Topic: Intervention

Abstract

Anxa1 in smooth muscle cells protects against acute aortic dissection.

Zhou C, Lin Z, Cao H, Chen Y, ... Pan B, Zheng L
Aims
Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is a life-threatening disease with high morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have showed that vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) phenotype switching modulates vascular function and AAD progression. However, whether an endogenous signalling system that protects AAD progression exists remains unknown. Our aim is to investigate the role of Anxa1 in VSMC phenotype switching and the pathogenesis of AAD.
Methods and results
We first assessed Anxa1 expression levels by immunohistochemical staining in control aorta and AAD tissue from mice. A strong increase of Anxa1 expression was seen in the mouse AAD tissues. In line with these findings, micro-CT scan results indicated that Anxa1 plays a role in the development of AAD in our murine model, with systemic deficiency of Anxa1 markedly progressing AAD. Conversely, administration of Anxa1 mimetic peptide, Ac2-26, rescued the AAD phenotype in Anxa1-/- mice. Transcriptomic studies revealed a novel role for Anxa1 in VSMC phenotype switching, with Anxa1 deficiency triggering the synthetic phenotype of VSMCs via down-regulation of the JunB/MYL9 pathway. The resultant VSMC synthetic phenotype rendered elevated inflammation and enhanced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) production, leading to augmented elastin degradation. VSMC-restricted deficiency of Anxa1 in mice phenocopied VSMC phenotype switching and the consequent exacerbation of AAD. Finally, our studies in human AAD aortic specimens recapitulated key findings in murine AAD, specifically that the decrease of Anxa1 is associated with VSMC phenotype switch, heightened inflammation, and enhanced MMP production in human aortas.
Conclusions
Our findings demonstrated that Anxa1 is a novel endogenous defender that prevents AAD by inhibiting VSMC phenotype switching, suggesting that Anxa1 signalling may be a potential target for AAD pharmacological therapy.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Cardiovasc Res: 06 May 2022; 118:1564-1582
Zhou C, Lin Z, Cao H, Chen Y, ... Pan B, Zheng L
Cardiovasc Res: 06 May 2022; 118:1564-1582 | PMID: 33757117
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Abstract

Rationale and design of the pragmatic clinical trial tREatment with Beta-blockers after myOcardial infarction withOut reduced ejection fracTion (REBOOT).

Rossello X, Raposeiras-Roubin S, Latini R, Dominguez-Rodriguez A, ... Ibáñez B, REBOOT-CNIC investigators
Aims
There is a lack of evidence regarding the benefits of β-blocker treatment after invasively managed acute myocardial infarction (MI) without reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF).
Methods and results
The tREatment with Beta-blockers after myOcardial infarction withOut reduced ejection fracTion (REBOOT) trial is a pragmatic, controlled, prospective, randomized, open-label blinded endpoint (PROBE design) clinical trial testing the benefits of β-blocker maintenance therapy in patients discharged after MI with or without ST-segment elevation. Patients eligible for participation are those managed invasively during index hospitalization (coronary angiography), with LVEF >40%, and no history of heart failure (HF). At discharge, patients will be randomized 1:1 to β-blocker therapy (agent and dose according to treating physician) or no β-blocker therapy. The primary endpoint is a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal reinfarction, or HF hospitalization over a median follow-up period of 2.75 years (minimum 2 years, maximum 3 years). Key secondary endpoints include the incidence of the individual components of the primary composite endpoint, the incidence of cardiac death, and incidence of malignant ventricular arrhythmias or resuscitated cardiac arrest. The primary endpoint will be analysed according to the intention-to-treat principle.
Conclusion
The REBOOT trial will provide robust evidence to guide the prescription of β-blockers to patients discharged after MI without reduced LVEF.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother: 05 May 2022; 8:291-301
Rossello X, Raposeiras-Roubin S, Latini R, Dominguez-Rodriguez A, ... Ibáñez B, REBOOT-CNIC investigators
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother: 05 May 2022; 8:291-301 | PMID: 34351426
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Abstract

Unraveling the Multitude of Etiologies in Myocardial Infarction With Nonobstructive Coronary Arteries.

Pustjens TFS, Vranken NPA, Hermanides RS, Rasoul S, Ottervanger JP, Van\'t Hof AWJ
Although recent studies revealed suboptimal outcomes in patients with myocardial infarction with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCAs), the underlying etiology remains unknown in most patients. Therefore, adequate treatment modalities have not yet been established. We aimed to assess demographics, treatment strategies, and long-term clinical outcome in MINOCA subgroups. We retrospectively analyzed data from a large, prospective observational study of patients with acute coronary syndrome admitted to the Isala hospital in Zwolle, The Netherlands between 2006 and 2014. Patients with MINOCA were divided into subgroups based on the underlying cause of the event. From 7,693 patients, 402 patients (5%) concerned MINOCA. After the exclusion of missing cases (n = 47), 5 subgroups were distinguished: \"true\" acute myocardial infarction (10%), perimyocarditis (13%), cardiomyopathy (including Takotsubo cardiomyopathy) (19%), miscellaneous causes (21%), and an indeterminate group (38%). Patients with cardiomyopathy were predominantly women (78%) and showed the highest incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events at 30 days follow-up (7%; p = 0.012), 1 year (19%; p = 0.004), and mortality at long-term follow-up (27%; p = 0.010) compared with any other MINOCA subgroup. The cardiomyopathy group was followed by the indeterminate group, with major adverse cardiovascular events rates of 1% and 5%, respectively, and 17% long-term all-cause mortality. In conclusion, long-term prognosis in MINOCA depends on the underlying etiology. Prognosis is worst in the cardiomyopathy group followed by the indeterminate group. This underlines the importance of revealing the diagnosis to ultimately optimize treatment.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 01 Apr 2022; 168:17-21
Pustjens TFS, Vranken NPA, Hermanides RS, Rasoul S, Ottervanger JP, Van't Hof AWJ
Am J Cardiol: 01 Apr 2022; 168:17-21 | PMID: 35031111
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Abstract

Relation of Iron Status to Prognosis After Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Gürgöze MT, Kardys I, Akkerhuis KM, Oemrawsingh RM, ... Manintveld OC, Boersma E
Iron deficiency has been extensively researched and is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure. However, to our knowledge, the temporal evolution of iron status has not been previously investigated in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Therefore, we aimed to explore the temporal pattern of repeatedly measured iron, ferritin, transferrin, and transferrin saturation (TSAT) in relation to prognosis post-ACS. BIOMArCS (BIOMarker study to identify the Acute risk of a Coronary Syndrome) is a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study conducted in The Netherlands between 2008 and 2015. A total of 844 patients with post-ACS were enrolled and underwent high-frequency (median 17) blood sampling during 1 year follow-up. Biomarkers of iron status were measured batchwise in a central laboratory. We analyzed 3 patient subsets, including the case-cohort (n = 187). The primary endpoint (PE) was a composite of cardiovascular mortality and repeat nonfatal ACS, including unstable angina pectoris requiring revascularization. The association between iron status and the PE was analyzed using multivariable joint models. Mean age was 63 years; 78% were men, and >50% had iron deficiency at first sample in the case-cohort. After adjustment for a broad range of clinical variables, 1 SD decrease in log-iron was associated with a 2.2-fold greater risk of the PE (hazard ratio 2.19, 95% confidence interval 1.34 to 3.54, p = 0.002). Similarly, 1 SD decrease in log-TSAT was associated with a 78% increased risk of the PE (hazard ratio 1.78, 95% confidence interval 1.17 to 2.65, p = 0.006). Ferritin and transferrin were not associated with the PE. Repeated measurements of iron and TSAT predict risk of adverse outcomes in patients with post-ACS during 1 year follow-up. Trial Registration: The Netherlands Trial Register. Unique identifiers: NTR1698 and NTR1106. Registered at https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/1614 and https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/1073.

Copyright © 2022 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 01 Apr 2022; 168:22-30
Gürgöze MT, Kardys I, Akkerhuis KM, Oemrawsingh RM, ... Manintveld OC, Boersma E
Am J Cardiol: 01 Apr 2022; 168:22-30 | PMID: 35045937
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Abstract

Early Resolution of New-Onset Left Bundle Branch Block After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation With the SAPIEN 3 Valve.

Isogai T, Dykun I, Agrawal A, Shekhar S, ... Kapadia SR, Puri R
New-onset left bundle branch block (LBBB) is common after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) but can resolve in the post-TAVI period. We sought to examine the incidence, predictors, and outcomes of early resolution of new-onset LBBB among TAVI recipients with a SAPIEN 3 (S3) valve. Among 1,203 S3-TAVI recipients without a pre-existing pacemaker or wide QRS complex at our institution between 2016 and 2019, we identified 143 patients who developed new-onset LBBB during TAVI and divided them according to the resolution or persistence of LBBB by the next day post-TAVI to compare high-degree atrioventricular block (HAVB) and permanent pacemaker (PPM) rates. Patients with resolved LBBB (n = 74, 52%), compared with those with persistent LBBB, were more often women and had a shorter QRS duration at baseline and post-TAVI, with a smaller S3 size and a shallower implantation depth. A multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated significant associations of post-TAVI QRS duration (per 10 ms increase, odds ratio = 0.60 [95% confidence interval = 0.44 to 0.82]) and implantation depth (per 1-mm-depth-increase, 0.77 [0.61 to 0.97]) with a lower likelihood of LBBB resolution. No patient with resolved LBBB developed HAVB within 30 days post-TAVI. Meanwhile, 8 patients (11.6%) with persistent LBBB developed HAVB. The 2-year PPM rate was significantly higher after persistent LBBB than after resolved LBBB (30.3% vs 4.5%, log-rank p <0.001), mainly driven by higher 30-day PPM rate (18.8% vs 0.0%). In conclusion, about half of new-onset LBBBs that occurred during S3-TAVI resolved by the next day post-TAVI without HAVB. In contrast, new-onset persistent LBBB may need follow-up with ambulatory monitoring within 30 days because of the HAVB risk.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 01 Apr 2022; 168:117-127
Isogai T, Dykun I, Agrawal A, Shekhar S, ... Kapadia SR, Puri R
Am J Cardiol: 01 Apr 2022; 168:117-127 | PMID: 35045936
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Abstract

Effect of Elevated C-Reactive Protein on Outcomes After Complex Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for Angina Pectoris.

