Journal: J Cardiovasc Magn Reson

Sorted by: date / impact
Abstract

Multi-parametric cardiovascular magnetic resonance with regadenoson stress perfusion is safe following pediatric heart transplantation and identifies history of rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

Husain N, Watanabe K, Berhane H, Gupta A, ... Rigsby CK, Robinson JD
Background
The progressive risk of graft failure in pediatric heart transplantation (PHT) necessitates close surveillance for rejection and coronary allograft vasculopathy (CAV). The current gold standard of surveillance via invasive coronary angiography is costly, imperfect and associated with complications. Our goal was to assess the safety and feasibility of a comprehensive multi-parametric CMR protocol with regadenoson stress perfusion in PHT and evaluate for associations with clinical history of rejection and CAV.
Methods
We performed a retrospective review of 26 PHT recipients who underwent stress CMR with tissue characterization and compared with 18 age-matched healthy controls. CMR protocol included myocardial T2, T1 and extracellular volume (ECV) mapping, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), qualitative and semi-quantitative stress perfusion (myocardial perfusion reserve index; MPRI) and strain imaging. Clinical, demographics, rejection score and CAV history were recorded and correlated with CMR parameters.
Results
Mean age at transplant was 9.3 ± 5.5 years and median duration since transplant was 5.1 years (IQR 7.5 years). One patient had active rejection at the time of CMR, 11/26 (42%) had CAV 1 and 1/26 (4%) had CAV 2. Biventricular volumes were smaller and cardiac output higher in PHT vs. healthy controls. Global T1 (1053 ± 42 ms vs 986 ± 42 ms; p < 0.001) and ECV (26.5 ± 4.0% vs 24.0 ± 2.7%; p = 0.017) were higher in PHT compared to helathy controls. Significant relationships between changes in myocardial tissue structure and function were noted in PHT: increased T2 correlated with reduced LVEF (r = - 0.57, p = 0.005), reduced global circumferential strain (r = - 0.73, p < 0.001) and reduced global longitudinal strain (r = - 0.49, p = 0.03). In addition, significant relationships were noted between higher rejection score and global T1 (r = 0.38, p = 0.05), T2 (r = 0.39, p = 0.058) and ECV (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). The presence of even low-grade CAV was associated with higher global T1, global ECV and maximum segmental T2. No major side effects were noted with stress testing. MPRI was analyzed with good interobserver reliability and was lower in PHT compared to healthy controls (0.69 ± - 0.21 vs 0.94 ± 0.22; p < 0.001).
Conclusion
In a PHT population with low incidence of rejection or high-grade CAV, CMR demonstrates important differences in myocardial structure, function and perfusion compared to age-matched healthy controls. Regadenoson stress perfusion CMR could be safely and reliably performed. Increasing T2 values were associated with worsening left ventricular function and increasing T1/ECV values were associated with rejection history and low-grade CAV. These findings warrant larger prospective studies to further define the role of CMR in PHT graft surveillance.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 21 Nov 2021; 23:135
Husain N, Watanabe K, Berhane H, Gupta A, ... Rigsby CK, Robinson JD
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 21 Nov 2021; 23:135 | PMID: 34809650
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Peak flow measurements in patients with severe aortic stenosis: a prospective comparative study between cardiovascular magnetic resonance 2D and 4D flow and transthoracic echocardiography.

