Journal: Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes

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Abstract

Lipid Testing, Lipid-Modifying Therapy, and PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin-Kexin Type 9) Inhibitor Eligibility in 27 979 Patients With Incident Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Sarak B, Savu A, Kaul P, McAlister FA, ... Yan AT, Goodman SG
Background
While registry-based studies have shown that as many as 1 in 2 patients with stable atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease would be eligible for PCSK9i (proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9 inhibitor) therapy, this has not been studied in a large population-based postacute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohort.
Methods
We examined lipid testing performed in hospital or within 90 days of discharge and lipid-lowering therapies dispensed within 90 days of discharge in patients surviving for at least 1 year after their first ACS between 2012 and 2018 in the province of Alberta, Canada. We estimated the proportion of patients eligible for PCSK9i and the expected benefits of treatment.
Results
Of the 27 979 patients (median age 64.0 years, 29.3% female, 28.0% diabetic), 3750 (13.4%) did not have lipid testing in-hospital or within 90 days postdischarge. Untested patients were more likely to be older, female, from rural areas, to have more comorbidities, to already be on cardioprotective therapies, to present with unstable angina, and were less likely to have invasive interventions (all P<0.0001). Of the 24 229 tested, 18 767 (77.5%) had at least one lipid value above guideline-recommended threshold (LDL [low-density lipoprotein] ≥1.8 mmol/L [70 mg/dL] and non-HDL [high-density lipoprotein] ≥2.6 mmol/L [100 mg/dL]), of which 7284 (38.8%) did not have repeat testing within the year after discharge. Lipid testing in hospital was associated with higher rates of initiation or escalation of statin therapy within 90 days of their ACS (adjusted odds ratio, 2.13 [95% CI, 1.97-2.30). In total, 9592 patients (39.6% of the tested cohort) would be eligible for PCSK9i use, which could result in 184 fewer cardiovascular events over 3.4 years, including cardiovascular death, nonfatal ACS (myocardial infarction or unstable angina requiring hospitalization), and ischemic stroke.
Conclusions
Within 90 days of incident ACS, ≈80% of patients did not meet guideline-recommended lipid thresholds and more than one-third would potentially be eligible for PCSK9i.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 04 Apr 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006646; epub ahead of print
Sarak B, Savu A, Kaul P, McAlister FA, ... Yan AT, Goodman SG
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 04 Apr 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006646; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33813856
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Abstract

Benefits and Harms of Hypertension and High-Normal Labels: A Randomized Experiment.

Muscat DM, Morris GM, Bell K, Cvejic E, ... Doust J, McCaffery K
Background
Recent US guidelines lowered the threshold for diagnosing hypertension while other international guidelines use alternative/no labels for the same group (blood pressure [BP], <140/90 mm Hg). We investigated potential benefits and harms of hypertension and high-normal BP labels, compared with control, among people at lower risk of cardiovascular disease.
Methods
We conducted a randomized experiment using a national sample of Australians (n=1318) 40 to 50 years of age recruited from an online panel. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 hypothetical scenarios where a general practitioner told them they had a BP reading of 135/85 mm Hg, using either hypertension/high-normal BP/control (general BP description) labels. Participants were then randomized to receive an additional absolute risk description or nothing. Primary outcomes were willingness to change diet and worry. Secondary outcomes included exercise/medication intentions, risk perceptions, and other psychosocial outcomes.
Results
There was no difference in willingness to change diet across label groups (P=0.22). The hypertension label (mean difference [MD], 0.74 [95% CI, 0.41-1.06]; P<0.001) and high-normal BP label (MD, 0.45 [95% CI, 0.12-0.78]; P=0.008) had increased worry about cardiovascular disease risk compared with control. There was no evidence that either label increased willingness to exercise (P=0.80). However, the hypertension (MD, 0.20 [95% CI, 0.04-0.36]; P=0.014), but not high-normal label (MD, 0.06 [95% CI, -0.10 to 0.21]; P=0.49), increased willingness to accept BP-lowering medication compared with control. Psychosocial differences including lower control, higher risk perceptions, and more negative affect were found for the hypertension and high-normal labels compared with control. Providing absolute risk information decreased willingness to change diet (MD, 0.25 [95% CI, 0.10-0.41]; P=0.001) and increase exercise (MD, 0.28 [95% CI, 0.11-0.45]; P=0.001) in the hypertension group.
Conclusions
Neither hypertension nor high-normal labels motivated participants to change their diet or exercise more than control, but both labels had adverse psychosocial outcomes. Labeling people with systolic BP of 130 to 140 mm Hg, who are otherwise at low risk of cardiovascular disease, may cause harms that outweigh benefit. Registration: URL: http://www.anzctr.org.au/; Unique identifier: ACTRN12618001700224.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 04 Apr 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120007160; epub ahead of print
Muscat DM, Morris GM, Bell K, Cvejic E, ... Doust J, McCaffery K
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 04 Apr 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120007160; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33813855
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Abstract

Trends of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Performance in a Cohort of Hospitals in China Between 2013 and 2018.

Li X, Gu D, Wang X, Diao X, ... Zhao Y, Zheng Z
Background
China has witnessed a rapid increase in the volume of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) but substantial gaps in the performance for CABG across the nation. The present study aimed to investigate the change in CABG performance after years of quality improvement measures in a national registry in China.
Methods
The study included 66 971 patients who underwent isolated CABG in a cohort of 74 tertiary hospitals in China between January 2013 and December 2018. Data were collected from the Chinese Cardiac Surgery Registry. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality and postoperative length of stay. Five process measures for surgical technique and secondary prevention were also analyzed. We described the changes in the overall performance and interhospital heterogeneity across the years.
Results
The in-hospital mortality declined from 0.9% in 2013 to 0.6 in 2018, with a risk-adjusted odds ratio of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.46-0.93; P<0.001). The standard mean difference for risk-standardized mortality rate between hospitals in the lowest and highest quartile narrowed from 1.63 in 2013 to 1.35 in 2018. The median (interquartile range) hospital-level rate of using arterial graft increased from 93.9% (86.0%-97.8%) to 94.6% (83.3%-99.2%), but the difference was not statistically significant. Meanwhile, the rate of free from blood transfusion increased from 17.0% (2.6%-32.0%) to 34.1% (8.8%-52.9%). The hospital-level rate of prescribing β-blockers at discharge significantly increased from 82.8% (66.7%-90.3%) to 91.1% (82.1%-97.1%), statin from 75.8% (55.7%-88.9%) to 88.9% (75.0%-96.0%), and aspirin from 90.3% (83.9%-95.2%) to 95.3% (88.9%-98.1%).
Conclusions
In the Chinese Cardiac Surgery Registry, there were notable improvements in the treatment process related to CABG and decline of in-hospital mortality with reduced interhospital heterogeneity.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 04 Apr 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120007025; epub ahead of print
Li X, Gu D, Wang X, Diao X, ... Zhao Y, Zheng Z
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 04 Apr 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120007025; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33813854
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Abstract

Cost Effectiveness of Interhospital Transfer for Mechanical Thrombectomy of Acute Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke: Role of Predicted Recanalization Rates.

