Journal: Prog Cardiovasc Dis

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Abstract

Increasing physical activity in the community setting.

Peterman JE, Loy S, Carlos J, Arena R, Kaminsky LA

Physical activity (PA) is beneficial for both mental and physical health, yet many individuals do not meet PA recommendations. There are a multitude of approaches to increase levels of PA and the role of the community is one area of growing interest. This review discusses the community environment as well as programs within the community and their influence on PA levels. Despite some research limitations, there are clear factors associated with community-based PA. Strategies that improve the built environment along with community-based programs have shown success, although differences between the characteristics of communities can mean strategies to promote PA are not universally effective. Additional research is needed on effective strategies that can be tailored to the characteristics of the community to increase PA. Further, public health interventions and policies should consider the role of the community when aiming to increase PA levels.

Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 28 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Peterman JE, Loy S, Carlos J, Arena R, Kaminsky LA
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 28 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33130191
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Abstract

Implementing movement at the workplace: Approaches to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior in the context of work.

Pronk NP

The purpose of this article is to highlight approaches to increase movement, physical activity (PA), and cardiorespiratory fitness, and reduce sedentary behavior (SB) in the context of the workplace. A deliberate strategy that will enable the successful promotion of movement at the workplace includes a business plan and rationale, an organizing framework, prioritization of interventions that are known to generate outcomes, and alignment of programmatic solutions with strong program design principles. Recommended principles of design include leadership, relevance, partnership, comprehensiveness, implementation, engagement, communications, being data-driven, and compliance. Specific evidence-based intervention examples are presented in the context of a socio-ecological framework including the individual, group, communications environment, physical environment, and policy domains. Increased movement at the workplace, as a result of promoting PA and reducing SB, generates important health outcomes across physical, mental, social, and economic domains and these benefits extend across the individual and organizational levels.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 23 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Pronk NP
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 23 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33164840
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Abstract

Age-related change in peak oxygen uptake and change of cardiovascular risk factors. The HUNT Study.

Letnes JM, Dalen H, Aspenes ST, Salvesen Ø, Wisløff U, Nes BM
Background
Large longitudinal studies on change in directly measured peak oxygen uptake (VO) is lacking, and its significance for change of cardiovascular risk factors is uncertain. We aimed to assess ten-year change in VO and the influence of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), and the association between change in VO and change in cardiovascular risk factors.
Methods and results
A healthy general population sample had their VO directly measured in two (n = 1431) surveys of the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3; 2006-2008 and HUNT4; 2017-19). Average ten-year decline in VO was non-linear and progressed from 3% in the third to about 20% in the eight decade in life and was more pronounced in men. The fit linear mixed models including an additional 2,933 observations from subjects participating only in HUNT3 showed similar age-related decline. Self-reported adherence to LTPA recommendations was associated with better maintenance of VO, with intensity seemingly more important than minutes of LTPA with higher age. Adjusted linear regression analyses showed that one mL/kg/min better maintenance of VO was associated with favorable changes of individual cardiovascular risk factors (all p ≤ 0.002). Using logistic regression one mL/kg/min better maintenance of VO was associated with lower adjusted odds ratio of hypertension (0.95 95% CI 0.92 to 0.98), dyslipidemia (0.92 95% CI 0.89 to 0.94), and metabolic syndrome (0.86 95% CI 0.83 to 0.90) at follow-up.
Conclusions
Although VO declines progressively with age, performing LTPA and especially high-intensity LTPA is associated with less decline. Maintaining VO is associated with an improved cardiovascular risk profile.

Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 20 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Letnes JM, Dalen H, Aspenes ST, Salvesen Ø, Wisløff U, Nes BM
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 20 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32971113
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Abstract

The impact of moving more, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness: Why we should strive to measure and improve fitness.

Myers J, Kokkinos P, Arena R, LaMonte MJ

A large and growing body of epidemiologic research spanning roughly 7 decades has demonstrated that individuals who are more physically active have a lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all-cause mortality compared to those who are comparatively sedentary. Despite these well-established benefits of physical activity (PA), most adults and children do not get an adequate amount of PA. This is true not just in the United States but has been increasingly recognized throughout advanced countries. The theme of this Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases Symposium is \"moving more\", recognizing that any amount of increased physical movement, including occupational, recreational, household tasks, etc., has significant health benefits. Being physically active is associated with better health outcomes independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), a concept that would have been considered heretical a few decades ago. We now recognize that simply moving from a sedentary to a moderately active group or modest increases in CRF (e.g. moving from the least fit quintile of CRF to the next least fit quintile) has the most noticeable health benefits. In this review, the concept of \"moving more\" and its implications for CRF are discussed as they relate to the prevention and treatment of CVD.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 04 Nov 2020; epub ahead of print
Myers J, Kokkinos P, Arena R, LaMonte MJ
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 04 Nov 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33160944
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Abstract

Overcoming barriers to physical activity in underserved populations.