Hälvä R, Vaara SM, Peltonen JI, Kaasalainen TT, ... Kivistö S, Syväranta S
Background
Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most prevalent valvular disease in the developed countries. Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is an emerging imaging technique, which has been suggested to improve the evaluation of AS severity compared to two-dimensional (2D) flow and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We investigated the reliability of CMR 2D flow and 4D flow techniques in measuring aortic transvalvular peak systolic flow in patients with severe AS.
Methods
We prospectively recruited 90 patients referred for aortic valve replacement due to severe AS (73.3 ± 11.3 years, aortic valve area 0.7 ± 0.1 cm2, and 54/36 tricuspid/bicuspid), and 10 non-valvular disease controls. All the patients underwent echocardiography and 2D flow and 4D flow CMR. Peak flow velocity measurements were compared using Wilcoxon signed rank sum test and Bland-Altman analysis.
Results
4D flow underestimated peak flow velocity in the AS group when compared with TTE (bias - 1.1 m/s, limits of agreement ± 1.4 m/s) and 2D flow (bias - 1.2 m/s, limits of agreement ± 1.6 m/s). The differences between values obtained by TTE (median 4.3 m/s, range 2.7-6.1 m/s) and 2D flow (median 4.5 m/s, range 2.9-6.5 m/s) compared to 4D flow (median 3.1 m/s, range 1.7-5.1 m/s) were significant (p < 0.001). The difference between 2D flow and TTE were insignificant (bias 0.07 m/s, limits of agreement ± 1.5 m/s). In non-valvular disease controls, peak flow velocity was measured higher by 4D flow than 2D flow (1.4 m/s, 1.1-1.7 m/s and 1.3 m/s, 1.1-1.5 m/s, respectively; bias 0.2 m/s, limits of agreement ± 0.16 m/s).
Conclusions
CMR 4D flow significantly underestimates systolic peak flow velocity in patients with severe AS. 2D flow, in turn, estimated the AS velocity accurately, with measured peak flow velocities comparable to TTE.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 14 Nov 2021; 23:132
Hälvä R, Vaara SM, Peltonen JI, Kaasalainen TT, ... Kivistö S, Syväranta S
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 14 Nov 2021; 23:132 | PMID: 34775954
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Adverse fibrosis remodeling and aortopulmonary collateral flow are associated with poor Fontan outcomes.

Pisesky A, Reichert MJE, de Lange C, Seed M, ... Lam CZ, Grosse-Wortmann L
Background
The extent and significance in of cardiac remodeling in Fontan patients are unclear and were the subject of this study.
Methods
This retrospective cohort study compared cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging markers of cardiac function, myocardial fibrosis, and hemodynamics in young Fontan patients to controls.
Results
Fifty-five Fontan patients and 44 healthy controls were included (median age 14 years (range 7-17 years) vs 13 years (range 4-14 years), p = 0.057). Fontan patients had a higher indexed end-diastolic ventricular volume (EDVI 129 ml/m2 vs 93 ml/m2, p < 0.001), and lower ejection fraction (EF 45% vs 58%, p < 0.001), circumferential (CS - 23.5% vs - 30.8%, p < 0.001), radial (6.4% vs 8.2%, p < 0.001), and longitudinal strain (- 13.3% vs - 24.8%, p < 0.001). Compared to healthy controls, Fontan patients had higher extracellular volume fraction (ECV) (26.3% vs 20.6%, p < 0.001) and native T1 (1041 ms vs 986 ms, p < 0.001). Patients with a dominant right ventricle demonstrated larger ventricles (EDVI 146 ml/m2 vs 120 ml/m2, p = 0.03), lower EF (41% vs 47%, p = 0.008), worse CS (- 20.1% vs - 25.6%, p = 0.003), and a trend towards higher ECV (28.3% versus 24.1%, p = 0.09). Worse EF and CS correlated with longer cumulative bypass (R = - 0.36, p = 0.003 and R = 0.46, p < 0.001), cross-clamp (R = - 0.41, p = 0.001 and R = 0.40, p = 0.003) and circulatory arrest times (R = - 0.42, p < 0.001 and R = 0.27, p = 0.03). T1 correlated with aortopulmonary collateral (APC) flow (R = 0.36, p = 0.009) which, in the linear regression model, was independent of ventricular morphology (p = 0.9) and EDVI (p = 0.2). The composite outcome (cardiac readmission, cardiac reintervention, Fontan failure or any clinically significant arrhythmia) was associated with increased native T1 (1063 ms vs 1026 ms, p = 0.029) and EDVI (146 ml/m2 vs 118 ml/m2, p = 0.013), as well as decreased EF (42% vs 46%, p = 0.045) and worse CS (- 22% vs - 25%, p = 0.029). APC flow (HR 5.5 CI 1.9-16.2, p = 0.002) was independently associated with the composite outcome, independent of ventricular morphology (HR 0.71 CI 0.30-1.69 p = 0.44) and T1 (HR1.006 CI 1.0-1.13, p = 0.07).
Conclusions
Pediatric Fontan patients have ventricular dysfunction, altered myocardial mechanics and increased fibrotic remodeling. Cumulative exposure to cardiopulmonary bypass and increased aortopulmonary collateral flow are associated with myocardial dysfunction and fibrosis. Cardiac dysfunction, fibrosis, and collateral flow are associated with adverse outcomes.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 14 Nov 2021; 23:134
Pisesky A, Reichert MJE, de Lange C, Seed M, ... Lam CZ, Grosse-Wortmann L
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 14 Nov 2021; 23:134 | PMID: 34781968
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Myocardial changes on 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in response to haemodialysis with fluid removal.

