Journal: Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care

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Abstract

Cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with COVID-19.

Mueller C, Giannitsis E, Jaffe AS, Huber K, ... Lindahl B, ESC Study Group on Biomarkers in Cardiology of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased awareness that severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 often affects patients with pre-existing cardiac disease, and may trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and acute heart failure (AHF). However, as COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory infectious disease, there remain substantial uncertainty and controversy whether and how cardiovascular biomarkers should be used in patients with suspected COVID-19. To help clinicians understand the possible value as well as the most appropriate interpretation of cardiovascular biomarkers in COVID-19, it is important to highlight that recent findings regarding the prognostic role of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are similar to those obtained in studies for pneumonia and ARDS in general. Cardiovascular biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological processes involved in COVID-19/pneumonia and its complications have a role evaluating disease severity, cardiac involvement, and risk of death in COVID-19 as well as in pneumonias caused by other pathogens. First, cardiomyocyte injury, as quantified by cardiac troponin concentrations, and haemodynamic cardiac stress, as quantified by natriuretic peptide concentrations, may occur in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. The level of those biomarkers correlates with disease severity and mortality. Interpretation of cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptide concentrations as quantitative variables may aid in risk stratification in COVID-19/pneumonia and also will ensure that these biomarkers maintain high diagnostic accuracy for AMI and AHF. Second, activated coagulation as quantified by D-dimers seems more prominent in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. Due to the central role of endothelitis and VTE in COVID-19, serial measurements of D-dimers may help physicians in the selection of patients for VTE imaging and the intensification of the level of anticoagulation from prophylactic to slightly higher or even therapeutic doses.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 27 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
Mueller C, Giannitsis E, Jaffe AS, Huber K, ... Lindahl B, ESC Study Group on Biomarkers in Cardiology of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 27 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33655301
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Abstract

Prognostic value of inflammatory biomarkers and GRACE score for cardiac death and acute kidney injury after acute coronary syndromes.

Rossi VA, Denegri A, Candreva A, Klingenberg R, ... Lüscher TF, Matter CM
Aims 
The aim of this study was to analyse the role of inflammation and established clinical scores in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Methods and results 
In a prospective multicentre cohort including 2034 patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NL-ratio), and creatinine were measured at the index procedure. AKI (n = 39, defined according to RIFLE criteria) and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were adjudicated after 1 year. Associations between inflammation, AKI, and cardiac death (CD) were assessed by C-statistics and Cox proportional hazard models with log-rank test to compare survival. Patients with ACS with elevated neutrophil count >7.8 × 109/L, NL-ratio >5, combined neutrophil-count/creatinine, or NL-ratio/creatinine at baseline showed a higher incidence of AKI (all P < 0.05) and CD (all P < 0.001). The risk of AKI, CD, and their combination was increased in patients with higher neutrophil count/creatinine (heart rate (HR) = 3.7, 95% cardiac index (CI) 1.9-7.1; HR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.6; HR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.1-4.9); NL-ratio/creatinine (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-4.1; HR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8; HR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5); and hsCRP (HR = 1.8, 95% CI 0.9-3.5; HR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.6; HR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8) after adjustment for age, diabetes, hypertension, previous heart failure, kidney function, haemodynamic instability at admission, statin, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone antagonists use. Subjects with higher GRACE score 1.0/NL-ratio had higher rate of AKI, CD, and both (HR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.5-4.2; HR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.9; HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1-4.3).
Conclusions 
Inflammation markers may predict AKI after correction for renal function at the index procedure. hsCRP performed better than the NL-ratio. However, the integration of inflammation markers to traditional risk factors or scores does not add prognostic information.
Trial registration 
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01000701.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 23 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
Rossi VA, Denegri A, Candreva A, Klingenberg R, ... Lüscher TF, Matter CM
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 23 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33624028
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Abstract

2020 Update of the quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: a position paper of the Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care: the study group for quality indicators from the ACVC and the NSTE-ACS guideline group.

