Journal: J Cardiovasc Magn Reson

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Abstract

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance native T1 mapping in Anderson-Fabry disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Ponsiglione A, Gambardella M, Green R, Cantoni V, ... Cuocolo A, Imbriaco M
Background
T1 mapping is an established cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) technique that can characterize myocardial tissue. We aimed to determine the weighted mean native T1 values of Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) patients and the standardized mean differences (SMD) as compared to healthy control subjects.
Methods
A comprehensive literature search of the PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases was conducted according to the PRISMA statement to retrieve original studies reporting myocardial native T1 values in AFD patients and healthy controls. A random effects model was used to calculate SMD, and meta-regression analysis was conducted to explore heterogeneity sources. Subgroup analysis was also performed according to scanner field strength and sequence type.
Results
From a total of 151 items, 14 articles were included in the final analysis accounting for a total population of 982 subjects. Overall, the weighted mean native T1 values was 984 ± 47 ms in AFD patients and 1016 ± 26 ms in controls (P < 0.0001) with a pooled SMD of - 2.38. In AFD patients there was an inverse correlation between native T1 values and male gender (P = 0.002) and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) (P < 0.001). Subgroup analyses confirmed lower T1 values in AFD patients compared to controls with a pooled SMD of -  2.54,  -  2.28, -   2.46 for studies performed on 1.5T with modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI), shortened MOLLI and saturation-recovery single-shot acquisition, respectively and of -  2.41 for studies conducted on 3T.
Conclusions
Our findings confirm a reduction of native T1 values in AFD patients compared to healthy controls and point out that the degree of T1 shortening in AFD is influenced by gender and LVH. Although T1 mapping is useful in proving cardiac involvement in AFD patients, there is need to standardize shreshold values according to imaging equipment and protocols.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 23 May 2022; 24:31
Ponsiglione A, Gambardella M, Green R, Cantoni V, ... Cuocolo A, Imbriaco M
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 23 May 2022; 24:31 | PMID: 35606874
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Abstract

Quantification correction for free-breathing myocardial T mapping in mice using a recursively derived description of a T* relaxation pathway.

Gram M, Gensler D, Albertova P, Gutjahr FT, ... Jakob PM, Nordbeck P
Background
Fast and accurate T mapping in myocardium is still a major challenge, particularly in small animal models. The complex sequence design owing to electrocardiogram and respiratory gating leads to quantification errors in in vivo experiments, due to variations of the T relaxation pathway. In this study, we present an improved quantification method for T using a newly derived formalism of a T* relaxation pathway.
Methods
The new signal equation was derived by solving a recursion problem for spin-lock prepared fast gradient echo readouts. Based on Bloch simulations, we compared quantification errors using the common monoexponential model and our corrected model. The method was validated in phantom experiments and tested in vivo for myocardial T mapping in mice. Here, the impact of the breath dependent spin recovery time Trec on the quantification results was examined in detail.
Results
Simulations indicate that a correction is necessary, since systematically underestimated values are measured under in vivo conditions. In the phantom study, the mean quantification error could be reduced from - 7.4% to - 0.97%. In vivo, a correlation of uncorrected T with the respiratory cycle was observed. Using the newly derived correction method, this correlation was significantly reduced from r = 0.708 (p < 0.001) to r = 0.204 and the standard deviation of left ventricular T values in different animals was reduced by at least 39%.
Conclusion
The suggested quantification formalism enables fast and precise myocardial T quantification for small animals during free breathing and can improve the comparability of study results. Our new technique offers a reasonable tool for assessing myocardial diseases, since pathologies that cause a change in heart or breathing rates do not lead to systematic misinterpretations. Besides, the derived signal equation can be used for sequence optimization or for subsequent correction of prior study results.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 May 2022; 24:30
Gram M, Gensler D, Albertova P, Gutjahr FT, ... Jakob PM, Nordbeck P
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 May 2022; 24:30 | PMID: 35534901
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Abstract

The image quality and diagnostic accuracy of T1-mapping-based synthetic late gadolinium enhancement imaging: comparison with conventional late gadolinium enhancement imaging in real-life clinical situation.

