Journal: Prog Cardiovasc Dis

Sorted by: date / impact
Abstract

A systematic review of prevalence of metabolic syndrome in occupational groups - Does occupation matter in the global epidemic of metabolic syndrome?

Strauss M, Lavie CJ, Lippi G, Brzęk A, ... Sanchis-Gomar F, Leischik R
Many occupations can influence the development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). This systematic review aims to evaluate studies on MetS prevalence in different occupational groups from different countries. An integrative review of the literature was conducted within the PubMed and Web of Science databases between January 2005 and February 2022. Only studies with over 3000 subjects that presented data about the prevalence of MetS in different occupational groups were included. The classification of occupational groups was based on the statistical category of economic activities in the European Community (EC). Of a total of 1942 screened records, 10 studies were included, showing that MetS is a common health (main) risk factor in all occupational groups. However, the prevalence of MetS varies between nationalities, between and within occupational groups, and between genders. The reasons for this variation appear complex and supported by several causal explanations. The prevalence of MetS was highest among women in a group of Korean skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers (Prevalence: 39.2%). Similarly, among men, the highest prevalence was found in Korean equipment, machine operating, and assembling workers (Prevalence: 35.4%). Male information and communication technology professionals from the Netherlands (Prevalence: 6.2%) and Spanish female catering and hospitality, personal, and security service workers (Prevalence: 5.9%) had the lowest rates of MetS. Overall, the results indicated that valid data on this topic are insufficient, and more randomized controlled trials are needed. Moreover, the different definitions of MetS complicate the accurate comparison between studies, paving the way to achieving consensus on a universal definition of MetS.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 23 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Strauss M, Lavie CJ, Lippi G, Brzęk A, ... Sanchis-Gomar F, Leischik R
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 23 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36162483
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Comparing eligibility for statin therapy for primary prevention under 2022 USPSTF recommendations and the 2018 AHA/ACC/ multi-society guideline recommendations: From National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Gupta K, Kakar TS, Jain V, Gupta M, ... Lavie CJ, Virani SS
Introduction
The United States Preventive Services Taskforce (USPSTF) recently released recommendations for statin therapy eligibility for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We report the proportion and the absolute number of US adults who would be eligible for statin therapy under these recommendations and compare them with the previously published 2018 American Heart Association (AHA)/ American College of Cardiology (ACC)/ Multisociety (MS) Cholesterol guidelines.
Methods
We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2017-2020 of adults aged 40-75 years without prevalent self-reported atherosclerotic CVD (ASCVD) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol <190 mg/dL. The 2022 USPSTF recommends statin therapy for primary prevention in those with a 10-year ASCVD risk of ≥10% and ≥ 1 CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, hypertension, or smoking). The 2018 AHA/ ACC/ MS Cholesterol guideline recommends considering statin therapy for primary prevention for those with diabetes mellitus, or 10-year ASCVD risk ≥20% or 10-year ASCVD risk 7.5 to <20% after accounting for risk-enhancers and shared decision making. Survey recommended weights were used to project these proportions to national estimates.
Results
Among 1799 participants eligible for this study, the weighted mean age was 56.0 ± 0.5 years, with 53.0% women (95% confidence interval [CI] 49.7, 56.3), and 10.6% self-reported NH Black individuals (95% CI 7.7, 14.3). The weighted mean 10-year ASCVD risk was 9.6 ± 0.3%. The 2022 USPSTF recommendations and the 2018 AHA/ ACC/ MS Cholesterol guidelines indicated eligibility for statin therapy in 31.8% (95% CI 28.6, 35.1) and 46.8% (95% CI 43.0, 50.5) adults, respectively. These represent 33.7 million (95% CI 30.4, 37.2) and 49.7 million (95% CI 45.7, 53.7) adults, respectively. For those with diabetes mellitus, 2022 USPSTF recommended statin therapy in 63.0% (95% CI 52.1, 72.7) adults as compared with all adults with diabetes aged 40-75 years under the 2018 AHA/ ACC/ MS Cholesterol guidelines.
Conclusion
In this analysis of the nationally representative US population from 2017 to 2020, approximately 15% (~16.0 million) fewer adults were eligible for statin therapy for primary prevention under the 2022 USPSTF recommendations as compared to the 2018 AHA/ ACC/ MS Cholesterol guideline.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Gupta K, Kakar TS, Jain V, Gupta M, ... Lavie CJ, Virani SS
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36038004
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic value of age-sex adjusted NT-proBNP ratio in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Hutt E, Mentias A, Alashi A, Wadhwa R, ... Smedira NG, Desai MY
Background
We sought to determine the incremental prognostic value of age-sex adjusted N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro BNP) ratio in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (oHCM) patients.
Methods
The study included 2119 consecutive oHCM patients (age 55 ± 13 years, 53% men, maximal LVOT ≥30 mmHg) evaluated between 6/2002-12/2018 with BNP or NT-pro BNP measured at baseline. NT-pro BNP ratio was calculated as: NT-proBNP/ upper limit of normal NT-proBNP derived from age-sex matched controls. Septal reduction therapy (SRT) during follow-up was recorded. Primary endpoint was death, need for cardiac transplantation or appropriate internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) discharge.
Results
Median NT-proBNP ratio was 5.4 (IQR 2.1-12.3). Using spline analysis, log-transformed NT-pro BNP ratio of 2 (corresponding to NT-pro BNP ratio of 6) was the optimal value where primary endpoint hazards crossed 1; there were 966 patients with high and 1153 patients with low NT-pro BNP ratio. 1665 (79%) patients underwent SRT at 47 days (IQR 7-128 days). At 5.4 years of follow-up (IQR 2.8-9.2 years), the primary outcome occurred in 315 (15%) patients (deaths = 270). High NT-pro BNP ratio was associated with higher risk of primary outcome in unadjusted (30.1 vs. 17.2 events/1000 person-year, hazard ratio or (HR) 1.73, 1.37-2.17, P < 0.001) and adjusted analysis (aHR 1.69, 95% 1.19-2.38, P = 0.003) vs. low NT-pro BNP ratio. Even in asymptomatic patients, NT-pro BNP ratio remained associated with primary outcome (aHR 1.28, 95% CI 1.06-1.54, P = 0.01).
Conclusions
Age-sex adjusted NT-pro BNP ratio is independently associated with long-term outcomes in oHCM patients, including in a subgroup of asymptomatic patients.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 08 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Hutt E, Mentias A, Alashi A, Wadhwa R, ... Smedira NG, Desai MY
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 08 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35952727
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Association of polygenic risk scores with incident atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease events among individuals with coronary artery calcium score of zero: The multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

