Journal: Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care

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Abstract

Revisiting the lipid paradox in ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the Chinese population: findings from the CCC-ACS project.

Sun H, Li Z, Song X, Liu H, ... Zhou X, Yang Q
Aims
Previous observations revealed a negative association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and clinical outcomes following myocardial infarction, i.e., the lower level the higher mortality, which was referred to as lipid paradox. We sought to re-evaluate this association in ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in contemporary practice.
Methods and results
We examined the association between admission LDL-C and in-hospital mortality among 44 563 STEMI patients enrolled from 2014 to 2019 in a nationwide registry in China. A total of 43 covariates, which were temporally classified into the following three domains were used for adjustment: (i) pre-admission characteristics; (ii) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)-related variables; and (iii) other in-hospital medications. In-hospital mortality was 2.01% (897/44 563). When no covariate adjustment was performed, an inversely \'J-shaped\' curve was observed between admission LDL-C levels and in-hospital mortality by restricted cubic spline in logistic regression, with a threshold value of <75 mg/dL that associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality. However, a gradual attenuation for this association was noted when step-wise adjustments were performed, with the threshold values for LDL-C decreasing from 75 mg/dL to 70 mg/dL after accounting for pre-admission characteristics, further to 65 mg/dL after accounting for PCI-related variables, and finally to no statistical association after further adjustment for other in-hospital medications.
Conclusions
In a nationwide registry in China, our findings do not support the lipid paradox in terms of in-hospital mortality in STEMI patients in contemporary practice. Previous findings in this scenario are possibly due to inadequate control for confounders.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 14 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Sun H, Li Z, Song X, Liu H, ... Zhou X, Yang Q
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 14 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34263300
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Abstract

Prognostic value of shock index in patients admitted with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the ARIC study community surveillance.

Chunawala ZS, Hall ME, Arora S, Dai X, ... Matsushita K, Caughey MC
Aims
Shock index (SI), defined as the ratio of heart rate (HR) to systolic blood pressure (SBP), is easily obtained and predictive of mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. However, large-scale evaluations of SI in patients with non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) are lacking.
Methods and results
Hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction were sampled from four US areas by the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and classified by physician review. Shock index was derived from the HR and SBP at first presentation and considered high when ≥0.7. From 2000 to 2014, 18 301 weighted hospitalizations for NSTEMI were sampled and had vitals successfully obtained. Of these, 5753 (31%) had high SI (≥0.7). Patients with high SI were more often female (46% vs. 39%) and had more prevalent chronic kidney disease (40% vs. 32%). TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) risk scores were similar between the groups (4.3 vs. 4.2), but GRACE (Global Registry of Acute Coronary Syndrome) score was higher with high SI (140 vs. 118). Angiography, revascularization, and guideline-directed medications were less often administered to patients with high SI, and the 28-day mortality was higher (13% vs. 5%). Prediction of 28-day mortality by SI as a continuous measurement [area under the curve (AUC): 0.68] was intermediate to that of the GRACE score (AUC: 0.87) and the TIMI score (AUC: 0.54). After adjustments, patients with high SI had twice the odds of 28-day mortality (odds ratio = 2.02; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.80).
Conclusion
The SI is easily obtainable, performs moderately well as a predictor of short-term mortality in patients hospitalized with NSTEMI, and may be useful for risk stratification in emergency settings.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 14 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Chunawala ZS, Hall ME, Arora S, Dai X, ... Matsushita K, Caughey MC
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 14 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34263294
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Abstract

Inotropic therapies in heart failure and cardiogenic shock: an educational review.

DesJardin JT, Teerlink JR
Reduced systolic function is central to the pathophysiology and clinical sequelae of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) with reduced ejection fraction and cardiogenic shock. These clinical entities are the final common pathway for marked deterioration of right or left ventricular function and can occur in multiple clinical presentations including severe ADHF, myocardial infarction, post-cardiac surgery, severe pulmonary hypertension, and advanced or end-stage chronic heart failure. Inotropic therapies improve ventricular systolic function and may be divided into three classes on the basis of their mechanism of action (calcitropes, mitotropes, and myotropes). Most currently available therapies for cardiogenic shock are calcitropes which can provide critical haemodynamic support, but also may increase myocardial oxygen demand, ischaemia, arrhythmia, and mortality. Emerging therapies to improve cardiac function such as mitotropes (e.g. perhexiline, SGLT2i) or myotropes (e.g. omecamtiv mecarbil) may provide useful alternatives in the future.

Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology 2021. This work is written by a US Government employee and is in the public domain in the US.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
DesJardin JT, Teerlink JR
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34219157
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Abstract

\'Ticagrelor alone vs. dual antiplatelet therapy from 1 month after drug-eluting coronary stenting among patients with STEMI\': a post hoc analysis of the randomized GLOBAL LEADERS trial.

Gamal AS, Hara H, Tomaniak M, Lunardi M, ... Onuma Y, Serruys PW
Aim
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor monotherapy beyond 1 month and up to 24 months vs. standard 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and ticagrelor followed by aspirin monotherapy among ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the GLOBAL LEADERS trial.
Methods and results
We performed a post hoc analysis of STEMI patients in the GLOBAL LEADERS trial comparing experimental ticagrelor monotherapy (1062 patients) with standard 12-month DAPT (1030 patients). We evaluated predefined primary and secondary endpoints in both treatment arms. Rates of net adverse clinical events (NACE), patient-oriented composite endpoints (POCE), and bleeding academic research consortium (BARC)-defined bleeding Type 3 or 5 were also evaluated. At 2 years, there were no significant differences in rates of primary endpoints in patients who had STEMI [0.89 (0.61-1.31)]. There were similar rates of NACE and POCE in both experimental and reference treatment groups at 2 years post-PCI [hazard ratio (HR) 0.96 (0.77-1.20) and 0.96 (0.77-1.21), respectively]. BARC 3 or 5 bleeding events were numerically less in experimental compared to reference treatment groups at 1 year [HR 0.55 (0.27-1.13)] and 2 years [0.61 (0.32-1.16)].
Conclusion
Presentation with STEMI has not influenced the incidence of GLOBAL LEADERS defined primary endpoints. There were no significant differences in rates of NACE, POCE, and BARC bleeding between the two treatment groups up to 2 years of follow-up. Although these findings should be viewed as exploratory, they expand the evidence on potential safety of aspirin-free antiplatelet strategies after PCI in STEMI.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 01 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Gamal AS, Hara H, Tomaniak M, Lunardi M, ... Onuma Y, Serruys PW
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 01 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34212187
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Abstract

Classification performance of clinical risk scoring in suspected acute coronary syndrome beyond a rule-out troponin profile.

Khan E, Lambrakis K, Blyth A, Seshadri A, ... Nelson AJ, Chew DP
Aims
High-sensitivity cardiac troponin strategies can provide risk stratification in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). This study evaluated whether clinical risk scoring improves the classification performance of a rule-out profile in suspected ACS.
Methods and results
Patients presenting to ED with suspected ACS as part of the RAPID-TnT trial randomized to the intervention arm were included. Results ≥5 ng/L were available for all participants in this analysis. We evaluated the Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score, History ECG Age Risk factors Troponin (HEART) score, and Emergency Department Assessment of Chest pain Score (EDACS) in addition to a rule-out profile based on the 0/1-h high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T protocol (<5 ng/L or ≤12 ng/L and a change of <3 ng/L at 1-h) using test performance parameters focusing on low-risk groups to identify the primary endpoint (TIMI ≤ 1, HEART ≤ 3, EDACS < 16). Primary endpoint was a composite of type 1/2 myocardial infarction (MI) at index presentation and all-cause mortality or type 1/2 MI at 30 days. A total of 3378 participants were enrolled between August 2015 and April 2019 of which 108 were ineligible/withdrew consent (intervention arm: n = 1638). Sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV), and area under the curve (AUC) of the rule-out profile was 94.4%, 76.8%, 99.6%, and 0.86, respectively with 72.9% identified as \'low-risk\'. Adding the clinical risk scores did not improve the sensitivity, NPV, or AUC with significantly lower specificity and \'low-risk\' classified participants.
Conclusions
Addition of clinical risk scores to rule-out profile did not demonstrate improved classification performance for identifying the composite of type 1/2 MI at index presentation and all-cause mortality or type 1/2 MI at 30 days.
Clinical trials registration
URL: https://www.anzctr.org.au. Reg. No. ACTRN12615001379505.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 30 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Khan E, Lambrakis K, Blyth A, Seshadri A, ... Nelson AJ, Chew DP
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 30 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34195809
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Abstract

Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure predicts in-hospital outcomes in takotsubo syndrome.