Rankin AJ, Mangion K, Lees JS, Rutherford E, ... Roditi G, Mark PB
Background
Mapping of left ventricular (LV) native T1 is a promising non-invasive, non-contrast imaging biomarker. Native myocardial T1 times are prolonged in patients requiring dialysis, but there are concerns that the dialysis process and fluctuating fluid status may confound results in this population. We aimed to assess the changes in cardiac parameters on 3T cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) before and after haemodialysis, with a specific focus on native T1 mapping.
Methods
This is a single centre, prospective observational study in which maintenance haemodialysis patients underwent CMR before and after dialysis (both scans within 24 h). Weight measurement, bio-impedance body composition monitoring, haemodialysis details and fluid intake were recorded. CMR protocol included cine imaging and mapping native T1 and T2.
Results
Twenty-six participants (16 male, 65 ± 9 years) were included in the analysis. The median net ultrafiltration volume on dialysis was 2.3 L (IQR 1.8, 2.5), resulting in a median weight reduction at post-dialysis scan of 1.35 kg (IQR 1.0, 1.9), with a median reduction in over-hydration (as measured by bioimpedance) of 0.75 L (IQR 0.5, 1.4). Significant reductions were observed in LV end-diastolic volume (- 25 ml, p = 0.002), LV stroke volume (- 13 ml, p = 0.007), global T1 (21 ms, p = 0.02), global T2 (- 1.2 ms, p = 0.02) following dialysis. There was no change in LV mass (p = 0.35), LV ejection fraction (p = 0.13) or global longitudinal strain (p = 0.22). On linear regression there was no association between baseline over-hydration (as defined by bioimpedance) and global native T1 or global T2, nor was there an association between the change in over-hydration and the change in these parameters.
Conclusions
Acute changes in cardiac volumes and myocardial native T1 are detectable on 3T CMR following haemodialysis with fluid removal. The reduction in global T1 suggests that the abnormal native T1 observed in patients on haemodialysis is not entirely due to myocardial fibrosis.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 10 Nov 2021; 23:125
Rankin AJ, Mangion K, Lees JS, Rutherford E, ... Roditi G, Mark PB
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 10 Nov 2021; 23:125 | PMID: 34758850
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Atri-U: assisted image analysis in routine cardiovascular magnetic resonance volumetry of the left atrium.