Schiele F, Aktaa S, Rossello X, Ahrens I, ... Bueno H, Document reviewers
Aims
Quality indicators (QIs) are tools to improve the delivery of evidence-base medicine. In 2017, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care (ACVC) developed a set of QIs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which have been evaluated at national and international levels and across different populations. However, an update of these QIs is needed in light of the accumulated experience and the changes in the supporting evidence.
Methods and results
The ESC methodology for the QI development was used to update the 2017 ACVC QIs. We identified key domains of AMI care, conducted a literature review, developed a list of candidate QIs, and used a modified Delphi method to select the final set of indicators. The same seven domains of AMI care identified by the 2017 Study Group were retained for this update. For each domain, main and secondary QIs were developed reflecting the essential and complementary aspects of care, respectively. Overall, 26 QIs are proposed in this document, compared to 20 in the 2017 set. New QIs are proposed in this document (e.g. the centre use of high-sensitivity troponin), some were retained or modified (e.g. the in-hospital risk assessment), and others were retired in accordance with the changes in evidence [e.g. the proportion of patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated with fondaparinux] and the feasibility assessments (e.g. the proportion of patients with NSTEMI whom risk assessment is performed using the GRACE and CRUSADE risk scores).
Conclusion
Updated QIs for the management of AMI were developed according to contemporary knowledge and accumulated experience. These QIs may be applied to evaluate and improve the quality of AMI care.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 06 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
Schiele F, Aktaa S, Rossello X, Ahrens I, ... Bueno H, Document reviewers
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 06 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33550362
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Abstract

Effect of primary percutaneous coronary intervention on in-hospital outcomes among active cancer patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a propensity score matching analysis.

Mohamed MO, Van Spall HGC, Kontopantelis E, Alkhouli M, ... Bhatt DL, Mamas MA
Aims
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is the gold standard, guideline-recommended revascularization strategy in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, there are limited data on its use and effectiveness among patients with active cancer presenting with STEMI.
Methods and results
All STEMI hospitalizations between 2004 and 2015 from the National Inpatient Sample were retrospectively analysed, stratified by cancer type. Propensity score matching was performed to estimate the average treatment effect of pPCI in each cancer on in-hospital adverse events, including major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and its individual components, and compare treatment effect between cancer and non-cancer patients. Out of 1 870 815 patients with STEMI, 38 932 (2.1%) had a current cancer diagnosis [haematological: 11 251 (28.9% of all cancers); breast: 4675 (12.0%); lung: 9538 (24.5%); colon: 3749 (9.6%); prostate: 9719 (25.0%)]. Patients with cancer received pPCI less commonly than those without cancer (from 54.2% for lung cancer to 70.6% for haematological vs. 82.3% in no cancer). Performance of pPCI was strongly associated with lower adjusted probabilities of MACCE and all-cause mortality in the cancer groups compared with the no cancer group. There was no significant difference in estimated average pPCI treatment effect between the cancer groups and non-cancer group.
Conclusion
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is underutilized in STEMI patients with current cancer despite its significantly lower associated rates of in-hospital all-cause mortality and MACCE that is comparable to patients without cancer. Further work is required to assess the long-term benefit and safety of pPCI in this high-risk group.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
Mohamed MO, Van Spall HGC, Kontopantelis E, Alkhouli M, ... Bhatt DL, Mamas MA
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33587752
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Abstract

The FAST-FURO study: effect of very early administration of intravenous furosemide in the prehospital setting to patients with acute heart failure attending the emergency department.

