Journal: Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care

Sorted by: date / impact
Abstract

Association between age and neurological outcomes in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients resuscitated with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a nationwide multicentre observational study.

Miyamoto Y, Matsuyama T, Goto T, Ohbe H, ... Yasunaga H, Ohta B
Aims
Little is known about the difference in outcomes between young and old patients who received extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Therefore, we aimed to investigate the differences in outcomes between those aged ≥75 years and <75 years who experienced OHCA and were resuscitated with ECPR.
Methods and results
We performed a secondary analysis of a nationwide prospective cohort study using the Japanese Association for Acute Medicine OHCA registry. We identified patients aged ≥18 years with OHCA who received ECPR. The patients were classified into three age groups (18-59 years, 60-74 years, and ≥75 years). The primary outcome was a 1-month neurological outcome. To examine the association between age and 1-month neurological outcome, we performed logistic regression analyses fitted with generalized estimating equations. From 2014 to 2017, we identified 875 OHCA patients aged ≥18 years who received ECPR. The proportion of patients who survived with favourable neurological outcome in the patients aged 18-59 years, 60-74 years, and ≥75 years were 15% (64/434), 8.9% (29/326), and 1.7% (2/115), respectively. In the multivariable analysis, compared with the age of 18-59 years, the proportions of favourable neurological outcomes were significantly lower in patients aged 60-74 years [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.32-0.61] and those aged ≥75 years (adjusted OR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.11-0.59).
Conclusion
Advanced age (age ≥75 years in particular) was significantly associated with poor neurological outcomes in patients with OHCA who received ECPR.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 20 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print
Miyamoto Y, Matsuyama T, Goto T, Ohbe H, ... Yasunaga H, Ohta B
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 20 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33880567
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

2020 Update of the quality indicators for acute myocardial infarction: a position paper of the Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care: the study group for quality indicators from the ACVC and the NSTE-ACS guideline group.

Schiele F, Aktaa S, Rossello X, Ahrens I, ... Ibanez B, Hassager C
Aims
Quality indicators (QIs) are tools to improve the delivery of evidence-base medicine. In 2017, the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Association for Acute Cardiovascular Care (ACVC) developed a set of QIs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), which have been evaluated at national and international levels and across different populations. However, an update of these QIs is needed in light of the accumulated experience and the changes in the supporting evidence.
Methods and results
The ESC methodology for the QI development was used to update the 2017 ACVC QIs. We identified key domains of AMI care, conducted a literature review, developed a list of candidate QIs, and used a modified Delphi method to select the final set of indicators. The same seven domains of AMI care identified by the 2017 Study Group were retained for this update. For each domain, main and secondary QIs were developed reflecting the essential and complementary aspects of care, respectively. Overall, 26 QIs are proposed in this document, compared to 20 in the 2017 set. New QIs are proposed in this document (e.g. the centre use of high-sensitivity troponin), some were retained or modified (e.g. the in-hospital risk assessment), and others were retired in accordance with the changes in evidence [e.g. the proportion of patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) treated with fondaparinux] and the feasibility assessments (e.g. the proportion of patients with NSTEMI whom risk assessment is performed using the GRACE and CRUSADE risk scores).
Conclusion
Updated QIs for the management of AMI were developed according to contemporary knowledge and accumulated experience. These QIs may be applied to evaluate and improve the quality of AMI care.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:224-233
Schiele F, Aktaa S, Rossello X, Ahrens I, ... Ibanez B, Hassager C
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:224-233 | PMID: 33550362
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Association between cardiac rhythm conversion and neurological outcome among cardiac arrest patients with initial shockable rhythm: a nationwide prospective study in Japan.