Schlemm L, Endres M, Nolte CH
Background
Emergency interhospital transfer of patients with stroke with large vessel occlusion to a comprehensive stroke center for mechanical thrombectomy is resource-intensive and can be logistically challenging. Imaging markers may identify patients in whom intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) alone is likely to result in thrombus resolution, potentially rendering interhospital transfers unnecessary. Here, we investigate how predicted probabilities to achieve IVT-mediated recanalization affect cost-effectiveness estimates of interhospital transfer.
Methods
We performed a health economic analysis comparing emergency interhospital transfer of patients with acute large vessel occlusion stroke after administration of IVT with a scenario in which patients also receive IVT but remain at the primary hospital. Results were stratified by clinical parameters, treatment delays, and the predicted probability to achieve IVT-mediated recanalization. Estimated 3-month outcomes were combined with a long-term probabilistic model to yield quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs. Uncertainty was quantified in probabilistic sensitivity analyses.
Results
Depending on input parameters, marginal costs of interhospital transfer ranged from USD -61 366 (cost saving) to USD +20 443 and additional QALYs gained from 0.1 to 3.0, yielding incremental cost-effectiveness ratio s of <USD 0 (dominant) to USD 310 000 per QALY. For some elderly patients with moderate or severe stroke symptoms treated in a remote primary stroke center, transfer was unlikely to be cost effective at a willingness-to-pay threshold of USD 100 000 and 50 000 per QALY (20% and 1%, respectively) if the predicted probability to achieve IVT-related recanalization was high. On the other hand, in some younger patients, the analysis yielded incremental cost-effectiveness ratio estimates below USD 20 000 per QALY independent of the predicted recanalization rate.
Conclusions
Predicted probabilities to achieve IVT-mediated recanalization significantly affect the cost-effectiveness of interhospital transfer for MT, in particular in elderly patients with moderate or severe stroke symptoms. However, high predicted recanalization rates alone do not generally imply that patients should not be considered for transfer.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 04 Apr 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120007444; epub ahead of print
Schlemm L, Endres M, Nolte CH
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 04 Apr 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120007444; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33813852
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Abstract

Harnessing Mobile Health Technology for Secondary Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Older Adults: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association.

Schorr EN, Gepner AD, Dolansky MA, Forman DE, ... American Heart Association Cardiovascular Disease in Older Populations Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology and Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; and Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health
Secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the leading cause of morbidity and mortality, is critical to improving health outcomes and quality of life in our aging population. As mobile health (mHealth) technology gains universal leverage and popularity, it is becoming more user-friendly for older adults and an adjunct to manage CVD risk and improve overall cardiovascular health. With the rapid advances in mHealth technology and increasing technological engagement of older adults, a comprehensive understanding of the current literature and knowledge of gaps and barriers surrounding the impact of mHealth on secondary CVD prevention is essential. After a systematic review of the literature, 26 studies that used mHealth for secondary CVD prevention focusing on lifestyle behavior change and medication adherence in cohorts with a mean age of ≥60 years were identified. Improvements in health behaviors and medication adherence were observed, particularly when there was a short message service (ie, texting) component involved. Although mobile technologies are becoming more mainstream and are starting to blend more seamlessly with standard health care, there are still distinct barriers that limit implementation particularly in older adults, including affordability, usability, privacy, and security issues. Furthermore, studies on the type of mHealth that is the most effective for older adults with longer study duration are essential as the field continues to grow. As our population ages, identifying and implementing effective, widely accepted, cost-effective, and time-efficient mHealth interventions to improve CVD health in a vulnerable demographic group should be a top health priority.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 31 Mar 2021:HCQ0000000000000103; epub ahead of print
Schorr EN, Gepner AD, Dolansky MA, Forman DE, ... American Heart Association Cardiovascular Disease in Older Populations Committee of the Council on Clinical Cardiology and Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; and Council on Lifestyle and Cardiometabolic Health
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 31 Mar 2021:HCQ0000000000000103; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33793309
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Abstract

Estimating Long-Term Health Utility Scores and Expenditures for Cardiovascular Disease From the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey.

Morey JR, Jiang S, Klein S, Max W, ... Hunink MGM, Ferket BS
Background
Long-term health utility scores and costs used in cost-effectiveness analyses of cardiovascular disease prevention and management can be inconsistent, outdated, or invalid for the diverse population of the United States. Our aim was to develop a user friendly, standardized, publicly available code and catalog to derive more valid long-term values for health utility and expenditures following cardiovascular disease events.
Methods
Individual-level Short Form-12 version 2 health-related quality of life and expenditure data were obtained from the pooled 2011 to 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. We developed code using the R programming language to estimate preference-weighted Short Form-6D utility scores from the Short Form-12 for quality-adjusted life year calculations and predict annual health care expenditures. Result predictors included cardiovascular disease diagnosis (myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, heart failure, cardiac dysrhythmias, angina pectoris, and peripheral artery disease), sociodemographic factors, and comorbidity variables.
Results
The cardiovascular disease diagnoses with the lowest utility scores were heart failure (0.635 [95% CI, 0.615-0.655]), angina pectoris (0.649 [95% CI, 0.630-0.667]), and ischemic stroke (0.649 [95% CI, 0.635-0.663]). The highest annual expenditures were for heart failure ($20 764 [95% CI, $17 500-$24 027]), angina pectoris ($18 428 [95% CI, $16 102-$20 754]), and ischemic stroke ($16 925 [95% CI, $15 672-$20 616]).
Conclusions
The developed code and catalog may improve the quality and comparability of cost-effectiveness analyses by providing standardized methods for extracting long-term health utility scores and expenditures from Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data, which are more current and representative of the US population than previous sources.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 24 Mar 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006769; epub ahead of print
Morey JR, Jiang S, Klein S, Max W, ... Hunink MGM, Ferket BS
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 24 Mar 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006769; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33761758
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Abstract

Utilization and Availability of Advanced Imaging in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

Kim Y, Lee S, Abdelkhaleq R, Lopez-Rivera V, ... Vahidy FS, Sheth SA
Background
Recent clinical trials have established the efficacy of endovascular stroke therapy and intravenous thrombolysis using advanced imaging, particularly computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The availability and utilization of CTP for patients and hospitals that treat acute ischemic stroke (AIS), however, is uncertain.
Methods
We performed a retrospective cross-sectional analysis using 2 complementary Medicare datasets, full sample Texas and 5% national fee-for-service data from 2014 to 2017. AIS cases were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision coding criteria. Imaging utilization performed in the initial evaluation of patients with AIS was derived using Current Procedural Terminology codes from professional claims. Primary outcomes were utilization of imaging in AIS cases and the change in utilization over time. Hospitals were defined as imaging modality-performing if they submitted at least 1 claim for that modality per calendar year. The National Medicare dataset was used to validate state-level findings, and a local hospital-level cohort was used to validate the claims-based approach.
Results
Among 50 797 AIS cases in the Texas Medicare fee-for-service cohort, 64% were evaluated with noncontrast head CT, 17% with CT angiography, 3% with CTP, and 33% with magnetic resonance imaging. CTP utilization was greater in patients treated with endovascular stroke therapy (17%) and intravenous thrombolysis (9%). CT angiography (4%/y) and CTP (1%/y) utilization increased over the study period. These findings were validated in the National dataset. Among hospitals in the Texas cohort, 100% were noncontrast head CT-performing, 77% CT angiography-performing, and 14% CTP-performing in 2017. Most AIS cases (69%) were evaluated at non-CTP-performing hospitals. CTP-performing hospitals were clustered in urban areas, whereas large regions of the state lacked immediate access.
Conclusions
In state-wide and national Medicare fee-for-service cohorts, CTP utilization in patients with AIS was low, and most patients were evaluated at non-CTP-performing hospitals. These findings support the need for alternative means of screening for AIS recanalization therapies.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 23 Mar 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006989; epub ahead of print
Kim Y, Lee S, Abdelkhaleq R, Lopez-Rivera V, ... Vahidy FS, Sheth SA
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 23 Mar 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006989; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33757311
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Abstract