Camaj A, Giustino G, Kocovic N, Cao D, ... Sharma SK, Mehran R
Inflammation and procedural complexity are individually associated with adverse outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We aimed to evaluate the association of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with adverse events according to PCI complexity. We included patients with available hsCRP levels who underwent PCI at our center from 2012 to 2017. We compared patients with hsCRP ≥3 versus <3 mg/L. Complex PCI was defined as having ≥1 of the following: ≥3 different target vessels, ≥3 lesions treated, ≥3 stents implanted, bifurcation lesion treated with 2 stents, chronic total occlusion as target lesion, or total stent length >60 mm. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) (composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization) at 1 year. A total of 11,979 patients were included, of which 2,840 (24%) underwent complex PCI. In those, 767 (27%) had hsCRP ≥3 mg/L. The 1-year incidence of MACE was 6% (noncomplex PCI, low hsCRP), 10% (noncomplex PCI, high hsCRP), 10% (complex PCI, low hsCRP), and 15% (complex PCI, high hsCRP). Overall, hsCRP ≥3 mg/L was associated with an increased risk of MACE compared with hsCRP <3 mg/L; this was independent of the number of complex PCI features: 0 (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27 to 1.86), 1 (adjusted HR 1.77; 95% CI 1.21 to 2.60), or ≥2 (adjusted HR 1.21; 95% CI 0.80 to 1.83) (pinteraction = 0.42). In conclusion, in patients who underwent PCI, elevated hsCRP is associated with an increased risk of ischemic events. The effect of elevated hsCRP on cardiovascular risk is consistent regardless of PCI complexity.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 01 Apr 2022; 168:47-54
Camaj A, Giustino G, Kocovic N, Cao D, ... Sharma SK, Mehran R
Am J Cardiol: 01 Apr 2022; 168:47-54 | PMID: 35058052
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Abstract

Association between DBP and major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Liu YH, Dai YN, Wang LT, Chen PY, ... Tan N, He PC
Background
In patients with stable coronary artery disease, low DBP is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death, but its association with clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown.
Methods
Consecutive patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing PCI from January 2010 to June 2016 were enrolled. The patients were divided into five groups according to the quintiles of DBP at admission. The primary outcome was in-hospital major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including all-cause death, stroke, target vessel revascularization, and recurrent myocardial infarction.
Results
A total of 2198 patients were enrolled, of whom 157 (7.1%) developed in-hospital MACE. Patients with DBP lower than 60 mmHg was associated with a higher rate of in-hospital MACE (14.8, 7.8, 5.6, 6.1, and 3.8%, P < 0.001) and all-cause death (12.5, 6.4, 4.3, 3.9, and 1.9%, P < 0.001) compared with those with DBP 60-69, 70-79, 80-89, and at least 90 mmHg. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that DBP higher than 90 mmHg was a significant predictor of lower risk of in-hospital MACE (OR = 0.16, 95% CI = 0.04-0.61, P = 0.007). Cubic spline models for the association between DBP and MACE did not demonstrate a U-type relationship after adjusting for potential risk factors. During the follow-up, lower DBP was associated with a higher risk of all-cause death (P < 0.0001).
Conclusion
Lower DBP is independently associated with an elevated risk of in-hospital MACE and follow-up all-cause death.

Copyright © 2021 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

J Hypertens: 31 Mar 2022; 40:692-698
Liu YH, Dai YN, Wang LT, Chen PY, ... Tan N, He PC
J Hypertens: 31 Mar 2022; 40:692-698 | PMID: 34889864
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Abstract

Single center experience in the treatment of hemodynamically significant diffuse coronary artery disease of the left anterior descending.

van Beek KAJ, van Steenbergen GJ, Vervaat FE, Mulders BCJH, ... van Nunen LX, Wijnbergen IF
Introduction
To date there are no recommendations on how to treat patients with an FFR positive but diffusely diseased left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Benefit of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is not so evident due to doubts regarding longevity and patency.
Methods
This retrospective single-center study assessed clinical outcomes in patients presenting with symptomatic single vessel coronary artery disease of a diffusely diseased, hemodynamically significant LAD treated by coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or optimal medical therapy (OMT) between 2015 and 2020. Primary outcome of this study was the composite endpoint of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction and repeat revascularization during 2-year follow-up. Secondary endpoints consisted of the individual components of the primary endpoint. Change in angina severity grade based on the Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS) class between baseline and 2-year follow-up was assessed.
Results
Fifty-nine patients were included of which 25 patients underwent CABG and 34 patients were treated by OMT. There was a statistically significant difference in FFR value at baseline between the treatment groups (CABG 0.70 ± 0.04; OMT 0.75 ± 0.04; p < 0.001). After 2-year follow-up, there were no statistically significant differences with regard to the primary endpoint (CABG 16% (n = 4); OMT 17.6% (n = 6); p = 1.00) and secondary endpoints between the groups over 2-year follow-up.
Conclusion
In patients with hemodynamically significant diffuse single vessel coronary artery disease of the left anterior descending, there was no difference between OMT and CABG in terms of mortality, myocardial infarction, revascularization and symptom reduction after two years of follow-up.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Int J Cardiol: 31 Mar 2022; 352:40-44
van Beek KAJ, van Steenbergen GJ, Vervaat FE, Mulders BCJH, ... van Nunen LX, Wijnbergen IF
Int J Cardiol: 31 Mar 2022; 352:40-44 | PMID: 35090982
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Abstract

Physiological and angiographic outcomes of PCI in calcified lesions after rotational atherectomy or intravascular lithotripsy.

Gallinoro E, Monizzi G, Sonck J, Candreva A, ... De Bruyne B, Collet C
Background
Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) in calcified coronary artery lesions are associated with impaired stent expansion, higher rate of periprocedural complications and cardiac mortality. Lesion preparation using calcium modifying techniques such as Rotational Atherectomy (RA) or Intravascular Lithotripsy (IVL) has been advocated. Studies comparing these technologies are lacking. We aimed to compare in-stent pressure gradients, evaluated by vessel fractional flow reserve (vFFR), in calcific lesions treated using either RA or IVL.
Methods
Patients undergoing either RA- or IVL-assisted PCI from two European centers were included. Propensity score matching (1:2) was performed to control for potential bias. Primary outcome was post-PCI in-stent pressure gradients calculated by vFFR (vFFRgrad). Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients with complete functional revascularization defined as distal vFFR post-PCI (vFFRpost) ≥ 0.90.
Results
From a cohort of 210 patients, 105 matched patients (70 RA and 35 IVL) were included. Pre-PCI vFFR did not differ between groups (0.65 ± 0.13 RA and 0.67 ± 0.11 IVL). After PCI, in-stent pressure gradients were significantly lower in the IVL group (0.032 ± 0.026 vs 0.043 ± 0.026 in the RA group, p = 0.024). The proportions of vessels with functional complete revascularization was similar between the two groups (32.9% vs. 37.1% in the RA and IVL group, respectively; p = 0.669).
Conclusions
Calcific lesions preparation with IVL is effective and resulted in lower in-stent pressure gradients compared to RA. Approximately one third of the patients undergoing PCI for a severely calcified lesion achieved functional revascularization with no difference between rotational RA and IVL.

Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Int J Cardiol: 31 Mar 2022; 352:27-32
Gallinoro E, Monizzi G, Sonck J, Candreva A, ... De Bruyne B, Collet C
Int J Cardiol: 31 Mar 2022; 352:27-32 | PMID: 35120947
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Abstract

Incidence, clinical impact and predictors of thrombocytopenia after transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Tirado-Conte G, Salazar CH, McInerney A, Cruz-Utrilla A, ... Macaya C, Nombela-Franco L
Background
Thrombocytopenia is a common, yet poorly understood, complication after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Balloon-expandable transcatheter heart valve has been associated with higher incidence of thrombocytopenia, compared with self-expandable valves. The aim of this study was to analyze the incidence, clinical impact and predictors of acquired thrombocytopenia in patients undergoing TAVR.
Methods
We performed an observational study from consecutive patients with severe aortic stenosis undergoing TAVR (n = 679) in a single center. Association and best cut-off point of platelet decrease with early mortality was analyzed. Patients were classified according to postprocedural percentage decrease in platelet count (PDPC), comparing clinical outcomes and analyzing predictors of platelet decrease.
Results
The median PDPC was 37.1 [IQR: 27.4-46.9]. PDPC was associated with early mortality (OR: 2.1, 95%IC: 1.7-2.5 for each 10% decrease, AUC:0.81, 95%CI:0.72-0.89) with an optimal cut-off point of 46%. PDPC≥46% and late nadir (≥4 days) were both independent predictors of early mortality (OR: 6.0 [IQR: 2.4-14.9] and OR: 5.1 [IQR: 2.2-11.6], respectively). The combination of both factors (PDPC≥46% and nadir ≥4 day) was associated with higher 2-year mortality (55.7%) compared to an early significant nadir (PDPC≥46% and nadir <4 day, 28.9%) and non-significant nadir (PDPC<46%, 21.0%), p < 0.001. Independent predictors of PDPC≥46% were baseline platelet count, Portico™, Abbott valve, intraprocedural major vascular complication and residual aortic regurgitation ≥grade 2.
Conclusion
The platelet count decreased almost 40% after TAVR. Late nadir and PDPC≥46% predicted short-term clinical outcomes. Concomitant late and significant platelet decrease was associated with mid-term mortality.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Int J Cardiol: 31 Mar 2022; 352:21-26
Tirado-Conte G, Salazar CH, McInerney A, Cruz-Utrilla A, ... Macaya C, Nombela-Franco L
Int J Cardiol: 31 Mar 2022; 352:21-26 | PMID: 35124106
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Abstract

Image-based biomechanical modeling for coronary atherosclerotic plaque progression and vulnerability prediction.

Lv R, Wang L, Maehara A, Guo X, ... Stone GW, Tang D
Atherosclerotic plaque progression and rupture play an important role in cardiovascular disease development and the final drastic events such as heart attack and stroke. Medical imaging and image-based computational modeling methods advanced considerably in recent years to quantify plaque morphology and biomechanical conditions and gain a better understanding of plaque evolution and rupture process. This article first briefly reviewed clinical imaging techniques for coronary thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) plaques used in image-based computational modeling. This was followed by a summary of different types of biomechanical models for coronary plaques. Plaque progression and vulnerability prediction studies based on image-based computational modeling were reviewed and compared. Much progress has been made and a reasonable high prediction accuracy has been achieved. However, there are still some inconsistencies in existing literature on the impact of biomechanical and morphological factors on future plaque behavior, and it is very difficult to perform direct comparison analysis as differences like image modality, biomechanical factors selection, predictive models, and progression/vulnerability measures exist among these studies. Encouraging data and model sharing across the research community would partially resolve these differences, and possibly lead to clearer assertive conclusions. In vivo image-based computational modeling could be used as a powerful tool for quantitative assessment of coronary plaque vulnerability for potential clinical applications.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Int J Cardiol: 31 Mar 2022; 352:1-8
Lv R, Wang L, Maehara A, Guo X, ... Stone GW, Tang D
Int J Cardiol: 31 Mar 2022; 352:1-8 | PMID: 35149139
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Abstract

Early invasive versus non-invasive assessment in patients with suspected non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.

Kite TA, Ladwiniec A, Arnold JR, McCann GP, Moss AJ
Non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) comprises a broad spectrum of disease ranging from unstable angina to myocardial infarction. International guidelines recommend a routine invasive strategy for managing patients with NSTE-ACS at high to very high-risk, supported by evidence of improved composite ischaemic outcomes as compared with a selective invasive strategy. However, accurate diagnosis of NSTE-ACS in the acute setting is challenging due to the spectrum of non-coronary disease that can manifest with similar symptoms. Heterogeneous clinical presentations and limited uptake of risk prediction tools can confound physician decision-making regarding the use and timing of invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Large proportions of patients with suspected NSTE-ACS do not require revascularisation but may unnecessarily undergo ICA with its attendant risks and associated costs. Advances in coronary CT angiography and cardiac MRI have prompted evaluation of whether non-invasive strategies may improve patient selection, or whether tailored approaches are better suited to specific subgroups. Future directions include (1) better understanding of risk stratification as a guide to investigation and therapy in suspected NSTE-ACS, (2) randomised clinical trials of non-invasive imaging versus standard of care approaches prior to ICA and (3) defining the optimal timing of very early ICA in high-risk NSTE-ACS.

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Heart: 30 Mar 2022; 108:500-506
Kite TA, Ladwiniec A, Arnold JR, McCann GP, Moss AJ
Heart: 30 Mar 2022; 108:500-506 | PMID: 34234006
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Abstract

Coronary revascularisation outcomes in patients with cancer.