Del Buono MG, Montone RA, Meucci MC, La Vecchia G, ... Niccoli G, Crea F
Aims
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is associated to serious adverse in-hospital complications. We evaluated the role of invasively assessed left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) for predicting in-hospital complications in TTS patients compared to the most widely used echocardiographic parameters of ventricular function.
Methods and results 
We prospectively enrolled 130 patients (mean age 71.2 ± 11.3 years, 114 [87.7%] female) with TTS. Invasive measurement of LVEDP was performed at the time of cardiac catheterization. The rate of in-hospital complications (composite of acute heart failure, life-threatening arrhythmias and all-cause death) was examined. In-hospital complications occurred in 37 (28.5%) patients. Patients who experienced in-hospital complications had a higher prevalence of neurological trigger and lower prevalence of emotional trigger, higher LVEDP and mean E/e\' ratio and lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) values compared to those who did not experience in-hospital complications. At multivariate logistic regression, higher LVEDP [odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.05-1.20], P < 0.001] and lower LVEF (OR 0.95, 95% CI [0.91-0.99], P = 0.011) remained independently predictors of in-hospital complications, while emotional trigger was associated to a lower risk (OR 0.24, 95% CI [0.06-0.96], P = 0.044). The area under the curve (AUC) for LEVDP in the prediction of in-hospital events was 0.776 (95% CI [0.69-0.86], P <0.001, with a sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 58% using a LVEDP cut-off value of 22.5 mmHg). The AUC was significantly higher for LVEDP than for E/e\' ratio (P = 0.037).
Conclusions 
LVEDP measured at the time of catheterization may help in identifying TTS patients at higher risk of cardiovascular deterioration with relevant therapeutic implications.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 30 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Del Buono MG, Montone RA, Meucci MC, La Vecchia G, ... Niccoli G, Crea F
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 30 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34195806
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Abstract

Direct comparison of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and I in the early differentiation of type 1 vs. type 2 myocardial infarction.

Nestelberger T, Boeddinghaus J, Giménez MR, Lopez-Ayala P, ... Müller C, APACE investigators
Aims
To directly compare the diagnostic accuracy of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) T vs. hs-cTnI in the early non-invasive differentiation of Type 1 myocardial infarction (T1MI) due to plaque rupture and atherothrombosis from Type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) due to supply-demand mismatch.
Methods and results
In a prospective multicentre diagnostic study, two independent cardiologists centrally adjudicated the final diagnosis of T1MI vs. T2MI according to the fourth universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI), using all available clinical information including cardiac imaging in patients presenting with acute chest pain. Diagnostic accuracy was quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). The most extensively validated hs-cTnT-Elecsys and hs-cTnI-Architect assays were measured at presentation, 1 h, and 2 h. Among 5887 patients, 1106 (19%) had a final diagnosis of MI, including 860 (78%) T1MI and 246 (22%) T2MI. The AUC of hs-cTnT-Elecsys to differentiate T1MI from T2MI was moderate and comparable to that provided by hs-cTnI-Architect: hs-cTnT-Elecsys AUC-presentation 0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.64-0.71], AUC-1 h 0.70 (95% CI 0.66-0.74), and AUC-2 h 0.71 (95% CI 0.66-0.75) vs. hs-cTnI-Architect AUC-presentation 0.71 (95% CI 0.67-0.74), AUC-1 h 0.72 (95% CI 0.68-0.76), and AUC-2 h 0.74 (95% CI 0.69-0.78), all P = not significant (NS). Similarly, the AUC of absolute changes was moderate and comparable for hs-cTnT-Elecsys and hs-cTnI-Architect (all P = NS). Cut-off concentrations achieving at least 90% specificity for the differentiation of T1MI vs. T2MI were >114 ng/L for hs-cTnT-Elecsys [odds ratio (OR) 4.2, 95% CI 2.7-6.6] and >371 ng/L for hs-cTnI-Architect (OR 4.0, 95% CI 2.6-6.2).
Conclusion
hs-cTnT-Elecsys and hs-cTnI-Architect provided comparable, albeit only moderate, diagnostic accuracy for the early differentiation of T1MI vs. T2MI.
Clinical trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00470587, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00470587.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 30 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Nestelberger T, Boeddinghaus J, Giménez MR, Lopez-Ayala P, ... Müller C, APACE investigators
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 30 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34195803
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Abstract

The FAST-FURO study: effect of very early administration of intravenous furosemide in the prehospital setting to patients with acute heart failure attending the emergency department.

Miró Ò, Harjola P, Rossello X, Gil V, ... Mebazaa A, ICA-SEMES Research Group
Aims
The effect of early administration of intravenous (IV) furosemide in the emergency department (ED) on short-term outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) patients remains controversial, with one recent Japanese study reporting a decrease of in-hospital mortality and one Korean study reporting a lack of clinical benefit. Both studies excluded patients receiving prehospital IV furosemide and only included patients requiring hospitalization. To assess the impact on short-term outcomes of early IV furosemide administration by emergency medical services (EMS) before patient arrival to the ED.
Methods and results
In a secondary analysis of the Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Departments (EAHFE) registry of consecutive AHF patients admitted to Spanish EDs, patients treated with IV furosemide at the ED were classified according to whether they received IV furosemide from the EMS (FAST-FURO group) or not (CONTROL group). In-hospital all-cause mortality, 30-day all-cause mortality, and prolonged hospitalization (>10 days) were assessed. We included 12 595 patients (FAST-FURO = 683; CONTROL = 11 912): 968 died during index hospitalization [7.7%; FAST-FURO = 10.3% vs. CONTROL = 7.5%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.403, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.085-1.813; P = 0.009], 1269 died during the first 30 days (10.2%; FAST-FURO = 13.4% vs. CONTROL = 9.9%; OR = 1.403, 95% CI = 1.146-1.764; P = 0.004), and 2844 had prolonged hospitalization (22.8%; FAST-FURO = 25.8% vs. CONTROL = 22.6%; OR = 1.189, 95% CI = 0.995-1.419; P = 0.056). FAST-FURO group patients had more diabetes mellitus, ischaemic cardiomyopathy, peripheral artery disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and severe decompensations, and had a better New York Heart Association class and had less atrial fibrillation. After adjusting for these significant differences, early IV furosemide resulted in no impact on short-term outcomes: OR = 1.080 (95% CI = 0.817-1.427) for in-hospital mortality, OR = 1.086 (95% CI = 0.845-1.396) for 30-day mortality, and OR = 1.095 (95% CI = 0.915-1.312) for prolonged hospitalization. Several sensitivity analyses, including analysis of 599 pairs of patients matched by propensity score, showed consistent findings.
Conclusion
Early IV furosemide during the prehospital phase was administered to the sickest patients, was not associated with changes in short-term mortality or length of hospitalization after adjustment for several confounders.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:487-496
Miró Ò, Harjola P, Rossello X, Gil V, ... Mebazaa A, ICA-SEMES Research Group
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:487-496 | PMID: 33580790
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Abstract

Mortality risk stratification using artificial intelligence-augmented electrocardiogram in cardiac intensive care unit patients.

Jentzer JC, Kashou AH, Lopez-Jimenez F, Attia ZI, ... Friedman PA, Noseworthy PA
Aims
An artificial intelligence-augmented electrocardiogram (AI-ECG) algorithm can identify left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD). We sought to determine whether this AI-ECG algorithm could stratify mortality risk in cardiac intensive care unit (CICU) patients, independent of the presence of LVSD by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE).
Methods and results
We included 11 266 unique Mayo Clinic CICU patients admitted from 2007 to 2018 who underwent AI-ECG after CICU admission. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) data were extracted for patients with a TTE during hospitalization. Hospital mortality was analysed using multivariable logistic regression. Mean age was 68 ± 15 years, including 37% females. Higher AI-ECG probability of LVSD remained associated with higher hospital mortality [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.05 per 0.1 higher, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.08, P = 0.003] after adjustment for LVEF, which itself was inversely related with the risk of hospital mortality (adjusted OR 0.96 per 5% higher, 95% CI 0.93-0.99, P = 0.02). Patients with available LVEF data (n = 8242) were divided based on the presence of predicted (by AI-ECG) vs. observed (by TTE) LVSD (defined as LVEF ≤ 35%), using TTE as the gold standard. A stepwise increase in hospital mortality was observed for patients with a true negative, false positive, false negative, and true positive AI-ECG.
Conclusion
The AI-ECG prediction of LVSD is associated with hospital mortality in CICU patients, affording risk stratification in addition to that provided by echocardiographic LVEF. Our results emphasize the prognostic value of electrocardiographic patterns reflecting underlying myocardial disease that are recognized by the AI-ECG.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:532-541
Jentzer JC, Kashou AH, Lopez-Jimenez F, Attia ZI, ... Friedman PA, Noseworthy PA
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:532-541 | PMID: 33620440
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Abstract

Development and validation of a novel prediction score for cardiac tamponade in emergency department patients with pericardial effusion.

Duanmu Y, Choi DS, Tracy S, Harris OM, ... Wu JC, Platz E
Aims
Determining which patients with pericardial effusion require urgent intervention can be challenging. We sought to develop a novel, simple risk prediction score for patients with pericardial effusion.
Methods and results
Adult patients admitted through the emergency department (ED) with pericardial effusion were retrospectively evaluated. The overall cohort was divided into a derivation and validation cohort for the generation and validation of a novel risk score using logistic regression. The primary outcome was a pericardial drainage procedure or death attributed to cardiac tamponade within 24 h of ED arrival. Among 195 eligible patients, 102 (52%) experienced the primary outcome. Four variables were selected for the novel score: systolic blood pressure < 100 mmHg (1.5 points), effusion diameter [1-2 cm (0 points), 2-3 cm (1.5 points), >3 cm (2 points)], right ventricular diastolic collapse (2 points), and mitral inflow velocity variation > 25% (1 point). The need for pericardial drainage within 24 h was stratified as low (<2 points), intermediate (2-4 points), or high (≥4 points), which corresponded to risks of 8.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0-16.8%], 63.8% [95% CI 50.1-76.0%], and 93.7% [95% CI 84.5-98.2%]. The area under the curve of the simplified score was 0.94 for the derivation and 0.91 for the validation cohort.
Conclusion
Among ED patients with pericardial effusion, a four-variable prediction score consisting of systolic blood pressure, effusion diameter, right ventricular collapse, and mitral inflow velocity variation can accurately predict the need for urgent pericardial drainage. Prospective validation of this novel score is warranted.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:542-549
Duanmu Y, Choi DS, Tracy S, Harris OM, ... Wu JC, Platz E
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:542-549 | PMID: 33823539
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Abstract

CA125 but not NT-proBNP predicts the presence of a congestive intrarenal venous flow in patients with acute heart failure.