Socioeconomic Status and Outcomes in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction From Asia.

Teng TK, Tay WT, Richards AM, Chew TSM, ... Lam CSP, ASIAN-HF investigators
Background
Little is known regarding the impact of socioeconomic factors on the use of evidence-based therapies and outcomes in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction across Asia.
Methods
We investigated the association of both patient-level (household income, education levels) and country-level (regional income level by World Bank classification, income disparity by Gini index) socioeconomic indicators on use of guideline-directed therapy and clinical outcomes (composite of 1-year mortality or HF hospitalization, quality of life) in the prospective multinational ASIAN-HF study (Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure).
Results
Among 4540 patients (mean age: 60±13 years, 23% women) with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, 39% lived in low-income regions; 34% in regions with high-income disparity (Gini ≥42.8%); 64.4% had low monthly household income (<US$1000); and 29.5% had no/only primary education. The largest disparity in treatment across regional income levels pertained to β-blocker and device therapies, with patients from low-income regions being less likely to receive these treatments compared with those from high-income regions and even greater disparity among patients with lower education status and lower household income within each regional income strata. Higher country- and patient-level socioeconomic indicators related to higher quality of life scores and lower risk of the primary composite outcome. Notably, we found a significant interaction between regional income level and both household income and education status (Pinteraction <0.001 for both), where the association of low household income and low education status with poor outcomes was more pronounced in high-income compared with lower income regions.
Conclusions
These findings highlight the importance of socioeconomic determinants among patients with heart failure in Asia and suggest that attention should be paid to address disparities in access to care among the poor and less educated, including those from wealthy regions.
Registration
URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT01633398.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 23 Mar 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006962; epub ahead of print
Teng TK, Tay WT, Richards AM, Chew TSM, ... Lam CSP, ASIAN-HF investigators
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 23 Mar 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006962; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33757307
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Abstract

Trends in Coded Indications for Percutaneous Coronary Interventions in Medicare and the Veterans Affairs After Implementation of Hospital-Level Reporting of Appropriate Use Criteria.

Dayoub EJ, Nathan AS, Khatana SAM, Wadhera RK, ... Giri J, Groeneveld PW
Background
In 2009, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association published Appropriate Use Criteria for Coronary Revascularization (AUC) to aid patient selection for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The subsequent decline in inappropriate PCIs was interpreted as a success of AUC. However, there are concerns clinicians reclassify nonacute PCIs to acute indications to fulfill AUC.
Methods
A longitudinal, observational difference-in-differences analysis was performed using administrative claims from US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) beneficiaries coenrolled in Medicare and from a national random sample of Medicare beneficiaries, undergoing PCI from September 30, 2009, to December 31, 2013. Non-VA hospitals participating in the American College of Cardiology CathPCI registry began receiving AUC reports in 2011, while VA hospitals did not receive reports, serving as quasiexperimental and control cohorts, respectively. We measured the proportion of PCIs coded for acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, and nonacute coronary syndrome indications by quarter.
Results
There were 87 464 and 30 251 PCIs performed in the Medicare and VA cohorts, respectively. In Medicare, proportion of PCIs coded for acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina changed from 31.9% and 12.6% in quarter 4 2009 to 41.0% and 10.5% in quarter 4 2013, an associated 2.00% (95% CI, 1.56%-2.44%; P<0.001) increase per year in PCIs coded for acute coronary syndrome indications. In the VA, proportion of PCIs coded for acute myocardial infarction and unstable angina changed from 26.5% and 15.7% in quarter 4 2009 to 34.3% and 12.3% in quarter 4 2013, an associated 1.20% (95% CI, 0.56%-1.88%; P=0.001) increase per year in PCIs coded for acute coronary syndrome indications. Difference-in-differences modeling found no statistically significant change in PCI coded for acute indications between Medicare and VA, pre- and post-AUC reporting.
Conclusions
After introduction of AUC assessments and reporting, we observed comparable increases in coding for acute myocardial infarction and corresponding decreases in coding for unstable angina and nonacute coronary syndrome indications among national cohorts of Medicare and VA enrollees. The provision of appropriate use reporting did not appear to have a substantial impact on the proportion of PCIs coded for acute indications during this study period.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 14 Mar 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006887; epub ahead of print
Dayoub EJ, Nathan AS, Khatana SAM, Wadhera RK, ... Giri J, Groeneveld PW
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 14 Mar 2021:CIRCOUTCOMES120006887; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33719490
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Abstract

Development of the Elective Outpatient Percutaneous Coronary Intervention Episode-Based Cost Measure.

Sandhu AT, Do R, Lam J, Blankenship J, ... Nagavarapu S, Elective Outpatient PCI Cost Measure Writing Group
Background
The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System adjusts clinician payments based on a performance score that includes cost measures. With the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, we developed a novel cost measure that compared interventional cardiologists on a targeted set of costs related to elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We describe the measure and compare it to a hypothetical version including all expenditures post-PCI.
Methods
Measure development was guided by 39 clinician experts. They identified services within 30 days of PCI that could be potentially affected by the interventional cardiologist. Expenditures for these PCI-related services were included as measure costs in a process termed service assignment. We used 1 year of Medicare claims to calculate clinician scores using the final measure that included only PCI-related costs (with service assignment) and a hypothetical version that included all costs post-PCI (without service assignment). We calculated reliability for both measures. This marker of precision breaks measure variance into signal (difference between clinicians) versus noise (difference between PCI episodes for a clinician). We also determined the change in clinician performance quintile between measures.
Results
We identified 100 992 elective outpatient PCI episodes from May 2, 2016, to May 1, 2017. Total Medicare expenditures within 30 days of PCI averaged $13 234. After excluding costs unrelated to PCI, average cost was $10 966. For individual clinicians, mean reliability for the hypothetical measure without service assignment was 0.36. After service assignment, final measure reliability increased to 0.53. When evaluated as clinician groups, reliability increased from 0.43 to 0.73 following service assignment. Approximately 66% (2340 of 3527) of clinicians were reclassified into a different performance quintile after excluding unrelated costs.
Conclusions
The elective outpatient PCI cost measure had increased precision and reclassified clinician performance relative to a hypothetical version that included total expenditures.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e006461
Sandhu AT, Do R, Lam J, Blankenship J, ... Nagavarapu S, Elective Outpatient PCI Cost Measure Writing Group
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e006461 | PMID: 33653117
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Abstract

Practical Application of Patient-Reported Health Status Measures for Transcatheter Valve Therapies: Insights From the Society of Thoracic Surgeons/American College of Cardiology Transcatheter Valve Therapies Registry.