Lee S, Kim P, Im DJ, Suh YJ, ... Choi BW, Kim YJ
Backgrounds
Synthetic late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) images are less sensitive to inversion time (TI) and robust to motion artifact, because it is generated retrospectively by post-contrast T1-mapping images. To explore the clinical applicability of synthetic LGE, we investigated the image quality and diagnostic accuracy of synthetic LGE images, in comparison to that of conventional LGE for various disease groups.
Method and materials
From July to November 2019, a total of 98 patients who underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), including LGE and T1-mapping sequences, with suspicion of myocardial abnormality were retrospectively included. Synthetic magnitude inversion-recovery (IR) and phase-sensitive IR (PSIR) images were generated through calculations based on the post-contrast T1-mapping sequence. Three cardiothoracic radiologists independently analyzed the image quality of conventional and synthetic LGE images on an ordinal scale with per-segment basis and the image qualities were compared with chi-square test. The agreement of LGE detection was analyzed on per-patient and per-segment basis with Cohen\'s kappa test. In addition, the LGE area and percentage were semi-quantitatively analyzed for LGE positive ischemic (n = 14) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 13) subgroups by two cardiothoracic radiologists. The difference of quantified LGE area and percentage between conventional and synthetic LGE images were assessed with Mann-Whitney U-test and the inter-reader agreement was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis.
Results
The image quality of synthetic images was significantly better than conventional images in both magnitude IR and PSIR through all three observers (P < 0.001, all). The agreements of per-patient and per-segment LGE detection rates were excellent (kappa = 0.815-0.864). The semi-quantitative analysis showed no significant difference in the LGE area and percentage between conventional and synthetic LGE images. In the inter-reader agreement showed only small systematic differences in both magnitude IR and PSIR and synthetic LGE images showed smaller systematic biases compared to conventional LGE images.
Conclusion
Compared to conventional LGE images, synthetic LGE images have better image quality in real-life clinical situation.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 14 Apr 2022; 24:28
Lee S, Kim P, Im DJ, Suh YJ, ... Choi BW, Kim YJ
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 14 Apr 2022; 24:28 | PMID: 35418081
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Abstract

Assessment of right ventricular size and function from cardiovascular magnetic resonance images using artificial intelligence.

Wang S, Chauhan D, Patel H, Amir-Khalili A, ... Mor-Avi V, Patel AR
Background
Theoretically, artificial intelligence can provide an accurate automatic solution to measure right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (RVEF) from cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) images, despite the complex RV geometry. However, in our recent study, commercially available deep learning (DL) algorithms for RVEF quantification performed poorly in some patients. The current study was designed to test the hypothesis that quantification of RV function could be improved in these patients by using more diverse CMR datasets in addition to domain-specific quantitative performance evaluation metrics during the cross-validation phase of DL algorithm development.
Methods
We identified 100 patients from our prior study who had the largest differences between manually measured and automated RVEF values. Automated RVEF measurements were performed using the original version of the algorithm (DL1), an updated version (DL2) developed from a dataset that included a wider range of RV pathology and validated using multiple domain-specific quantitative performance evaluation metrics, and conventional methodology performed by a core laboratory (CORE). Each of the DL-RVEF approaches was compared against CORE-RVEF reference values using linear regression and Bland-Altman analyses. Additionally, RVEF values were classified into 3 categories: ≤ 35%, 35-50%, and ≥ 50%. Agreement between RVEF classifications made by the DL approaches and the CORE measurements was tested.
Results
CORE-RVEF and DL-RVEFs were obtained in all patients (feasibility of 100%). DL2-RVEF correlated with CORE-RVEF better than DL1-RVEF (r = 0.87 vs. r = 0.42), with narrower limits of agreement. As a result, DL2 algorithm also showed increasing accuracy from 0.53 to 0.80 for categorizing RV function.
Conclusions
The use of a new DL algorithm cross-validated on a dataset with a wide range of RV pathology using multiple domain-specific metrics resulted in a considerable improvement in the accuracy of automated RVEF measurements. This improvement was demonstrated in patients whose images were the most challenging and resulted in the largest RVEF errors. These findings underscore the critical importance of this strategy in the development of DL approaches for automated CMR measurements.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 11 Apr 2022; 24:27
Wang S, Chauhan D, Patel H, Amir-Khalili A, ... Mor-Avi V, Patel AR
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 11 Apr 2022; 24:27 | PMID: 35410226
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Abstract

High-resolution non-contrast free-breathing coronary cardiovascular magnetic resonance ngiography for detection of coronary artery disease: validation against invasive coronary angiography.