Bantham A, Taverno Ross SE, Sebastião E, Hall G

There is compelling evidence suggesting underserved populations, including racial/ethnic minorities and individuals with low socioeconomic status, are less likely to partake in sufficient amounts of physical activity (PA) at recommended levels. Communities of color and low-income individuals face institutional, societal, and environmental barriers that may prevent them from achieving adequate levels of PA. However, these communities also possess a wealth of knowledge, assets, and support that can be harnessed to help individuals meet PA guidelines. This paper outlines the barriers to PA and explores how to overcome them, drawing from case studies of successful, evidence-based interventions that use culturally- and linguistically- appropriate approaches to increase PA in underserved populations.

Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 04 Nov 2020; epub ahead of print
Bantham A, Taverno Ross SE, Sebastião E, Hall G
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 04 Nov 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33159937
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Abstract

The current global state of movement and physical activity - the health and economic costs of the inactive phenotype.

Jayasinghe S, Byrne NM, Patterson KAE, Ahuja KDK, Hills AP

Physical inactivity is one of the major contributing factors to the global pandemic of non-communicable diseases. Unfortunately, low levels of habitual movement and physical activity (PA) are seen in an increasing proportion of populations across low- and middle-income countries and high-income countries alike. This new normal - the inactive phenotype - is a significant contributor to multiple health and economic costs. Here we provide a brief historical overview of societal declines in PA, roughly consistent with major transitions in PA and nutrition in recent decades. This is followed by a synthesis of research evidence linking inactivity with poor health outcomes and prevention approaches needed to impact a perpetuation of poor lifestyle behaviors. A major focus of the paper is on the economic/health costs and the reduction of the inactive phenotype. In summary, we demonstrate that the consequences of insufficient PA are manifold, and if sustained, impact short and long-term health and quality of life, along with substantial economic costs.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 29 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Jayasinghe S, Byrne NM, Patterson KAE, Ahuja KDK, Hills AP
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 29 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33130190
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Abstract

Leveraging technology to move more and sit less.

Rubin DS, Rich Severin , Arena R, Bond S

One of the major changes in the updated physical activity (PA) guidelines is the recommendation for adults to simply move more and sit less throughout the day. This recommendation comes during a time of proliferation and advancement of personal health technologies that allow adults greater access to interventions to increase PA. Wearable activity monitors provide direct feedback of activity levels allowing users to reach PA targets throughout the day. Gamification of these and other devices can engage users and sustain their motivation to increase PA, along with the formation of social networks through social media platforms. This review will discuss and present an overview of current technologies that can be leveraged to increase PA in adults. Specific attention will be paid to wearable activity monitors, gamification and social network platforms that can help adults increase and sustain their PA levels to improve their overall health.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 28 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Rubin DS, Rich Severin , Arena R, Bond S
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 28 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33129794
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Abstract

Risk stratification using late gadolinium enhancement on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Kamp NJ, Chery G, Kosinski AS, Desai MY, ... Morin DP, Al-Khatib SM

Background The role of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (c-MRI) for predicting outcomes of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has been debated. Methods We searched PubMed and Embase and various published bibliographies for prospective studies published in English between January 1990 and February 2019. Two investigators screened 2646 abstracts and full-text articles for inclusion and relevant outcomes. We then performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to calculate pooled odds ratios for LGE on c-MRI and a pooled sensitivity and specificity analysis. Results Our systematic review included 8 prospective studies and 3808 patients. LGE positivity was associated with higher odds of the endpoint of sudden cardiac death (SCD;OR 1.69, 95%CI 1.03-2.78), aborted SCD or appropriate implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD) discharge (OR 3.27 [1.75-6.10]), SCD or aborted SCD or appropriate ICD discharge (OR 2.32 [1.56-3.43]), and all-cause mortality (OR 2.10 [CI 1.00-4.41]). The pooled sensitivity and specificity of positive LGE on c-MRI for SCD were 65% and 42%, respectively; for aborted SCD or appropriate ICD discharge, 79% and 39%; for SCD or aborted SCD or appropriate ICD discharge, 74% and 39%; and for all-cause mortality, 78% and 39%. Conclusion In patients with HCM, LGE on c-MRI is a strong predictor of arrhythmic outcomes including SCD, aborted SCD, and appropriate ICD therapy. These data support the routine use of LGE on c-MRI as a marker of SCD risk in this population.