Hejjaji V, Cohen DJ, Carroll JD, Li Z, ... Spertus JA, Arnold SV
Background
Health status assessment is essential for documenting the benefit of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or transcatheter mitral valve repair on patients\' symptoms, function, and quality of life. Health status can also be a powerful marker for subsequent clinical outcomes, but its prognostic importance around the time of both TAVR and transcatheter mitral valve repair has not been fully defined.
Methods
Among 73 699 patients who underwent transfemoral TAVR or transcatheter mitral valve repair between 2011 and 2018 (mean age, 81.9±7.0 years, 53% men, 92% TAVR), we constructed sequential models examining the association of health status (as assessed with the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire-Overall Summary Score; KCCQ-OS) at baseline, 30 days, change from baseline to 30 days, and combinations of these assessments with death and heart failure (HF) hospitalization from 30 days to 1 year.
Results
Although higher baseline KCCQ-OS and 30-day KCCQ-OS scores were each associated with lower risk of death and HF hospitalization (in individual models and in a model including both measures), the 30-day KCCQ-OS was most predictive (death: hazard ratio, 0.89 per 5-point increase [95% CI, 0.89-0.90]; HF hospitalization: hazard ratio, 0.91 [95% CI, 0.90-0.91]). The 30-day KCCQ-OS also was most predictive when included in a separate model with change in KCCQ from baseline to 30 days. Similar findings were noted for the outcomes of death and of HF hospitalization, unadjusted and adjusted for patient factors. All interaction terms between procedure type and KCCQ were not significant, suggesting that health status provided similar prognostic information in both procedures.
Conclusions
The patient\'s assessment of their health status immediately before and 30 days after TAVR and transcatheter mitral valve repair is associated with subsequent risk of death and HF hospitalization, with the 30-day assessment being most strongly associated with outcomes. Our findings support the routine use of KCCQ data as a prognostic tool.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e007187
Hejjaji V, Cohen DJ, Carroll JD, Li Z, ... Spertus JA, Arnold SV
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e007187 | PMID: 33596663
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Abstract

Impact of Global Budget Payments on Cardiovascular Care in Maryland: An Interrupted Time Series Analysis.

Viganego F, Um EK, Ruffin J, Fradley MG, Prida X, Friebel R

Background:
Global budget payments (GBP) are considered effective in containing health care expenditures; however, information on their impact on quality of cardiovascular care is limited. We aimed to evaluate the effects of GBP on utilization, outcomes, and costs for 3 major cardiovascular conditions. Methods We analyzed claims data of hospital admissions in Maryland from fiscal year 2013 to 2018. Using segmented regression, we evaluated temporal trends in hospitalizations, length of stay, percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting volumes, case mix-adjusted 30-day readmission rates, risk-standardized mortality rates, and hospitalization charges in patients with principal diagnosis of heart failure, acute ischemic stroke, and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in relation to GBP implementation. Trends in global cardiovascular procedure charges/volumes were also studied. Results Hospitalization rates for congestive heart failure and AMI remained unaffected by GBP, while the gradient of ischemic stroke admissions decreased (Ptrend <0.0001). Length of stay slightly increased for patients with congestive heart failure (Ptrend=0.03). Inpatient coronary artery bypass grafting surgeries decreased (Ptrend <0.0001). We observed a significant decrease in casemix-adjusted 30-day readmission rate in the AMI cohort beyond the prepolicy trend (Ptrend=0.0069). There were no significant changes in mortality for any of the 3 conditions. Hospitalization charges increased for ischemic stroke (Ptrend <0.0001), remained constant for congestive heart failure (Ptrend=0.1), and decreased for AMI (Ptrend=0.0005). We observed a significant increase in electrocardiography rate charges (Ptrend <0.0001), coincidentally with a reduction in volumes (Ptrend=0.0003).
Conclusions:
Introducing GBP in Maryland had no perceivable adverse effects on inpatient outcomes and quality indicators for 3 major cardiovascular conditions. Savings were observed in the AMI cohort, possibly due to reduced unnecessary readmissions, efficiency improvements, or shifts to outpatient care. Reduced cardiovascular procedure volumes were counterbalanced by a proportional rise in charges. State-level adoption of GBP with pay-for-performance incentives may be effective for cost containment without adversely impacting quality of cardiovascular care.




Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e007110
Viganego F, Um EK, Ruffin J, Fradley MG, Prida X, Friebel R
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e007110 | PMID: 33622052
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Abstract

Association of Cardiac Care Regionalization With Access, Treatment, and Mortality Among Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Shen YC, Krumholz H, Hsia RY
Background
Regionalization of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) systems of care has been championed over the past decade. Although timely access to percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been shown to improve outcomes, no studies have determined how regionalization has affected the care and outcomes of patients. We sought to determine if STEMI regionalization is associated with changes in access, treatment, and outcomes.
Methods
Using a difference-in-differences approach, we analyzed a statewide, administrative database of 139 494 patients with STEMI in California from 2006 to 2015 using regionalization data based on a survey of all local Emergency Medical Services agencies in the state.
Results
For patients with STEMI, the base rate of admission to a hospital with PCI capability was 72.7%, and regionalization was associated with an increase of 5.34 percentage points (95% CI, 1.58-9.10), representing a 7.1% increase. Regionalization was also associated with a statistically significant increase of 3.54 (95% CI, 0.61-6.48) percentage points in the probability of same-day PCI, representing an increase of 7.1% from the 49.7% base rate and a 4.6% relative increase (2.97 percentage points [95% CI, 0.1-5.85]) in the probability of receiving PCI at any time during the hospitalization. There was a 1.84 percentage point decrease (95% CI, -3.31 to -0.37) in the probability of receiving fibrinolytics. For 7-day mortality, regionalization was associated with a 0.53 (95% CI, -1 to -0.06) percentage point greater reduction (representing 5.8% off the base rate of 9.1%) and a 1.75 percentage point decrease in the likelihood of all-cause 30-day readmission (95% CI, -3.39 to -0.11; representing 6.4% off the base rate of 27.4%). No differences were found in longer-term mortality.
Conclusions
Among patients with STEMI in California from 2006 to 2015, STEMI regionalization was associated with increased access to a PCI-capable hospital, greater use of PCI, lower 7-day mortality, and lower 30-day readmissions.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e007195
Shen YC, Krumholz H, Hsia RY
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e007195 | PMID: 33641339
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Abstract

Acute Myocardial Infarction Cohorts Defined by Versus Diagnosis-Related Groups: Analysis of Diagnostic Agreement and Quality Measures in an Integrated Health System.