Miró Ò, Harjola P, Rossello X, Gil V, ... Mebazaa A, ICA-SEMES Research Group
Aims
The effect of early administration of intravenous (IV) furosemide in the emergency department (ED) on short-term outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) patients remains controversial, with one recent Japanese study reporting a decrease of in-hospital mortality and one Korean study reporting a lack of clinical benefit. Both studies excluded patients receiving prehospital IV furosemide and only included patients requiring hospitalization. To assess the impact on short-term outcomes of early IV furosemide administration by emergency medical services (EMS) before patient arrival to the ED.
Methods and results
In a secondary analysis of the Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Departments (EAHFE) registry of consecutive AHF patients admitted to Spanish EDs, patients treated with IV furosemide at the ED were classified according to whether they received IV furosemide from the EMS (FAST-FURO group) or not (CONTROL group). In-hospital all-cause mortality, 30-day all-cause mortality, and prolonged hospitalization (>10 days) were assessed. We included 12 595 patients (FAST-FURO = 683; CONTROL = 11 912): 968 died during index hospitalization [7.7%; FAST-FURO = 10.3% vs. CONTROL = 7.5%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.403, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.085-1.813; P = 0.009], 1269 died during the first 30 days (10.2%; FAST-FURO = 13.4% vs. CONTROL = 9.9%; OR = 1.403, 95% CI = 1.146-1.764; P = 0.004), and 2844 had prolonged hospitalization (22.8%; FAST-FURO = 25.8% vs. CONTROL = 22.6%; OR = 1.189, 95% CI = 0.995-1.419; P = 0.056). FAST-FURO group patients had more diabetes mellitus, ischaemic cardiomyopathy, peripheral artery disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and severe decompensations, and had a better New York Heart Association class and had less atrial fibrillation. After adjusting for these significant differences, early IV furosemide resulted in no impact on short-term outcomes: OR = 1.080 (95% CI = 0.817-1.427) for in-hospital mortality, OR = 1.086 (95% CI = 0.845-1.396) for 30-day mortality, and OR = 1.095 (95% CI = 0.915-1.312) for prolonged hospitalization. Several sensitivity analyses, including analysis of 599 pairs of patients matched by propensity score, showed consistent findings.
Conclusion
Early IV furosemide during the prehospital phase was administered to the sickest patients, was not associated with changes in short-term mortality or length of hospitalization after adjustment for several confounders.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 17 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print
Miró Ò, Harjola P, Rossello X, Gil V, ... Mebazaa A, ICA-SEMES Research Group
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 17 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33580790
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Abstract

Serum cholinesterase as a prognostic biomarker for acute heart failure.

Shiba M, Kato T, Morimoto T, Yaku H, ... Kuwahara K, Kimura T
Aims
The association between serum cholinesterase and prognosis in acute heart failure (AHF) remains to be elucidated. We investigated the serum cholinesterase level at discharge from hospitalization for AHF and its association with clinical outcomes in patients with AHF.
Methods and results
Among 4056 patients enrolled in the Kyoto Congestive Heart Failure multicentre registry, we analysed 2228 patients with available serum cholinesterase data. The study population was classified into three groups according to serum cholinesterase level at discharge: low tertile (<180 U/L, N = 733), middle tertile (≥180 U/L and <240 U/L, N = 746), and high tertile (≥240 U/L, N = 749). Patients in the low tertile had higher tricuspid pressure gradient, greater inferior vena cava diameter, and higher brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels than those in the high tertile. The cumulative 1-year incidence of the primary outcome measure (a composite endpoint of all-cause death and hospitalization for HF) was higher in the low and middle tertiles than in the high tertile [46.5% (low tertile) and 31.4% (middle tertile) vs. 22.1% (high tertile), P < 0.0001]. After adjustment for 26 variables, the excess risk of the low tertile relative to the high tertile for the primary outcome measure remained significant (hazard ratio 1.37, 95% confidence interval 1.10-1.70, P = 0.006). Restricted cubic spline models below the median of cholinesterase demonstrated incrementally higher hazards at low cholinesterase levels.
Conclusions
Low serum cholinesterase levels are associated with congestive findings on echocardiography, higher BNP, and higher risks for a composite of all-cause death and HF hospitalization in patients with AHF.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 17 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print
Shiba M, Kato T, Morimoto T, Yaku H, ... Kuwahara K, Kimura T
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 17 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33580775
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Abstract

Five-year survival after post-cardiotomy veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Biancari F, Perrotti A, Ruggieri VG, Mariscalco G, ... Fiore A, Welp H
Aims 
Veno-arterial (VA) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for post-cardiotomy cardiogenic shock (PCS) after adult cardiac surgery is associated with satisfactory hospital survival. However, data on long-term survival of these critically ill patients are scarce.
Methods and results
Between January 2010 and March 2018, 665 consecutive patients received VA-ECMO for PCS at 17 cardiac surgery centres and herein we evaluated their 5-year survival. The mean follow-up of this cohort was 1.7 ± 2.7 years (for hospital survivors, 4.6 ± 2.5 years). In this cohort, 240 (36.1%) patients survived to hospital discharge. Five-year survival of all patients was 27.7%. The PC-ECMO score was predictive of 5-year survival in these patients (0 point, 50.9%; 1 point, 44.9%; 2 points, 40.0%; 3 points, 34.7%; 4 points, 21.0%; 5 points, 17.6%; ≥6 points, 10.7%; P < 0.0001). Age was among factors independently associated with late survival, patients >70 years old having a remarkably poor 5-year survival (<60 years: 39.2%; 60-69 years: 29.9%; 70-79 years: 12.3%; ≥80 years: 13.0%, P < 0.0001). Implantation of a ventricular assist device or heart transplant was performed in 3.2% of patients and their 5-year survival was 42.9% (for heart transplant, 63.6%).
Conclusion 
Veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for PCS is associated with satisfactory 5-year survival in young patients without critical pre-ECMO conditions. The use of VA-ECMO for PCS in patients >70 years should be considered only after a judicious scrutiny of patient\'s life expectancy. Future studies should evaluate whether satisfactory mid-term survival of these patients translates into a good functional outcome.
Trial registration
Clinicaltrials.gov-NCT03508505.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 11 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print
Biancari F, Perrotti A, Ruggieri VG, Mariscalco G, ... Fiore A, Welp H
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 11 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33580776
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Abstract

