been proposed to assess FL hemodynamics; however, their relationship to enlarging aortic dimensions remains unclear. We investigated the association between aortic growth and three cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived metrics of FL pressurization: false lumen ejection fraction (FLEF), maximum systolic deceleration rate (MSDR), and FL relative pressure (FL ΔPmax).
Methods
CMR/CMR angiography was performed in 12 patients with chronic dissection of the descending thoracoabdominal aorta, including contrast-enhanced CMR angiography and time-resolved three-dimensional phase-contrast CMR (4D Flow CMR). Aortic growth rate was calculated as the change in maximal aortic diameter between baseline and follow-up imaging studies over the time interval, with patients categorized as having either \'stable\' (< 3 mm/year) or \'enlarging\' (≥ 3 mm/year) growth. Three metrics relating to FL pressurization were defined as: (1) FLEF: the ratio between retrograde and antegrade flow at the TBAD entry tear, (2) MSDR: the absolute difference between maximum and minimum systolic acceleration in the proximal FL, and (3) FL ΔPmax: the difference in absolute pressure between aortic root and distal FL.
Results
FLEF was higher in enlarging TBAD (49.0 ± 17.9% vs. 10.0 ± 11.9%, p = 0.002), whereas FL ΔPmax was lower (32.2 ± 10.8 vs. 57.2 ± 12.5 mmHg/m, p = 0.017). MSDR and conventional anatomic variables did not differ significantly between groups. FLEF showed positive (r = 0.78, p = 0.003) correlation with aortic growth rate whereas FL ΔPmax showed negative correlation (r = - 0.64, p = 0.026). FLEF and FL ΔPmax remained as independent predictors of aortic growth rate after adjusting for baseline aortic diameter.
Conclusion
Comparative analysis of three 4D flow CMR metrics of TBAD FL pressurization demonstrated that those that focusing on retrograde flow (FLEF) and relative pressure (FL ΔPmax) independently correlated with growth and differentiated patients with enlarging and stable descending aortic dissections. These results emphasize the highly variable nature of aortic hemodynamics in TBAD patients, and suggest that 4D Flow CMR derived metrics of FL pressurization may be useful to separate patients at highest and lowest risk for progressive aortic growth and complications.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 12 May 2021; 23:51
Marlevi D, Sotelo JA, Grogan-Kaylor R, Ahmed Y, ... Nordsletten DA, Burris NS
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 12 May 2021; 23:51 | PMID: 33980249
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Abstract

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in women with cardiovascular disease: position statement from the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR).

Ordovas KG, Baldassarre LA, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Carr J, ... Valente AM, Srichai MB
This document is a position statement from the Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) on recommendations for clinical utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in women with cardiovascular disease. The document was prepared by the SCMR Consensus Group on CMR Imaging for Female Patients with Cardiovascular Disease and endorsed by the SCMR Publications Committee and SCMR Executive Committee. The goals of this document are to (1) guide the informed selection of cardiovascular imaging methods, (2) inform clinical decision-making, (3) educate stakeholders on the advantages of CMR in specific clinical scenarios, and (4) empower patients with clinical evidence to participate in their clinical care. The statements of clinical utility presented in the current document pertain to the following clinical scenarios: acute coronary syndrome, stable ischemic heart disease, peripartum cardiomyopathy, cancer therapy-related cardiac dysfunction, aortic syndrome and congenital heart disease in pregnancy, bicuspid aortic valve and aortopathies, systemic rheumatic diseases and collagen vascular disorders, and cardiomyopathy-causing mutations. The authors cite published evidence when available and provide expert consensus otherwise. Most of the evidence available pertains to translational studies involving subjects of both sexes. However, the authors have prioritized review of data obtained from female patients, and direct comparison of CMR between women and men. This position statement does not consider CMR accessibility or availability of local expertise, but instead highlights the optimal utilization of CMR in women with known or suspected cardiovascular disease. Finally, the ultimate goal of this position statement is to improve the health of female patients with cardiovascular disease by providing specific recommendations on the use of CMR.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 May 2021; 23:52
Ordovas KG, Baldassarre LA, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Carr J, ... Valente AM, Srichai MB
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 May 2021; 23:52 | PMID: 33966639
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Abstract

Multimodal assessment of right ventricle overload-metabolic and clinical consequences in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

Kazimierczyk R, Malek LA, Szumowski P, Nekolla SG, ... Musial WJ, Kaminski KA
Background
In pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) increased afterload leads to adaptive processes of the right ventricle (RV) that help to maintain arterio-ventricular coupling of RV and preserve cardiac output, but with time the adaptive mechanisms fail. In this study, we propose a multimodal approach which allows to estimate prognostic value of RV coupling parameters in PAH patients.
Methods
Twenty-seven stable PAH patients (49.5 ± 15.5 years) and 12 controls underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). CMR feature tracking analysis was performed for RV global longitudinal strain assessment (RV GLS). RV-arterial coupling was evaluated by combination of RV GLS and three proposed surrogates of RV afterload-pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and pulmonary artery compliance (PAC). 18-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) analysis was used to assess RV glucose uptake presented as SUVRV/LV. Follow-up time of this study was 25 months and the clinical end-point was defined as death or clinical deterioration.
Results
Coupling parameters (RV GLS/PASP, RV GLS/PVR and RV GLS*PAC) significantly correlated with RV function and standardized uptake value (SUVRV/LV). Patients who experienced a clinical end-point (n = 18) had a significantly worse coupling parameters at the baseline visit. RV GLS/PASP had the highest area under curve in predicting a clinical end-point and patients with a value higher than (-)0.29%/mmHg had significantly worse prognosis. It was also a statistically significant predictor of clinical end-point in multivariate analysis (adjusted R2 = 0.68; p < 0.001).
Conclusions
Coupling parameters are linked with RV hemodynamics and glucose metabolism in PAH. Combining CMR and hemodynamic measurements offers more comprehensive assessment of RV function required for prognostication of PAH patients.
Trial registration
NCT03688698, 09/26/2018, retrospectively registered; Protocol ID: 2017/25/N/NZ5/02689.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 May 2021; 23:49
Kazimierczyk R, Malek LA, Szumowski P, Nekolla SG, ... Musial WJ, Kaminski KA
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 May 2021; 23:49 | PMID: 33966635
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Abstract

Native contrast visualization and tissue characterization of myocardial radiofrequency ablation and acetic acid chemoablation lesions at 0.55 T.