Levy AE, Hammes A, Anoff DL, Raines JD, ... Ream KS, Ho PM
Background
Among Medicare value-based payment programs for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program uses International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision (ICD-10) codes to identify the program denominator, while the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement Advanced program uses diagnosis-related groups (DRGs). The extent to which these programs target similar patients, whether they target the intended population (type 1 myocardial infarction), and whether outcomes are comparable between cohorts is not known.
Methods
In a retrospective study of 2176 patients hospitalized in an integrated health system, a cohort of patients assigned a principal ICD-10 diagnosis of AMI and a cohort of patients assigned an AMI DRG were compared according to patient-level agreement and outcomes such as mortality and readmission.
Results
One thousand nine hundred thirty-five patients were included in the ICD-10 cohort compared with 662 patients in the DRG cohort. Only 421 patients were included in both AMI cohorts (19.3% agreement). DRG cohort patients were older (70 versus 65 years, P<0.001), more often female (48% versus 30%, P<0.001), and had higher rates of heart failure (52% versus 33%, P<0.001) and kidney disease (42% versus 25%, P<0.001). Comparing outcomes, the DRG cohort had significantly higher unadjusted rates of 30-day mortality (6.6% versus 2.5%, P<0.001), 1-year mortality (21% versus 8%, P<0.001), and 90-day readmission (26% versus 19%, P=0.006) than the ICD-10 cohort. Two observations help explain these differences: 61% of ICD-10 cohort patients were assigned procedural DRGs for revascularization instead of an AMI DRG, and type 1 myocardial infarction patients made up a smaller proportion of the DRG cohort (34%) than the ICD-10 cohort (78%).
Conclusions
The method used to identify denominators for value-based payment programs has important implications for the patient characteristics and outcomes of the populations. As national and local quality initiatives mature, an emphasis on ICD-10 codes to define AMI cohorts would better represent type 1 myocardial infarction patients.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e006570
Levy AE, Hammes A, Anoff DL, Raines JD, ... Ream KS, Ho PM
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e006570 | PMID: 33653116
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Impact:
Abstract

Integrated Care in Atrial Fibrillation: A Road Map to the Future.

Bhat A, Khanna S, Chen HHL, Gupta A, ... MacIntyre CR, Tan TC
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most commonly encountered arrhythmia in clinical practice with an epidemiological coupling appreciated with advancing age, cardiometabolic risk factors, and structural heart disease. This has resulted in a significant public health burden over the years, evident through increasing rates of hospitalization and AF-related clinical encounters. The resultant gap in health care outcomes is largely twinned with suboptimal rates of anticoagulation prescription and adherence, deficits in symptom identification and management, and insufficient comorbid cardiovascular risk factor investigation and modification. In view of these shortfalls in care, the establishment of integrated chronic care models serves as a road map to best clinical practice. The expansion of integrated chronic care programs, which include multidisciplinary team care, nurse-led AF clinics, and use of telemedicine, are expected to improve AF-related outcomes in the coming years. This review will delve into current gaps in AF care and the role of integrated chronic care models in bridging fragmentations in its management.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e007411
Bhat A, Khanna S, Chen HHL, Gupta A, ... MacIntyre CR, Tan TC
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e007411 | PMID: 33663224
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Abstract

Association Between Increased Hospital Reimbursement for Cardiac Rehabilitation and Utilization of Cardiac Rehabilitation by Medicare Beneficiaries: An Interrupted Time Series.

Fletcher DR, Grunwald GK, Battaglia C, Ho PM, Lindrooth RC, Peterson PN
Background
Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is a Class I Guideline recommendation, and has been shown to be a cost-effective intervention after a cardiac event, it has been reimbursed at levels insufficient to cover hospital operating costs. In January 2011, Medicare increased payment for CR in hospital outpatient settings by ≈180%. We evaluated the association between this payment increase and participation in CR of eligible Medicare beneficiaries to better understand the relationship between reimbursement policy and CR utilization.
Methods
From a 5% Medicare claims sample, we identified patients with acute myocardial infarction, coronary artery bypass surgery, percutaneous coronary intervention, or cardiac valve surgery between January 1, 2009 and September 30, 2012, alive 30 days after their event, with continuous enrollment in Medicare fee-for-service, Part A/B for 4 months. Trends and changes in CR participation were estimated using an interrupted time series approach with a hierarchical logistic model, hospital random intercepts, adjusted for patient, hospital, market, and seasonality factors. Estimates were expressed using average marginal effects on a percent scale.
Results
Among 76 695 eligible patients, average annual CR participation was 19.5% overall. In the period before payment increase, adjusted annual participation grew by 1.1 percentage points (95% CI, 0.48-2.4). No immediate change occurred in CR participation when the new payment was implemented. In the period after payment increase, on average, 20% of patients participated in CR annually. The annual growth rate in CR participation slowed in the post-period by 1.3 percentage points (95% CI, -2.4 to -0.12) compared with the prior period. Results were somewhat sensitive to time window variations.
Conclusions
The 2011 increase in Medicare reimbursement for CR was not associated with an increase in participation. Future studies should evaluate whether payment did not reach a threshold to incentivize hospitals or if hospitals were not sensitive to reimbursement changes.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e006572
Fletcher DR, Grunwald GK, Battaglia C, Ho PM, Lindrooth RC, Peterson PN
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e006572 | PMID: 33677975
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Abstract

Temporal Trends of Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests Without Resuscitation Attempt by Emergency Medical Services.

Waldmann V, Karam N, Gaye B, Bougouin W, ... Jouven X, on behalf Paris-SDEC investigators
Background
Significant improvements in survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) have been reported; however, these are based only on data from OHCA in whom resuscitation is initiated by emergency medical services (EMS). We aimed to assess the characteristics and temporal trends of OHCA without resuscitation attempt by EMS.
Methods
Prospective population-based study between 2011 and 2016 in the Greater Paris area (6.7 million inhabitants). All cases of OHCA were included in collaboration with EMS units, 48 different hospitals, and forensic units.
Results
Among 15 207 OHCA (mean age 70.7±16.9 years, 61.6% male), 5486 (36.1%) had no resuscitation attempt by EMS. Factors that were independently associated with increase in likelihood of no resuscitation attempt included: age of patients (odds ratio, 1.06 per year [95% CI, 1.05-1.06], P<0.001), female sex (odds ratio, 1.21 [95% CI, 1.10-1.32], P=0.002), OHCA at home location (odds ratio, 3.38 [95%CI, 2.86-4.01], P<0.001), and absence of bystander (odds ratio, 1.94 [95% CI, 1.74-2.16], P<0.001). Overall, the annual number of OHCA increased by 9.1% (from 2923 to 3189, P=0.028). This increase was related to an increase of the annual number of OHCA without resuscitation attempt by EMS by 26.3% (from 993 to 1253, P=0.012), while the annual number of OHCA with resuscitation attempt by EMS did not significantly change (from 1930 to 1936, P=0.416). Considering only cases with resuscitation attempt, survival rate at hospital discharge increased (from 7.3% to 9.5%, P=0.02). However, when considering all OHCA, survival improvement did not reach statistical significance (from 4.8% to 5.7%, P=0.17).
Conclusions
We demonstrated an increase of the total number of OHCA related to an increase of the number of OHCA without resuscitation attempt by EMS. This increasing proportion of OHCA without resuscitation attempt attenuates improvement in survival rates achieved in EMS-treated patients.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e006626
Waldmann V, Karam N, Gaye B, Bougouin W, ... Jouven X, on behalf Paris-SDEC investigators
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 27 Feb 2021; 14:e006626 | PMID: 33706541
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Impact:
Abstract

Microrandomized Trial Design for Evaluating Just-in-Time Adaptive Interventions Through Mobile Health Technologies for Cardiovascular Disease.