Anastasopoulos C, Yang S, Pradella M, Akinci D\'Antonoli T, ... Sommer G, Abdulkadir A
Background
Artificial intelligence can assist in cardiac image interpretation. Here, we achieved a substantial reduction in time required to read a cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) study to estimate left atrial volume without compromising accuracy or reliability. Rather than deploying a fully automatic black-box, we propose to incorporate the automated LA volumetry into a human-centric interactive image-analysis process.
Methods and results
Atri-U, an automated data analysis pipeline for long-axis cardiac cine images, computes the atrial volume by: (i) detecting the end-systolic frame, (ii) outlining the endocardial borders of the LA, (iii) localizing the mitral annular hinge points and constructing the longitudinal atrial diameters, equivalent to the usual workup done by clinicians. In every step human interaction is possible, such that the results provided by the algorithm can be accepted, corrected, or re-done from scratch. Atri-U was trained and evaluated retrospectively on a sample of 300 patients and then applied to a consecutive clinical sample of 150 patients with various heart conditions. The agreement of the indexed LA volume between Atri-U and two experts was similar to the inter-rater agreement between clinicians (average overestimation of 0.8 mL/m2 with upper and lower limits of agreement of - 7.5 and 5.8 mL/m2, respectively). An expert cardiologist blinded to the origin of the annotations rated the outputs produced by Atri-U as acceptable in 97% of cases for step (i), 94% for step (ii) and 95% for step (iii), which was slightly lower than the acceptance rate of the outputs produced by a human expert radiologist in the same cases (92%, 100% and 100%, respectively). The assistance of Atri-U lead to an expected reduction in reading time of 66%-from 105 to 34 s, in our in-house clinical setting.
Conclusions
Our proposal enables automated calculation of the maximum LA volume approaching human accuracy and precision. The optional user interaction is possible at each processing step. As such, the assisted process sped up the routine CMR workflow by providing accurate, precise, and validated measurement results.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 10 Nov 2021; 23:133
Anastasopoulos C, Yang S, Pradella M, Akinci D'Antonoli T, ... Sommer G, Abdulkadir A
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 10 Nov 2021; 23:133 | PMID: 34758821
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Impaired left atrial reservoir and conduit strain in patients with atrial fibrillation and extensive left atrial fibrosis.

Hopman LHGA, Mulder MJ, van der Laan AM, Demirkiran A, ... Allaart CP, Götte MJW
Background
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is associated with profound structural and functional changes in the atria. In the present study, we investigated the association between left atrial (LA) phasic function and the extent of LA fibrosis using advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging techniques, including 3-dimensional (3D) late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and feature tracking.
Methods
Patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF (n = 105) underwent CMR in sinus rhythm. LA global reservoir strain, conduit strain and contractile strain were derived from cine CMR images using CMR feature tracking. The extent of LA fibrosis was assessed from 3D LGE images. Healthy subjects underwent CMR and served as controls (n = 19).
Results
Significantly lower LA reservoir strain, conduit strain and contractile strain were found in AF patients, as compared to healthy controls (- 15.9 ± 3.8% vs. - 21.1 ± 3.6% P < 0.001, - 8.7 ± 2.7% vs. - 12.6 ± 2.5% P < 0.001 and - 7.2 ± 2.3% vs. - 8.6 ± 2.2% P = 0.02, respectively). Patients with a high degree of LA fibrosis (dichotomized by the median value) had lower reservoir strain and conduit strain compared to patients with a low degree of LA fibrosis (- 15.0 ± 3.9% vs. - 16.9 ± 3.3%, P = 0.02 and - 7.9 ± 2.7% vs. - 9.5 ± 2.6%, P = 0.01, respectively). In contrast, no difference was found for LA contractile strain (- 7.1 ± 2.4% vs. - 7.4 ± 2.3%, P = 0.55).
Conclusions
Impaired LA reservoir and conduit strain are present in AF patients with extensive atrial fibrosis. Future studies are needed to examine the biologic nature of this association and possible therapeutic implications.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 10 Nov 2021; 23:131
Hopman LHGA, Mulder MJ, van der Laan AM, Demirkiran A, ... Allaart CP, Götte MJW
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 10 Nov 2021; 23:131 | PMID: 34758820
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Bright-blood and dark-blood phase sensitive inversion recovery late gadolinium enhancement and T1 and T2 maps in a single free-breathing scan: an all-in-one approach.