Núñez-Marín G, de la Espriella R, Santas E, Lorenzo M, ... Bayés-Genís A, Núñez J
Background
Intrarenal venous flow (IRVF) measured by Doppler ultrasound has gained interest as a potential surrogate marker of renal congestion and adverse outcomes in heart failure. In this work, we aimed to determine if antigen carbohydrate 125 (CA125) and plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with congestive IRVF patterns (i.e., biphasic and monophasic) in acute heart failure (AHF).
Methods and results
We prospectively enrolled a consecutive cohort of 70 patients hospitalized for AHF. Renal Doppler ultrasound was assessed within the first 24-h of hospital admission. The mean age of the sample was 73.5 ± 12.3 years; 47.1% were female, and 42.9% exhibited heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The median (interquartile range) for NT-proBNP and CA125 were 6149 (3604-12 330) pg/mL and 64 (37-122) U/mL, respectively. The diagnostic performance of both exposures for identifying congestive IRVF patterns was tested using the receiving operating curve (ROC). The cut-off for CA125 of 63.5 U/mL showed a sensibility and specificity of 67% and 74% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.71. After multivariate adjustment, CA125 remained non-linearly and positively associated with congestive IRVF (P-value = 0.008) and emerged as the most important covariate explaining the variability of the model (R2: 47.5%). Under the same multivariate setting, NT-proBNP did not show to be associated with congestive IRVF patterns (P-value = 0.847).
Conclusions
CA125 and not NT-proBNP is a useful marker for identifying patients with AHF and congestive IRVF patterns.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:475-483
Núñez-Marín G, de la Espriella R, Santas E, Lorenzo M, ... Bayés-Genís A, Núñez J
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:475-483 | PMID: 33829233
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Abstract

Joint EAPCI/ACVC expert consensus document on percutaneous ventricular assist devices.

Chieffo A, Dudek D, Hassager C, Combes A, ... Werner N, Price S
There has been a significant increase in the use of short-term percutaneous ventricular assist devices (pVADs) as acute circulatory support in cardiogenic shock and to provide haemodynamic support during interventional procedures, including high-risk percutaneous coronary interventions. Although frequently considered together, pVADs differ in their haemodynamic effects, management, indications, insertion techniques, and monitoring requirements. This consensus document summarizes the views of an expert panel by the European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and the Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care (ACVC) and appraises the value of short-term pVAD. It reviews the pathophysiological context and possible indications for pVAD in different clinical settings and provides guidance regarding the management of pVAD based on existing evidence and best current practice.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:570-583
Chieffo A, Dudek D, Hassager C, Combes A, ... Werner N, Price S
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:570-583 | PMID: 34057173
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Abstract

Prognostic effects of arterial carbon dioxide levels in patients hospitalized into the cardiac intensive care unit for acute heart failure.

Kato T, Kasai T, Suda S, Sato A, ... Takagi A, Daida H
Aims
Although both hypercapnia and hypocapnia are common in acute heart failure (AHF) patients, routine assessment of arterial blood gas is not recommended. Additionally, no association between hypercapnia and increased mortality has been found, and the prognostic value of hypocapnia in AHF patients remains to be elucidated. In this observational study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2), especially low PaCO2, and long-term mortality in AHF patients.
Methods and results
Acute heart failure patients hospitalized in the cardiac intensive care unit of our institution between 2007 and 2011 were screened. All eligible patients were divided into two groups based on the inflection point (i.e. 31.0 mmHg) of the 3-knot cubic spline curve of the hazard ratio (HR), with a PaCO2 of 40 mmHg as a reference. The association between PaCO2 levels and all-cause mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Among 435 patients with a median follow-up of 1.8 years, 115 (26.4%) died. Adjusted analysis with relevant variables as confounders indicated that PaCO2 <31 mmHg was significantly associated with increased all-cause mortality [HR 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-2.79; P = 0.032]. When PaCO2 was considered as a continuous variable, the lower was the log-transformed PaCO2, the greater was the increased risk of mortality (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.52-0.96; P = 0.024).
Conclusions
In AHF patients, lower PaCO2 at admission was associated with increased long-term mortality risk.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:497-502
Kato T, Kasai T, Suda S, Sato A, ... Takagi A, Daida H
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; 10:497-502 | PMID: 34192746
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Abstract

Population-based incidence and outcomes of acute aortic dissection in Japan.

Yamaguchi T, Nakai M, Yano T, Matsuyama M, ... Ueda Y, Ogino H
Aims
The population-based incidence and outcomes of acute aortic dissection (AAD) are still unknown because some patients are already dead on arrival, and the accurate diagnosis of AAD is difficult due to the low autopsy rate. We performed a population-based review of all patients with AAD in a well-defined geographical area in Japan between 2016 and 2018.
Methods and results
Data of all patients with AAD at Miyazaki Prefectural Nobeoka Hospital (MPNH), which performs medical care for 120 000 residents, were collected retrospectively. The emergency medical service is dedicated to the transfer of all patients in this area to the MPNH. For all patients who were dead on arrival, the diagnosis of AAD was made by autopsy imaging (AI) using computed tomography. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality per 100 000 population were calculated using the Japanese population distribution model in 2015. The total incidence of AAD was 79 (type A: 64.5%, n = 51). Of those, 60.8% (31/51) of patients with type A and 21.4% (6/28) with type B were dead on arrival and diagnosed by AI. The 30-day mortality rates were 74.5% (38/51) in type A and 25.0% (7/28) in type B. The age-adjusted incidence and mortality of AAD per 100 000 inhabitants were 17.6 (type A: 11.3, type B: 6.2) and 9.9 (type A: 8.4, type B: 1.5), respectively.
Conclusions
The population-based survey of AAD showed that the age-adjusted incidence of AAD was two-fold higher than in previous reports, and the actual mortality rates were markedly higher due to the high incidence of dead-on-arrival.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Yamaguchi T, Nakai M, Yano T, Matsuyama M, ... Ueda Y, Ogino H
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34189568
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Impact:
Abstract

Pre-hospital heparin use for ST-elevation myocardial infarction is safe and improves angiographic outcomes.

Bloom JE, Andrew E, Nehme Z, Dinh DT, ... Smith K, Stub D
Aims
This study aims to evaluate if pre-hospital heparin administration by paramedics is safe and improves clinical outcomes.
Methods and results
Using the multicentre Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry, linked with state-wide ambulance records, we identified consecutive patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention for STEMI between January 2014 and December 2018. Information on thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) flow at angiography was available in a subset of cases. Patients receiving pre-hospital heparin were compared to those who did not receive heparin. Findings at coronary angiography and 30-day clinical outcomes were compared between groups. Propensity-score matching was performed for risk adjustment. We identified a total of 4720 patients. Of these, 1967 patients had TIMI flow data available. Propensity-score matching in the entire cohort yielded 1373 matched pairs. In the matched cohort, there was no observed difference in 30-day mortality (no-heparin 3.5% vs. heparin 3.0%, P = 0.25), MACCE (no-heparin 7% vs. heparin 6.2%, P = 0.44), and major bleeding (no-heparin 1.9% vs. heparin 1.4%, P = 0.64) between groups. Propensity-score analysis amongst those with TIMI data produced 552 matched pairs. The proportion of cases with TIMI 0 or 1 flow in the infarct-related artery (IRA) was lower among those receiving pre-hospital heparin (66% vs. 76%, P < 0.001) compared to those who did not.
Conclusion 
In this multicentre, propensity-score matched study, the use of pre-hospital heparin by paramedics was safe and is associated with fewer occluded IRAs in patients presenting with STEMI.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Bloom JE, Andrew E, Nehme Z, Dinh DT, ... Smith K, Stub D
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 29 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34189566
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Impact:
Abstract

Diagnostic pathways in myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary artery disease (MINOCA).

Occhipinti G, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Capodanno D
When acute myocardial injury is found in a clinical setting suggestive of myocardial ischaemia, the event is labelled as acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and the absence of coronary stenosis angiographically 50% or greater leads to the working diagnosis of myocardial infarction with non-obstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA). The initial diagnosis of MINOCA can be confirmed or ruled out based on the results of subsequent investigations. This narrative review discusses the downstream diagnostic approaches to MINOCA, and appraises strengths and limitations of invasive and non-invasive investigations for this condition. The aim of this article is to increase the awareness that establishing the underlying cause of a MINOCA is possible in the vast majority cases. Determining the cause of MINOCA and excluding other possible causes for cardiac troponin elevation has notable implications for tailoring secondary prevention measures aimed at improving the overall prognosis of AMI.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 27 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Occhipinti G, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Capodanno D
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 27 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34179954
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Impact:
Abstract

A-lines and B-lines in patients with acute heart failure.