Golbus JR, Dempsey W, Jackson EA, Nallamothu BK, Klasnja P
Smartphone and wearable device use is rising broadly and can be leveraged for chronic disease management. Just-in-time adaptive interventions promise to deliver personalized, dynamic interventions directly to patients through use of push notifications from mobile devices. Although just-in-time adaptive interventions are a powerful tool for shaping health behavior, their application to cardiovascular disease management has been limited as they can be challenging to design. Herein, we provide a general overview and conceptual framework for microrandomized trials, a novel experimental study design that can be used to optimize just-in-time adaptive interventions. Microrandomized trials leverage mobile devices to sequentially randomize participants to types or levels of an intervention to determine the effectiveness of an intervention and time-varying moderators of those effects. Microrandomized trials are an efficient study design that can be used to determine which intervention components to include in just-in-time adaptive interventions and to optimize their decision rules while maintaining the strength of causal inference associated with traditional randomized controlled trials.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e006760
Golbus JR, Dempsey W, Jackson EA, Nallamothu BK, Klasnja P
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e006760 | PMID: 33430608
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Impact:
Abstract

Shared Decision-Making for Left Ventricular Assist Devices: Rationale and Design of a Nationwide Dissemination and Implementation Project.

Thompson JS, Fitzgerald MD, Allen LA, McIlvennan CK, ... Gherst C, Matlock DD

Background:
The left ventricular assist device (LVAD) has become a common medical option for patients with end-stage heart failure. Although patients\' chances of survival may increase with an LVAD compared with medical therapy, the LVAD poses many risks and requires major lifestyle changes, thus making it a complex medical decision. Our prior work found that a decision aid for LVADs significantly increased decision quality for both patients and caregivers and was successfully implemented at 6 LVAD programs. Methods In follow-up, we are conducting a nationwide dissemination and implementation project, with the goal of implementing the decision aid at as many of the 176 LVAD programs in the United States as possible. Guided by the Theory of Diffusion of Innovations, the project consists of 4 phases: (1) building a network; (2) promoting adoption; (3) supporting implementation; and (4) encouraging maintenance. Developing an LVAD network of contacts occurs by using a national baseline survey of LVAD clinicians, existing professional relationships, and an internet-based strategy. A suite of resources targeted to promote adoption and support implementation of the decision aid into standard LVAD education processes are provided to the network. Evaluation is guided by the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance framework, where clinician and patient surveys and qualitative interviews determine the reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance achieved.
Conclusions:
This project is a true dissemination study in that it targets the entire population of LVAD programs in the United States and is unique in its use of social marketing principles to promote adoption and implementation. The implementation plan is intended to serve as a test case and model for dissemination and implementation of other evidence-based decision support aids and strategies.




Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007256
Thompson JS, Fitzgerald MD, Allen LA, McIlvennan CK, ... Gherst C, Matlock DD
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007256 | PMID: 33530698
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Abstract

Administrative Claims Measure for Profiling Hospital Performance Based on 90-Day All-Cause Mortality Following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery.

Mori M, Nasir K, Bao H, Jimenez A, ... Krumholz HM, Suter LG
Background
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a focus of bundled and alternate payment models that capture outcomes up to 90 days postsurgery. While clinical registry risk models perform well, measures encompassing mortality beyond 30 days do not currently exist. We aimed to develop a risk-adjusted hospital-level 90-day all-cause mortality measure intended for assessing hospital performance in payment models of CABG surgery using administrative data.
Methods
Building upon Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services hospital-level 30-day all-cause CABG mortality measure specifications, we extended the mortality timeframe to 90 days after surgery and developed a new hierarchical logistic regression model to calculate hospital risk-standardized 90-day all-cause mortality rates for patients hospitalized for isolated CABG. The model was derived from Medicare claims data for a 3-year cohort between July 2014 to June 2017. The data set was randomly split into 50:50 development and validation samples. The model performance was evaluated with C statistics, overfitting indices, and calibration plot. The empirical validity of the measure result at the hospital level was evaluated against the Society of Thoracic Surgeons composite star rating.
Results
Among 137 819 CABG procedures performed in 1183 hospitals, the unadjusted mortality rate within 30 and 90 days were 3.1% and 4.7%, respectively. The final model included 27 variables. Hospital-level 90-day risk-standardized mortality rates ranged between 2.04% and 11.26%, with a median of 4.67%. C statistics in the development and validation samples were 0.766 and 0.772, respectively. We identified a strong positive correlation between 30- and 90-day risk-standardized mortality rates, with a regression slope of 1.09. Risk-standardized mortality rates also showed a stepwise trend of lower 90-day mortality with higher Society of Thoracic Surgeons composite star ratings.
Conclusions
We present a measure of hospital-level 90-day risk-standardized mortality rates following isolated CABG. This measure complements Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services\' existing 30-day CABG mortality measure by providing greater insight into the postacute recovery period. It offers a balancing measure to ensure efforts to reduce costs associated with CABG recovery and rehabilitation do not result in unintended consequences.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e006644
Mori M, Nasir K, Bao H, Jimenez A, ... Krumholz HM, Suter LG
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e006644 | PMID: 33535776
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Abstract

Comparison of Investigator-Reported and Clinical Event Committee-Adjudicated Outcome Events in GLASSY.

Leonardi S, Branca M, Franzone A, McFadden E, ... Windecker S, Valgimigli M
Background
Event adjudication by a clinical event committee (CEC) provides a standardized, independent outcome assessment. However, the added value of CEC to investigators reporting remains debated. GLASSY (GLOBAL LEADERS Adjudication Sub-Study) implemented, in a subset of the open-label, investigator-reported (IR) GLOBAL LEADERS trial, an independent adjudication process of reported and unreported potential outcome events (triggers). We describe metrics of GLASSY feasibility and efficiency, diagnostic accuracy of IR events, and their concordance with corresponding CEC-adjudicated events.
Methods
We report the proportion of myocardial infarction, bleeding, stroke, and stent thrombosis triggers with sufficient evidence for assessment (feasibility) that were adjudicated as outcome events (efficiency), stratified by source (IR or non-IR). Using CEC-adjudicated events as criterion standard, we describe sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and global diagnostic accuracy of IR events. Using Gwet AC coefficient, we examine the concordance between IR- and corresponding CEC-adjudicated triggers. There was sufficient evidence for assessment for 2592 (98.3%) of 2636 triggers.
Results
Overall, the adjudicated end point-to-trigger ratio was high and similar between IR- (88%) and non-IR-reported (87%) triggers. The global diagnostic accuracy and concordance between IR-reported and CEC-adjudicated outcome events was 0.70 (95% CI, 0.65-0.74) and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.45-0.62), respectively, for myocardial infarction; 0.77 (95% CI, 0.75-0.79) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.68-0.74) for bleeding; 0.70 (95% CI, 0.62-0.79) and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.74) for stroke; 0.59 (95% CI, 0.52-0.66) and 0.39 (95% CI, 0.25-0.53) for stent thrombosis. For IR bleedings, the concordance with the CEC on type of events was generally weak.
Conclusions
Implementing CEC adjudication in a pragmatic open-label trial with IR events is feasible and efficient. Our findings of modest global diagnostic accuracy for IR events and generally weak concordance between investigators and CEC support the role for CEC adjudication in such settings. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT03231059.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e006581
Leonardi S, Branca M, Franzone A, McFadden E, ... Windecker S, Valgimigli M
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e006581 | PMID: 33535773
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Abstract