Nazir MS, Bustin A, Hajhosseiny R, Yazdani M, ... Botnar R, Prieto C
Background
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the single most common cause of death worldwide. Recent technological developments with coronary cardiovascular magnetic resonance angiography (CCMRA) allow high-resolution free-breathing imaging of the coronary arteries at submillimeter resolution without contrast in a predictable scan time of ~ 10 min. The objective of this study was to determine the diagnostic accuracy of high-resolution CCMRA for CAD detection against the gold standard of invasive coronary angiography (ICA).
Methods
Forty-five patients (15 female, 62 ± 10 years) with suspected CAD underwent sub-millimeter-resolution (0.6 mm3) non-contrast CCMRA at 1.5T in this prospective clinical study from 2019-2020. Prior to CCMR, patients were given an intravenous beta blockers to optimize heart rate control and sublingual glyceryl trinitrate to promote coronary vasodilation. Obstructive CAD was defined by lesions with ≥ 50% stenosis by quantitative coronary angiography on ICA.
Results
The mean duration of image acquisition was 10.4 ± 2.1 min. On a per patient analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (95% confidence intervals) were 95% (75-100), 54% (36-71), 60% (42-75) and 93% (70-100), respectively. On a per vessel analysis the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (95% confidence intervals) were 80% (63-91), 83% (77-88), 49% (36-63) and 95% (90-98), respectively.
Conclusion
As an important step towards clinical translation, we demonstrated a good diagnostic accuracy for CAD detection using high-resolution CCMRA, with high sensitivity and negative predictive value. The positive predictive value is moderate, and combination with CMR stress perfusion may improve the diagnostic accuracy. Future multicenter evaluation is now required.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 11 Apr 2022; 24:26
Nazir MS, Bustin A, Hajhosseiny R, Yazdani M, ... Botnar R, Prieto C
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 11 Apr 2022; 24:26 | PMID: 35399091
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Impact:
Abstract

Training and clinical testing of artificial intelligence derived right atrial cardiovascular magnetic resonance measurements.

Alandejani F, Alabed S, Garg P, Goh ZM, ... Van Der Geest R, Swift AJ
Background
Right atrial (RA) area predicts mortality in patients with pulmonary hypertension, and is recommended by the European Society of Cardiology/European Respiratory Society pulmonary hypertension guidelines. The advent of deep learning may allow more reliable measurement of RA areas to improve clinical assessments. The aim of this study was to automate cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) RA area measurements and evaluate the clinical utility by assessing repeatability, correlation with invasive haemodynamics and prognostic value.
Methods
A deep learning RA area CMR contouring model was trained in a multicentre cohort of 365 patients with pulmonary hypertension, left ventricular pathology and healthy subjects. Inter-study repeatability (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)) and agreement of contours (DICE similarity coefficient (DSC)) were assessed in a prospective cohort (n = 36). Clinical testing and mortality prediction was performed in n = 400 patients that were not used in the training nor prospective cohort, and the correlation of automatic and manual RA measurements with invasive haemodynamics assessed in n = 212/400. Radiologist quality control (QC) was performed in the ASPIRE registry, n = 3795 patients. The primary QC observer evaluated all the segmentations and recorded them as satisfactory, suboptimal or failure. A second QC observer analysed a random subcohort to assess QC agreement (n = 1018).
Results
All deep learning RA measurements showed higher interstudy repeatability (ICC 0.91 to 0.95) compared to manual RA measurements (1st observer ICC 0.82 to 0.88, 2nd observer ICC 0.88 to 0.91). DSC showed high agreement comparing automatic artificial intelligence and manual CMR readers. Maximal RA area mean and standard deviation (SD) DSC metric for observer 1 vs observer 2, automatic measurements vs observer 1 and automatic measurements vs observer 2 is 92.4 ± 3.5 cm2, 91.2 ± 4.5 cm2 and 93.2 ± 3.2 cm2, respectively. Minimal RA area mean and SD DSC metric for observer 1 vs observer 2, automatic measurements vs observer 1 and automatic measurements vs observer 2 was 89.8 ± 3.9 cm2, 87.0 ± 5.8 cm2 and 91.8 ± 4.8 cm2. Automatic RA area measurements all showed moderate correlation with invasive parameters (r = 0.45 to 0.66), manual (r = 0.36 to 0.57). Maximal RA area could accurately predict elevated mean RA pressure low and high-risk thresholds (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve artificial intelligence = 0.82/0.87 vs manual = 0.78/0.83), and predicted mortality similar to manual measurements, both p < 0.01. In the QC evaluation, artificial intelligence segmentations were suboptimal at 108/3795 and a low failure rate of 16/3795. In a subcohort (n = 1018), agreement by two QC observers was excellent, kappa 0.84.
Conclusion
Automatic artificial intelligence CMR derived RA size and function are accurate, have excellent repeatability, moderate associations with invasive haemodynamics and predict mortality.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 07 Apr 2022; 24:25
Alandejani F, Alabed S, Garg P, Goh ZM, ... Van Der Geest R, Swift AJ
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 07 Apr 2022; 24:25 | PMID: 35387651
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Abstract