Kandori K, Okada Y, Okada A, Nakajima S, ... Narumiya H, Iizuka R
Aims
Initial cardiac rhythm, particularly shockable rhythm, is a key factor in resuscitation for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients. The purpose of this study was to clarify the association between cardiac rhythm conversion and neurologic prognosis in OHCA patients with initial shockable rhythm at the scene.
Methods and results
The study included adult patients with OHCA due to medical causes with pre-hospital initial shockable rhythm and who were still in cardiac arrest at hospital arrival. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify the adjusted odds ratios (AORs) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of cardiac arrest rhythm at hospital arrival for 1-month favourable neurologic status and 1-month survival, adjusted for potential confounders. Of 34 754 patients in the 2014-2017 JAAM-OHCA Registry, 1880 were included in the final study analysis. The percentages of 1-month favourable neurologic status for shockable rhythm, pulseless electrical activity (PEA), and asystole at hospital arrival were 17.4% (137/789), 3.6% (18/507), and 1.5% (9/584), respectively. The AORs for 1-month favourable neurologic status comparing to OHCA patients who maintained shockable rhythm at hospital arrival were PEA, 0.19 (95% CI, 0.11-0.32) and asystole, 0.08 (95% CI, 0.04-0.16), respectively.
Conclusion
Findings showed that the 1-month neurologic outcome in OHCA patients who converted to non-shockable rhythm at hospital arrival was very poor compared with patients who had sustained shockable rhythm. Also, patients with conversion to PEA had better neurologic prognosis than conversion to asystole.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:119-126
Kandori K, Okada Y, Okada A, Nakajima S, ... Narumiya H, Iizuka R
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:119-126 | PMID: 33620425
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

The value of urinary sodium assessment in acute heart failure.

Tersalvi G, Dauw J, Gasperetti A, Winterton D, ... Pedrazzini G, Mullens W
Acute heart failure (AHF) is a frequent medical condition that needs immediate evaluation and appropriate treatment. Patients with signs and symptoms of volume overload mostly require intravenous loop diuretics in the first hours of hospitalization. Some patients may develop diuretic resistance, resulting in insufficient and delayed decongestion, with increased mortality and morbidity. Urinary sodium measurement at baseline and/or during treatment has been proposed as a useful parameter to tailor diuretic therapy in these patients. This systematic review discusses the current sum of evidence regarding urinary sodium assessment to evaluate diuretic efficacy in AHF. We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Clinical Trials Register for published studies that tested urinary sodium assessment in patients with AHF.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:216-223
Tersalvi G, Dauw J, Gasperetti A, Winterton D, ... Pedrazzini G, Mullens W
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:216-223 | PMID: 33620424
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Non-fatal cardiovascular events preceding sudden cardiac death in patients with an acute myocardial infarction complicated by heart failure: insights from the high-risk myocardial infarction database.

Hui SK, Sharma A, Docherty K, McMurray JJV, ... Ferreira JP, Zannad F
Aims
Among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) complicated by heart failure [HF; clinical HF or left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction], we explored the probability of subsequent non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events and sudden cardiac death (SCD).
Methods and results
The high-risk myocardial infarction (HRMI) database contains 28 771 patients with signs of HF or reduced LV ejection fraction (<40%) after AMI. We evaluated the temporal association between SCD with preceding non-fatal CV event [HF hospitalization, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke]. Median follow-up was 1.9 years. Mean age was 65.0 ± 11.5 years and 70% were male. The incidence of CV death was 7.9 per 100 patient-years and for SCD was 3.1 per patient-years (40% of CV deaths). The incidence of SCD preceded by HF hospitalization was greater than SCD without preceding HF hospitalization (P < 0.05). However, overall, SCD was less likely to be preceded by a non-fatal CV event compared to other causes of death: 9.6% of SCD events were preceded by an MI (vs. 46.6% for non-sudden CV death); 17.0% of SCD events were preceded with an HF hospitalization (vs. 25.4% for non-sudden CV death); and 2.7% of SCD events were preceded by stroke (vs.12.9% for non-sudden CV death).
Conclusion
Among patients with AMI complicated by HF, SCD, compared with other causes of death, was less likely to be preceded by a non-fatal CV event. As patients are less likely to have preceding non-fatal CV events to alert the healthcare team of a possible impending SCD event, additional strategies for risk stratification for SCD are needed.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:127-131
Hui SK, Sharma A, Docherty K, McMurray JJV, ... Ferreira JP, Zannad F
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:127-131 | PMID: 33620418
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

The 2020 ESC-ACVC quality indicators for the management of acute myocardial infarction applied to the FAST-MI registries.