Johannessen Ø, Claggett B, Lewis EF, Groarke JD, ... Solomon SD, Platz E
Aims
Lung ultrasound (LUS) relies on detecting artefacts, including A-lines and B-lines, when assessing dyspnoeic patients. A-lines are horizontal artefacts and characterize normal lung, whereas multiple vertical B-lines are associated with increased lung density. We sought to assess the prevalence of A-lines and B-lines in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) and examine their clinical correlates and their relationship with outcomes.
Methods and results
In a prospective cohort study of adults with AHF, eight-zone LUS and echocardiography were performed early during the hospitalization and pre-discharge at an imaging depth of 18 cm. A- and B-lines were analysed separately off-line, blinded to clinical and outcome data. Of 164 patients [median age 71 years, 61% men, mean ejection fraction (EF) 40%], the sum of A-lines at baseline ranged from 0 to 19 and B-line number from 0 to 36. One hundred and fifty-six patients (95%) had co-existing A-lines and B-lines at baseline. Lower body mass index and lower chest wall thickness were associated with a higher number of A-lines (P trend < 0.001 for both). In contrast to B-lines, there was no significant change in the number of A-lines from baseline to discharge (median 6 vs. 5, P = 0.80). While B-lines were associated with 90-day HF readmission or death, A-lines were not [HR 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-2.51 vs. HR 0.97, 95% CI 0.65-1.43].
Conclusions
A-lines and B-lines on LUS co-exist in the vast majority of hospitalized patients with AHF. In contrast to B-lines, A-lines were not associated with adverse outcomes.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 22 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Johannessen Ø, Claggett B, Lewis EF, Groarke JD, ... Solomon SD, Platz E
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 22 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34160009
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Impact:
Abstract

Assessment of the ESC quality indicators in patients with acute myocardial infarction: a systematic review.

Rossello X, Massó-van Roessel A, Perelló-Bordoy A, Mas-Lladó C, ... Pons J, Peral V
Aims
To help improving quality of care in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) set 20 quality indicators (QIs). There is a need to compile and summarize QI availability, feasibility, and global compliance in real-world registries.
Methods and results
A systematic review of PubMed and Web of Science was conducted including all original articles reporting the use of the ESC QIs in AMI patients. Methods and reporting follow the guidelines of the PRISMA Statement and the protocol was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020190541). Among the 220 screened citations, 9 studies met the inclusion criteria after full-text review. Among these 9 studies, there were 11 different cohorts. Patients were recruited from three different continents (31 countries). The number of QIs assessed ranged from 6 to 20, with 5 studies (56%) reporting data for at least 75% of the 20 QIs. There were room for improvement in terms of data availability (i.e. domain 6 measuring patient\'s satisfaction), feasibility (i.e. difficulties to find all data for composite QIs in domain 7), and attainment (i.e. high levels of compliance with the percentage of reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients, but low levels for a timely reperfusion).
Conclusions
Our systematic review has shown that it is possible to measure most QIs in existing registries, and that there is room for improvement in terms of data availability, feasibility, and levels of attainment to QIs. Our findings may influence the design of future registries to capture this information and help in QIs definition updates.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 20 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Rossello X, Massó-van Roessel A, Perelló-Bordoy A, Mas-Lladó C, ... Pons J, Peral V
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 20 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34151368
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic impact of non-culprit chronic total occlusion over time in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Milasinovic D, Mladenovic D, Zaharijev S, Mehmedbegovic Z, ... Vukcevic V, Stankovic G
Aims
Previous studies indicated that a chronic total occlusion (CTO) in a non-infarct-related artery is linked to higher mortality mainly in the acute setting in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Our aim was to assess the temporal distribution of mortality risk associated with non-culprit CTO over years after STEMI.
Methods and results
The study included 8679 STEMI patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Kaplan-Meier cumulative mortality curves for non-culprit CTO vs. no CTO were compared with log-rank test, with landmarks set at 30 days and 1 year. Adjusted Cox regression models were constructed to assess the impact of non-culprit CTO on mortality over different time intervals. Tests for interaction were pre-specified between non-culprit CTO and acute heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction. The primary outcome variable was all-cause mortality, and the median follow-up was 5 years. Non-culprit CTO was present in 11.6% of patients (n = 1010). Presence of a CTO was associated with increased early [30-day adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.54-2.36; P < 0.001] and late mortality (5-year adjusted HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.42-1.95; P < 0.001). Landmark analyses revealed an annual two-fold increase in mortality in patients with vs. without a CTO after the first year of follow-up. The observed pattern of mortality increase over time was independent of acute or chronic LV impairment.
Conclusions
Non-culprit CTO is independently associated with mortality over 5 years after primary PCI for STEMI, with a constant annual two-fold increase in the risk of death beyond the first year of follow-up.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 20 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Milasinovic D, Mladenovic D, Zaharijev S, Mehmedbegovic Z, ... Vukcevic V, Stankovic G
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 20 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34151365
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Impact:
Abstract

Data-driven point-of-care risk model in patients with acute myocardial infarction and cardiogenic shock.

Helgestad OKL, Povlsen AL, Josiassen J, Möller S, ... Møller JE, Ravn HB
Background
Prognosis models based on stepwise regression methods show modest performance in patients with cardiogenic shock (CS). Automated variable selection allows data-driven risk evaluation by recognizing distinct patterns in data. We sought to evaluate an automated variable selection method (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, LASSO) for predicting 30-day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction and CS (AMICS) receiving acute percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to two established scores.
Methods and results
Consecutive patients with AMICS receiving acute PCI at one of two tertiary heart centres in Denmark 2010-2017. Patients were divided according to treatment with mechanical circulatory support (MCS); PCI-MCS cohort (n = 220) versus PCI cohort (n = 1180). The latter was divided into a development (2010-2014) and a temporal validation cohort (2015-2017). Cohort-specific LASSO models were based on data obtained before PCI. LASSO models outperformed IABP-SHOCK II and CardShock risk scores in discriminative ability for 30-day mortality in the PCI validation [receiver operating characteristics area under the curve (ROC AUC) 0.80 (95% CI 0.76-0.84) vs 0.73 (95% CI 0.69-0.77) and 0.70 (95% CI 0.65-0.75), respectively, P < 0.01 for both] and PCI-MCS development cohort [ROC AUC 0.77 (95% CI 0.70-0.83) vs 0.64 (95% CI 0.57-0.71) and 0.64 (95% CI 0.57-0.71), respectively, P < 0.01 for both]. Variable influence differed depending on MCS, with age being the most influential factor in the LASSO-PCI model, whereas haematocrit and estimated glomerular filtration rate were the highest-ranking factors in the LASSO-PCI-MCS model.
Conclusion
Data-driven prognosis models outperformed established risk scores in patients with AMICS receiving acute PCI and exhibited good discriminative abilities. Observations indicate a potential use of machinelearning to facilitate individualized patient care and targeted interventions in the future.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 20 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Helgestad OKL, Povlsen AL, Josiassen J, Möller S, ... Møller JE, Ravn HB
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 20 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34151353
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Impact:
Abstract

Outcome of patients with different clinical presentations of high-risk pulmonary embolism.

Ebner M, Sentler C, Harjola VP, Bueno H, ... Konstantinides SV, Lankeit M
Aims
The 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines provide a revised definition of high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) encompassing three clinical presentations: Cardiac arrest, obstructive shock, and persistent hypotension. This study investigated the prognostic implications of this new definition.
Methods and results
Data from 784 consecutive PE patients prospectively enrolled in a single-centre registry were analysed. Study outcomes include an in-hospital adverse outcome (PE-related death or cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and in-hospital all-cause mortality. Overall, 86 patients (11.0%) presented with high-risk PE and more often had an adverse outcome (43.0%) compared to intermediate-high-risk patients (6.1%; P < 0.001). Patients with cardiac arrest had the highest rate of an in-hospital adverse outcome (78.4%) and mortality (59.5%; both P < 0.001 compared to intermediate-high-risk patients). Obstructive shock and persistent hypotension had similar rates of adverse outcomes (15.8% and 18.2%, respectively; P = 0.46), but the only obstructive shock was associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk. Use of an optimised venous lactate cut-off value (3.8 mmol/L) to diagnose obstructive shock allowed differentiation of adverse outcome risk between patients with shock (21.4%) and persistent hypotension (9.5%), resulting in a net reclassification improvement (0.24 ± 0.08; P = 0.002).
Conclusion
The revised ESC 2019 guidelines definition of high-risk PE stratifies subgroups at different risk of in-hospital adverse outcomes and all-cause mortality. Risk prediction can be improved by using an optimised venous lactate cut-off value to diagnose obstructive shock, which might help to better assess the risk-to-benefit ratio of systemic thrombolysis in different subgroups of high-risk patients.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 13 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Ebner M, Sentler C, Harjola VP, Bueno H, ... Konstantinides SV, Lankeit M
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 13 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34125186
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Impact:
Abstract

Predicting outcome in acute myocardial infarction: an analysis investigating 175 circulating biomarkers.