Current status and needs for changes in critical care training: the voice of the young cardiologists.

Czerwińska-Jelonkiewicz K, Montero S, Bañeras J, Wood A, ... Kirchhof P, Sionis A
Aims
The implementation of the 2013 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Core Curriculum guidelines for acute cardiovascular care (acc) training among European countries is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the current status of acc training among cardiology trainees and young cardiologists (<40 years) from ESC countries.
Methods and results
The survey (March-July 2019) asked about details of cardiology training, self-confidence in acc technical and non-technical skills, access to training opportunities, and needs for further training in the field. Overall 614 young doctors, 31 (26-43) years old, 55% males were surveyed. Place and duration of acc training differed between countries and between centres in the same country. Although the majority of the respondents (91%) had completed their acc training, the average self-confidence to perform invasive procedures and to manage acc clinical scenarios was low-44% (27.3-70.4). The opportunities for simulation-based learning were scarce-18% (5.8-51.3), as it was previous leadership training (32%) and knowledge about key teamwork principles was poor (48%). The need for further acc training was high-81% (61.9-94.3). Male gender, higher level of training centres, professional qualifications of respondents, longer duration of acc/intensive care training, debriefings, and previous leadership training as well as knowledge about teamwork were related to higher self-confidence in all investigated aspects.
Conclusions
The current cardiology training program is burdened by deficits in acc technical/non-technical skills, substantial variability in programs across ESC countries, and a clear gender-related disparity in outcomes. The forthcoming ESC Core Curriculum for General Cardiology is expected to address these deficiencies.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 05 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print
Czerwińska-Jelonkiewicz K, Montero S, Bañeras J, Wood A, ... Kirchhof P, Sionis A
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 05 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33580774
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Abstract

Recognition of acute myocardial infarction caused by spontaneous coronary artery dissection of first septal perforator.

Sharkey SW, Alfadhel M, Thaler C, Lin D, ... Henry TD, Saw J
Aims 
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) diagnosis is challenging as angiographic findings are often subtle and differ from coronary atherosclerosis. Herein, we describe characteristics of patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) caused by first septal perforator (S1) SCAD.
Methods and results 
Patients were gathered from SCAD registries at Minneapolis Heart Institute and Vancouver General Hospital. First septal perforator SCAD prevalence was 11 of 1490 (0.7%). Among 11 patients, age range was 38-64 years, 9 (82%) were female. Each presented with acute chest pain, troponin elevation, and non-ST-elevation MI diagnosis. Initial electrocardiogram demonstrated ischaemia in 5 (45%); septal wall motion abnormality was present in 4 (36%). Angiographic type 2 SCAD was present in 7 (64%) patients with S1 TIMI 3 flow in 7 (64%) and TIMI 0 flow in 2 (18%). Initial angiographic interpretation failed to recognize S1-SCAD in 6 (55%) patients (no culprit, n = 5, septal embolism, n = 1). First septal perforator SCAD diagnosis was established by review of initial coronary angiogram consequent to cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) demonstrating focal septal late gadolinium enhancement with corresponding oedema (n = 3), occurrence of subsequent SCAD event (n = 2), or second angiogram showing healed S1-SCAD (n = 1). Patients were treated conservatively, each with ejection fraction >50%.
Conclusion 
First septal perforator SCAD events may be overlooked at initial angiography and mis-diagnosed as \'no culprit\' MI. First septal perforator SCAD prevalence is likely greater than reported herein and dependent on local expertise and availability of CMR imaging. Spontaneous coronary artery dissection events may occur in intra-myocardial coronary arteries, approaching the resolution limits of invasive coronary angiography.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print
Sharkey SW, Alfadhel M, Thaler C, Lin D, ... Henry TD, Saw J
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33580787
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Abstract