Schiele F, Gale CP, Simon T, Fox KAA, ... Danchin N, Meneveau N
Aims
We estimated the 2020 European Society of Cardiology-Acute Cardio Vascular Care (ESC-ACVC) quality indicators (QI) for the management of acute myocardial infarction, from three existing registries to determine the feasibility of assessment, room for improvement, association with outcomes, and suitability for centre benchmarking.
Methods and results
Data were extracted from three French nationwide registries, namely FAST-MI 2005, 2010, and 2015. Feasibility of assessment and room for improvement were estimated by the denominator (patients in whom QI could be measured) and numerator (patients who satisfied the QI, among those eligible). Associations between composite QIs (CQIs) and mortality were assessed by multivariate analysis. Centre benchmarking was based on the centres mean CQI, vs. the national mean. The 2020 QIs were measured in 12 660/13 130 patients from FAST-MI. Measurement feasibility ranged from 15% to 100% with greater potential for implementation with the 2020 QI set. The mean (±SD) value of the opportunity-based CQI was 0.72 ± 0.01 and attainment of the all-or-none CQI 8.5%. Both CQIs were associated with adjusted 1-year mortality. Centre categorization into low, intermediate, and high quality was feasible, and distinguished centres with differing mortality.
Conclusion
Most of the 2020 QI can be measured from existing registries in all domains but not in the patient\'s satisfaction domain. This assessment shows potential for implementation. Both CQIs were inversely associated with one-year mortality and centre benchmarking was feasible.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:207-215
Schiele F, Gale CP, Simon T, Fox KAA, ... Danchin N, Meneveau N
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; 10:207-215 | PMID: 33675658
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

CA125 but not NT-proBNP predicts the presence of a congestive intrarenal venous flow in patients with acute heart failure.

Núñez-Marín G, de la Espriella R, Santas E, Lorenzo M, ... Bayés-Genís A, Núñez J
Background
Intrarenal venous flow (IRVF) measured by Doppler ultrasound has gained interest as a potential surrogate marker of renal congestion and adverse outcomes in heart failure. In this work, we aimed to determine if antigen carbohydrate 125 (CA125) and plasma amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with congestive IRVF patterns (i.e., biphasic and monophasic) in acute heart failure (AHF).
Methods and results
We prospectively enrolled a consecutive cohort of 70 patients hospitalized for AHF. Renal Doppler ultrasound was assessed within the first 24-h of hospital admission. The mean age of the sample was 73.5 ± 12.3 years; 47.1% were female, and 42.9% exhibited heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. The median (interquartile range) for NT-proBNP and CA125 were 6149 (3604-12 330) pg/mL and 64 (37-122) U/mL, respectively. The diagnostic performance of both exposures for identifying congestive IRVF patterns was tested using the receiving operating curve (ROC). The cut-off for CA125 of 63.5 U/mL showed a sensibility and specificity of 67% and 74% and an area under the ROC curve of 0.71. After multivariate adjustment, CA125 remained non-linearly and positively associated with congestive IRVF (P-value = 0.008) and emerged as the most important covariate explaining the variability of the model (R2: 47.5%). Under the same multivariate setting, NT-proBNP did not show to be associated with congestive IRVF patterns (P-value = 0.847).
Conclusions
CA125 and not NT-proBNP is a useful marker for identifying patients with AHF and congestive IRVF patterns.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print
Núñez-Marín G, de la Espriella R, Santas E, Lorenzo M, ... Bayés-Genís A, Núñez J
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 07 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33829233
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Awake venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for refractory cardiogenic shock.