Leedy D, Tiwana JK, Mamas M, Hira R, Cheng R
Cancer and coronary artery disease (CAD) overlap in traditional risk factors as well as molecular mechanisms underpinning the development of these two disease states. Patients with cancer are at increased risk of developing CAD, representing a high-risk population that are increasingly undergoing coronary revascularisation. Over 1 in 10 patients with CAD that require revascularisation with either percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting have either a history of cancer or active cancer. These patients are typically older, have more comorbidities and have more extensive CAD compared with patients without cancer. Haematological abnormalities with competing risks of thrombosis and bleeding pose further unique challenges during and after revascularisation. Management of patients with concurrent cancer and CAD requiring revascularisation is challenging as these patients carry a higher risk of morbidity and mortality compared with those without cancer, often driven by the underlying cancer and associated comorbidities. However, due to variability by different types and stages of cancer, revascularisation outcomes are specific to cancer characteristics such as the timing of onset, cancer subtype and site, stage, presence of metastases, and cancer-related therapies received. Recent studies have provided insights into defining revascularisation outcomes, procedural considerations and best practices in managing patients with cancer. Nevertheless, many gaps remain that require further studies to inform clinical best practices in this population.

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2022. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

Heart: 30 Mar 2022; 108:507-516
Leedy D, Tiwana JK, Mamas M, Hira R, Cheng R
Heart: 30 Mar 2022; 108:507-516 | PMID: 34415850
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Abstract

Challenges of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy use following acute coronary syndromes.

Sidhu MS, Lyubarova R, Bangalore S, Bonaca MP
An acute coronary syndrome (ACS) event is associated with a high risk of recurrent ACS, stroke, and death. To ameliorate the risk of subsequent events, current guidelines for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation ACS recommend long-term management strategies for secondary prevention including risk factor modification and anti-ischemic and antiplatelet therapies. Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), comprising aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor, is a critical component of secondary prevention therapy following ACS. However, despite the importance of DAPT for secondary prevention after ACS, questions remain over the optimal duration of therapy. Clinical evidence is emerging that maintenance DAPT >12 months lowers the risk of recurrent ACS events; however, this benefit must be considered against any potential risks of prolonged DAPT such as bleeding. Several tools for bleeding risk assessment have shown promise; however, their limited accuracy and discriminative power necessitates further development. Assessment of patient ischemic risk should consider the complexity of the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) procedure, anatomic burden of coronary artery disease, and additional underlying risk factors. Consequently, identifying patients in whom the risk:benefit ratio favors prolonged DAPT may prove invaluable for clinicians in deciding which patients should continue or stop taking DAPT at 12 months after PCI, or consider P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy as an option. This article reviews the most recent information about the risks and benefits of DAPT continued for >12 months after ACS and provides critical guidance to assist physicians in identifying patients most likely to benefit from a secondary prevention strategy with DAPT.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:44-64
Sidhu MS, Lyubarova R, Bangalore S, Bonaca MP
Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:44-64 | PMID: 34933000
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Abstract

Rationale and design of a randomized trial evaluating an external support device for saphenous vein coronary grafts.

Bagiella E, Puskas JD, Moskowitz AJ, Gelijns AC, ... Mack MJ, Goldstein DJ
Background
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is the most common revascularization approach for the treatment of multi-vessel coronary artery disease. While the internal mammary artery is nearly universally used to bypass the left anterior descending coronary artery, autologous saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) are still the most frequently used conduits to grafts the remaining coronary artery targets. Long-term failure of these grafts, however, continues to limit the benefits of surgery.
Methods
The Cardiothoracic Surgical Trials Network trial of the safety and effectiveness of a Venous External Support (VEST) device is a randomized, multicenter, within-patient trial comparing VEST-supported versus unsupported saphenous vein grafts in patients undergoing CABG. Key inclusion criteria are the need for CABG with a planned internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending and two or more saphenous vein grafts to other coronary arteries. The primary efficacy endpoint of the trial is SVG intimal hyperplasia (plaque + media) area assessed by intravascular ultrasound at 12 months post randomization. Occluded grafts are accounted for in the analysis of the primary endpoint. Secondary confirmatory endpoints are lumen diameter uniformity and graft failure (>50% stenosis) assessed by coronary angiography at 12 months. The safety endpoints are the occurrence of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events and hospitalization within 5 years from randomization.
Conclusions
The results of the VEST trial will determine whether the VEST device can safely limit SVG intimal hyperplasia in patients undergoing CABG as treatment for coronary atherosclerotic disease.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:12-20
Bagiella E, Puskas JD, Moskowitz AJ, Gelijns AC, ... Mack MJ, Goldstein DJ
Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:12-20 | PMID: 34936861
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Abstract

Association between race/ethnicity and income on the likelihood of coronary revascularization among postmenopausal women with acute myocardial infarction: Women\'s health initiative study.

Tertulien T, Roberts MB, Eaton CB, Cene CW, ... Nassir R, Breathett K
Background
Historically, race, income, and gender were associated with likelihood of receipt of coronary revascularization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Given public health initiatives such as Healthy People 2010, it is unclear whether race and income remain associated with the likelihood of coronary revascularization among women with AMI.
Methods
Using the Women\'s Health Initiative Study, hazards ratio (HR) of revascularization for AMI was compared for Black and Hispanic women vs White women and among women with annual income <$20,000/year vs ≥$20,000/year over median 9.5 years follow-up(1993-2019). Proportional hazards models were adjusted for demographics, comorbidities, and AMI type. Results were stratified by revascularization type: percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting(CABG). Trends by race and income were compared pre- and post-2010 using time-varying analysis.
Results
Among 5,284 individuals with AMI (9.5% Black, 2.8% Hispanic, and 87.7% White; 23.2% <$20,000/year), Black race was associated with lower likelihood of receiving revascularization for AMI compared to White race in fully adjusted analyses [HR:0.79(95% Confidence Interval:[CI]0.66,0.95)]. When further stratified by type of revascularization, Black race was associated with lower likelihood of percutaneous coronary intervention for AMI compared to White race [HR:0.72(95% CI:0.59,0.90)] but not for CABG [HR:0.97(95%CI:0.72,1.32)]. Income was associated with lower likelihood of revascularization [HR:0.90(95%CI:0.82,0.99)] for AMI. No differences were observed for other racial/ethnic groups. Time periods (pre/post-2010) were not associated with change in revascularization rates.
Conclusion
Black race and income remain associated with lower likelihood of revascularization among patients presenting with AMI. There is a substantial need to disrupt the mechanisms contributing to race, sex, and income disparities in AMI management.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:82-92
Tertulien T, Roberts MB, Eaton CB, Cene CW, ... Nassir R, Breathett K
Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:82-92 | PMID: 34998968
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Impact:
Abstract

Same day discharge following non-elective PCI for non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes.

Hariri E, Kassas I, Hammoud MA, Hansra B, ... Smith CS, Barringhaus KG
Background:
and aim
Timing of discharge after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a crucial aspect of procedural safety and patient turnover. We examined predictors and outcomes of same-day discharge (SDD) after non-elective PCI for non-ST elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) in comparison with next-day discharge (NDD).
Methods
Baseline demographic, clinical, and procedural data were collected as were in-hospital outcomes and post-PCI length of stay (LOS) for all patients undergoing non-elective PCI for NSTE-ACS between 2011 and 2014 at a central tertiary care center. Thirty day and 1-year mortality and bleeding as well as 30-day readmission rates were determined from social security record and medical chart review. Logistic regression was performed to identify predictors of SDD, and propensity-matched analysis was done to examine the differences in outcomes between NDD and SDD.
Results
Out of 2,529 patients who underwent non-elective PCI for NSTE-ACS from 2011 to 2014, 1,385 met the inclusion criteria (mean age = 63 years; 26% women) and were discharged either the same day of (N = 300) or the day after (N = 1,085) PCI. Thirty-day and one-year mortality and major bleeding rates were similar between the 2 groups. Logistic regression identified male sex, radial access, negative troponin biomarker status, and procedure start time as predictors of SDD. In propensity-matched analyses, there was no difference in 30-day mortality and readmission between SDD and NDD groups.
Conclusions
SDD after non-elective PCI for NSTE-ACS may be a reasonable alternative to NDD for selected low-risk patients with comparable mortality, bleeding, and readmission rates.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:125-135
Hariri E, Kassas I, Hammoud MA, Hansra B, ... Smith CS, Barringhaus KG
Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:125-135 | PMID: 34998967
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Impact:
Abstract

One-year outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention in nonagenarians: Insights from the J-PCI OUTCOME registry.

Otowa K, Kohsaka S, Sawano M, Matsuura S, ... Nakamura M, Ikari Y
Background
Nonagenarian patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are increasing, and a few previous studies have reported their long-term outcomes. However, differences in their long-term outcomes between generations remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate 1-year all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE; cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) of nonagenarian patients who underwent PCI compared with the other elder patients, using a nationwide registration system.
Methods
The patient-level data registered between January 2017 and December 2017 was extracted from the J-PCI OUTCOME Registry endorsed by the Japanese Association of Cardiovascular Intervention and Therapeutics (CVIT). The one-year all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, MACE, and major bleeding events were identified.
Results
Out of 40,722 patients over 60 years of age, 880 (2.1%) were nonagenarians. For nonagenarians, the 1-year mortality rate was substantial (13.5%). The MACE and CV death rates were also high (8.1%, and 6.8%, respectively) for nonagenarians, and these event rates were approximately 1.5 times higher in nonagenarians than octogenarians. Multivariate regression analysis showed that presentation with cardiogenic shock [hazard ratio (HR) 2.32; 95 confidence intervals (CI): 1.22-4.41], or cardiac arrest (HR 2.91; 90% CI: 1.28-6.62), and use of oral anticoagulants (HR 2.10; 90% CI: 1.07-4.12) were the predictors of 1-year MACE.
Conclusions
Even in the contemporary era, nonagenarians who have undergone PCI still face a considerably increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events that reduces long-term survival. In addition to having poorer lesion characteristics, adverse events, including death, MACEs, and major bleeding, occurred 1.5 times more frequently in nonagenarians than in octogenarians.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:105-116
Otowa K, Kohsaka S, Sawano M, Matsuura S, ... Nakamura M, Ikari Y
Am Heart J: 30 Mar 2022; 246:105-116 | PMID: 35016854
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Impact:
Abstract

How to set up regional STEMI networks: a \"Stent - Save a life!\" initiative.

Candiello A, Alexander T, Delport R, Toth GG, ... Baumbach A, Naber C
Clinical guidelines recommend the development of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) networks at community, regional and/or national level to ideally offer primary coronary angioplasty, or at least the best available STEMI care to all patients. However, there is a discrepancy between this clinical recommendation and daily practice, with no coordinated care for STEMI patients in many regions of the world. While this can be a consequence of lack of resources, in reality it is more frequently a lack of organisational power. In this paper, the Stent - Save a Life! Initiative (www.stentsavealife.com) proposes a practical methodology to set up a STEMI network effectively in any region of the world with existing resources, and to develop the STEMI network continuously once it has been established.



EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1313-1317
Candiello A, Alexander T, Delport R, Toth GG, ... Baumbach A, Naber C
EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1313-1317 | PMID: 34387547
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Impact:
Abstract

Long-term clinical outcomes of everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffolds versus everolimus-eluting stents: final five-year results of the AIDA randomised clinical trial.