Copyright © 2020 Anesthesia History Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 06 Nov 2020; epub ahead of print
Kamp NJ, Chery G, Kosinski AS, Desai MY, ... Morin DP, Al-Khatib SM
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 06 Nov 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33171204
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Abstract

Running away from cardiovascular disease at the right speed: The impact of aerobic physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness on cardiovascular disease risk and associated subclinical phenotypes.

Mehta A, Kondamudi N, Laukkanen JA, Wisloff U, ... Lavie CJ, Pandey A

Higher levels of physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with lower risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the relationship of aerobic PA and CRF with risk of atherosclerotic CVD outcomes and heart failure (HF) seem to be distinct. Furthermore, recent studies have raised concerns of potential toxicity associated with extreme levels of aerobic exercise, with higher levels of coronary artery calcium and incident atrial fibrillation noted among individuals with very high PA levels. In contrast, the relationship between PA levels and measures of left ventricular structure and function and risk of HF is more linear. Thus, personalizing exercise levels to optimal doses may be key to achieving beneficial outcomes and preventing adverse CVD events among high risk individuals. In this report, we provide a comprehensive review of the literature on the associations of aerobic PA and CRF levels with risk of adverse CVD outcomes and the preceding subclinical cardiac phenotypes to better characterize the optimal exercise dose needed to favorably modify CVD risk.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 11 Nov 2020; epub ahead of print
Mehta A, Kondamudi N, Laukkanen JA, Wisloff U, ... Lavie CJ, Pandey A
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 11 Nov 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33189764
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Abstract

Effects of a 16-week recreational team handball intervention on aerobic performance and cardiometabolic fitness markers in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

Pereira R, Krustrup P, Castagna C, Coelho E, ... Magalhães J, Póvoas S
Background
Postmenopausal women have an elevated risk of developing cardiovascular diseases, which can be counteracted by conventional exercise regimes or recreational football. Less is known about the impact of exercise programmes based on other team sports. Thus, we examined the effects of recreational team handball on aerobic performance, cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiometabolic health in untrained postmenopausal women.
Methods
Sixty-seven participants (age 68 ± 6 years, stature 157 ± 6 cm, body mass 67 ± 10 kg, fat mass 37 ± 7%, VO 25.2 ± 3.6 mL/min/kg, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance level 1 test performance (YYIE1) 230 ± 103 m) with no previous experience of team handball were randomly allocated to either a team handball (THG, n = 41) or a control (CG, n = 26) group. THG performed 2-3 60-min training sessions per week for 16 weeks. YYIE1 performance and cardiometabolic markers were evaluated at baseline and post-intervention.
Results
Average attendance during recreational team handball training was 1.9 ± 0.4 sessions per week, with mean heart rates of 76 ± 6%HR and 18 ± 9 min (44 ± 20% of total time) played at HR > 80%HR. A between-group effect was observed for YYIE1 performance, with a more pronounced improvement in aerobic exercise performance in THG compared to CG (70 ± 62 vs 15 ± 44%; p < 0.001). Within-group improvements (p < 0.05) were observed for THG with regard to VO (7 ± 10%), incremental treadmill test time to exhaustion (TTE) (11 ± 14%), total cholesterol (-3 ± 9%) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (-2 ± 14%), with no significant changes in CG except an increase (p < 0.05) in TTE. Post-intervention values were higher for THG vs CG for YYIE1 performance (88%; 406 ± 216 vs 216 ± 75 m) and VO (10%; 27.5 ± 3.8 vs 24.9 ± 3.6 mL/min/kg).
Conclusions
Recreational team handball can be used to obtain moderate-to-vigorous aerobic intensities, and just 2 weekly 60-min team handball training sessions for 16 weeks can result in improvements in aerobic performance and in markers of cardiorespiratory fitness in postmenopausal women with no previous experience of the sport.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 23 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Pereira R, Krustrup P, Castagna C, Coelho E, ... Magalhães J, Póvoas S
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 23 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33222989
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Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.