Montero S, Huang F, Rivas-Lasarte M, Chommeloux J, ... Alvarez-Garcia J, Schmidt M
Background 
Venoarterial-extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is currently one of the first-line therapies for refractory cardiogenic shock (CS), but its applicability is undermined by the high morbidity associated with its complications, especially those related to mechanical ventilation (MV). We aimed to assess the prognostic impact of keeping patients in refractory CS awake at cannulation and during the VA-ECMO run.
Methods 
A 7-year database of patients given peripheral VA-ECMO support was used to conduct a propensity-score (PS)-matched analysis to balance their clinical profiles. Patients were classified as \'awake ECMO\' or \'non-awake ECMO\', respectively, if invasive MV was used during ≤50% or >50% of the VA-ECMO run. Primary outcomes included ventilator-associated pneumonia and ECMO-related complication rates, and secondary outcomes were 60-day and 1-year mortality. A multivariate logistic-regression analysis was used to identify whether MV at cannulation was independently associated with 60-day mortality.
Results 
Among 231 patients included, 91 (39%) were \'awake\' and 140 (61%) \'non-awake\'. After PS-matching adjustment, the \'awake ECMO\' group had significantly lower rates of pneumonia (35% vs. 59%, P = 0.017), tracheostomy, renal replacement therapy, and less antibiotic and sedative consumption. This strategy was also associated with reduced 60-day (20% vs. 41%, P = 0.018) and 1-year mortality rates (31% vs. 54%, P = 0.021) compared to the \'non-awake\' group, respectively. Lastly, MV at ECMO cannulation was independently associated with 60-day mortality.
Conclusion 
An \'awake ECMO\' management in VA-ECMO-supported CS patients is feasible, safe, and associated with improved short- and long-term outcomes.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print
Montero S, Huang F, Rivas-Lasarte M, Chommeloux J, ... Alvarez-Garcia J, Schmidt M
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33822901
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Novel device-based therapies to improve outcome in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

De Maria GL, Garcia-Garcia HM, Scarsini R, Finn A, ... Stone GW, Banning AP
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) has dramatically changed the outcome of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, despite improvements in interventional technology, registry data show little recent change in the prognosis of patients who survive STEMI, with a significant incidence of cardiogenic shock, heart failure, and cardiac death. Despite a technically successful PPCI procedure, a variable proportion of patients experience suboptimal myocardial reperfusion. Large infarct size and coronary microvascular injury, as the consequence of ischaemia-reperfusion injury and distal embolization of atherothrombotic debris, account for suboptimal long-term prognosis of STEMI patients. In order to address this unmet therapeutic need, a broad-range of device-based treatments has been developed. These device-based therapies can be categorized according to the pathophysiological pathways they target: (i) techniques to prevent distal atherothrombotic embolization, (ii) techniques to prevent or mitigate ischaemia/reperfusion injury, and (iii) techniques to enhance coronary microvascular function/integrity. This review is an overview of these novel technologies with a focus on their pathophysiological background, procedural details, available evidence, and with a critical perspective about their potential future implementation in the clinical care of STEMI patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 23 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print
De Maria GL, Garcia-Garcia HM, Scarsini R, Finn A, ... Stone GW, Banning AP
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 23 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33760016
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Current status and needs for changes in critical care training: the voice of the young cardiologists.

Czerwińska-Jelonkiewicz K, Montero S, Bañeras J, Wood A, ... Young National Ambassadors (YNA) of Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACVC), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
Aims
The implementation of the 2013 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Core Curriculum guidelines for acute cardiovascular care (acc) training among European countries is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the current status of acc training among cardiology trainees and young cardiologists (<40 years) from ESC countries.
Methods and results
The survey (March-July 2019) asked about details of cardiology training, self-confidence in acc technical and non-technical skills, access to training opportunities, and needs for further training in the field. Overall 614 young doctors, 31 (26-43) years old, 55% males were surveyed. Place and duration of acc training differed between countries and between centres in the same country. Although the majority of the respondents (91%) had completed their acc training, the average self-confidence to perform invasive procedures and to manage acc clinical scenarios was low-44% (27.3-70.4). The opportunities for simulation-based learning were scarce-18% (5.8-51.3), as it was previous leadership training (32%) and knowledge about key teamwork principles was poor (48%). The need for further acc training was high-81% (61.9-94.3). Male gender, higher level of training centres, professional qualifications of respondents, longer duration of acc/intensive care training, debriefings, and previous leadership training as well as knowledge about teamwork were related to higher self-confidence in all investigated aspects.
Conclusions
The current cardiology training program is burdened by deficits in acc technical/non-technical skills, substantial variability in programs across ESC countries, and a clear gender-related disparity in outcomes. The forthcoming ESC Core Curriculum for General Cardiology is expected to address these deficiencies.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:94-101
Czerwińska-Jelonkiewicz K, Montero S, Bañeras J, Wood A, ... Young National Ambassadors (YNA) of Acute Cardiovascular Care Association (ACVC), European Society of Cardiology (ESC)
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:94-101 | PMID: 33580774
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

The peak levels of highly sensitive troponin I predicts in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury: a retrospective study.