Eggers KM, Lindhagen L, Baron T, Erlinge D, ... Spaak J, Lindahl B
Aims 
There is a paucity of studies comprehensively comparing the prognostic value of larger arrays of biomarkers indicative of different pathobiological axes in acute myocardial infarction (MI).
Methods and results 
In this explorative investigation, we simultaneously analysed 175 circulating biomarkers reflecting different inflammatory traits, coagulation activity, endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, myocardial dysfunction and damage, apoptosis, kidney function, glucose-, and lipid metabolism. Measurements were performed in samples from 1099 MI patients (SWEDEHEART registry) applying two newer multimarker panels [Proximity Extension Assay (Olink Bioscience), Multiple Reaction Monitoring mass spectrometry]. The prognostic value of biomarkers regarding all-cause mortality, recurrent MI, and heart failure hospitalizations (median follow-up ≤6.6 years) was studied using Lasso analysis, a penalized logistic regression model that considers all biomarkers simultaneously while minimizing the risk for spurious findings. Tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 2 (TRAIL-R2), ovarian cancer-related tumour marker CA 125 (CA-125), and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) consistently predicted all-cause mortality in crude and age/sex-adjusted analyses. Growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) was strongly predictive in the crude model. TRAIL-R2 and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) consistently predicted heart failure hospitalizations. No biomarker predicted recurrent MI. The prognostic value of all biomarkers was abrogated following additional adjustment for clinical variables owing to our rigorous statistical approach.
Conclusion 
Apart from biomarkers with established prognostic value (i.e. BNP and to some extent GDF-15), several \'novel\' biomarkers (i.e. TRAIL-R2, CA-125, FGF-23) emerged as risk predictors in patients with MI. Our data warrant further investigation regarding the utility of these biomarkers for clinical decision-making in acute MI.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 06 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Eggers KM, Lindhagen L, Baron T, Erlinge D, ... Spaak J, Lindahl B
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 06 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34100060
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Impact:
Abstract

Prediction of right heart failure after left ventricular assist implantation: external validation of the EUROMACS right-sided heart failure risk score.

Rivas-Lasarte M, Kumar S, Derbala MH, Ferrall J, ... Smith SA, Sims DB
Aims
Prediction of right heart failure (RHF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implant remains a challenge. The EUROMACS right-sided heart failure (EUROMACS-RHF) risk score was proposed as a prediction tool for post-LVAD RHF but lacks from large external validation. The aim of our study was to externally validate the score.
Methods and results
From January 2007 to December 2017, 878 continuous-flow LVADs were implanted at three tertiary centres. We calculated the EUROMACS-RHF score in 662 patients with complete data. We evaluated its predictive performance for early RHF defined as either (i) need for short- or long-term right-sided circulatory support, (ii) continuous inotropic support for ≥14 days, or (iii) nitric oxide for ≥48 h post-operatively. Right heart failure occurred in 211 patients (32%). When compared with non-RHF patients, pre-operatively they had higher creatinine, bilirubin, right atrial pressure, and lower INTERMACS class (P < 0.05); length of stay and in-hospital mortality were higher. Area under the ROC curve for RHF prediction of the EUROMACS-RHF score was 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.60-0.68]. Reclassification of patients with RHF was significantly better when applying the EUROMACS-RHF risk score on top of previous published scores. Patients in the high-risk category had significantly higher in-hospital and 2-year mortality [hazard ratio: 1.64 (95% CI 1.16-2.32) P = 0.005].
Conclusion
In an external cohort, the EUROMACS-RHF had limited discrimination predicting RHF. The clinical utility of this score remains to be determined.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 28 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Rivas-Lasarte M, Kumar S, Derbala MH, Ferrall J, ... Smith SA, Sims DB
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 28 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34050652
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Impact:
Abstract

Right ventricular function and iron deficiency in acute heart failure.

Miñana G, Santas E, de la Espriella R, Núñez E, ... Bayés-Genís A, Núñez J
Aims
Iron deficiency (ID) is a frequent finding in patients with chronic and acute heart failure (AHF) along the full spectrum of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Iron deficiency has been related to ventricular systolic dysfunction, but its role in right ventricular function has not been evaluated. We sought to evaluate whether ID identifies patients with greater right ventricular dysfunction in the setting of AHF.
Methods and results
We prospectively included 903 patients admitted with AHF. Right systolic function was evaluated by tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and the ratio TAPSE/pulmonary artery systolic pressure (TAPSE/PASP). Iron deficiency was defined, according to European Society of Cardiology criteria, as serum ferritin <100 mg/dL (absolute ID) or ferritin 100-299 mg/dL and transferrin saturation (TSAT) <20% (functional ID). The relationships among the exposures with right ventricular systolic function were evaluated by multivariate linear regression analyses. The mean age of the sample was 74.3 ± 10.6 years, 441 (48.8%) were female, 471 (52.2%) exhibited heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, and 677 (75.0%) showed ID. The mean LVEF, TAPSE, and TAPSE/PASP were 49 ± 15%, 18.6 ± 3.9 mm, and 0.45 ± 0.18, respectively. The median (interquartile range) amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide was 4015 (1807-8775) pg/mL. In a multivariable setting, lower TSAT and ferritin were independently associated with lower TAPSE (P < 0.05 for both comparisons). Transferrin saturation (P = 0.017), and not ferritin (P = 0.633), was independently associated with TAPSE/PASP.
Conclusion
In AHF, proxies of ID were associated with right ventricular dysfunction. Further studies should confirm these findings and evaluate the pathophysiological facts behind this association.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:406-414
Miñana G, Santas E, de la Espriella R, Núñez E, ... Bayés-Genís A, Núñez J
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:406-414 | PMID: 33620455
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Impact:
Abstract

Association between β-blocker dose and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction: insights from the SWEDEHEART registry.

Mars K, Wallert J, Held C, Humphries S, ... Olsson EMG, Hofmann R
Aims
Dose-dependent effects of β-blockers on survival and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction (MI) are not well understood. We investigated the long-term risk of cardiovascular events in patients with different doses of β-blockers after MI.
Methods and results
This was a nationwide observational study linking morbidity, mortality, socioeconomic, and medication data from Swedish national registries. Between 2006 and 2015, 97 575 unique patients with first-time MI were included. In total, 33 126 (33.9%) patients were discharged with ≥50% of the target β-blocker dose and 64 449 (66.1%) patients with <50% of the target β-blocker dose used in previous randomized trials. The primary composite endpoint was re-infarction or all-cause death within 1 year from discharge. Multivariable adjusted 1-year follow-up estimates using mixed effects Cox regression [HR (95% CI)] showed that patients treated with ≥50% of the target dose had a similar risk of the composite endpoint [1.03 (0.99-1.08)] and a somewhat higher risk when stroke, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure hospitalization were added to the composite endpoint [1.08 (1.04-1.12)], compared with patients on <50% of the target β-blocker dose. Results remained similar up to 5 years of follow-up and consistent across relevant patient subgroups, including patients who developed heart failure during the index hospitalization.
Conclusions
In contrast to doses of β-blockers used in previous trials, ≥50% of the target β-blocker dose was not associated with superior cardiovascular outcomes up to 5 years as compared with <50% of the target dose. Contemporary randomized clinical trials are needed to clarify the optimal dose of β-blockers after MI.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:372-379
Mars K, Wallert J, Held C, Humphries S, ... Olsson EMG, Hofmann R
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:372-379 | PMID: 33620439
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Impact:
Abstract

Left Impella®-device as bridge from cardiogenic shock with acute, severe mitral regurgitation to MitraClip®-procedure: a new option for critically ill patients.

Vandenbriele C, Balthazar T, Wilson J, Adriaenssens T, ... Verbrugghe P, Price S
Aims
Patients presenting with cardiogenic shock (CS) related to acute, severe mitral regurgitation (MR) are often considered too ill for immediate surgical intervention. Therefore, other less invasive techniques for haemodynamic stabilization should be explored. The purpose of this exploratory study was to investigate the feasibility and outcomes in patients with CS due to severe MR by using a novel approach combining haemodynamic stabilization with left Impella-support plus MR-reduction using MitraClip®.
Methods and results
We analysed whether a combined left Impella®/MitraClip®-procedure in a rare population of CS-patients with acute MR requiring mechanical ventilation is a feasible strategy to recovery in patients who had been declined cardiac surgery. Six INTERMACS-1 CS-patients with acute MR were studied at two tertiary cardiac intensive care units. The mean EURO-II score was 39 ± 19% and age 66.8 ± 4.9 years. All patients had an initial pulmonary capillary wedge pressure >20 mmHg and pulmonary oedema necessitating invasive ventilation. Cardiac output was severely impaired (left ventricular outflow tract velocity time index 9.8 ± 1.8 cm), requiring mechanical circulatory support (MCS) (Impella®-CP; mean flow 2.9 ± 1.8 L per minute; mean support 9.7 ± 6.0 days). Despite MCS-guided unloading, weaning from ventilation failed due to persisting pulmonary oedema necessitating MR-reduction. In all cases, the severe MR was reduced to mild using percutaneous MitraClip®-procedure, followed by successful weaning from invasive ventilation. Survival to discharge was 86%, with all surviving and rare readmission for heart failure at 6 months.
Conclusions
A combined Impella®/MitraClip®-strategy appears a novel, feasible alternative for weaning CS-patients presenting with acute, severe MR. Upfront Impella®-stabilization facilitates safe bridging to Mitraclip®-procedure and the staged approach facilitates successful weaning from ventilatory support.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:415-421
Vandenbriele C, Balthazar T, Wilson J, Adriaenssens T, ... Verbrugghe P, Price S
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:415-421 | PMID: 33620436
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Impact:
Abstract

Safety of dexmedetomidine in the cardiac intensive care unit.