Kellman P, Xue H, Chow K, Howard J, ... Cole G, Fontana M
Background
Quantitative cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) T1 and T2 mapping are used to detect diffuse disease such as myocardial fibrosis or edema. However, post gadolinium contrast mapping often lacks visual contrast needed for assessment of focal scar. On the other hand, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) CMR which nulls the normal myocardium has excellent contrast between focal scar and normal myocardium but has poor ability to detect global disease. The objective of this work is to provide a calculated bright-blood (BB) and dark-blood (DB) LGE based on simultaneous acquisition of T1 and T2 maps, so that both diffuse and focal disease may be assessed within a single multi-parametric acquisition.
Methods
The prototype saturation recovery-based SASHA T1 mapping may be modified to jointly calculate T1 and T2 maps (known as multi-parametric SASHA) by acquiring additional saturation recovery (SR) images with both SR and T2 preparations. The synthetic BB phase sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) LGE may be calculated from the post-contrast T1, and the DB PSIR LGE may be calculated from the post-contrast joint T1 and T2 maps. Multi-parametric SASHA maps were acquired free-breathing (45 heartbeats). Protocols were designed to use the same spatial resolution and achieve similar signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as conventional motion corrected (MOCO) PSIR. The calculated BB and DB LGE were compared with separate free breathing (FB) BB and DB MOCO PSIR acquisitions requiring 16 and 32 heart beats, respectively. One slice with myocardial infarction (MI) was acquired with all protocols within 4 min.
Results
Multiparametric T1 and T2 maps and calculated BB and DB PSIR LGE images were acquired for patients with subendocardial chronic MI (n = 10), acute MI (n = 3), and myocarditis (n = 1). The contrast-to-noise (CNR) between scar (MI and myocarditis) and remote was 26.6 ± 7.7 and 20.2 ± 7.4 for BB and DB PSIR LGE, and 31.3 ± 10.6 and 21.8 ± 7.6 for calculated BB and DB PSIR LGE, respectively. The CNR between scar and the left ventricualr blood pool was 5.2 ± 6.5 and 29.7 ± 9.4 for conventional BB and DB PSIR LGE, and 6.5 ± 6.0 and 38.6 ± 11.6 for calculated BB and DB PSIR LGE, respectively.
Conclusions
A single free-breathing acquisition using multi-parametric SASHA provides T1 and T2 maps and calculated BB and DB PSIR LGE images for comprehensive tissue characterization.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 07 Nov 2021; 23:126
Kellman P, Xue H, Chow K, Howard J, ... Cole G, Fontana M
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 07 Nov 2021; 23:126 | PMID: 34743718
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Progressive myocardial injury in myotonic dystrophy type II and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy 1: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance follow-up study.

Blaszczyk E, Lim C, Kellman P, Schmacht L, ... Spuler S, Schulz-Menger J
Aim
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a progressive disease with predominantly muscular symptoms. Myotonic dystrophy type II (MD2) and facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1) are gaining an increasing awareness, but data on cardiac involvement are conflicting. The aim of this study was to determine a progression of cardiac remodeling in both entities by applying cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and evaluate its potential relation to arrhythmias as well as to conduction abnormalities.
Methods and results
83 MD2 and FSHD1 patients were followed. The participation was 87% in MD2 and 80% in FSHD1. 1.5 T CMR was performed to assess functional parameters as well as myocardial tissue characterization applying T1 and T2 mapping, fat/water-separated imaging and late gadolinium enhancement. Focal fibrosis was detected in 23% of MD2) and 33% of FSHD1 subjects and fat infiltration in 32% of MD2 and 28% of FSHD1 subjects, respectively. The incidence of all focal findings was higher at follow-up. T2 decreased, whereas native T1 remained stable. Global extracellular volume fraction (ECV) decreased similarly to the fibrosis volume while the total cell volume remained unchanged. All patients with focal fibrosis showed a significant increase in left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) volumes. An increase of arrhythmic events was observed. All patients with ventricular arrhythmias had focal myocardial changes and an increased volume of both ventricles (LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) p = 0.003, RVEDV p = 0.031). Patients with supraventricular tachycardias had a significantly higher left atrial volume (p = 0.047).
Conclusion
We observed a remarkably fast and progressive decline of cardiac morphology and function as well as a progression of rhythm disturbances, even in asymptomatic patients with a potential association between an increase in arrhythmias and progression of myocardial tissue damage, such as focal fibrosis and fat infiltration, exists. These results suggest that MD2 and FSHD1 patients should be carefully followed-up to identify early development of remodeling and potential risks for the development of further cardiac events even in the absence of symptoms. Trial registration ISRCTN, ID ISRCTN16491505. Registered 29 November 2017 - Retrospectively registered, http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN16491505.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 07 Nov 2021; 23:130
Blaszczyk E, Lim C, Kellman P, Schmacht L, ... Spuler S, Schulz-Menger J
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 07 Nov 2021; 23:130 | PMID: 34743704
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Accuracy of stroke volume measurement with phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with aortic stenosis.