Wang Y, Shu H, Liu H, Li X, ... Wang Q, Shang Y
Aims
To investigate the association between levels of highly sensitive troponin I (hs-troponin I) and mortality in novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cardiac injury.
Methods and results
We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all COVID-19 patients with increased levels of hs-troponin I from two hospitals in Wuhan, China. Demographic information, laboratory test results, cardiac ultrasonographic findings, and electrocardiograms were collected, and their predictive value on in-hospital mortality was explored using multivariable logistic regression. Of 1500 patients screened, 242 COVID-19 patients were enrolled in our study. Their median age was 68 years, and (48.8%) had underlying cardiovascular diseases. One hundred and seventy-six (72.7%) patients died during hospitalization. Multivariable logistic regression showed that C-reactive protein (>75.5 mg/L), D-dimer (>1.5 μg/mL), and acute respiratory distress syndrome were risk factors of mortality, and the peak hs-troponin I levels (>259.4 pg/mL) instead of the hs-troponin I levels at admission was predictor of death. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of the peak levels of hs-troponin I for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.79 (95% confidence interval, 0.73-0.86; sensitivity, 0.80; specificity, 0.72; P < 0.0001).
Conclusion
Our results demonstrated that the risk of in-hospital death among COVID-19 patients with cardiac injury can be predicted by the peak levels of hs-troponin I during hospitalization and was significantly associated with oxygen supply-demand mismatch, inflammation, and coagulation.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:6-15
Wang Y, Shu H, Liu H, Li X, ... Wang Q, Shang Y
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:6-15 | PMID: 33620438
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Cardiogenic shock due to predominantly right ventricular failure complicating acute myocardial infarction.

Josiassen J, Helgestad OKL, Møller JE, Schmidt H, ... Ravn HB, Hassager C
Aims
The objective was to describe patient characteristics, interventions, and outcome in acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMICS), due to predominantly right ventricular (RV) failure after revascularization, in comparison with patients suffering from left ventricular (LV) failure as these patients remain sparsely characterized.
Methods and results
From 2010 to 2017, consecutive AMICS patients admitted to either of two tertiary heart centres, covering 3.9 million citizens, corresponding to two-thirds of the Danish population, were identified and individually reviewed through patient records. A total of 1716 AMICS patients were identified, of which 1482 underwent acute revascularization and included for analysis. Hereof, 101 (7%) patients developed cardiogenic shock due to predominantly RV failure, while 1381 (93%) had significant LV involvement. Female sex was the only demographic factor associated with RV failure (35% vs. 25%, P = 0.01). Despite having a preserved LV ejection fraction, patients with predominantly RV failure were comparable to patients with LV involvement, in terms of haemodynamic and metabolic profile, here among variables commonly used in the cardiogenic shock definition including blood pressure (82 mmHg vs. 83 mmHg, P = 0.90) and lactate level (5.7 mmol/L vs. 5.4 mmol/L, P = 0.70). Patients with RV AMICS had significantly lower 30-day mortality than LV AMICS, and this result persisted after multivariable adjustment (RV vs. LV; hazard ratio 0.61, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.92, P = 0.01).
Conclusion
In contemporary AMICS patients undergoing revascularization, patients with predominantly RV failure had comparable haemodynamics and metabolic derangement on admission compared to patients with LV failure but was associated with female sex and a significantly lower 30-day mortality.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:33-39
Josiassen J, Helgestad OKL, Møller JE, Schmidt H, ... Ravn HB, Hassager C
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:33-39 | PMID: 33620420
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Hospitalization-related economic impact of patients with cardiogenic shock in a high-complexity reference centre.