Adie SK, Farina N, Abdul-Aziz AA, Lee R, Thomas MP, Konerman MC
Aims
Dexmedetomidine is one of the sedative agents recommended by the Society of Critical Care Medicine as a preferred option over benzodiazepines in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. Little data exists describing sedation in the cardiac intensive care unit (CICU). The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of adverse events in CICU patients treated with dexmedetomidine.
Methods and results
This was a retrospective cohort analysis of patients >18 years old admitted to the University of Michigan CICU from June 2014 to October 2019 who received dexmedetomidine therapy. The primary outcome was the composite of adverse events including bradycardia, hypotension, increasing vasopressor/inotrope requirements, and asystole. Secondary outcomes included individual components of the primary outcome. Patients that experienced adverse events were compared to those that did not experience adverse events to identify risk factors for adverse events. A total of 197 patients were included. There were 116 adverse events in 106 patients. Hypotension was the most common adverse event, making up 60.3% of adverse events reported. Increased vasopressor requirement and bradycardia both occurred in 22 patients (18.9%). Asystole occurred in two patients. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were significantly higher in those experiencing an adverse event (848 pg/mL vs. 431 pg/mL; P = 0.03).
Conclusions
Patients admitted to the CICU experienced a high rate of adverse events with dexmedetomidine use. Those experiencing adverse events were more likely to have a higher BNP. Future studies should explore the safety of alternative sedative agents to ascertain safe pharmacological options for patients admitted to the CICU.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:422-426
Adie SK, Farina N, Abdul-Aziz AA, Lee R, Thomas MP, Konerman MC
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:422-426 | PMID: 33620428
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Impact:
Abstract

Life-threatening arrhythmias in anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction patients treated by percutaneous coronary intervention: adverse impact of morphine.

Sauer F, Jesel L, Marchandot B, Derimay F, ... Ovize M, Morel O
Aims
Important controversies remain concerning the determinants of life-threatening arrhythmias during ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and their impact on late adverse events. This study sought to investigate which factors might facilitate ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF), in a homogeneous population of anterior STEMI patients defined by abrupt left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) occlusion and no collateral flow.
Methods and results
The 967 patients, who entered into the CIRCUS (Does Cyclosporine ImpRove Clinical oUtcome in ST elevation myocardial infarction patients) study, were assessed for further analysis. Acute VT/VF was defined as VT (run of tachycardia >30 s either self-terminated or requiring electrical/pharmacological cardioversion) or VF documented by electrocardiogram or cardiac monitoring, during transportation to the cathlab or initial hospitalization. VT/VF was documented in 136 patients (14.1%). Patients with VT/VF were younger and had shorter time from symptom onset to hospital arrival. Site of LAD occlusion, thrombus burden, area at risk, pre-percutaneous coronary intervention Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction flow, and ST-segment resolution were similar to that of patients without VT/VF. There was no impact of VT/VF on left ventricular remodelling or clinical outcomes. By multivariate analysis, the use of morphine (odds ratio 1.71; 95% confidence interval (1.13-2.60); P = 0.012) was the sole independent predictor of VT/VF occurrence.
Conclusions
In STEMI patients with LAD occlusion, our findings support the view that morphine could favour severe ventricular arrhythmias.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:427-436
Sauer F, Jesel L, Marchandot B, Derimay F, ... Ovize M, Morel O
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:427-436 | PMID: 33620376
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic value of inflammatory biomarkers and GRACE score for cardiac death and acute kidney injury after acute coronary syndromes.

Rossi VA, Denegri A, Candreva A, Klingenberg R, ... Lüscher TF, Matter CM
Aims 
The aim of this study was to analyse the role of inflammation and established clinical scores in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Methods and results 
In a prospective multicentre cohort including 2034 patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NL-ratio), and creatinine were measured at the index procedure. AKI (n = 39, defined according to RIFLE criteria) and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were adjudicated after 1 year. Associations between inflammation, AKI, and cardiac death (CD) were assessed by C-statistics and Cox proportional hazard models with log-rank test to compare survival. Patients with ACS with elevated neutrophil count >7.8 × 109/L, NL-ratio >5, combined neutrophil-count/creatinine, or NL-ratio/creatinine at baseline showed a higher incidence of AKI (all P < 0.05) and CD (all P < 0.001). The risk of AKI, CD, and their combination was increased in patients with higher neutrophil count/creatinine (heart rate (HR) = 3.7, 95% cardiac index (CI) 1.9-7.1; HR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.6; HR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.1-4.9); NL-ratio/creatinine (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-4.1; HR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8; HR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5); and hsCRP (HR = 1.8, 95% CI 0.9-3.5; HR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.6; HR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8) after adjustment for age, diabetes, hypertension, previous heart failure, kidney function, haemodynamic instability at admission, statin, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone antagonists use. Subjects with higher GRACE score 1.0/NL-ratio had higher rate of AKI, CD, and both (HR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.5-4.2; HR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.9; HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1-4.3).
Conclusions 
Inflammation markers may predict AKI after correction for renal function at the index procedure. hsCRP performed better than the NL-ratio. However, the integration of inflammation markers to traditional risk factors or scores does not add prognostic information.
Trial registration 
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01000701.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:445-452
Rossi VA, Denegri A, Candreva A, Klingenberg R, ... Lüscher TF, Matter CM
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:445-452 | PMID: 33624028
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Impact:
Abstract

Impact of bleeding on mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock.

Nishihira K, Honda S, Takegami M, Kojima S, ... Yasuda S, JAMIR investigators
Aims
Acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMICS) is associated with substantial mortality, although there are limited data available on bleeding in this critical condition. This study sought to investigate the incidence and impact of major in-hospital bleeding on all-cause mortality in patients with AMICS who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
Methods and results
Between 2015 and 2017, a total of 3411 patients hospitalized within 24 h after symptom onset were prospectively enrolled in the Japan Acute Myocardial Infarction Registry (JAMIR) and followed up for a median of 293 (interquartile range, 22-375) days. AMICS developed in 335 (9.8%) patients (mean age, 71.3 ± 13.6 years). Overall, the rate of major in-hospital bleeding (Bleeding Academic Research Consortium types 3 and 5) and in-hospital mortality was 14.6% and 28.7%, respectively. The majority of major in-hospital bleeding (73.5%) occurred within 48 h after PCI. Compared to patients without major in-hospital bleeding, those with it had higher rates of renal failure, left main coronary artery culprit lesion, and intra-aortic balloon pump or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support, and had longer door-to-device time. The cumulative incidence of 1-year all-cause mortality was significantly higher in the major bleeding group compared to the non-major bleeding group (63.8% vs. 25.5%; log-rank P < 0.001). After adjusting for confounders, major in-hospital bleeding was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.69).
Conclusions
These findings of JAMIR indicate that major in-hospital bleeding is associated with all-cause mortality in patients with AMICS who undergo PCI.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:388-396
Nishihira K, Honda S, Takegami M, Kojima S, ... Yasuda S, JAMIR investigators
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 24 May 2021; 10:388-396 | PMID: 34037718
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Impact:
Abstract

Improving 1-year mortality prediction in ACS patients using machine learning.

Weichwald S, Candreva A, Burkholz R, Klingenberg R, ... Buhmann JM, Matter CM
Background
The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score is an established clinical risk stratification tool for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). We developed and internally validated a model for 1-year all-cause mortality prediction in ACS patients.
Methods
Between 2009 and 2012, 2\'168 ACS patients were enrolled into the Swiss SPUM-ACS Cohort. Biomarkers were determined in 1\'892 patients and follow-up was achieved in 95.8% of patients. 1-year all-cause mortality was 4.3% (n = 80). In our analysis we consider all linear models using combinations of 8 out of 56 variables to predict 1-year all-cause mortality and to derive a variable ranking.
Results
1.3% of 1\'420\'494\'075 models outperformed the GRACE 2.0 Score. The SPUM-ACS Score includes age, plasma glucose, NT-proBNP, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), Killip class, history of peripheral artery disease (PAD), malignancy, and cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. For predicting 1-year mortality after ACS, the SPUM-ACS Score outperformed the GRACE 2.0 Score which achieves a 5-fold cross-validated AUC of 0.81 (95% CI 0.78-0.84). Ranking individual features according to their importance across all multivariate models revealed age, trimethylamine N-oxide, creatinine, history of PAD or malignancy, LVEF, and haemoglobin as the most relevant variables for predicting 1-year mortality.
Conclusions
The variable ranking and the selection for the SPUM-ACS Score highlight the relevance of age, markers of heart failure, and comorbidities for prediction of all-cause death. Before application, this score needs to be externally validated and refined in larger cohorts.
Clinical trial registration
NCT01000701.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 19 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Weichwald S, Candreva A, Burkholz R, Klingenberg R, ... Buhmann JM, Matter CM
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 19 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34015112
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Impact:
Abstract