Guzzetti E, Racine HP, Tastet L, Shen M, ... Pibarot P, Beaudoin J
Background
Phase contrast (PC) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in the ascending aorta (AAo) is widely used to calculate left ventricular (LV) stroke volume (SV). The accuracy of PC CMR may be altered by turbulent flow. Measurement of SV at another site is suggested in the presence of aortic stenosis, but very few data validates the accuracy or inaccuracy of PC in that setting. Our objective is to compare flow measurements obtained in the AAo and LV outflow tract (LVOT) in patients with aortic stenosis.
Methods
Retrospective analysis of patients with aortic stenosis who had CMR and echocardiography. Patients with mitral regurgitation were excluded. PC in the AAo and LVOT were acquired to derive SV. LV SV from end-systolic and end-diastolic tracings was used as the reference measure. A difference ≥ 10% between the volumetric method and PC derived SVs was considered discordant. Metrics of turbulence and jet eccentricity were assessed to explore the predictors of discordant measurements.
Results
We included 88 patients, 41% with bicuspid aortic valve. LVOT SV was concordant with the volumetric method in 79 (90%) patients vs 52 (59%) patients for AAo SV (p = 0.015). In multivariate analysis, aortic stenosis flow jet angle was a strong predictor of discordant measurement in the AAo (p = 0.003). Mathematical correction for the jet angle improved the concordance from 59 to 91%. Concordance was comparable in patients with bicuspid and trileaflet valves (57% and 62% concordance respectively; p = 0.11). Accuracy of SV measured in the LVOT was not influenced by jet eccentricity. For aortic regurgitation quantification, PC in the AAo had better correlation to volumetric assessments than LVOT PC.
Conclusion
LVOT PC SV in patients with aortic stenosis and eccentric jet might be more accurate compared to the AAo SV. Mathematical correction for the jet angle in the AAo might be another alternative to improve accuracy.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 03 Nov 2021; 23:124
Guzzetti E, Racine HP, Tastet L, Shen M, ... Pibarot P, Beaudoin J
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 03 Nov 2021; 23:124 | PMID: 34732204
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Non-transmural myocardial infarction associated with regional contractile function is an independent predictor of positive outcome: an integrated approach to myocardial viability.