Al Rifai M, Yao J, Guo X, Post WS, ... Rotter JI, Virani SS
Background
Polygenic risk scores (PRS) are associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events. We studied incident ASCVD among individuals with absent coronary artery calcium (CAC = 0), to investigate the association of PRS with incident ASCVD among such individuals.
Methods
Data was used from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a prospective cohort study of participants free of clinical CVD at baseline. PRS were developed based on a literature-derived list of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) weighted by effect size. The coronary heart disease (CHD) PRS contained 180 SNPs, and the stroke PRS had 32 SNPs. These SNPs were combined to compute an ASCVD PRS. The PRS were calculated among 3132 participants with CAC = 0. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models evaluated the association between each PRS (top 20% vs bottom 50%) and ASCVD.
Results
The study population included 3132 individuals with CAC = 0 [mean (SD) age 58 (9) years; 63% female, 33% White, 31% Black, 12% Chinese-American, 24% Hispanic]. Over a median follow-up of 16 years, there were 108 incident CHD events and 93 stroke events. ASCVD event rates were generally <7.5 per 1000-person years for all ASCVD events regardless of PRS risk stratum. The ASCVD PRS was significantly associated with incident ASCVD: (HR; 95% CI) (1.63; 1.11, 2.39). The CHD PRS was not associated with any ASCVD outcome, whereas the stroke PRS was significantly associated with ASCVD (1.84; 1.27, 2.68), CHD (1.79; 1.05, 3.06), and stroke (1.96; 1.19, 3.23). The stroke PRS results were significant among women and non-Whites.
Conclusions
Among individuals with CAC = 0, the ASCVD PRS was associated with incident ASCVD events. This appears to be driven by genetic variants related to stroke but not CHD, and particularly among women and non-Whites. ASCVD event rates remained below the threshold recommended for consideration for initiation of statin therapy even in the high PRS groups.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 08 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Al Rifai M, Yao J, Guo X, Post WS, ... Rotter JI, Virani SS
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 08 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35952728
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Debunking the vegan myth: The case for a plant-forward omnivorous whole-foods diet.

O\'Keefe JH, O\'Keefe EL, Lavie CJ, Cordain L
Vegan diets are widely promoted as protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, removing all animal foods from a human\'s diet usually causes unfavorable health consequences. Our hominin ancestors began consuming meat, fish, seafood, and eggs >2 million years ago. Consequently, humans are genetically adapted to procure nutrients from both plant and animal sources. In contrast, veganism is without evolutionary precedent in Homo sapiens species. Strict adherence to a vegan diet causes predictable deficiencies in nutrients including vitamins B12, B2, D, niacin, iron, iodine, zinc, high-quality proteins, omega-3, and calcium. Prolonged strict veganism increases risk for bone fractures, sarcopenia, anemia, and depression. A more logical diet is a plant-forward omnivorous eating pattern that emphasizes generous consumption of natural, unprocessed foods predominantly from plants. To balance this diet, modest amounts of wholesome animal foods, such wild-caught fish/seafood, pasture-raised meat and eggs, and fermented unsweetened dairy should be consumed regularly.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 06 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
O'Keefe JH, O'Keefe EL, Lavie CJ, Cordain L
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 06 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35944662
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Post pandemic research priorities: A consensus statement from the HL-PIVOT.

Faghy MA, Arena R, Babu AS, Christle JW, ... Smith A, HL-PIVOT Network
We have been amid unhealthy living and related chronic disease pandemics for several decades. These longstanding crises have troublingly synergized with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The need to establish research priorities in response to COVID-19 can be used to address broad health and wellbeing, social and economic impacts for the future is emerging. Accordingly, this paper sets out a series of research priorities that could inform interdisciplinary collaboration between clinical sciences, public health, business, technology, economics, healthcare providers, and the exercise science/sports medicine communities, among others. A five-step methodology was used to generate and evaluate the research priorities with a focus on broad health and well-being impacts. The methodology was deployed by an international and interdisciplinary team from the Healthy Living for Pandemic Event Protection (HL- PIVOT) network. This team were all engaged in responding to the Pandemic either on the \'front-line\' and/or in leadership positions ensuring the currency and authenticity of the process. Eight research priorities were identified clustered into two groups: i) Societal & Environmental, and ii) Clinical. Our eight research priorities are presented with insight from previously published research priorities from other groups.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 13 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Faghy MA, Arena R, Babu AS, Christle JW, ... Smith A, HL-PIVOT Network
Prog Cardiovasc Dis: 13 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35842068
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.