Association between new-onset right bundle branch block and primary or secondary ventricular fibrillation in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Galcerá-Jornet E, Consuegra-Sánchez L, Galcerá-Tomás J, Melgarejo-Moreno A, ... Vicente-Gilabert M, Padilla-Serrano A
Aims
New-onset right bundle branch block (RBBB) in myocardial infarction (MI) is often associated with ventricular fibrillation (VF) but the nature of this relationship has not been determined.
Methods and results
Between 1998 and 2014, among other data, incidence and duration of RBBB and VF occurrence were prospectively collected in 5301 patients with ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI) admitted to two University Hospitals in Murcia (Spain). Multinomial adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between RBBB, attending to its duration, and VF according to its primary VF (PVF) or secondary VF (SVF) character. Among 284 (5.4%) patients with new-onset RBBB, 158 were transient and 126 permanent. VF occurred in 339 (6.4%) patients, 201 PVF and 138 SVF, documented within the first 2 h of symptoms-onset in 78% and 60%, respectively. New-onset RBBB was more frequent in PVF (11.4%) and SVF (20.3%), than in non-VF (4.7%). Transient RBBB incidence was higher in PVF (9.0%) and SVF (9.4) than in non-VF (2.6%), whereas permanent RBBB was higher in SVF (10.9%) than PVF (2.5%) and non-VF (2.1%). New-onset RBBB 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-3.11] and new-onset transient RBBB 2.39 (95% CI: 1.32-4.32) were independently associated with PVF. New-onset 3.03 (95% CI: 1.83-5.02), transient 2.40 (95% CI: 1.27-4.55), and permanent 2.99 (95% CI: 1.52-5.86) RBBB were independently associated with SVF.
Conclusion
New-onset RBBB and VF in STEMI are independently associated and show particularities based on the duration of the conduction disturbance and/or the primary or secondary character of the arrhythmia.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 15 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Galcerá-Jornet E, Consuegra-Sánchez L, Galcerá-Tomás J, Melgarejo-Moreno A, ... Vicente-Gilabert M, Padilla-Serrano A
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 15 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33993235
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Impact:
Abstract

Serum cholinesterase as a prognostic biomarker for acute heart failure.

Shiba M, Kato T, Morimoto T, Yaku H, ... Kuwahara K, Kimura T
Aims
The association between serum cholinesterase and prognosis in acute heart failure (AHF) remains to be elucidated. We investigated the serum cholinesterase level at discharge from hospitalization for AHF and its association with clinical outcomes in patients with AHF.
Methods and results
Among 4056 patients enrolled in the Kyoto Congestive Heart Failure multicentre registry, we analysed 2228 patients with available serum cholinesterase data. The study population was classified into three groups according to serum cholinesterase level at discharge: low tertile (<180 U/L, N = 733), middle tertile (≥180 U/L and <240 U/L, N = 746), and high tertile (≥240 U/L, N = 749). Patients in the low tertile had higher tricuspid pressure gradient, greater inferior vena cava diameter, and higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels than those in the high tertile. The cumulative 1-year incidence of the primary outcome measure (a composite endpoint of all-cause death and hospitalization for HF) was higher in the low and middle tertiles than in the high tertile [46.5% (low tertile) and 31.4% (middle tertile) vs. 22.1% (high tertile), P < 0.0001]. After adjustment for 26 variables, the excess risk of the low tertile relative to the high tertile for the primary outcome measure remained significant (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.70, P = 0.006). Restricted cubic spline models below the median of cholinesterase demonstrated incrementally higher hazards at low cholinesterase levels.
Conclusions
Low serum cholinesterase levels are associated with congestive findings on echocardiography, higher BNP, and higher risks for a composite of all-cause death and HF hospitalization in patients with AHF.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:335-342
Shiba M, Kato T, Morimoto T, Yaku H, ... Kuwahara K, Kimura T
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:335-342 | PMID: 33580775
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Impact:
Abstract

In-hospital outcomes of catheter-directed thrombolysis in patients with pulmonary embolism.

Hobohm L, Schmidt FP, Gori T, Schmidtmann I, ... Konstantinides SV, Keller K
Aims
Catheter-directed treatment of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is technically advancing. Recent guidelines acknowledge this treatment option for patients with overt or imminent haemodynamic decompensation, particularly when systemic thrombolysis is contraindicated. We investigated patients with PE who underwent catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) in the German nationwide inpatient cohort.
Methods and results
Data from hospitalizations with PE (International Classification of Disease code I26) between 2005 and 2016 were collected by the Federal Office of Statistics in Germany. Patients with PE who underwent CDT (OPS 8-838.60 or OPS code 8-83b.j) were compared with patients receiving systemic thrombolysis (OPS code 8-020.8), and those without thrombolytic or other reperfusion treatment. The analysis was not prespecified; therefore, our findings can only be considered to be hypothesis generating. We analysed data from 978 094 hospitalized patients with PE. Of these, 41 903 (4.3%) patients received thrombolytic treatment [systemic thrombolysis in 4.2%, CDT in 0.1% (1175 patients)]. Among patients with shock, CDT was associated with lower in-hospital mortality compared to systemic thrombolysis [odds ratios (OR) 0.30 (95% 0.14-0.67); P = 0.003]. Intracranial bleeding occurred in 14 (1.2%) patients who received CDT. Among haemodynamically stable patients with right ventricular dysfunction (intermediate-risk PE), CDT also was associated with a lower risk of in-hospital mortality compared to systemic thrombolysis {OR 0.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-0.75]; P < 0.001} or no thrombolytic treatment [0.45 (95% CI 0.33-0.62); P < 0.001].
Conclusion
In the German nationwide inpatient cohort, based on administrative data, CDT was associated with lower in-hospital mortality rates compared to systemic thrombolysis, but the overall rate of intracranial bleeding in patients who received CDT was not negligible. Prospective controlled data are urgently needed to determine the true value of this treatment option in acute PE.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:258-264
Hobohm L, Schmidt FP, Gori T, Schmidtmann I, ... Konstantinides SV, Keller K
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:258-264 | PMID: 33620441
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Impact:
Abstract

Biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis in acute myocardial infarction: a joint position paper of the Association for Acute CardioVascular Care and the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis.

Krychtiuk KA, Speidl WS, Giannitsis E, Gigante B, ... Lindahl B, Thygesen K
The formation of a thrombus in an epicardial artery may result in an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Despite major advances in acute treatment using network approaches to allocate patients to timely reperfusion and optimal antithrombotic treatment, patients remain at high risk for thrombotic complications. Ongoing activation of the coagulation system as well as thrombin-mediated platelet activation may both play a crucial role in this context. Whether measurement of circulating biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis could be useful for risk stratification in secondary prevention is currently not fully understood. In addition, measurement of such biomarkers could be helpful to identify thrombus formation as the leading mechanism for AMI. The introduction of biomarkers of myocardial injury such as high-sensitivity cardiac troponins made rule-out of AMI even more precise. However, elevated markers of myocardial injury cannot provide proof of a type 1 AMI, let alone thrombus formation. The combined measurement of markers of myocardial injury with biomarkers reflecting ongoing thrombus formation might be helpful for the fast and correct diagnosis of an atherothrombotic type 1 AMI. This position paper gives an overview of the current knowledge and possible role of biomarkers of coagulation and fibrinolysis for the diagnosis of AMI, risk stratification, and individualized treatment strategies in patients with AMI.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:343-355
Krychtiuk KA, Speidl WS, Giannitsis E, Gigante B, ... Lindahl B, Thygesen K
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:343-355 | PMID: 33620437
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Impact:
Abstract

The addition of echocardiographic parameters to PESI risk score improves mortality prediction in patients with acute pulmonary embolism: PESI-Echo score.

Burgos LM, Scatularo CE, Cigalini IM, Jauregui JC, ... Argentine Council of Cardiology Residents, Argentina
Aims
Pulmonary embolism severity index (PESI) has been developed to help physicians make decisions about the treatment of patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). The combination of echocardiographic parameters could potentially improve PESI\'s mortality prediction. To assess the additional prognostic value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) when combined with the PESI score in patients with PE to predict short-term mortality.
Methods and results
A multicentric prospective study database of patients admitted with PE in 75 academic centres in Argentina between 2016 and 2017 was analysed. Patients with an echocardiogram at admission with simultaneous measurement of TAPSE and PASP were included. PESI risk score was calculated blindly and prospectively, and in-hospital all-cause mortality was assessed. Of 684 patients, 91% had an echocardiogram, PASP and TAPSE could be estimated simultaneously in 355 (57%). All-cause in-hospital mortality was 11%. The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed an area under the curve (AUC) [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 0.76 (0.72-0.81), 0.74 (0.69-0.79), and 0.71 (0.62-0.79), for the PESI score, PASP, and TAPSE parameters, respectively. When PESI score was combined with the echocardiogram parameters (PESI + PASP-TAPSE = PESI-Echo), an AUC of 0.82 (0.77-0.86) was achieved (P = 0.007). A PESI-Echo score ≥128 was the optimal cut-off point for predicting hospital mortality: sensitivity 82% (95% CI 67-90%), specificity 69% (95% CI 64-74%). The global net reclassification improvement was 9.9%.
Conclusions
PESI-Echo score is a novel tool for assessing mortality risk in patients with acute PE. The addition of echocardiographic parameters to a validated clinical score improved the prediction of hospital mortality.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:250-257
Burgos LM, Scatularo CE, Cigalini IM, Jauregui JC, ... Argentine Council of Cardiology Residents, Argentina
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:250-257 | PMID: 33620435
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Impact:
Abstract

Clinical risk scores identify more patients at risk for cardiovascular events within 30 days as compared to standard ACS risk criteria: the WESTCOR study.