Collado E, Luiso D, Ariza-Solé A, Lorente V, ... González-Costello J, Comin-Colet J
Aims 
Cardiogenic shock (CS) is associated with high mortality. Current guidelines strongly recommend centralizing the care of these patients in high-complexity centres. We described the hospitalization-related economic cost and its main determinants in patients with CS in a high-complexity reference centre.
Methods and results 
This is a single-centre, retrospective study. All patients with CS (2015-17) were included. Hospitalization-related cost per patient was calculated by analytical accountability method, including hospital stay-related expenditures, interventions, and consumption of devices. Expenditure was expressed in 2018 euros. All-cause mortality during follow-up was registered. Ratio of cost per life-year gained (LYG) was also calculated. A total of 230 patients were included, with mean age of 63 years. In-hospital mortality was 88/230 (38.3%). Hospital stay was longer in patients surviving after the admission (21.7 vs. 7.5 days, P < 0.001). Total economic cost for the overall cohort was 3 947 118€ (mean/patient 17 161€). Most of this cost was attributable to hospital stay (81.1%). The rest of the expenditure was due to in-hospital procedures (13.1%) and the use of devices (5.8%). Most of hospital stay-related costs (79.8%) were due to Critical Care Unit stay. Mean follow-up was 651 days. Total LYG was 409.77 years for the whole series. The observed ratio of cost per LYG was 9632.52 €/LYG.
Conclusions 
Management of CS in a reference centre is associated to a significant economic cost, but with a low ratio of cost per LYG. Most of this cost is attributable to hospital stay, specifically in critical care units.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology VC © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:50-53
Collado E, Luiso D, Ariza-Solé A, Lorente V, ... González-Costello J, Comin-Colet J
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:50-53 | PMID: 33620377
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Composition, structure, and function of heart teams: a joint position paper of the ACVC, EAPCI, EACTS, and EACTA focused on the management of patients with complex coronary artery disease requiring myocardial revascularization.

Leonardi S, Capodanno D, Sousa-Uva M, Vrints C, ... Valgimigli M, Jeppsson A
Contemporary cardiovascular medicine is complex, dynamic, and interactive. Therefore, multidisciplinary dialogue between different specialists is required to deliver optimal and patient-centred care. This has led to the concept of explicit collaborations of different specialists caring for patients with complex cardiovascular diseases-that is \'heart teams\'. These teams are particularly valuable to minimize referral bias and improve guideline adherence as so to be responsive to patient preferences, needs, and values but may be challenging to coordinate, especially in the acute setting. This position paper-jointly developed by four cardiovascular associations-is intended to provide conceptual and practical considerations for the composition, structure, and function of multidisciplinary teams. It focuses on patients with complex coronary artery diseases in both elective and urgent setting and provide guidance on how to implement the heart team both in chronic and in acute coronary syndromes patients, including cases with mechanical complications and haemodynamic instability; it also discuss strategies for clear and transparent patient communication and provision of a patient-centric approach. Finally, gaps in evidence and research perspectives in this context are discussed.

This article has been co-published with permission in the European Heart Journal – Acute Cardiovascular Care and European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved. © 2021 The Author(s). The articles are identical except for minor stylistic and spelling differences in keeping with each journal’s style. Either citation can be used when citing this article. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:83-93
Leonardi S, Capodanno D, Sousa-Uva M, Vrints C, ... Valgimigli M, Jeppsson A
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:83-93 | PMID: 33721018
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Five-year risk of heart failure and death following myocardial infarction with cardiogenic shock: a nationwide cohort study.

Lauridsen MD, Rorth R, Butt JH, Kristensen SL, ... Kober L, Fosbol EL
Aims
More patients survive myocardial infarction (MI) with cardiogenic shock (CS), but long-term outcome data are sparse. We aimed to examine rates of heart failure hospitalization and mortality in MI hospital survivors.
Methods and results
First-time MI patients with and without CS alive until discharge were identified using Danish nationwide registries between 2005 and 2017. One-, 5-, and 1- to 5-year rates of heart failure hospitalization and mortality were compared using landmark cumulative incidence curves and Cox regression models. We identified 85 865 MI patients of whom 2865 had CS (3%). Cardiogenic shock patients were of similar age as patients without CS (median age years: 68 vs. 67), and more were men (70% vs. 65%). Cardiogenic shock was associated with a higher 5-year rate of heart failure hospitalization compared with patients without CS [40% vs. 20%, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 2.90 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.67-3.12)]. The increased rate of heart failure hospitalization was evident after 1 year and in the 1- to 5-year landmark analysis among 1-year survivors. All-cause mortality was higher at 1 year among CS patients compared with patients without CS [18% vs. 8%, adjusted HR 3.23 (95% CI 2.95-3.54)]. However, beyond the first year, the mortality for CS was not markedly different compared with patients without CS [12% vs. 13%, adjusted HR 1.15 (95% CI 1.00-1.33)].
Conclusion
Among MI hospital survivors, CS was associated with a markedly higher rate of heart failure hospitalization and 1-year mortality compared with patients without CS. However, among 1-year survivors, the remaining 5-year mortality was similar for MI patients with and without CS.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:40-49
Lauridsen MD, Rorth R, Butt JH, Kristensen SL, ... Kober L, Fosbol EL
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 04 Mar 2021; 10:40-49 | PMID: 33721017
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Cardiovascular biomarkers in patients with COVID-19.