Risk Factors of Coronary Artery Abnormalities and Resistance to Intravenous Immunoglobulin Plus Corticosteroid Therapy in Severe Kawasaki Disease: An Analysis of Post RAISE.

Miyata K, Miura M, Kaneko T, Morikawa Y, ... Komiyama O, Yamagishi H
Background
Coronary artery abnormalities (CAAs) still occur in patients with Kawasaki disease receiving intensified treatment with corticosteroids. We aimed to determine the risk factors of CAA development and resistance to intensified treatment in Post RAISE (Prospective Observational Study on Stratified Treatment With Immunoglobulin Plus Steroid Efficacy for Kawasaki Disease)-the largest prospective cohort of Kawasaki disease patients to date.
Methods
In Post RAISE, 2648 consecutive patients with Kawasaki disease were enrolled. The present study analyzed 724 patients predicted to be intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) nonresponders (Kobayashi score ≥5) who received intensified treatment consisting of IVIG plus prednisolone. The association between the baseline characteristics and CAA at 1 month after disease onset was examined. The association between the baseline characteristics and treatment resistance was also investigated.
Results
Maximum Z score at baseline ≥2.5 (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% CI, 1.5-7.8]), age at fever onset <1 year (odds ratio, 3.4 [95% CI, 1.6-7.4]), and nonresponsiveness to IVIG plus prednisolone treatment (odds ratio, 6.8 [95% CI, 3.3-14.0]) were independent predictors of CAA development. Nonresponsiveness to IVIG plus prednisolone was significantly associated with 8 baseline variables. Baseline total bilirubin (odds ratio, 1.4 [95% CI, 1.2-1.7]) was the only significant independent predictor other than the variables included in the Kobayashi score, enabling treatment resistance to be identified at diagnosis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.74 (95% CI, 0.69-0.79). At a cutoff point of 1.0, the sensitivity and specificity for predicting treatment resistance were 71% and 65%, respectively.
Conclusions
In Post RAISE, younger age at fever onset, a larger maximum Z score at baseline, and nonresponsiveness to IVIG plus prednisolone were risk factors significantly associated with CAA development. Nonresponders were able to be identified at diagnosis based on the total bilirubin value. To prevent CAA, more intensified or adjunctive therapies using other agents, such as pulsed methylprednisolone, ciclosporin, infliximab, and Anakinra, should be considered for patients with these risk factors. Registration: URL: https://www.umin.ac.jp/ctr/; Unique identifier: UMIN000007133.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007191
Miyata K, Miura M, Kaneko T, Morikawa Y, ... Komiyama O, Yamagishi H
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007191 | PMID: 33541111
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Abstract

Contemporary Trends in Hospital Admissions and Outcomes in Patients With Critical Limb Ischemia: An Analysis From the National Inpatient Sample Database.

Anantha-Narayanan M, Doshi RP, Patel K, Sheikh AB, ... Mena-Hurtado C, Smolderen KG
Background
Critical limb ischemia (CLI) morbidity and mortality rates have historically been disproportionately higher than for other atherosclerotic diseases, however, recent trends have not been reported. In patients admitted with CLI, we aimed to examine trends in in-hospital mortality, major amputations, length of stay, and cost of hospitalizations overall and stratified by type of revascularization procedures.
Methods
Using 2011 to 2017 National Inpatient Sample data, we identified CLI-related admissions based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Edition, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcomes of interest were in-hospital mortality and major amputations. Secondary outcomes were the length of stay and cost of hospitalization. We stratified outcomes based on endovascular or open surgical interventions. We also performed hierarchical multivariable regression analyses of outcomes based on age, sex, race, hospital size, type, and location.
Results
We identified 2 643 087 CLI-related admissions between 2011 and 2017. CLI admissions increased from 0.9% to 1.4% Ptrend<0.0001 as well as overall peripheral artery disease admissions (4.5%-8.9%, Ptrend<0.0001). In-hospital mortality for the entire CLI cohort decreased from 3.3% to 2.7%, Ptrend<0.0001, and major amputations decreased from 10.9% to 7%, Ptrend<0.0001. A decline was also noted for the length of stay from 5.7 (3.1-10.1) to 5.4 (3.0-9.2) days (Ptrend<0.0001), whereas admission costs increased from USD $11 791 ($6676-$21 712) to $12 597 ($7248-$22 748; Ptrend<0.0001). Endovascular interventions increased (Ptrend<0.0001) against a decline in surgical interventions (Ptrend<0.0001). Black race, female sex, and age ≥60 years were associated with higher in-hospital mortality, whereas Black race, male sex, and age<60 years were associated with higher major amputations.
Conclusions
A relatively small decrease in absolute numbers for mortality and major amputations were observed against a backdrop of increasing CLI admissions over recent years. Patients with CLI received more endovascular interventions than surgical interventions over time. However, admissions for endovascular interventions were characterized by higher risk patient profiles and a higher risk of major amputations as compared with surgical interventions.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007539
Anantha-Narayanan M, Doshi RP, Patel K, Sheikh AB, ... Mena-Hurtado C, Smolderen KG
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007539 | PMID: 33541110
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Impact:
Abstract

Bleeding Risk of Direct Oral Anticoagulants in Patients With Heart Failure And Atrial Fibrillation.