Diagnostic value of circulating microRNAs compared to high-sensitivity troponin T for the detection of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Biener M, Giannitsis E, Thum T, Bär C, ... de Gonzalo-Calvo D, Mueller-Hennessen M
Aims
To assess the diagnostic value of microRNAs (miRNAs) for the detection of non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI).
Methods and results
A total of 1042 patients presenting between August 2014 and April 2017 to the emergency department with the suspected acute coronary syndrome were included. Non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction was diagnosed per criteria of the fourth Universal definition of myocardial infarction (UDMI) using high-sensitivity troponin T (hs-cTnT). Expression levels of eleven microRNAs (miR-21, miR-22, miR-29a, miR-92a, miR-122, miR-126, miR-132, miR-133, miR-134, miR-191, and miR-423) were determined using RT-qPCR. Discrimination of NSTEMI was assessed for individual and a panel of miRNAs compared to the hs-cTnT reference using C-statistics and reclassification analysis. NSTEMI was diagnosed in 137 (13.1%) patients. The area under the curve (AUC) of the hs-cTnT based reference was 0.937. In a multivariate model, three miRNAs (miR-122, miR-133, and miR-134) were found to be associated with NSTEMI with AUCs between 0.506 and 0.656. A panel consisting of these miRNAs revealed an AUC of 0.662 for the diagnosis of NSTEMI. The AUC of the combination of the miRNA panel and troponin reference was significantly lower than the reference standard (AUC: 0.897 vs. 0.937, P = 0.006). Despite a significant improvement of NSTEMI reclassification measured by IDI and NRI, miRNAs did not improve the specificity of hs-cTnT kinetic changes for the diagnosis of NSTEMI (ΔAUC: 0.04).
Conclusion
Although single miRNAs are significantly associated with the diagnosis of NSTEMI a miRNA panel does not add diagnostic accuracy to the hs-cTnT reference considering baseline values and kinetic changes as recommended by the fourth version of UDMI.
Clinical trials identifier
NCT02116153.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print
Biener M, Giannitsis E, Thum T, Bär C, ... de Gonzalo-Calvo D, Mueller-Hennessen M
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33580779
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Abstract

Influence of age and shock severity on short-term survival in patients with cardiogenic shock.

Jentzer JC, Schrage B, Holmes DR, Dabboura S, ... Bell MR, Westermann D
Aims
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is associated with poor outcomes in older patients, but it remains unclear if this is due to higher shock severity. We sought to determine the associations between age and shock severity on mortality among patients with CS.
Methods and results
Patients with a diagnosis of CS from Mayo Clinic (2007-15) and University Clinic Hamburg (2009-17) were subdivided by age. Shock severity was graded using the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Intervention (SCAI) shock stages. Predictors of 30-day survival were determined using Cox proportional-hazards analysis. We included 1749 patients (934 from Mayo Clinic and 815 from University Clinic Hamburg), with a mean age of 67.6 ± 14.6 years, including 33.6% females. Acute coronary syndrome was the cause of CS in 54.0%. The distribution of SCAI shock stages was 24.1%; C, 28.0%; D, 33.2%; and E, 14.8%. Older patients had similar overall shock severity, more co-morbidities, worse kidney function, and decreased use of mechanical circulatory support compared to younger patients. Overall 30-day survival was 53.3% and progressively decreased as age or SCAI shock stage increased, with a clear gradient towards lower 30-day survival as a function of increasing age and SCAI shock stage. Progressively older age groups had incrementally lower adjusted 30-day survival than patients aged <50 years.
Conclusion
Older patients with CS have lower short-term survival, despite similar shock severity, with a high risk of death in older patients with more severe shock. Further research is needed to determine the optimal treatment strategies for older CS patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print
Jentzer JC, Schrage B, Holmes DR, Dabboura S, ... Bell MR, Westermann D
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Jan 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33580778
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Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.