Di Bella G, Aquaro GD, Bogaert J, Piaggi P, ... Khandheria BK, Pingitore A
Background
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance permits assessment of irreversible myocardial fibrosis and contractile function in patients with previous myocardial infarction. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of myocardial fibrotic tissue with preserved/restored contractile activity.
Methods
In 730 consecutive myocardial infarction patients (64 ± 11 years), we quantified left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic (EDV) and end-systolic (ESV) volumes, ejection fraction (EF), regional wall motion (WM) (1 normal, 2 hypokinetic, 3 akinetic, 4 dyskinetic), and WM score index (WMSI), and measured the transmural (1-50 and 51-100) and global extent of the infarct scar by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Contractile fibrotic (CT-F) segments were identified as those showing WM-1 and WM-2 with LGE ≤ or ≥ 50%.
Results
During follow-up (median 2.5, range 1-4.7 years), cardiac events (cardiac death or appropriate implantable defibrillator shocks) occurred in 123 patients (17%). At univariate analysis, age, LVEDV, LVESV, LVEF, WMSI, extent of LGE, segments with transmural extent > 50%, and CT-F segments were associated with cardiac events. At multivariate analysis, age > 65 years, LVEF < 30%, WMSI > 1.7, and dilated LVEDV independently predicted cardiac events, while CT-F tissue was the only independent predictor of better outcome. After adjustment for LVEF < 30% and LVEDV dilatation, the presence of CT-F tissue was associated with good prognosis.
Conclusions
In addition to CMR imaging parameters associated with adverse outcome (severe LV dysfunction, poor WM, and dilated EDV), the presence of fibrotic myocardium showing contractile activity in patients with previous myocardial infarction yields a beneficial effect on patient survival.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 31 Oct 2021; 23:121
Di Bella G, Aquaro GD, Bogaert J, Piaggi P, ... Khandheria BK, Pingitore A
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 31 Oct 2021; 23:121 | PMID: 34719402
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Dark blood cardiovascular magnetic resonance of the heart, great vessels, and lungs using electrocardiographic-gated three-dimensional unbalanced steady-state free precession.

Edelman RR, Leloudas N, Pang J, Koktzoglou I
Background
Recently, we reported a novel neuroimaging technique, unbalanced T1 Relaxation-Enhanced Steady-State (uT1RESS), which uses a tailored 3D unbalanced steady-state free precession (3D uSSFP) acquisition to suppress the blood pool signal while minimizing bulk motion sensitivity. In the present work, we hypothesized that 3D uSSFP might also be useful for dark blood imaging of the chest. To test the feasibility of this approach, we performed a pilot study in healthy subjects and patients undergoing cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).
Main body
The study was approved by the hospital institutional review board. Thirty-one adult subjects were imaged at 1.5 T, including 5 healthy adult subjects and 26 patients (44 to 86 years, 10 female) undergoing a clinically indicated CMR. Breath-holding was used in 29 subjects and navigator gating in 2 subjects. For breath-hold acquisitions, the 3D uSSFP pulse sequence used a high sampling bandwidth, asymmetric readout, and single-shot along the phase-encoding direction, while 3 shots were acquired for navigator-gated scans. To minimize signal dephasing from bulk motion, electrocardiographic (ECG) gating was used to synchronize the data acquisition to the diastolic phase of the cardiac cycle. To further reduce motion sensitivity, the moment of the dephasing gradient was set to one-fifth of the moment of the readout gradient. Image quality using 3D uSSFP was good-to-excellent in all subjects. The blood pool signal in the thoracic aorta was uniformly suppressed with sharp delineation of the aortic wall including two cases of ascending aortic aneurysm and two cases of aortic dissection. Compared with variable flip angle 3D turbo spin-echo, 3D uSSFP showed improved aortic wall sharpness. It was also more efficient, permitting the acquisition of 24 slices in each breath-hold versus 16 slices with 3D turbo spin-echo and a single slice with dual inversion 2D turbo spin-echo. In addition, lung and mediastinal lesions appeared highly conspicuous compared with the low blood pool signals within the heart and blood vessels. In two subjects, navigator-gated 3D uSSFP provided excellent delineation of cardiac morphology in double oblique multiplanar reformations.
Conclusion
In this pilot study, we have demonstrated the feasibility of using ECG-gated 3D uSSFP for dark blood imaging of the heart, great vessels, and lungs. Further study will be required to fully optimize the technique and to assess clinical utility.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 31 Oct 2021; 23:127
Edelman RR, Leloudas N, Pang J, Koktzoglou I
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 31 Oct 2021; 23:127 | PMID: 34724939
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.