Kerkmeijer LSM, Renkens MPL, Tijssen RYG, Hofma SH, ... de Winter RJ, Wykrzykowska JJ
Background
Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS)-related events have been reported between 1 and 3 years - the period of active scaffold bioresorption. Data on the performance of the Absorb BVS in daily clinical practice beyond this time point are scarce.
Aims
This report aimed to provide the final five-year clinical follow-up of the Absorb BVS in comparison with the XIENCE everolimus-eluting stent (EES). In addition, we evaluated the effect of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) administration on events in the scaffold group.
Methods
AIDA was a multicentre, investigator-initiated, non-inferiority trial, in which 1,845 unselected patients with coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to either the Absorb BVS (n=924) or the XIENCE EES (n=921). Target vessel failure (TVF), a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularisation, was the primary endpoint. Scaffold thrombosis cases were matched with controls and tested for the effect of prolonged DAPT.
Results
Up to five-year follow-up, there was no difference in TVF between the Absorb BVS (17.7%) and the XIENCE EES (16.1%) (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90-1.41; p=0.302). Definite or probable device thrombosis (DT) occurred in 43 patients (4.8%) in the scaffold group compared to 13 patients (1.5%) in the stent group (HR 3.32, 95% CI: 1.78-6.17; p<0.001). DT between 3 and 4 years occurred six times in the Absorb arm versus three times in the XIENCE arm. Between 4 and 5 years, the incidence was three versus two, respectively. Of those three DT in the scaffold group, two occurred in XIENCE EES-treated lesions. The odds ratio of scaffold thrombosis in patients on DAPT compared to off DAPT throughout five-year follow-up was 0.36 (95% CI: 0.15-0.86).
Conclusions
The excess risk of the Absorb BVS on late adverse events, in particular device thrombosis, in routine PCI continues up to 4 years and seems to plateau afterwards. Clinical
Trial registration:
ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01858077.



EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1340-1347
Kerkmeijer LSM, Renkens MPL, Tijssen RYG, Hofma SH, ... de Winter RJ, Wykrzykowska JJ
EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1340-1347 | PMID: 34483094
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Impact:
Abstract

Transcatheter edge-to-edge mitral valve repair in patients with mitral annulus calcification.

Fernández-Peregrina E, Pascual I, Freixa X, Tirado-Conte G, ... Nombela-Franco L, Arzamendi D
Background
MAC is commonly found in patients affected with MR, and it is associated with high morbidity, mortality and worse cardiac surgical outcomes. Transcatheter edge-to-edge repair could be an alternative treatment, although there is little evidence in this population.
Aims
The aim of this study was to analyse the safety, efficacy and durability of MitraClip implantation in patients affected with mitral regurgitation (MR) and mitral annulus calcification (MAC).
Methods
We analysed the outcomes of 61 suitable patients affected with severe MR and moderate or severe MAC (the \"MAC\" group) and 791 patients with no or mild MAC (the \"NoMAC\" group) treated with the MitraClip device.
Results
Procedural success was similar (91.8% vs 95.1%, p=0.268, in MAC and NoMAC, respectively), with a very low rate of complications. At one-year follow-up, 90.6% of MAC and 79.5% of NoMAC patients had MR grade ≤2 (p=0.129), 80% in both groups remained in NYHA Functional Class ≤II, and a significant reduction in cardiac readmissions was observed (65% vs 78% in MAC vs NoMAC, p=0.145). One-year mortality tended to be higher in MAC patients (19.7% vs 11.3%, p=0.050), with no difference in cardiovascular mortality (15.3% vs 9.2%, p=0.129).
Conclusions
MitraClip use in selected patients with moderate or severe MAC is safe, feasible and achieves good clinical and echocardiographic results at one-year follow-up.



EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1300-1309
Fernández-Peregrina E, Pascual I, Freixa X, Tirado-Conte G, ... Nombela-Franco L, Arzamendi D
EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1300-1309 | PMID: 34483091
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Impact:
Abstract

Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of in-stent restenosis with calcified nodules.

Tada T, Miura K, Ikuta A, Ohya M, ... Fuku Y, Kadota K
Background
Calcified nodules (CN) have been reported as being associated with stent failure including in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, there is no systematic study of this condition.
Aims
We aimed to clarify the prevalence, predictors, and midterm results of ISR lesions with CN.
Methods
We examined the clinical characteristics of 651 ISR lesions in patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with optical coherence tomography (OCT) between October 2008 and July 2016, and their 6- to 8-month follow-up angiography results. CN was defined as a high backscattering mass with small nodular calcium depositions which protruded into the vessel lumen.
Results
Thirty-two ISR lesions (4.9%) had CN. Multivariable analysis showed that calcified lesion (odds ratio [OR] 12.441, p<0.001), incomplete stent apposition (OR 3.228, p=0.005), haemodialysis (OR 3.633, p=0.024), and female gender (OR 3.212, p=0.036) were independently associated with ISR lesions with CN. Midterm follow-up was performed on 612 ISR lesions. Both ISR and target lesion revascularisation (TLR) rates were significantly higher in lesions with CN compared with those without CN (43.8% vs 25.0%, p=0.023; 37.5% vs 18.8%, p=0.020, respectively). However, multivariate analysis did not show the presence of CN as an independent predictor of re-TLR (OR 1.690, p=0.286).
Conclusions
The prevalence of ISR lesions with CN was 4.9%. Calcified lesions, incomplete stent apposition, haemodialysis, and female gender are probably associated with CN formation. ISR lesions with CN may have poor midterm outcomes compared with ISR lesions without CN.



EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1352-1361
Tada T, Miura K, Ikuta A, Ohya M, ... Fuku Y, Kadota K
EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1352-1361 | PMID: 34483090
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Impact:
Abstract

Temporal trends in clinical outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention: a systematic review of 66,327 patients from 25 all-comers trials.

Asano T, Ono M, Dai Z, Saito A, ... Yoneoka D, Komiyama N
Background
With the improvements of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) technology and post-PCI patient management, several registry studies reported temporal trends in post-PCI clinical outcomes. However, their results are inconclusive, potentially reflecting region-specific trends, based on site-reported events without external validity.
Aims
This study aimed to investigate temporal trends in post-PCI clinical outcomes in all-comers randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving coronary stents.
Methods
We performed a systematic review identifying RCTs comparing a clinical outcome as a primary endpoint among different coronary stents with an all-comers design and independent clinical event adjudication, extracting the study start year, patient baseline characteristics, and one- and five-year clinical outcomes. Temporal trends in clinical outcomes (cardiac death, myocardial infarction [MI], target lesion revascularisation [TLR], stent thrombosis [ST]) were assessed using random-effects meta-regression analyses, estimating the relationship between clinical outcomes and study start year.
Results
Overall, 25 all-comers trials (51 device arms, 66,327 patients) conducted between 2003 and 2018 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Random-effects meta-regression analysis revealed significant decreasing trends in one- and five-year cardiac death, one-year TLR, and five-year ST incidences (relative risk per 10-year increase: 0.69 [0.51-0.92], 0.66 [0.44-0.98], 0.60 [0.41-0.88], and 0.18 [0.07-0.44], respectively). There was no significant trend in myocardial infarction incidences.
Conclusions
This is the first attempt to clarify and quantify the temporal trends of post-PCI outcome incidence. The 15-year improvements in PCI therapy and post-therapeutic patient management are associated with reduced incidences of cardiac death and PCI-related adverse events.



EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1318-1329
Asano T, Ono M, Dai Z, Saito A, ... Yoneoka D, Komiyama N
EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1318-1329 | PMID: 34602385
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Impact:
Abstract

Clinical outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve implantation in patients younger than 70 years rejected for surgery: the AMTRAC registry.

Witberg G, Landes U, Codner P, Barbanti M, ... Finkelstein A, Kornowski R
Background
The mean age of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) patients is steadily decreasing.
Aims
The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics, the indications for and the outcomes of TAVI in patients <70 years old.
Methods
All patients undergoing TAVI (n=8,626) from the 18 participating centres between January 2007 and June 2020 were stratified by age (</>70). For patients <70, the indications for TAVI were extracted from Heart Team discussions and the baseline characteristics and mortality were compared between the two groups.
Results
Overall, 640 (7.4%) patients were <70 (9.1% during 2018-2020, p<0.001); the mean age was 65.0±2.3 years. The younger patients were more often male, with bicuspid valves or needing valve-in-valve procedures. They had a higher prevalence of lung disease and diabetes. In 80.7% of cases, the Heart Team estimated an increased surgical risk and TAVI was selected, reflected by an STS score >4% in 20.4%. Five-year mortality was similar (29.4 vs 29.8%, HR 0.95, p=0.432) in the <70 and >70 groups. In the <70 group, mortality was higher for those referred for TAVI due to an increased surgical risk compared to those referred for other reasons (31.6 vs 24.5%, HR 1.23, p=0.021). Mortality was similar regardless of the STS stratum in patients judged by the Heart Team to be at increased surgical risk (32.6 vs 30.4%, HR 0.98, p=0.715).
Conclusions
Use of TAVI in patients <70 is becoming more frequent. The main reason for choosing TAVI is due to an increased surgical risk not adequately represented by the STS score. The outcomes for these patients are similar to those for older TAVI patients. Dedicated trials of TAVI/SAVR in younger patients are needed to guide decisions concerning expansion of TAVI indications. ((ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04031274).



EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1289-1297
Witberg G, Landes U, Codner P, Barbanti M, ... Finkelstein A, Kornowski R
EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1289-1297 | PMID: 34673502
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Impact:
Abstract

Safety and efficacy of ticagrelor monotherapy according to drug-eluting stent type: the TWILIGHT-STENT study.

Dangas G, Baber U, Sharma S, Giustino G, ... Gibson CM, Mehran R
Background
In the TWILIGHT trial, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short course of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) was shown to be a safe bleeding avoidance strategy in high-risk patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES).
Aims
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of ticagrelor monotherapy after three-month DAPT in patients undergoing PCI, according to DES type.
Methods
In the current sub-analysis from TWILIGHT, patients were stratified into three groups based on DES type: durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES), durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents (DP-ZES), and biodegradable polymer DES (BP-DES). Bleeding and ischaemic outcomes were assessed at one year after randomisation.
Results
Out of 5,769 patients, 3,014 (52.2%) had DP-EES, 1,350 (23.4%) had DP-ZES and 1,405 (24.4%) had BP-DES. Compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy had significantly lower BARC type 2, 3 or 5 bleeding compared with DAPT; DP-EES (3.8% vs 6.7%; HR 0.56, 95% CI: 0.41-0.78), DP-ZES (4.6% vs 6.9%; HR 0.66, 95% CI: 0.42-1.04) and BP-DES (4.2% vs 7.9%; HR 0.52, 95% CI: 0.33-0.81; pinteraction=0.76). Ticagrelor monotherapy resulted in similar rates of death, MI, or stroke: DP-EES (4.2% vs 4.3%; HR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.68-1.37); DP-ZES (4.1% vs 3.1%; HR 1.32; 95% CI: 0.75-2.33); BP-DES (3.9% vs 4.2%; HR 0.92; 95% CI: 0.54-1.55; pinteraction=0.60). In both unadjusted and covariate-adjusted analyses, DES type was not associated with any differences in ischaemic or bleeding complications.
Conclusions
As compared with ticagrelor plus aspirin, ticagrelor monotherapy after a short DAPT duration lowered bleeding complications without increasing the ischaemic risk, irrespective of DES type. We observed no significant differences among DES types.



EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1330-1339
Dangas G, Baber U, Sharma S, Giustino G, ... Gibson CM, Mehran R
EuroIntervention: 18 Mar 2022; 17:1330-1339 | PMID: 34881696
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Impact:
Abstract

A new fastening system for temporary pacing with active-fixation leads: effectiveness and safety.