Jackevicius CA, Lu L, Ghaznavi Z, Warner AL
Background
Patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation are an important atrial fibrillation subgroup in which direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) have not been adequately studied in real-world settings. Since DOACs rely on renal elimination and renal dysfunction is prevalent in patients with heart failure, their use may increase bleeding risk, negating some of their advantage over warfarin.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked Veterans Administration databases of patients with heart failure newly started on warfarin or DOACs for atrial fibrillation from October 2010 to August 2017 (23 635 warfarin, 25 823 DOAC). Outcomes included time to first bleeding, stroke, and death using Cox proportional hazards models with inverse probability of treatment weighting.
Results
Total bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.56-0.68]), major bleeding (hazard ratio, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.40-0.61]), and death (hazard ratio, 0.74 [95% CI, 0.71-0.78]) were lower with DOAC than warfarin, and with apixaban and dabigatran, but not rivaroxaban. Moderate/severe chronic kidney disease was common (48.7%); moderate chronic kidney disease was associated with increased bleeding with DOACs but not warfarin. However, death and bleeding remained lower with DOACs than warfarin across all renal function levels and clinical subgroups. A >20% transient/persistent decline in renal function occurred in 53% of DOAC-treated patients at some point during follow-up, would have required dose reduction in 10.5% of patients, and was associated with increased bleeding. Dose adjustments were made more often, and bleeding and death were lower in patients seen by pharmacists or anticoagulation clinics. There were significant between-site variations in DOAC dosing.
Conclusions
DOACs overall, apixaban, and dabigatran, but not rivaroxaban, were associated with less total bleeding and death than warfarin in patients with heart failure and atrial fibrillation at all levels of renal function. Renal function decline resulted in increased bleeding in patients with DOACs. DOAC dose adjustment was often indicated, associated with increased bleeding when not adjusted, emphasizing the need for closer monitoring in these patients.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007230
Jackevicius CA, Lu L, Ghaznavi Z, Warner AL
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007230 | PMID: 33541109
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Impact:
Abstract

Determinants of Hospital Variation in Cardiac Rehabilitation Enrollment During Coronary Artery Disease Episodes of Care.

Thompson MP, Yaser JM, Hou H, Syrjamaki JD, ... Gurm HS, Sukul D
Background
Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is associated with improved outcomes for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). However, CR enrollment remains low and there is a dearth of real-world data on hospital-level variation in CR enrollment. We sought to explore determinants of hospital variability in CR enrollment during CAD episodes of care: medical management of acute myocardial infarction (AMI-MM), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), and coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG).
Methods
A cohort of 71 703 CAD episodes of care were identified from 33 hospitals in the Michigan Value Collaborative statewide multipayer registry (2015 to 2018). CR enrollment was defined using professional and facility claims and compared across treatment strategies: AMI-MM (n=18 678), PCI (n=41 986), and CABG (n=11 039). Hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate effects of predictors and hospital risk-adjusted rates of CR enrollment.
Results
Overall, 20 613 (28.8%) patients enrolled in CR, with significant differences by treatment strategy: AMI-MM=13.4%, PCI=29.0%, CABG=53.8% (P<0.001). There were significant differences in CR enrollment across age groups, comorbidity status, and payer status. At the hospital-level, there was over 5-fold variation in hospital risk-adjusted CR enrollment rates (9.8%-51.6%). Hospital-level CR enrollment rates were highly correlated across treatment strategy, with the strongest correlation between AMI-MM versus PCI (R2=0.72), followed by PCI versus CABG (R2=0.51) and AMI-MM versus CABG (R2=0.46, all P<0.001).
Conclusions
Substantial variation exists in CR enrollment during CAD episodes of care across hospitals. However, within-hospital CR enrollment rates were significantly correlated across all treatment strategies. These findings suggest that CR enrollment during CAD episodes of care is the product of hospital-specific rather than treatment-specific practice patterns.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007144
Thompson MP, Yaser JM, Hou H, Syrjamaki JD, ... Gurm HS, Sukul D
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007144 | PMID: 33541107
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Impact:
Abstract

Relationship of Preeclampsia With Maternal Place of Birth and Duration of Residence Among Non-Hispanic Black Women in the United States.

Boakye E, Sharma G, Ogunwole SM, Zakaria S, ... Nasir K, Wang X
Background
Preeclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality in the United States. It disproportionately affects non-Hispanic Black (NHB) women, but little is known about how preeclampsia and other cardiovascular disease risk factors vary among different subpopulations of NHB women in the United States. We investigated the prevalence of preeclampsia by nativity (US born versus foreign born) and duration of US residence among NHB women.
Methods
We analyzed cross-sectional data from the Boston Birth Cohort (1998-2016), with a focus on NHB women. We performed multivariable logistic regression to investigate associations between preeclampsia, nativity, and duration of US residence after controlling for potential confounders.
Results
Of 2697 NHB women, 40.5% were foreign born. Relative to them, US-born NHB women were younger, in higher percentage current smokers, had higher prevalence of obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and maternal stress, but lower educational level. The age-adjusted prevalence of preeclampsia was 12.4% and 9.1% among US-born and foreign-born women, respectively. When further categorized by duration of US residence, the prevalence of all studied cardiovascular disease risk factors except for diabetes was lower among foreign-born NHB women with <10 versus ≥10 years of US residence. Additionally, the odds of preeclampsia in foreign-born NHB women with duration of US residence <10 years was 37% lower than in US-born NHB women. In contrast, the odds of preeclampsia in foreign-born NHB women with duration of US residence ≥10 years was not significantly different from that of US-born NHB women after adjusting for potential confounders.
Conclusions
The prevalence of preeclampsia and other cardiovascular disease risk factors is lower in foreign-born than in US-born NHB women. The healthy immigrant effect, which typically results in health advantages for foreign-born women, appears to wane with longer duration of US residence (≥10 years). Further research is needed to better understand these associations.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007546
Boakye E, Sharma G, Ogunwole SM, Zakaria S, ... Nasir K, Wang X
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007546 | PMID: 33563008
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Impact:
Abstract

Working Agenda for Black Mothers: A Position Paper From the Association of Black Cardiologists on Solutions to Improving Black Maternal Health.

Bond RM, Gaither K, Nasser SA, Albert MA, ... Ofili E, Association of Black Cardiologists
Following decades of decline, maternal mortality began to rise in the United States around 1990-a significant departure from the world\'s other affluent countries. By 2018, the same could be seen with the maternal mortality rate in the United States at 17.4 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. When factoring in race/ethnicity, this number was more than double among non-Hispanic Black women who experienced 37.1 maternal deaths per 100 000 live births. More than half of these deaths and near deaths were from preventable causes, with cardiovascular disease being the leading one. In an effort to amplify the magnitude of this epidemic in the United States that disproportionately plagues Black women, on June 13, 2020, the Association of Black Cardiologists hosted the Black Maternal Heart Health Roundtable-a collaborative task force to tackle the maternal health crisis in the Black community. The roundtable brought together diverse stakeholders and champions of maternal health equity to discuss how innovative ideas, solutions and opportunities could be implemented, while exploring additional ways attendees could address maternal health concerns within the health care system. The discussions were intended to lead the charge in reducing maternal morbidity and mortality through advocacy, education, research, and collaborative efforts. The goal of this roundtable was to identify current barriers at the community, patient, and clinician level and expand on the efforts required to coordinate an effective approach to reducing these statistics in the highest risk populations. Collectively, preventable maternal mortality can result from or reflect violations of a variety of human rights-the right to life, the right to freedom from discrimination, and the right to the highest attainable standard of health. This is the first comprehensive statement on this important topic. This position paper will generate further research in disparities of care and promote the interest of others to pursue strategies to mitigate maternal mortality.



Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007643
Bond RM, Gaither K, Nasser SA, Albert MA, ... Ofili E, Association of Black Cardiologists
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes: 30 Jan 2021; 14:e007643 | PMID: 33563007
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Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.