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance characterization of rheumatic mitral stenosis: findings from three worldwide endemic zones.

Vidula MK, Xu Z, Xu Y, Alturki A, ... Viswamitra S, Han Y
Background
Cardiac remodeling in rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) is complex and incompletely understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac structural and functional changes in a cohort of patients with rheumatic MS using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).
Methods
This retrospective study included 40 patients with rheumatic MS, consisting of 19 patients from India, 15 patients from China, and 6 patients from Mexico (median (interquartile range (IQR)) age: 45 years (34-55); 75% women). Twenty patients were included in the control group. CMR variables pertaining to morphology and function were collected. Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences were acquired for tissue characterization. Statistical analyses were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the chi-square test.
Results
Compared to the control group, patients with MS had lower left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (51% (42%-55%) vs 60% (57%-65%), p < 0.001), lower right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (44% (40%-52%) vs 64% (59%-67%), p < 0.001), higher RV end-diastolic volume (72 (58-87) mL/m2 vs 59 (49-69) mL/m2, p = 0.003), larger left atrial volume (87 (67-108) mL/m2 vs 29 (22-34) mL/m2, p < 0.001), and right atrial areas (20 (16-23) cm2 vs 13 (12-16) cm2, p < 0.001). LGE was prevalent in patients with rheumatic MS (82%), and was commonly located at the RV insertion sites. Furthermore, the patient cohorts from India, China, and Mexico were heterogeneous in terms of baseline characteristics and cardiac remodeling.
Conclusion
Our findings demonstrated that biventricular dysfunction, right and left atrial remodeling, and LGE at the RV insertion sites are underappreciated in contemporary rheumatic MS. Further studies are needed to elucidate the prognostic implications of these findings.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 07 Apr 2022; 24:24
Vidula MK, Xu Z, Xu Y, Alturki A, ... Viswamitra S, Han Y
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 07 Apr 2022; 24:24 | PMID: 35387660
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Abstract

Reproducibility of global and segmental myocardial strain using cine DENSE at 3 T: a multicenter cardiovascular magnetic resonance study in healthy subjects and patients with heart disease.