Vicente-Miralles R, Martín-Langerwerf DA, Núñez-Martínez JM, Marco-Juan A, ... Gil-Guillén VF, Bertomeu-Gonzalez V
Aims
Temporary cardiac pacing with active-fixation leads (TPAFL) using a reusable permanent pacemaker generator has been shown to be safer than lead systems without fixation. However, TPAFL requires the off-label use of pacemaker leads and generators. We designed a fastening system to ensure the safety and efficacy of the procedure: the KronoSafe System®. To demonstrate the safety and effectiveness of the KronoSafe System® for temporary pacing in a series of patients receiving TPAFL.
Methods and results
A prospective cohort of 20 patients undergoing TPAFL between August 2019 and June 2020 was recruited in a Spanish region. The temporary pacemaker was implanted through jugular access and secured with the KronoSafe System®. R-wave detection, lead impedance, and capture threshold were assessed every 48 h. Complications associated with the procedure or occurring during TPAFL were recorded. There were no complications associated with temporary pacing, and the therapy was effective in all cases. TPAFL was used for a mean of 7.6 days (maximum 25 days), and 84.56% of the time in a cardiology ward.
Conclusion
TPAFL secured using the KronoSafe system® provides safe and stable cardiac stimulation for patients requiring temporary cardiac pacing.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 16 Mar 2022; 11:224-229
Vicente-Miralles R, Martín-Langerwerf DA, Núñez-Martínez JM, Marco-Juan A, ... Gil-Guillén VF, Bertomeu-Gonzalez V
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 16 Mar 2022; 11:224-229 | PMID: 34918044
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Impact:
Abstract

Clinical outcomes of no stenting in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing deferred primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Madsen JM, Kelbæk H, Nepper-Christensen L, Jacobsen MR, ... Engstrøm T, Lønborg JT
Background
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is treated with stenting, but the underlying stenosis is often not severe, and stenting may potentially be omitted.
Aims
The aim of the study was to investigate outcomes of patients with STEMI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) without stenting.
Methods
Patients were identified through the DANAMI-3-DEFER study. Stenting was omitted in the patients with stable flow after initial PCI and no significant residual stenosis on the deferral procedure, who were randomised to deferred stenting. These patients were compared to patients randomised to conventional PCI treated with immediate stenting. The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularisation (TVR).
Results
Of 603 patients randomised to deferred stenting, 84 were treated without stenting, and in patients randomised to conventional PCI (n=612), 590 were treated with immediate stenting. Patients treated with no stenting had a median stenosis of 40%, median vessel diameter of 2.9 mm, and median lesion length of 11.4 mm. During a median follow-up of 3.4 years, the composite endpoint occurred in 14% and 16% in the no and immediate stenting group, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.48-1.60; p=0.66). The association remained non-significant after adjusting for confounders (adjusted HR 0.53, 95% CI: 0.22-1.24; p=0.14). The rate of TVR and recurrent MI were 2% vs 4% (p=0.70) and 4% vs 6% (p=0.43), respectively.
Conclusions
Patients with STEMI, with no significant residual stenosis and stable flow after initial PCI, treated without stenting, had comparable event rates to patients treated with immediate stenting.



EuroIntervention: 15 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print
Madsen JM, Kelbæk H, Nepper-Christensen L, Jacobsen MR, ... Engstrøm T, Lønborg JT
EuroIntervention: 15 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35289303
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Impact:
Abstract

Association between obesity grade and the age of the first acute coronary syndrome: Prospective observational study.

Demirci D, Demirci DE, Chi G
Background
The study evaluates how obesity grade is associated with age during the first acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and examines the effect of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and the age of first ACS in patients with severe obesity.
Methods
We enrolled consecutive patients diagnosed with first episode of ACS between 2014 and 2019, and categorized them by body mass indices (BMI). Severe obesity was defined as BMI ≥35 kg/m2. Independent variables affecting the age of first ACS were examined by linear regression analysis.
Results
A total of 1005 patients (mean age, 57.5 ± 12.3 years; 19.3% female) were included. Approximately 6% and 12% of obese patients and normal weight patients had no other risk factors. Patients with ACS with severe obesity were younger than those with ACS in the grade-I obesity, overweight, and normal-weight groups (52.8 ± 9.9 vs. 55.3 ± 10.9, 56.8 ± 11.4, and 61.4 ± 14.2, respectively, p < 0.001). BMI had a strong, inverse linear relationship with earlier age of first ACS. The number of patients with no risk factors was significantly high in normal-weight individuals compared with patients with severe obesity (11.6% vs 5.6%, p = 0.037). After adjusting for CV risk factors, patients with overweight, grade-I obesity, and severe obesity may experience first ACS sooner than those with normal-weight by 3.9, 6.1, and 7.7 years, respectively (p < 0.001). However, males and females with severe obesity without CV risk factors experienced the first ACS episode 16 and 22 years later than those with the highest number of risk factors, respectively.
Conclusion
Patients with severe obesity experience first ACS episode 7.7 years earlier than those with normal-weight. Absence of CV risk factors in people with obesity can improve the potential negative effect of obesity on the ACS age.
Trial registration
NCT04578964, 08 October 2020.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:93-99
Demirci D, Demirci DE, Chi G
Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:93-99 | PMID: 34864079
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Impact:
Abstract

Optimal low-density lipoprotein cholesterol target level in Korean acute myocardial infarction patients (<70 mg/dL vs. <55 mg/dL): Based on Korea acute myocardial infarction registry-National Institute of Health.

Ahn JH, Ahn Y, Jeong MH, Kim JH, ... Hur SH, Oh SK
Background
Current treatment guidelines for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) recommend lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). However, previous clinical studies among East Asian AMI patients failed to prove its clinical efficacy of lipid lowering therapy based on Western target LDL-C level. Thus, the purpose of this study is directly to compare the clinical outcomes of target LDL-C < 70 mg/dL and < 55 mg/dL and identify optimal target LDL-C level and in Korean AMI patients.
Methods and results
A total of 2198 AMI patients in Korea AMI Registry - National Institute of Health were enrolled. Patients were initially divided into LDL-C non-target group (n = 1115) and target group (n = 1083). Successful achievement of follow up target LDL-C was defined as <70 mg/dL and ≥ 50% reduction from baseline. Target group patients were additionally divided to <70 mg/dL group (n = 698) and <55 mg/dL group (n = 385). Propensity score matching analysis was done in non-target vs. target group and <70 mg/dL vs. <55 mg/dL group. In the matched population, the risk of 3 years major adverse cardiac event (MACE) (13.0% vs 9.8%, HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56-0.96; p = 0.025) was higher in non-target group patients. However, the risk of MACE was similar in <70 mg/dL and < 55 mg/dL group patients (10.0% vs 8.1%, HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.46-1.22; p = 0.247).
Conclusion
In the present study, target LDL-C level of <70 mg/dL and ≥ 50% reduction from baseline level was associated with better clinical outcomes in Korean AMI patients. However, further lowering target LDL-C level of <55 mg/dL showed no additional benefits.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:15-22
Ahn JH, Ahn Y, Jeong MH, Kim JH, ... Hur SH, Oh SK
Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:15-22 | PMID: 34921900
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Impact:
Abstract

Early angiography in elderly patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: The cardio CHUS-HUSJ registry.

González Ferrero T, Álvarez Álvarez B, Cordero A, Martinón Martínez J, ... Gude Sampedro F, González Juanatey JR
Background
In elderly patients with non-ST elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS), while routine invasive management is established in high-risk NSTEACS patients, there is still uncertainty regarding the optimal timing of the procedure.
Methods
This study analyzes the association of early coronary angiography with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, heart failure (HF) hospitalization, and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients older than 75 years old with NSTEACS. This retrospective observational study included 7811 consecutive NSTEACS patients who were examined between the years 2003 and 2017 at two Spanish university hospitals. There were 2290 patients older than 75 years old. We compared their baseline characteristics according to the early invasive strategy used (coronarography ≤24 h vs. coronarography >24 h) after the diagnosis of NSTEACS.
Results
Among the study participants, 1566 patients (68.38%) underwent early invasive coronary intervention. The mean follow-up period was 46 months (interquartile range 18-71 months). This association was also maintained after propensity score matching: early invasive strategy was significantly related to lower all-cause mortality [HR 0.61 (95% CI 0.51-0.71)], cardiovascular mortality [HR 0.52 (95% CI 0.43-0.63)], and MACE [HR 0.62 (CI 95% 0.54-0.71)].
Concusions
In a contemporary real-world registry of elderly NSTEACS patients, early invasive management significantly reduced all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and MACE during long-term follow-up.
Brief summary
In this real-world retrospective observational study that included 2451 patients older than 75 years old, 1566 patients (68.38%) underwent early invasive coronary intervention. After performing a propensity score matching, the early invasive strategy was still associated with lower all-cause mortality [HR (hazard ratio) 0.61, 95% CI (95% confidence interval) (0.51-0.71)], cardiovascular mortality [HR 0.52 (95%CI 0.43-0.63)], and MACE [HR 0.62 (95%CI 0.54-0.71)] during long-term follow-up.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:8-14
González Ferrero T, Álvarez Álvarez B, Cordero A, Martinón Martínez J, ... Gude Sampedro F, González Juanatey JR
Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:8-14 | PMID: 34942303
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Abstract

Acute myocarditis revealing autoimmune and inflammatory disorders: Clinical presentation and outcome.

Chaligne C, Mageau A, Ducrocq G, Ou P, ... Papo T, Sacre K
Background
Acute myocarditis (AM) may be the heralding manifestation of autoimmune and inflammatory disorders (AIID). We aimed to describe the clinical presentation and outcome of patients with AM revealing AIID.
Methods
All consecutive adult patients with AM admitted in a department of Cardiology (Bichat Hospital, Paris, France) from January 2011 to January 2019 were included. Diagnosis of AM was based on clinical manifestations, elevated Troponin, myocardial inflammation on CMR and no evidence for coronary artery disease. AIID were classified using international criteria.
Results
Two-hundred and eighteen (35.3 [26.4-47.1] years, 75.2% males) patients with AM were included. Overall, AM revealed AIID in 15 (6.9%), including systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 3), adult onset Still\'s disease (n = 3), sarcoidosis (n = 2), mixed connective tissue disease (n = 1), anti-Jo1 syndrome (n = 1), eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (n = 1), antiphospholipid syndrome (n = 1), reactive arthritis (n = 1), Graves\' disease (n = 1) and Crohn\'s colitis (n = 1). Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at onset was <30% in 5 (33.3%) patients with AIID. All but 2 patients with AIID were treated with steroids, immunosuppressive and/or immunomodulatory drugs and LVEF normalized in all by the end of follow-up. By comparing patients with AIID to patients with idiopathic AM (n = 203), multivariable analysis showed that pericardial effusion, lack of chest pain and high CRP level at onset were independently associated with AIID.
Conclusion
Acute myocarditis revealing AIID may be life-threatening at the acute phase but has an overall good prognosis under specific treatment. Pericardial effusion and CRP level at admission suggest an AIID as the cause for AM.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:84-88
Chaligne C, Mageau A, Ducrocq G, Ou P, ... Papo T, Sacre K
Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:84-88 | PMID: 34979146
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Abstract

Incidence, Risk Factors, and Prognosis of Cholesterol Crystal Embolism Because of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Takahashi K, Omuro A, Ohya M, Kubo S, ... Fuku Y, Kadota K
Cholesterol crystal embolism (CCE) is a rare but serious complication of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, its incidence, risk factors, and prognosis in the contemporary era are not well known. We included 23,184 patients who underwent PCI in our institution between January 2000 and December 2019 in this study. The diagnosis of CCE was made histologically or by the combination of cutaneous signs and specific blood test results. In patients with CCE, we evaluated the incidence, risk factors, and prognosis. A total of 88 patients (0.38%) were diagnosed with CCE. The incidence of CCE seemed to decline through the investigated 20 years. Positive predictors of CCE were age ≥70 years (68% vs 59%, p = 0.012), aortic aneurysm (23% vs 7.2% p <0.001), and a femoral approach (71% vs 45%, p <0.001), whereas a negative predictor of CCE was the use of an inner sheath (63% vs 77%, p <0.001). The rate of 1-year mortality and the requirement for chronic hemodialysis within 1 year after PCI in patients with CCE were 10% and 11%, respectively. The use of an inner sheath and a nonfemoral approach was associated with a lower incidence of CCE. In conclusion, because the prognosis of patients with CCE is still poor, preprocedural identification of high-risk patients and selection of low-risk procedures could be important for preventing CCE.