Kolandaivelu A, Bruce CG, Ramasawmy R, Yildirim DK, ... Lederman RJ, Herzka DA
Purpose
Low-field (0.55 T) high-performance cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an attractive platform for CMR-guided intervention as device heating is reduced around 7.5-fold compared to 1.5 T. This work determines the feasibility of visualizing cardiac radiofrequency (RF) ablation lesions at low field CMR and explores a novel alternative method for targeted tissue destruction: acetic acid chemoablation.
Methods
N = 10 swine underwent X-ray fluoroscopy-guided RF ablation (6-7 lesions) and acetic acid chemoablation (2-3 lesions) of the left ventricle. Animals were imaged at 0.55 T with native contrast 3D-navigator gated T1-weighted T1w) CMR for lesion visualization, gated single-shot imaging to determine potential for real-time visualization of lesion formation, and T1 mapping to measure change in T1 in response to ablation. Seven animals were euthanized on ablation day and hearts imaged ex vivo. The remaining animals were imaged again in vivo at 21 days post ablation to observe lesion evolution.
Results
Chemoablation lesions could be visualized and displayed much higher contrast than necrotic RF ablation lesions with T1w imaging. On the day of ablation, in vivo myocardial T1 dropped by 19 ± 7% in RF ablation lesion cores, and by 40 ± 7% in chemoablation lesion cores (p < 4e-5). In high resolution ex vivo imaging, with reduced partial volume effects, lesion core T1 dropped by 18 ± 3% and 42 ± 6% for RF and chemoablation, respectively. Mean, median, and peak lesion signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) were all at least 75% higher with chemoablation. Lesion core to myocardium contrast-to-noise (CNR) was 3.8 × higher for chemoablation. Correlation between in vivo and ex vivo CMR and histology indicated that the periphery of RF ablation lesions do not exhibit changes in T1 while the entire extent of chemoablation exhibits T1 changes. Correlation of T1w enhancing lesion volumes indicated in vivo estimates of lesion volume are accurate for chemoablation but underestimate extent of necrosis for RF ablation.
Conclusion
The visualization of coagulation necrosis from cardiac ablation is feasible using low-field high-performance CMR. Chemoablation produced a more pronounced change in lesion T1 than RF ablation, increasing SNR and CNR and thereby making it easier to visualize in both 3D navigator-gated and real-time CMR and more suitable for low-field imaging.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 05 May 2021; 23:50
Kolandaivelu A, Bruce CG, Ramasawmy R, Yildirim DK, ... Lederman RJ, Herzka DA
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 05 May 2021; 23:50 | PMID: 33952312
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Abstract

Non-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance detection of myocardial fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Raucci FJ, Xu M, George-Durrett K, Crum K, ... Markham LW, Soslow JH
Background
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive cardiomyopathy. Detection of myocardial fibrosis with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is critical for clinical management. Due to concerns of brain deposition of gadolinium, non-contrast methods for detecting and monitoring myocardial fibrosis would be beneficial.
Objectives
We hypothesized that native T1 mapping and/or circumferential (εcc) and longitudinal (εls) strain can detect myocardial fibrosis.
Methods
156 CMRs with gadolinium were performed in 66 DMD boys and included: (1) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), (2) LGE, (3) native T1 mapping and myocardial tagging (εcc-tag measured using harmonic phase analysis). LGE was graded as: (1) presence/absence by segment, slice, and globally; (2) global severity from 0 (no LGE) to 4 (severe); (3) percent LGE using full width half maximum (FWHM). εls and εcc measured using feature tracking. Regression models to predict LGE included native T1 and either εcc-tag or εls and εcc measured at each segment, slice, and globally.
Results
Mean age and LVEF at first CMR were 14 years and 54%, respectively. Global εls and εcc strongly predicted presence or absence of LGE (OR 2.6 [1.1, 6.0], p = 0.029, and OR 2.3 [1.0, 5.1], p = 0.049, respectively) while global native T1 did not. Global εcc, εls, and native T1 predicted global severity score (OR 2.6 [1.4, 4.8], p = 0.002, OR 2.6 [1.4, 6.0], p = 0.002, and OR 1.8 [1.1, 3.1], p = 0.025, respectively). εls correlated with change in LGE by severity score (n = 33, 3.8 [1.0, 14.2], p = 0.048) and εcc-tag correlated with change in percent LGE by FWHM (n = 34, OR 0.2 [0.1, 0.9], p = 0.01).
Conclusions
Pre-contrast sequences predict presence and severity of LGE, with εls and εcc being more predictive in most models, but there was not an observable advantage over using LVEF as a predictor. Change in LGE was predicted by εls (global severity score) and εcc-tag (FWHM). While statistically significant, our results suggest these sequences are currently not a replacement for LGE and may only have utility in a very limited subset of DMD patients.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Apr 2021; 23:48
Raucci FJ, Xu M, George-Durrett K, Crum K, ... Markham LW, Soslow JH
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Apr 2021; 23:48 | PMID: 33910579
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This program is still in alpha version.