Mueller C, Giannitsis E, Jaffe AS, Huber K, ... Lindahl B, ESC Study Group on Biomarkers in Cardiology of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has increased awareness that severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may have profound effects on the cardiovascular system. COVID-19 often affects patients with pre-existing cardiac disease, and may trigger acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), venous thromboembolism (VTE), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and acute heart failure (AHF). However, as COVID-19 is primarily a respiratory infectious disease, there remain substantial uncertainty and controversy whether and how cardiovascular biomarkers should be used in patients with suspected COVID-19. To help clinicians understand the possible value as well as the most appropriate interpretation of cardiovascular biomarkers in COVID-19, it is important to highlight that recent findings regarding the prognostic role of cardiovascular biomarkers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 are similar to those obtained in studies for pneumonia and ARDS in general. Cardiovascular biomarkers reflecting pathophysiological processes involved in COVID-19/pneumonia and its complications have a role evaluating disease severity, cardiac involvement, and risk of death in COVID-19 as well as in pneumonias caused by other pathogens. First, cardiomyocyte injury, as quantified by cardiac troponin concentrations, and haemodynamic cardiac stress, as quantified by natriuretic peptide concentrations, may occur in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. The level of those biomarkers correlates with disease severity and mortality. Interpretation of cardiac troponin and natriuretic peptide concentrations as quantitative variables may aid in risk stratification in COVID-19/pneumonia and also will ensure that these biomarkers maintain high diagnostic accuracy for AMI and AHF. Second, activated coagulation as quantified by D-dimers seems more prominent in COVID-19 as in other pneumonias. Due to the central role of endothelitis and VTE in COVID-19, serial measurements of D-dimers may help physicians in the selection of patients for VTE imaging and the intensification of the level of anticoagulation from prophylactic to slightly higher or even therapeutic doses.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 27 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
Mueller C, Giannitsis E, Jaffe AS, Huber K, ... Lindahl B, ESC Study Group on Biomarkers in Cardiology of the Acute Cardiovascular Care Association
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 27 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33655301
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Cardiac troponin and infective endocarditis prognosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Postigo A, Vernooij RWM, Fernández-Avilés F, Martínez-Sellés M
Aims
Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Cardiac troponin (Tn) elevation seems to be common in patients with IE and could be associated with a poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to synthesize the prognostic value of Tn in patients with IE.
Methods and results
We searched in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library, including the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) until February 2020. Observational studies reporting on the association between Tn and in-hospital and 1-year mortality, and IE complications were considered eligible. As each centre uses different conventional or ultra-sensitive Tn, with different normality threshold, we considered them as normal or elevated according to the criteria specified in each article. Articles were systematically selected, assessed for bias, and, when possible, meta-analysed using a random effect model. After retrieving 542 articles, 18 were included for qualitative synthesis and 9 for quantitative meta-analysis. Compared with patients with normal Tn levels, patients with Tn elevation presented higher in-hospital mortality [odds ratio (OR) 5.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.46-10.26; P < 0.0001], 1-year mortality (OR 2.67, 95% CI 1.42-5.02; P = 0.002), and surgery rates (OR 2.34, 95% CI 1.42-3.85; P = 0.0008). They also suffered more frequent complications: central nervous system events (OR 8.85, 95% CI 3.23-24.26; P < 0.0001) and cardiac abscesses (OR 4.96, 95% CI 1.94-12.70; P = 0.0008).
Conclusion
Tn elevation is associated with a poor prognosis in patients with IE. Troponin determination seems to provide additional help in the prognostic assessment of these patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 27 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
Postigo A, Vernooij RWM, Fernández-Avilés F, Martínez-Sellés M
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 27 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33668065
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic value of inflammatory biomarkers and GRACE score for cardiac death and acute kidney injury after acute coronary syndromes.