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:15-19
Takahashi K, Omuro A, Ohya M, Kubo S, ... Fuku Y, Kadota K
Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:15-19 | PMID: 34986990
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Abstract

Incidence, Clinical Characteristics and Short-Term Prognosis in Patients With Cardiogenic Shock and Various Left Ventricular Ejection Fractions After Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Jiang Y, Boris AF, Zhu Y, Gan H, ... Luo S, Huang B
The 2016 European Society of Cardiology Guidelines introduced a new term, mid-range left ventricular ejection fraction (mrEF) heart failure, however, the clinical characteristics and short-term outcomes in cardiogenic shock patients with mrEF after acute myocardial infarction remain unclear. This retrospective study analyzed the baseline characteristics, management, and outcomes according to the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), reduced LVEF (rEF) ≤40%, mrEF 41% to 49%, and preserved LVEF (pEF) ≥50% in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock. The primary end point was 30-day all-cause mortality and the secondary end point was the composite events of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). In 218 patients, 71 (32.6%) were patients with mrEF. Compared with those with pEF, patients with mrEF had some similar clinical characteristics to that of rEF. The 30-day all-cause mortality in patients with rEF, mrEF, and pEF were 72.7%, 56.3%, and 32.0%, respectively (p = 0.001). The 30-day MACE were 90.9%, 69.0%, and 60.2%, respectively (p = 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, patients with mrEF and rEF had comparable 30-day all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.50 to 1.33, p = 0.404), and pEF was associated with decreased risk of 30-day all-cause mortality compared with rEF (HR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.71, p = 0.001). In contrast, the risk of 30-day MACE in mrEF and pEF were lower than that of rEF (HR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.96, p = 0.031 and HR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.80, p = 0.003, respectively). In conclusion, 1/3 of patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock were mrEF. The clinical characteristics and short-term mortality in patients with mrEF were inclined to that of rEF and the occurrence of early left ventricular systolic dysfunction is of prognostic significance.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:20-26
Jiang Y, Boris AF, Zhu Y, Gan H, ... Luo S, Huang B
Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:20-26 | PMID: 34986988
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Impact:
Abstract

Gender Differences in Age-Stratified Inhospital Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (from the National Inpatient Sample 2012 to 2018).

Zahid S, Khan MZ, Ullah W, Rai D, ... Depta JP, Michos ED
Contemporary data on gender differences in outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), after stratification by age, remain limited. We studied age-stratified (60 to 70, 71 to 80, and 81 to 90 years) inhospital outcomes by gender after TAVI from the National Inpatient Sample database between 2012 and 2018. We analyzed National Inpatient Sample data using the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification, Ninth Revision, and Tenth Revision claims codes. Between the years 2012 and 2018, a total of 188,325 weighted hospitalizations for TAVI were included in the analysis. A total of 21,957 patients were included in the 60 to 70 age group (44% females), 60,770 (45% females) in the 71 to 80 age group, and 105,580 (50% females) in the 81 to 90 age groups, respectively. Propensity-matched inhospital mortality rates were significantly higher for females than males for the age group of 81 to 90 years (3.0% vs 2.1%, p <0.01). Vascular complications and a need for blood transfusions remained significantly higher for females on propensity-matched analysis across all categories of ages. Conversely, acute kidney injury and the need for pacemaker implantation remained significantly higher for males across all age groups. In conclusion, we report that mortality is higher in female patients who underwent TAVI between the ages of 81 to 90. Moreover, the female gender was associated with higher vascular complications and bleeding requiring transfusions. Conversely, the male gender was associated with higher rates of pacemaker implantation and acute kidney injury.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:83-92
Zahid S, Khan MZ, Ullah W, Rai D, ... Depta JP, Michos ED
Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:83-92 | PMID: 34991843
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Impact:
Abstract

Optical Coherence Tomographic Features of Pancoronary Plaques in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction Caused by Layered Plaque Rupture Versus Layered Plaque Erosion.

Yin Y, Fang C, Jiang S, Wang J, ... Dai J, Yu B
Atherosclerotic plaque instability could occur on the basis of healed plaque which has a layered appearance on optical coherence tomography. This study aimed to investigate pancoronary plaque features of layered plaque rupture (LPR) and layered plaque erosion (LPE) in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Among 388 patients with acute myocardial infarction who underwent preintervention optical coherence tomography imaging of three coronary arteries, 190 patients with layered culprit plaque (49.0%) were identified and further divided into 2 groups: LPR group and LPE group. Clinical characteristics, pancoronary plaque features and clinical outcomes were compared between the 2 groups. Patients with LPR were older, less often male and current smoker, and had a lower coronary flow grade than those with LPE. At the culprit lesion, LPR group had a higher prevalence of lipid plaque, thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA), macrophage, and microchannel, and presented with more severe lumen area stenosis than LPE group. At nonculprit lesions, LPR group had a higher prevalence of TCFA and had greater layered tissue thickness and area than LPE group. The ischemia-driven revascularization rate was higher in LPR group. Moreover, we found that TCFA, diameter stenosis >56.5%, and mean lipid arc >179.1° were predictors for layered culprit plaque. In conclusion, patients with LPR had more vulnerable plaque features at culprit and nonculprit lesions and had higher incidence of ischemia-driven revascularization than those with LPE. TCFA, diameter stenosis >56.5%, and mean lipid arc >179.1° were predictors of layered culprit plaque.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:35-42
Yin Y, Fang C, Jiang S, Wang J, ... Dai J, Yu B
Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:35-42 | PMID: 34991841
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Abstract

Polygenic Risk Scores for Predicting Adverse Outcomes After Coronary Revascularization.

Aittokallio J, Kauko A, Vaura F, Salomaa V, ... Schnabel RB, Niiranen T
Coronary procedures predispose patients to adverse events. To improve our understanding of the genetic factors underlying postoperative prognosis, we studied the association of polygenic risk scores (PRSs) with postprocedural complications in coronary patients who underwent revascularization. The study sample comprised 8,296, 6,132, and 13,082 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, or any revascularization, respectively. We genotyped all subjects and identified adverse events during follow-up of up to 30 years by record linkage with nationwide healthcare registers. We computed PRSs for each postoperative adverse outcome (atrial fibrillation [AF], myocardial infarction, stroke, and bleeding complications) for all participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between PRSs and outcomes. A 1-SD increase in AF-PRS was associated with greater risk of postoperative AF with hazard ratios of 1.22 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16 to 1.28), 1.15 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.20) and 1.18 (95% CI 1.14 to 1.22) after percutaneous coronary intervention, coronary artery bypass grafting, and any revascularization, respectively. In contrast, the association of each PRSs with other postoperative complications was nonexistent to marginal. Inclusion of the AF-PRS in a model with a clinical risk score resulted in significant model improvement (increase in model c-statistic 0.0059 to 0.0098 depending on procedure; p <0.0002 for all). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PRS can be used for AF risk-prediction in patients who underwent revascularization. The AF-PRS could potentially be used to improve AF prevention and outcomes in patients who underwent revascularization.

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:9-14
Aittokallio J, Kauko A, Vaura F, Salomaa V, ... Schnabel RB, Niiranen T
Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:9-14 | PMID: 34998506
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Impact:
Abstract

Long-term outcomes in inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients with right ventricular myocardial infarction.

Hu M, Lu Y, Wan S, Li B, ... Yang Y, China Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry Investigators
Objective
To evaluate the prognostic influence of the presence of right ventricular myocardial infarction (RVMI) on patients with inferior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the contemporary reperfusion era.
Methods
9308 patients with inferior STEMI were included from the prospective, nationwide, multicenter China Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry, including 1745 (18.75%) patients with RVMI and 7563 (81.25%) patients without RVMI. The primary outcome was two-year all-cause mortality. The secondary outcome was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular event (MACCE) defined as a composite of all-cause mortality, recurrent MI, revascularization, stroke, and major bleeding.
Results
After two-year follow up, there were no significant differences between inferior STEMI patients with or without RVMI in all-cause mortality (12.0% vs 11.3%; adjusted HR: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.90 to 1.24; P = 0.5103). Inferior STEMI with RVMI was associated with higher risk of MACCE (25.6% vs 22.0%; adjusted HR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.31; P = 0.0038), revascularization (10.3% vs 8.1%; adjusted HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.48; P = 0.0218), and major bleeding (4.6% vs 2.7%; adjusted HR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.18 to 2.07; P = 0.0019). Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and thrombolysis were independent predictors to decrease all-cause mortality. For patients who received timely reperfusion, RVMI involvement did not increase all-cause mortality, whereas for those who did not undergo reperfusion, RVMI increased all-cause mortality (20.3% vs 15.7%; HR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.10 to 1.63).
Conclusion
RVMI did not increase all-cause mortality for inferior STEMI patients in contemporary reperfusion era, whereas the risk was increased for patients with no reperfusion treatment.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:1-7
Hu M, Lu Y, Wan S, Li B, ... Yang Y, China Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry Investigators
Int J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 351:1-7 | PMID: 34998947
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Abstract

Long-Term Outcomes for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation.

Gouda P, Dover DC, Savu A, Bainey K, ... Kaul P, Sandhu RK
Short-term outcomes are worse for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with a history of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, long-term prognosis remains unclear. We linked administrative health databases to identify patients hospitalized with ACS (ST-elevation myocardial infarction [STEMI], non-STEMI [NSTEMI], and unstable angina) between 2008 and 2019 in Alberta, Canada. Patients were stratified according to history of NVAF before hospitalization. The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, hospitalization for myocardial infarction, or stroke at 3 years. Cox models were constructed to estimate the association between ACS, NVAF, and outcomes. Of 54,309 ACS hospitalizations, 6,351 patients (11.7%) had a history of NVAF. Compared with patients without NVAF, patients with previous NVAF were older (75.6 ± 11.6 vs 64.9 ± 13.4 years), women (35.1% vs 30.0%), had higher comorbid burden (Charlson co-morbidity index 3.0 vs 1.0), and more often presented with NSTEMI (57.5% vs 49.0%). The primary outcome occurred in 37.0% of patients with previous NVAF and 17.4% without (p <0.001). In the multivariable analysis, there was a 1.14-fold (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09 to 1.20) higher risk of the primary outcome in patients with previous NVAF. There was a significant association with STEMI (adjusted harazard ratio [aHR] 1.24, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.36) and NSTEMI (aHR 1.12, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.19) but not with unstable angina (aHR 1.04, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.22). In conclusion, in this population-based study, we identified that a history of NVAF at ACS presentation is associated with worse long-term prognosis, particularly for STEMI and NSTEMI.

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:54-61
Gouda P, Dover DC, Savu A, Bainey K, ... Kaul P, Sandhu RK
Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:54-61 | PMID: 35012753
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Impact:
Abstract

Impact of Race/Ethnicity on Long Term Outcomes After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Drug-Eluting Stents.

Roumeliotis A, Claessen B, Sartori S, Cao D, ... Dangas G, Mehran R
Cardiovascular disease constitutes the leading cause of mortality worldwide, irrespective of race/ethnicity. Previous studies have shown that minority patients with acute coronary syndrome have distinct clinical, anatomic, and socioeconomic characteristics which may affect clinical outcomes. We included patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), non-STEMI, or unstable angina in a single center. Patients were stratified into Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian. Caucasians were the reference group. The primary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events, composite of death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or stroke at 1 year. Of 6,800 patients included, 49.7% were Caucasian, 20.7% Hispanic, 17.0% Asian and 12.6% African-American. Caucasians were the oldest, Hispanics and Asians had the highest prevalence of diabetes mellitus whereas African-Americans had more chronic kidney disease. Hispanics and African-Americans had the highest STEMI rates, whereas Asians were more likely to present with unstable angina. Compared with Caucasians, Asians had a lower rate of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events at 1 year (3.9% vs 7.1%; p <0.01) whereas Hispanics (6.2% vs 7.1%; p = 0.17) and African-Americans (8.0% vs 7.1%; p = 0.38) had comparable outcomes. Differences were driven by mortality. Findings remained unchanged after adjustment. In conclusion, in acute coronary syndrome patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, Asian race/ethnicity was associated with favorable cardiovascular outcomes compared with Caucasians. No significant differences were observed for Hispanics and African-Americans.