Auger DA, Ghadimi S, Cai X, Reagan CE, ... Bilchick KC, Epstein FH
Background
While multiple cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) methods provide excellent reproducibility of global circumferential and global longitudinal strain, achieving highly reproducible segmental strain is more challenging. Previous single-center studies have demonstrated excellent reproducibility of displacement encoding with stimulated echoes (DENSE) segmental circumferential strain. The present study evaluated the reproducibility of DENSE for measurement of whole-slice or global circumferential (Ecc), longitudinal (Ell) and radial (Err) strain, torsion, and segmental Ecc at multiple centers.
Methods
Six centers participated and a total of 81 subjects were studied, including 60 healthy subjects and 21 patients with various types of heart disease. CMR utilized 3 T scanners, and cine DENSE images were acquired in three short-axis planes and in the four-chamber long-axis view. During one imaging session, each subject underwent two separate DENSE scans to assess inter-scan reproducibility. Each subject was taken out of the scanner and repositioned between the scans. Intra-user, inter-user-same-site, inter-user-different-site, and inter-user-Human-Deep-Learning (DL) comparisons assessed the reproducibility of different users analyzing the same data. Inter-scan comparisons assessed the reproducibility of DENSE from scan to scan. The reproducibility of whole-slice or global Ecc, Ell and Err, torsion, and segmental Ecc were quantified using Bland-Altman analysis, the coefficient of variation (CV), and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). CV was considered excellent for CV ≤ 10%, good for 10% < CV ≤ 20%, fair for 20% < CV ≤ 40%, and poor for CV > 40. ICC values were considered excellent for ICC > 0.74, good for ICC 0.6 < ICC ≤ 0.74, fair for ICC 0.4 < ICC ≤ 0.59, poor for ICC < 0.4.
Results
Based on CV and ICC, segmental Ecc provided excellent intra-user, inter-user-same-site, inter-user-different-site, inter-user-Human-DL reproducibility and good-excellent inter-scan reproducibility. Whole-slice Ecc and global Ell provided excellent intra-user, inter-user-same-site, inter-user-different-site, inter-user-Human-DL and inter-scan reproducibility. The reproducibility of torsion was good-excellent for all comparisons. For whole-slice Err, CV was in the fair-good range, and ICC was in the good-excellent range.
Conclusions
Multicenter data show that 3 T CMR DENSE provides highly reproducible whole-slice and segmental Ecc, global Ell, and torsion measurements in healthy subjects and heart disease patients.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 04 Apr 2022; 24:23
Auger DA, Ghadimi S, Cai X, Reagan CE, ... Bilchick KC, Epstein FH
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 04 Apr 2022; 24:23 | PMID: 35369885
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Abstract

False lumen rotational flow and aortic stiffness are associated with aortic growth rate in patients with chronic aortic dissection of the descending aorta: a 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

Ruiz-Muñoz A, Guala A, Dux-Santoy L, Teixidó-Turà G, ... Evangelista A, Rodriguez-Palomares J
Background
Patency of the false lumen in chronic aortic dissection (AD) is associated with aortic dilation and long-term aortic events. However, predictors of adverse outcomes in this population are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aortic growth rate and false lumen flow dynamics and biomechanics in patients with chronic, patent AD.
Methods
Patients with a chronic AD with patent false lumen in the descending aorta and no genetic connective tissue disorder underwent an imaging follow-up including a contrast-enhanced 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) protocol and two consecutive computed tomography angiograms (CTA) acquired at least 1 year apart. A comprehensive analysis of anatomical features (including thrombus quantification), and false lumen flow dynamics and biomechanics (pulse wave velocity) was performed.
Results
Fifty-four consecutive patients with a chronic, patent false lumen in the descending aorta were included (35 surgically-treated type A AD with residual tear and 19 medically-treated type B AD). Median follow-up was 40 months. The in-plane rotational flow, pulse wave velocity and the percentage of thrombus in the false lumen were positively related to aortic growth rate (p = 0.006, 0.017, and 0.037, respectively), whereas wall shear stress showed a trend for a positive association (p = 0.060). These results were found irrespectively of the type of AD.
Conclusions
In patients with chronic AD and patent false lumen of the descending aorta, rotational flow, pulse wave velocity and wall shear stress are positively related to aortic growth rate, and should be implemented in the follow-up algorithm of these patients. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm if the assessment of these parameters helps to identify patients at higher risk of adverse clinical events.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Mar 2022; 24:20
Ruiz-Muñoz A, Guala A, Dux-Santoy L, Teixidó-Turà G, ... Evangelista A, Rodriguez-Palomares J
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Mar 2022; 24:20 | PMID: 35346239
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Abstract

4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance derived energetics in the Fontan circulation correlate with exercise capacity and CMR-derived liver fibrosis/congestion.