Rossi VA, Denegri A, Candreva A, Klingenberg R, ... Lüscher TF, Matter CM
Aims 
The aim of this study was to analyse the role of inflammation and established clinical scores in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) after acute coronary syndromes (ACS).
Methods and results 
In a prospective multicentre cohort including 2034 patients with ACS undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), neutrophil count, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NL-ratio), and creatinine were measured at the index procedure. AKI (n = 39, defined according to RIFLE criteria) and major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events were adjudicated after 1 year. Associations between inflammation, AKI, and cardiac death (CD) were assessed by C-statistics and Cox proportional hazard models with log-rank test to compare survival. Patients with ACS with elevated neutrophil count >7.8 × 109/L, NL-ratio >5, combined neutrophil-count/creatinine, or NL-ratio/creatinine at baseline showed a higher incidence of AKI (all P < 0.05) and CD (all P < 0.001). The risk of AKI, CD, and their combination was increased in patients with higher neutrophil count/creatinine (heart rate (HR) = 3.7, 95% cardiac index (CI) 1.9-7.1; HR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.6-4.6; HR = 3.2, 95% CI 2.1-4.9); NL-ratio/creatinine (HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-4.1; HR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.8; HR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5); and hsCRP (HR = 1.8, 95% CI 0.9-3.5; HR = 2.2, 95% CI 1.3-3.6; HR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-2.8) after adjustment for age, diabetes, hypertension, previous heart failure, kidney function, haemodynamic instability at admission, statin, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone antagonists use. Subjects with higher GRACE score 1.0/NL-ratio had higher rate of AKI, CD, and both (HR = 1.4, 95% CI 0.5-4.2; HR = 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.9; HR = 2.1, 95% CI 1-4.3).
Conclusions 
Inflammation markers may predict AKI after correction for renal function at the index procedure. hsCRP performed better than the NL-ratio. However, the integration of inflammation markers to traditional risk factors or scores does not add prognostic information.
Trial registration 
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01000701.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 23 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
Rossi VA, Denegri A, Candreva A, Klingenberg R, ... Lüscher TF, Matter CM
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 23 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33624028
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:
Abstract

Effect of primary percutaneous coronary intervention on in-hospital outcomes among active cancer patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a propensity score matching analysis.

Mohamed MO, Van Spall HGC, Kontopantelis E, Alkhouli M, ... Bhatt DL, Mamas MA
Aims
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention (pPCI) is the gold standard, guideline-recommended revascularization strategy in patients presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, there are limited data on its use and effectiveness among patients with active cancer presenting with STEMI.
Methods and results
All STEMI hospitalizations between 2004 and 2015 from the National Inpatient Sample were retrospectively analysed, stratified by cancer type. Propensity score matching was performed to estimate the average treatment effect of pPCI in each cancer on in-hospital adverse events, including major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) and its individual components, and compare treatment effect between cancer and non-cancer patients. Out of 1 870 815 patients with STEMI, 38 932 (2.1%) had a current cancer diagnosis [haematological: 11 251 (28.9% of all cancers); breast: 4675 (12.0%); lung: 9538 (24.5%); colon: 3749 (9.6%); prostate: 9719 (25.0%)]. Patients with cancer received pPCI less commonly than those without cancer (from 54.2% for lung cancer to 70.6% for haematological vs. 82.3% in no cancer). Performance of pPCI was strongly associated with lower adjusted probabilities of MACCE and all-cause mortality in the cancer groups compared with the no cancer group. There was no significant difference in estimated average pPCI treatment effect between the cancer groups and non-cancer group.
Conclusion
Primary percutaneous coronary intervention is underutilized in STEMI patients with current cancer despite its significantly lower associated rates of in-hospital all-cause mortality and MACCE that is comparable to patients without cancer. Further work is required to assess the long-term benefit and safety of pPCI in this high-risk group.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
Mohamed MO, Van Spall HGC, Kontopantelis E, Alkhouli M, ... Bhatt DL, Mamas MA
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care: 03 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33587752
Go to: DOI | PubMed | PDF | Google Scholar |
Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.