Copyright © 2021 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:1-8
Roumeliotis A, Claessen B, Sartori S, Cao D, ... Dangas G, Mehran R
Am J Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 167:1-8 | PMID: 35031109
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Impact:
Abstract

Improved Outcomes Following the Ross Procedure Compared With Bioprosthetic Aortic Valve Replacement.

Mazine A, David TE, Stoklosa K, Chung J, Lafreniere-Roula M, Ouzounian M
Background
The ideal aortic valve substitute for young and middle-aged adults remains elusive.
Objectives
This study sought to compare the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing the Ross procedure and those receiving bioprosthetic aortic valve replacements (AVRs).
Methods
Consecutive patients aged 16-60 years who underwent a Ross procedure or surgical bioprosthetic AVR at the Toronto General Hospital between 1990 and 2014 were identified. Propensity score matching was used to account for differences in baseline characteristics. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes included valve reintervention, valve deterioration, endocarditis, thromboembolic events, and permanent pacemaker implantation.
Results
Propensity score matching yielded 108 pairs of patients. The median age was 41 years (IQR: 34-47 years). Baseline characteristics were similar between the matched groups. There was no operative mortality in either group. Mean follow-up was 14.5 ± 7.2 years. All-cause mortality was lower following the Ross procedure (HR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.14-0.90; P = 0.028). Using death as a competing risk, the Ross procedure was associated with lower rates of reintervention (HR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.10-0.41; P < 0.001), valve deterioration (HR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.14-0.45; P < 0.001), thromboembolic events (HR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.05-0.50; P = 0.002), and permanent pacemaker implantation (HR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.07-0.64; P = 0.006).
Conclusions
In this propensity-matched study, the Ross procedure was associated with better long-term survival and freedom from adverse valve-related events compared with bioprosthetic AVR. In specialized centers with sufficient expertise, the Ross procedure should be considered the primary option for young and middle-aged adults undergoing AVR.

Copyright © 2022 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 79:993-1005
Mazine A, David TE, Stoklosa K, Chung J, Lafreniere-Roula M, Ouzounian M
J Am Coll Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; 79:993-1005 | PMID: 35272805
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Impact:
Abstract

Sirolimus-eluting stents with ultrathin struts versus everolimus-eluting stents for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: final three-year results of the TALENT trial.

de Winter RJ, Zaman A, Hara H, Gao C, ... Onuma Y, Serruys PW
Background
In the TALENT study, the sirolimus-eluting ultrathin strut Supraflex stent was non-inferior to the XIENCE stent for a device-oriented composite endpoint (DoCE: defined as cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction [TV-MI], or clinically indicated target lesion revascularisation [CI-TLR]) at 12 months.
Aims
This study investigated the 3-year outcomes of the TALENT trial and long-term impact of ultrathin drug-eluting stents (DES), compared to the XIENCE everolimus-eluting thin stent.
Methods
The TALENT trial is a prospective, multicentre, randomised all-comers trial comparing the Supraflex sirolimus-eluting stent with the XIENCE everolimus-eluting stent, with planned follow-up for 3 years.
Results
The TALENT trial enrolled 1,435 patients (Supraflex n=720, XIENCE n=715) with 3-year follow-up data available in 97.8% in the Supraflex group, and in 98.9% in the XIENCE group. At 3 years, DoCE occurred in 57 patients (8.1%) in the Supraflex group, and in 66 patients (9.4%) in the XIENCE group (p=0.406). There were no significant between-group differences in rates of cardiac death, TV-MI or CI-TLR. The rates of definite or probable stent thrombosis were low and similar between groups (1.1% vs 1.4%; p=0.640). In a meta-analysis of long-term follow-up (3-5 years), ultrathin strut DES tended to reduce DoCE (relative risk 0.89 [0.79-1.01]; p=0.068), compared to thicker strut DES. The risks for cardiac death and definite or probable stent thrombosis were similar between ultrathin strut DES and thicker strut DES.
Conclusions
At 3-year follow-up, the use of the Supraflex stent was at least as safe and efficacious as the XIENCE stent in an all-comers population.
Clinicaltrials
gov: NCT02870140.



EuroIntervention: 14 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print
de Winter RJ, Zaman A, Hara H, Gao C, ... Onuma Y, Serruys PW
EuroIntervention: 14 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35285804
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Abstract

Characteristics and clinical outcomes in patients with prior chest radiation undergoing TAVR: Observations from PARTNER-2.

Mohanty BD, Coylewright M, Sequeira AR, Shin D, ... Leon MB, Malenka D
Objectives
The purpose of this study is to investigate the viability of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) for severe symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) in patients with prior chest radiation therapy (cXRT).
Background
Since patients with prior cXRT perform poorly with surgical aortic valve replacement, TAVR can be a viable alternative. However, clinical outcomes after TAVR in this patient population have not been well studied.
Methods
From the pooled registry of the placement of aortic transcatheter valves II trial, we identified patients with and without prior cXRT who underwent TAVR (n = 64 and 3923, respectively). The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause death and any stroke at 2 years. Time to event analyses were shown as Kaplan-Meier event rates and compared by log-rank testing. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated and compared by Cox proportional hazards regression model.
Results
There was no significant difference in the primary outcome between the patients with and without prior cXRT (30.7% vs. 27.0%; p = 0.75; HR, 1.08; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.77). Rates of myocardial infarction, vascular complications, acute kidney injury, or new pacemaker implant after TAVR were not statistically different between the two groups. The rate of immediate reintervention with a second valve for aortic regurgitation after TAVR was higher among the patients with prior cXRT. However, no further difference was observed during 2 years follow-up after discharge from the index-procedure hospitalization.
Conclusions
TAVR is a viable alternative for severe symptomatic AS in patients who had cXRT in the past.

© 2022 Wiley Periodicals LLC.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv: 14 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print
Mohanty BD, Coylewright M, Sequeira AR, Shin D, ... Leon MB, Malenka D
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv: 14 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35289473
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Impact:
Abstract

Effect of prehospital treatment in STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI.

Fabris E, Menzio S, Gregorio C, Pezzato A, ... Van\'t Hof AW, Sinagra G
Background
The appropriate timing to administer antithrombotic therapies in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) remains uncertain. This study aims to evaluate the role of antithrombotic therapy administration at first medical contact (FMC) compared with the administration in the Cathlab.
Methods
We conducted a \"before-after\" observational study enrolling STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Outcomes were evaluated during two successive periods, before (control group: aspirin only at FMC) and after (pretreated intervention group: heparin, aspirin plus ticagrelor at FMC) the introduction of a new regional pretreatment protocol.
Results
A total of 537 consecutive patients (300 in control vs. 237 in intervention group) were enrolled. The pretreated compared with no pretreated population showed better basal reperfusion, expressed as basal Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI)-flow (p for trend p < 0.001). Pretreated population showed lower frequency of TIMI 0 (56.5% vs. 73.7%, odds ratio [OR]: 0.46, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.32-0.67, p < 0.001) and higher frequency of TIMI 2-3 (33.3% vs. 19.3% OR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.38-2.00, p < 0.001) and TIMI 3 (14.3% vs. 9.7%, OR: 1.56, 95% CI: (0.92-2.65), p = 0.094). Pretreated compared with no pretreated population showed reduced infarct size expressed as Troponin Peak (20,286 (8726-75,027) versus 48,676 (17,229-113,900), p = 0.001), and higher left ventricular ejection fraction at discharge (53% (44-59) vs. 50% (44-56), p = 0.027). In-hospital BARC ≥ 2 bleeding were similar (2.1% vs. 2.0%, p = 0.929, in pretreated versus no pretreated population, respectively).
Conclusion
This study provides support for an early pretreatment strategy in STEMI patients and confirmed the importance of an efficient organization of STEMI networks which allow initiation of antithrombotic treatment at FMC.

© 2022 The Authors. Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv: 14 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print
Fabris E, Menzio S, Gregorio C, Pezzato A, ... Van't Hof AW, Sinagra G
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv: 14 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35289471
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Abstract

Temporal Changes in Pollen Concentration Predict Short-Term Clinical Outcomes in Acute Coronary Syndromes.

Al-Mukhtar O, Vogrin S, Lampugnani ER, Noaman S, ... Stub D, Chan W

Background:
Atmospheric changes in pollen concentration may affect human health by triggering various allergic processes. We sought to assess if changes in pollen concentrations were associated with different acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtype presentations and short-term clinical outcomes. Methods and Results We analyzed data in consecutive patients presenting with ACS (unstable angina, non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction) treated with percutaneous coronary intervention between January 2014 and December 2017 and enrolled in the VCOR (Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry). Baseline characteristics were compared among patients exposed to different grass and total pollen concentrations. The primary outcome was occurrence of ACS subtypes and 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (composite of mortality, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, target vessel revascularization, or stroke). Of 15 379 patients, 7122 (46.3%) presented with ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, 6781 (44.1%) with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, and 1476 (9.6%) with unstable angina. The mean age was 62.5 years, with men comprising 76% of patients. No association was observed between daily or seasonal grass and total pollen concentrations with the frequency of ACS subtype presentation. However, grass and total pollen concentrations in the preceding days (2-day average for grass pollen and 7-day average for total pollen) correlated with in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR], 2.17 [95% CI, 1.12-4.21]; P=0.021 and OR, 2.78 [95% CI, 1.00-7.74]; P=0.05), respectively, with a trend of 2-day grass pollen for 30-day major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (OR, 1.50 [95% CI, 0.97-2.32]; P=0.066).
Conclusions:
Increased pollen concentrations were not associated with differential ACS subtype presentation but were significantly related to in-hospital mortality following percutaneous coronary intervention, underscoring a potential biologic link between pollen exposure and clinical outcomes.




J Am Heart Assoc: 14 Mar 2022:e023036; epub ahead of print
Al-Mukhtar O, Vogrin S, Lampugnani ER, Noaman S, ... Stub D, Chan W
J Am Heart Assoc: 14 Mar 2022:e023036; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35289185
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Abstract

Left main coronary artery compression by dilated pulmonary artery in pulmonary arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Badea R, Dorobantu DM, Sharabiani MTA, Predescu LM, Coman IM, Ginghina C
Objective
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) can lead to left main coronary artery compression (LMCo), but data on the impact, screening and treatment are limited. A meta-analysis of LMCo cases could fill the knowledge gaps in this topic.
Methods
Electronic databases were searched for all LMCo/PAH studies, abstracts and case reports including pulmonary artery (PA) size. Restricted maximum likelihood meta-analysis was used to evaluate LMCo-associated factors. Specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of PA size thresholds for diagnosis of LMCo were calculated. Treatment options and outcomes were summarized.
Results
A total of five case-control cohorts and 64 case reports/series (196 LMCo and 438 controls) were included. LMCo cases had higher PA diameter (Hedge\'s g 1.46 [1.09; 1.82]), PA/aorta ratio (Hedge\'s g 1.1 [0.64; 1.55]) and probability of CHD (log odds-ratio 1.22 [0.54; 1.9]) compared to non-LMCo, but not PA pressure or vascular resistance. A 40 mm cut-off for the PA diameter had balanced sensitivity (80.5%), specificity (79%) and accuracy (79.7%) for LMCo diagnosis, while a value of 44 mm had higher accuracy (81.7%), higher specificity (91.5%) but lower sensitivity (71.9%). Pooled mortality after non-conservative treatment (n = 150, predominantly stenting) was 2.7% at up to 22 months of mean follow-up, with 83% survivors having no angina at follow-up.
Conclusion
PA diameter, PA/aorta ratio and CHD are associated with LMCo, while hemodynamic parameters are not. Data from this study support that a PA diameter cut-off between 40 and 44 mm can offer optimal accuracy for LMCo screening. Preferred treatment was coronary stenting, associated with low mid-term mortality and symptom relief. Diagnosis and management of left main coronary artery compression (LMCo) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH).

© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany.

Clin Res Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print
Badea R, Dorobantu DM, Sharabiani MTA, Predescu LM, Coman IM, Ginghina C
Clin Res Cardiol: 14 Mar 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35290496
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Abstract

The Impact of Intravascular Ultrasound on Femoropopliteal Artery Endovascular Interventions: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Allan RB, Puckridge PJ, Spark JI, Delaney CL
Objectives
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the addition of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) guidance during femoropopliteal artery interventions reduced the rate of binary restenosis within 12 months compared with angiographic guidance alone.
Background
IVUS is more accurate than angiography for assessment of vessel size and disease severity. Low-level studies suggest that the use of IVUS in femoropopliteal endovascular interventions improves outcomes, but currently, no level 1 evidence exists.
Methods
This was a prospective single-center trial of 150 patients undergoing femoropopliteal endovascular intervention, randomized (1:1) to guidance by angiography or angiography and IVUS. The primary outcome measure was freedom from binary restenosis, on duplex ultrasound, within 12 months. Secondary outcomes included clinically driven target lesion revascularization, disagreements in imaging findings between modalities, and changes in treatment caused by IVUS.
Results
Freedom from binary restenosis at 12 months was significantly higher in the IVUS group (72.4% vs 55.4%; P = 0.008). There was no significant difference between groups for clinically directed target lesion revascularization (84.2% and 82.4%; P = 0.776). Mean vessel diameter was significantly larger with IVUS (5.60 mm vs 5.10 mm; P < 0.001). A change in treatment occurred caused by IVUS in 79% of cases. Binary restenosis was lower in the IVUS group for cases treated with drug-coated balloons (9.1% vs 37.5%; P = 0.001).
Conclusions
The use of IVUS resulted in a significant reduction in the rate of restenosis after endovascular intervention. This is the first randomized controlled trial to demonstrate that IVUS improves outcomes in femoropopliteal interventions. This benefit may primarily relate to cases treated with drug-coated balloons. (Does the use of intravascular ultrasound improve outcomes of endovascular interventional procedures for peripheral vascular disease of the superficial femoral artery or popliteal artery?; ACTRN12614000006640).

Copyright © 2022 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:536-546
Allan RB, Puckridge PJ, Spark JI, Delaney CL
JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:536-546 | PMID: 35272779
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Abstract

The PARTNER 3 Bicuspid Registry for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Low-Surgical-Risk Patients.

Williams MR, Jilaihawi H, Makkar R, O\'Neill WW, ... Lu M, Webb JG
Objectives
The study compared 1-year outcomes between transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) morphology and clinically similar patients having tricuspid aortic valve (TAV) morphology.
Background
There are limited prospective data on TAVR using the SAPIEN 3 device in low-surgical-risk patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis and bicuspid anatomy.
Methods
Low-risk, severe aortic stenosis patients with BAV were candidates for the PARTNER 3 (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves 3) (P3) bicuspid registry or the P3 bicuspid continued access protocol. Patients treated in these registries were pooled and propensity score matched to TAV patients from the P3 randomized TAVR trial. Outcomes were compared between groups. The primary endpoint was the 1-year composite rate of death, stroke, and cardiovascular rehospitalization.
Results
Of 320 total submitted BAV patients, 169 (53%) were treated, and most were Sievers type 1. The remaining 151 patients were excluded caused by anatomic or clinical criteria. Propensity score matching with the P3 TAVR cohort (496 patients) yielded 148 pairs. There were no differences in baseline clinical characteristics; however, BAV patients had larger annuli and they experienced longer procedure duration. There was no difference in the primary endpoint between BAV and TAV (10.9% vs 10.2%; P = 0.80) or in the rates of the individual components (death: 0.7% vs 1.4%; P = 0.58; stroke: 2.1% vs 2.0%; P = 0.99; cardiovascular rehospitalization: 9.6% vs 9.5%; P = 0.96).
Conclusions
Among highly select bicuspid aortic stenosis low-surgical-risk patients without extensive raphe or subannular calcification, TAVR with the SAPIEN 3 valve demonstrated similar outcomes to a matched cohort of patients with tricuspid aortic stenosis.

Copyright © 2022 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:523-532
Williams MR, Jilaihawi H, Makkar R, O'Neill WW, ... Lu M, Webb JG
JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:523-532 | PMID: 35272777
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Abstract

Propensity-Matched 1-Year Outcomes Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Low-Risk Bicuspid and Tricuspid Patients.

Deeb GM, Reardon MJ, Ramlawi B, Yakubov SJ, ... Huang J, Forrest JK
Objectives
The aim of this study was to compare 1-year outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in low surgical risk patients with bicuspid aortic stenosis to patients with tricuspid aortic stenosis.
Background
The pivotal TAVR trials excluded patients with bicuspid aortic valves. The Low Risk Bicuspid Study 30-day primary endpoint of death or disabling stroke was 1.3%.
Methods
The Low Risk Bicuspid Study is a prospective, single-arm, TAVR trial that enrolled patients from 25 U.S. sites. A screening committee confirmed bicuspid anatomy and valve classification on computed tomography using the Sievers classification. Valve sizing was by annular measurements. An independent clinical events committee adjudicated all serious adverse events, and an independent core laboratory assessed all echocardiograms. The 150 patients from the Low Risk Bicuspid Study were propensity matched to the TAVR patients in the randomized Evolut Low Risk Trial using the 1:1 5- to-1-digit greedy method, resulting in 145 pairs.
Results
All-cause mortality or disabling stroke at 1 year was 1.4% in the bicuspid and 2.8% in the tricuspid group (P = 0.413). A pacemaker was implanted in 16.6% of bicuspid and 17.9% of tricuspid patients (P = 0.741). The effective orifice area was similar between groups at 1 year (2.2 ± 0.7 cm2 vs 2.3 ± 0.6 cm2, P = 0.677) as was the mean gradient (8.7 ± 3.9 mm Hg vs 8.5 ± 3.1 mm Hg, P = 0.754). Fewer patients in the bicuspid group had mild or worse paravalvular leak (21.3% vs 42.6%, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
There were no significant differences in clinical or forward flow hemodynamic outcomes between the propensity-matched groups at 1 year.

Copyright © 2022 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:511-522
Deeb GM, Reardon MJ, Ramlawi B, Yakubov SJ, ... Huang J, Forrest JK
JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:511-522 | PMID: 35272776
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Abstract

Risk Assessment of Coronary Obstruction During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights From Post-BASILICA Computed Tomography.

Kitamura M, Wilde J, Dumpies O, Richter I, ... Holzhey D, Abdel-Wahab M
Objectives
The aim of this study was to examine the predictive value of preprocedural computed tomography (CT)-based risk stratification of coronary obstruction during transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) on the basis of geometric measurements on postprocedural CT.
Background
Proper patient selection for additional procedures to prevent coronary obstruction during TAVR has not been adequately evaluated.
Methods
Pre- and postprocedural computed tomographic scans of 28 patients treated using bioprosthetic or native aortic scallop intentional laceration to prevent iatrogenic coronary artery obstruction (BASILICA) and TAVR were analyzed. Using the postprocedural computed tomographic images, threatened coronary obstruction (TCO) was defined as: 1) ostial obstruction (adherence of the transcatheter heart valve [THV] to the coronary ostium with leaflet extension above the ostium); and/or 2) sinus sequestration (THV adherence to the sinotubular junction [STJ] with leaflet extension above the STJ) and was substratified into complete and incomplete types.
Results
A total of 51 leaflets were evaluated (88% surgical tissue valves) after excluding leaflets not visible on CT (n = 5). On postprocedural CT, complete TCO was observed in 25.4% (13 of 51 leaflets). On preprocedural CT, leaflets were at high risk for complete TCO (incidence 53%) if the virtual THV-to-coronary distance (VTC) was <3.0 mm, or if the virtual THV-to-STJ distance (VTSTJ) was <1.0 mm with STJ height - leaflet length <0 mm (leaflet-STJ mismatch). Leaflets were at low risk (incidence 0%) if the VTC was ≥3 mm and VTSTJ was ≥3.0 mm or STJ height - leaflet length was ≥+2.0 mm. Of 28 leaflets treated using BASILICA, complete TCO was seen in 35.7% (n = 10), due to sinus sequestration (100%) with coexisting ostial obstruction (30%). Actual coronary events occurred in 7.1% (n = 2) because of leaflet prolapse, corresponding to an absolute risk reduction by BASILICA of 29% (P = 0.021).
Conclusions
Risk assessment of coronary obstruction after TAVR may improve with a multiparametric approach incorporating VTC, VTSTJ, and leaflet-STJ mismatch. BASILICA appeared to reduce actual coronary events even in leaflets with anticipated coronary obstruction.

Copyright © 2022 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:496-507
Kitamura M, Wilde J, Dumpies O, Richter I, ... Holzhey D, Abdel-Wahab M
JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:496-507 | PMID: 35272774
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Abstract

Transcatheter Tricuspid Valve Replacement With the EVOQUE System: 1-Year Outcomes of a Multicenter, First-in-Human Experience.

Webb JG, Chuang AM, Meier D, von Bardeleben RS, ... Hahn RT, Fam NP
Objectives
The aim of this study was to report the midterm outcomes at 1 year in the expanded first-in-human experience with the transfemoral EVOQUE system (Edwards Lifesciences) for tricuspid regurgitation (TR).
Background
Untreated TR is associated with excess mortality and morbidity. The first-in-human experience with the EVOQUE tricuspid valve replacement system reported favorable 30-day outcomes with no mortality in a compassionate use population.
Methods
Twenty-seven patients with severe TR were treated with the EVOQUE system in a compassionate use experience at 7 centers between May 2019 and July 2020. All patients had clinical right-sided heart failure (HF) and were deemed inoperable and unsuitable for transcatheter edge-to-edge repair by the institutional heart teams. The clinical outcomes collected included all-cause mortality, symptom status, TR severity, HF hospitalization, and major adverse cardiovascular events.
Results
At baseline, all patients (age: 77 ± 8 years, 89% female) were at high surgical risk (mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score: 8.6% ± 5.5%), with 89% New York Heart Association functional class III/IV. TR was predominantly functional in etiology (19/27, 70%). At 1 year, mortality was 7% (2/27), 70% of patients were New York Heart Association functional class I/II, and 96% and 87% of patients had a TR grade ≤2+ and ≤1+, respectively. Between 30 days and 1 year, 2 patients experienced HF hospitalizations, and 1 patient required a new pacemaker implantation.
Conclusions
In this early, compassionate use experience, the transfemoral transcatheter EVOQUE tricuspid valve replacement system demonstrated durable efficacy, persistent improvement in symptom status, and low rates of mortality and HF hospitalizations at a 1-year follow-up. Further studies are underway to validate its efficacy.

Copyright © 2022 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:481-491
Webb JG, Chuang AM, Meier D, von Bardeleben RS, ... Hahn RT, Fam NP
JACC Cardiovasc Interv: 13 Mar 2022; 15:481-491 | PMID: 35272772
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