Rijnberg FM, Westenberg JJM, van Assen HC, Juffermans JF, ... Roest AAW, Lamb HJ
Aim
This study explores the relationship between in vivo 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) derived blood flow energetics in the total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC), exercise capacity and CMR-derived liver fibrosis/congestion.
Background
The Fontan circulation, in which both caval veins are directly connected with the pulmonary arteries (i.e. the TCPC) is the palliative approach for single ventricle patients. Blood flow efficiency in the TCPC has been associated with exercise capacity and liver fibrosis using computational fluid dynamic modelling. 4D flow CMR allows for assessment of in vivo blood flow energetics, including kinetic energy (KE) and viscous energy loss rate (EL).
Methods
Fontan patients were prospectively evaluated between 2018 and 2021 using a comprehensive cardiovascular and liver CMR protocol, including 4D flow imaging of the TCPC. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2) was determined using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Iron-corrected whole liver T1 (cT1) mapping was performed as a marker of liver fibrosis/congestion. KE and EL in the TCPC were computed from 4D flow CMR and normalized for inflow. Furthermore, blood flow energetics were compared between standardized segments of the TCPC.
Results
Sixty-two Fontan patients were included (53% male, 17.3 ± 5.1 years). Maximal effort CPET was obtained in 50 patients (peak VO2 27.1 ± 6.2 ml/kg/min, 56 ± 12% of predicted). Both KE and EL in the entire TCPC (n = 28) were significantly correlated with cT1 (r = 0.50, p = 0.006 and r = 0.39, p = 0.04, respectively), peak VO2 (r = - 0.61, p = 0.003 and r = - 0.54, p = 0.009, respectively) and % predicted peak VO2 (r = - 0.44, p = 0.04 and r = - 0.46, p = 0.03, respectively). Segmental analysis indicated that the most adverse flow energetics were found in the Fontan tunnel and left pulmonary artery.
Conclusions
Adverse 4D flow CMR derived KE and EL in the TCPC correlate with decreased exercise capacity and increased levels of liver fibrosis/congestion. 4D flow CMR is promising as a non-invasive screening tool for identification of patients with adverse TCPC flow efficiency.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Mar 2022; 24:21
Rijnberg FM, Westenberg JJM, van Assen HC, Juffermans JF, ... Roest AAW, Lamb HJ
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Mar 2022; 24:21 | PMID: 35346249
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Abstract

Integrated head and neck imaging of symptomatic patients with stroke using simultaneous non-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage imaging as compared with digital subtraction angiography.

Jia Y, Liu X, Zhang L, Kong X, ... Wang J, Shi H
Background
Both stenosis rate and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) are important predictors of stroke risk. Simultaneous non-contrast angiography and intraplaque hemorrhage (SNAP) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can detect both stenosis rate and IPH. We aimed to evaluate consistency between SNAP and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to assess symptomatic patients with stroke and explore the performance of SNAP to identify IPH and the clinical factors associated with IPH.
Methods
Eighty-one symptomatic patients with stroke, admitted to Wuhan Union Hospital who underwent CMR high-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) and SNAP, were retrospectively identified. For patients who received interventional therapy, the imaging functions of SNAP and HR-VWI were compared with DSA. The diameters of the intracranial and carotid vessels were measured, and stenotic vessels were identified. The consistency of SNAP and HR-VWI in identifying IPH was also examined, and the correlations between IPH and clinical factors were analyzed.
Results
SNAP was more consistent with DSA than HR-VWI in measuring vascular stenosis (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC]SNAP-DSA = 0.917, ICC HR-VWI-DSA = 0.878). Regarding the diameter measurements of each intracranial and carotid vessel segment, SNAP was superior or similar to HR-VWI, and both were consistent with DSA in the measurement of major intracranial vascular segments. HR-VWI and SNAP exhibited acceptable agreement in identifying IPH (Kappa = 0.839, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.704-0.974). Patients who underwent interventional therapy had a higher plaque burden (P < 0.001). Patients with IPH had lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) (P = 0.038) and higher levels of blood glucose (P = 0.007) and cystatin C (P = 0.040).
Conclusions
CMR SNAP is consistent with DSA in measuring vessel diameters and identifying atherosclerosis stenosis in each intracranial and carotid vessel segment. SNAP is also a potential alternative to HR-VWI in identifying stenosis and IPH.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 21 Mar 2022; 24:19
Jia Y, Liu X, Zhang L, Kong X, ... Wang J, Shi H
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 21 Mar 2022; 24:19 | PMID: 35307027
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Abstract

Wall shear stress and relative residence time as potential risk factors for abdominal aortic aneurysms in males: a 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance case-control study.