Steiro OT, Tjora HL, Langørgen J, Bjørneklett R, ... Vikenes K, Aakre KM
Aims
Troponin-based algorithms are made to identify myocardial infarctions (MIs) but adding either standard acute coronary syndrome (ACS) risk criteria or a clinical risk score may identify more patients eligible for early discharge and patients in need of urgent revascularization.
Methods and results
Post-hoc analysis of the WESTCOR study including 932 patients (mean 63 years, 61% male) with suspected NSTE-ACS. Serum samples were collected at 0, 3, and 8-12 h and high-sensitivity cTnT (Roche Diagnostics) and cTnI (Abbott Diagnostics) were analysed. The primary endpoint was MI, all-cause mortality, and unplanned revascularizations within 30 days. Secondary endpoint was non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) during index hospitalization. Two combinations were compared: troponin-based algorithms (ESC 0/3 h and the High-STEACS algorithm) and either ACS risk criteria recommended in the ESC guidelines, or one of eleven clinical risk scores, HEART, mHEART, CARE, GRACE, T-MACS, sT-MACS, TIMI, EDACS, sEDACS, Goldman, and Geleijnse-Sanchis. The prevalence of primary events was 21%. Patients ruled out for NSTEMI and regarded low risk of ACS according to ESC guidelines had 3.8-4.9% risk of an event, primarily unplanned revascularizations. Using HEART score instead of ACS risk criteria reduced the number of events to 2.2-2.7%, with maintained efficacy. The secondary endpoint was met by 13%. The troponin-based algorithms without evaluation of ACS risk missed three-index NSTEMIs with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 99.5% and 99.6%.
Conclusion
Combining ESC 0/3 h or the High-STEACS algorithm with standardized clinical risk scores instead of ACS risk criteria halved the prevalence of rule-out patients in need of revascularization, with maintained efficacy.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:287-301
Steiro OT, Tjora HL, Langørgen J, Bjørneklett R, ... Vikenes K, Aakre KM
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:287-301 | PMID: 33620429
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Impact:
Abstract

Cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with COVID-19.

Mueller C, Giannitsis E, Jaffe AS, Huber K, ... Lindahl B, ESC Study Group on Biomarkers in Cardiology of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased awareness that severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 often affects patients with pre-existing cardiac disease, and may trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and acute heart failure (AHF). However, as COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory infectious disease, there remain substantial uncertainty and controversy whether and how cardiovascular biomarkers should be used in patients with suspected COVID-19. To help clinicians understand the possible value as well as the most appropriate interpretation of cardiovascular biomarkers in COVID-19, it is important to highlight that recent findings regarding the prognostic role of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are similar to those obtained in studies for pneumonia and ARDS in general. Cardiovascular biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological processes involved in COVID-19/pneumonia and its complications have a role evaluating disease severity, cardiac involvement, and risk of death in COVID-19 as well as in pneumonias caused by other pathogens. First, cardiomyocyte injury, as quantified by cardiac troponin concentrations, and haemodynamic cardiac stress, as quantified by natriuretic peptide concentrations, may occur in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. The level of those biomarkers correlates with disease severity and mortality. Interpretation of cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptide concentrations as quantitative variables may aid in risk stratification in COVID-19/pneumonia and also will ensure that these biomarkers maintain high diagnostic accuracy for AMI and AHF. Second, activated coagulation as quantified by D-dimers seems more prominent in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. Due to the central role of endothelitis and VTE in COVID-19, serial measurements of D-dimers may help physicians in the selection of patients for VTE imaging and the intensification of the level of anticoagulation from prophylactic to slightly higher or even therapeutic doses.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:310-319
Mueller C, Giannitsis E, Jaffe AS, Huber K, ... Lindahl B, ESC Study Group on Biomarkers in Cardiology of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:310-319 | PMID: 33655301
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Impact:
Abstract

Cardiac troponin and infective endocarditis prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Postigo A, Vernooij RWM, Fernández-Avilés F, Martínez-Sellés M
Aims
Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Cardiac troponin (Tn) elevation seems to be common in patients with IE and could be associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to synthesize the prognostic value of Tn in patients with IE.
Methods and results
We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) until February 2020. Observational studies reporting on the association between Tn and in-hospital and 1-year mortality, and IE complications were considered eligible. As each centre uses different conventional or ultra-sensitive Tn, with different normality threshold, we considered them as normal or elevated according to the criteria specified in each article. Articles were systematically selected, assessed for bias, and, when possible, meta-analysed using a random effect model. After retrieving 542 articles, 18 were included for qualitative synthesis and 9 for quantitative meta-analysis. Compared with patients with normal Tn levels, patients with Tn elevation presented higher in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR) 5.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-10.26; P < 0.0001], 1-year mortality (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.42-5.02; P = 0.002), and surgery rates (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.42-3.85; P = 0.0008). They also suffered more frequent complications: central nervous system events (OR 8.85, 95% CI 3.23-24.26; P < 0.0001) and cardiac abscesses (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.94-12.70; P = 0.0008).
Conclusion
Tn elevation is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with IE. Troponin determination seems to provide additional help in the prognostic assessment of these patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:356-366
Postigo A, Vernooij RWM, Fernández-Avilés F, Martínez-Sellés M
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:356-366 | PMID: 33668065
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Impact:
Abstract

Predictors of permanent pacemaker requirement after cardiac surgery for infective endocarditis.

Hill TE, Kiehl EL, Shrestha NK, Gordon SM, ... Menon V, Tarakji KG
Background
Infectious endocarditis is often complicated by conduction abnormalities at the time of presentation. Cardiac surgery is the treatment of choice for many infectious endocarditis patients, but carries an additional risk of persistent postoperative conduction abnormality. We sought to define the incidence and clinical predictors of significant postoperative conduction abnormalities necessitating permanent pacemaker implantation after cardiac surgery for infectious endocarditis.
Methods
All consecutive patients with infectious endocarditis who were surgically treated at Cleveland Clinic from 2007 to 2013 were identified using the Cleveland Clinic Infective Endocarditis Registry and the Cardiovascular Information Registry. Patients with a pre-existing cardiac implantable electronic device were excluded. The primary outcome was the need for permanent pacemaker placement postoperatively for atrioventricular block. Regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for permanent pacemaker requirement.
Results
Among 444 infectious endocarditis patients who underwent cardiac surgery for infectious endocarditis, 57 (13%) required postoperative permanent pacemaker for atrioventricular block. Multivariable analysis identified that prolongation in preoperative PR and QRS intervals, Staphylococcus aureus as the infectious endocarditis organism, the presence of intracardiac abscess, tricuspid valve involvement, and prior valvular surgery independently predicted postoperative permanent pacemaker placement. The developed model exhibited excellent predictive ability (c-statistic 0.88) and calibration.
Conclusion
Infectious endocarditis cardiac surgery patients often require a postoperative permanent pacemaker. Preoperative conduction abnormality, S. aureus infection, abscess, tricuspid valve involvement, and prior valvular surgery are strong predictors of postoperative permanent pacemaker placement.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:329-334
Hill TE, Kiehl EL, Shrestha NK, Gordon SM, ... Menon V, Tarakji KG
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 10 May 2021; 10:329-334 | PMID: 33974691
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Impact:
Abstract

Impact of myocardial infarction symptom presentation on emergency response and survival.

Møller AL, Mills EHA, Gnesin F, Jensen B, ... Gerds TA, Torp-Pedersen C
Aims
We examined associations between symptom presentation and chance of receiving an emergency dispatch and 30-day mortality among patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI).
Methods and results
Copenhagen, Denmark has a 24-h non-emergency medical helpline and an emergency number 1-1-2 (equivalent to 9-1-1). Both services register symptoms/purpose of calls. Among patients with MI as either hospital diagnosis or cause of death within 72 h after a call, the primary symptom was categorized as chest pain, atypical symptoms (breathing problems, unclear problem, central nervous system symptoms, abdominal/back/urinary, other cardiac symptoms, and other atypical symptoms), unconsciousness, non-informative symptoms, and no recorded symptoms. We identified 4880 emergency and 3456 non-emergency calls from patients with MI. The most common symptom was chest pain (N = 5219) followed by breathing problems (N = 556). Among patients with chest pain, 95% (3337/3508) of emergency calls and 76% (1306/1711) of non-emergency calls received emergency dispatch. Mortality was 5% (163/3508) and 3% (49/1711) for emergency/non-emergency calls, respectively. For atypical symptoms 62% (554/900) and 17% (137/813) of emergency/non-emergency calls received emergency dispatch and mortality was 23% (206/900) and 15% (125/813). Among unconscious, patients 99%/100% received emergency dispatch and mortality was 71%/75% for emergency/non-emergency calls. Standardized 30-day mortality was 4.3% for chest pain and 15.6% for atypical symptoms, and associations between symptoms and emergency dispatch remained in subgroups of age and sex.
Conclusion
Myocardial infarction patients presenting with atypical symptoms when calling for help have a reduced chance of receiving an emergency dispatch and increased 30-day mortality compared to MI patients with chest pain.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Møller AL, Mills EHA, Gnesin F, Jensen B, ... Gerds TA, Torp-Pedersen C
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33951728
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