Trenti C, Ziegler M, Bjarnegård N, Ebbers T, Lindenberger M, Dyverfeldt P
Background
Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) can lead to catastrophic events such as dissection or rupture, and are an expression of general aortic disease. Low wall shear stress (WSS), high oscillatory shear index (OSI), and high relative residence time (RRT) have been correlated against increased uptake of inflammatory markers in the vessel wall and may improve risk stratification of AAA. We sought to obtain a comprehensive view of WSS, OSI, and RRT in the whole aorta for patients with AAA and age-matched elderly controls and young normal controls.
Methods
4D Flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance images of the whole aorta were acquired in 18 AAA patients (70.8 ± 3.4 years), 22 age-matched controls (71.4 ± 3.4 years), and 23 young subjects (23.3 ± 3.1 years), all males. Three-dimensional segmentations of the whole aorta were created for all timeframes using a semi-automatic approach. The aorta was divided into five segments: ascending aorta, arch, descending aorta, suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta. For each segment, average values of peak WSS, OSI, and RRT were computed. Student\'s t-tests were used to compare values between the three cohorts (AAA patients vs elderly controls, and elderly controls vs young controls) where the data were normally distributed, and the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used otherwise.
Results
AAA patients had lower peak WSS in the descending aorta as well as in the abdominal aorta compared to elderly controls (p ≤ 0.001), similar OSI, but higher RRT in the descending and abdominal aorta (p ≤ 0.001). Elderly controls had lower peak WSS compared to young controls throughout the aorta (p < 0.001), higher OSI in all segments except for the infrarenal aorta (p < 0.001), and higher RRT throughout the aorta, except the infrarenal aorta (p < 0.001).
Conclusions
This study provides novel insights into WSS, OSI, and RRT in patients with AAA in relation to normal ageing, highlighting how AAA patients have markedly abnormal hemodynamic stresses not only in the infrarenal, but in the entire aorta. Moreover, we identified RRT as a marker for abnormal AAA hemodynamics. Further investigations are needed to explore if RRT or other measures of hemodynamics stresses best predict AAA growth and/or rupture.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 18 Mar 2022; 24:18
Trenti C, Ziegler M, Bjarnegård N, Ebbers T, Lindenberger M, Dyverfeldt P
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 18 Mar 2022; 24:18 | PMID: 35303893
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Abstract

Precision measurement of cardiac structure and function in cardiovascular magnetic resonance using machine learning.

Davies RH, Augusto JB, Bhuva A, Xue H, ... Schelbert E, Moon JC
Background
Measurement of cardiac structure and function from images (e.g. volumes, mass and derived parameters such as left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction [LVEF]) guides care for millions. This is best assessed using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), but image analysis is currently performed by individual clinicians, which introduces error. We sought to develop a machine learning algorithm for volumetric analysis of CMR images with demonstrably better precision than human analysis.
Methods
A fully automated machine learning algorithm was trained on 1923 scans (10 scanner models, 13 institutions, 9 clinical conditions, 60,000 contours) and used to segment the LV blood volume and myocardium. Performance was quantified by measuring precision on an independent multi-site validation dataset with multiple pathologies with n = 109 patients, scanned twice. This dataset was augmented with a further 1277 patients scanned as part of routine clinical care to allow qualitative assessment of generalization ability by identifying mis-segmentations. Machine learning algorithm (\'machine\') performance was compared to three clinicians (\'human\') and a commercial tool (cvi42, Circle Cardiovascular Imaging).
Findings
Machine analysis was quicker (20 s per patient) than human (13 min). Overall machine mis-segmentation rate was 1 in 479 images for the combined dataset, occurring mostly in rare pathologies not encountered in training. Without correcting these mis-segmentations, machine analysis had superior precision to three clinicians (e.g. scan-rescan coefficients of variation of human vs machine: LVEF 6.0% vs 4.2%, LV mass 4.8% vs. 3.6%; both P < 0.05), translating to a 46% reduction in required trial sample size using an LVEF endpoint.
Conclusion
We present a fully automated algorithm for measuring LV structure and global systolic function that betters human performance for speed and precision.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Mar 2022; 24:16
Davies RH, Augusto JB, Bhuva A, Xue H, ... Schelbert E, Moon JC
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Mar 2022; 24:16 | PMID: 35272664
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Abstract

Social media to enhance engagement and science dissemination during in-person and virtual medical conferences: the SCMR 2020 and 2021 experiences: a report of the SCMR social media task force.

Shetty M, Aggarwal NR, Parwani P, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, ... Choi A, Grosse-Wortmann L
Most cardiac imaging conferences have adopted social media as a means of disseminating conference highlights to a global audience well beyond the confines of the conference location. A deliberate and thoughtful social media campaign has the potential to increase the reach of the conference and allow for augmented engagement. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic triggered a radical transformation in not just the delivery of healthcare but also the dissemination of science within the medical community. In the past, in-person medical conferences were an integral annual tradition for most medical professionals to stay up to date with the latest in the field. Social distancing requirements of the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in either cancelling medical conferences or shifting to a virtual format. Following suit, for the first time in its history, the 2021 Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) annual meeting was an all-virtual event. This called for a modified social media strategy which aimed to re-create the sociability of an in-person conference whilst also promoting global dissemination of the science being presented. This paper describes the employment of social media as well as the evolution through the SCMR scientific sessions for 2020 and 2021 that serves as a model for future cardiovascular conferences.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 06 Mar 2022; 24:15
Shetty M, Aggarwal NR, Parwani P, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, ... Choi A, Grosse-Wortmann L
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 06 Mar 2022; 24:15 | PMID: 35255939
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Abstract

2021 - State of our JCMR.

Manning WJ
There were 89 articles published in the Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (JCMR) in 2020, including 71 original research papers, 5 technical notes, 6 reviews, 4 Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) position papers/guidelines/protocols and 3 corrections. The volume was up 12.7% from 2019 (n = 79) with a corresponding 17.9% increase in manuscript submissions from 369 to 435. This led to a slight increase in the acceptance rate from 22 to 23%. The quality of the submissions continues to be high. The 2020 JCMR Impact Factor (which is published in June 2020) slightly increased from 5.361 to 5.364 placing us in the top quartile of Society and cardiac imaging journals. Our 5 year impact factor increased from 5.18 to 6.52. Fourteen years ago, the JCMR was at the forefront of medical and medical society journal migration to the Open-Access format. The Open-Access system has dramatically increased the availability and citation of JCMR publications with accesses now exceeding 1.2 M! It takes a village to run a journal. JCMR is blessed to have a group of very dedicated Associate Editors, Guest Editors, Journal Club Editors, and Reviewers. I thank each of them for their efforts to ensure that the review process occurs in a timely and responsible manner. These efforts have allowed the JCMR to continue as the premier journal of our field. My role, and the entire process would not be possible without the dedication and efforts of our new managing editor, Jennifer Rodriguez, whose premier organizational efforts have allowed for streamlining of the review process and marked improvement in our time-to-decision (see later). As I begin my 6th and final year as your editor-in-chief, I thank you for entrusting me with the JCMR editorship. I hope that you will continue to send us your very best, high quality manuscripts for JCMR consideration and that our readers will continue to look to JCMR for the very best/state-of-the-art CMR publications. The editorial process continues to be a tremendously fulfilling experience and the opportunity to review manuscripts that reflect the best in our field remains a great joy and true highlight of my week!

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 03 Mar 2022; 24:14
Manning WJ
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 03 Mar 2022; 24:14 | PMID: 35246157
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Abstract

30-minute CMR for common clinical indications: a Society for Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance white paper.

Raman SV, Markl M, Patel AR, Bryant J, ... Plein S, Seiberlich N
Background
Despite decades of accruing evidence supporting the clinical utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), adoption of CMR in routine cardiovascular practice remains limited in many regions of the world. Persistent use of long scan times of 60 min or more contributes to limited adoption, though techniques available on most scanners afford routine CMR examination within 30 min. Incorporating such techniques into standardize protocols can answer common clinical questions in daily practice, including those related to heart failure, cardiomyopathy, ventricular arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease, and non-ischemic myocardial injury. BODY: In this white paper, we describe CMR protocols of 30 min or shorter duration with routine techniques with or without stress perfusion, plus specific approaches in patient and scanner room preparation for efficiency. Minimum requirements for the scanner gradient system, coil hardware and pulse sequences are detailed. Recent advances such as quantitative myocardial mapping and other add-on acquisitions can be incorporated into the proposed protocols without significant extension of scan duration for most patients.
Conclusion
Common questions in clinical cardiovascular practice can be answered in routine CMR protocols under 30 min; their incorporation warrants consideration to facilitate increased access to CMR worldwide.

© 2022. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Feb 2022; 24:13
Raman SV, Markl M, Patel AR, Bryant J, ... Plein S, Seiberlich N
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Feb 2022; 24:13 | PMID: 35232470
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This program is still in alpha version.