Journal: Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging

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Abstract

Three-dimensional imaging of pulmonary arterial vasa vasorum using optical coherence tomography in patients after bidirectional Glenn and Fontan procedures.

Hayabuchi Y, Homma Y, Kagami S
Aims
We evaluated pulmonary arterial (PA) vasa vasorum (VV) in Fontan candidate patients with a novel three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique using optical coherence tomography (OCT).
Methods and results
This prospective study assessed the development of adventitial VV in the distal PA of 10 patients with bidirectional Glenn circulation (BDG group, 1.6 ± 0.3 years) and Fontan circulation (Fontan group, 3.3 ± 0.3 years), and in 20 children with normal PA haemodynamics and morphology (Control group, 1.5 ± 0.3 years). We assessed the PA VV with two-dimensional (2D) cross-sectional, multi-planar reconstruction (MPR), and volume rendering (VR) imaging. VV development was evaluated by the VV area/volume ratio, defined as the VV area/volume divided by the adventitial area/volume. Compared to the control group, the observed VV number and diameter on 3D images of MPR and VR were significantly higher, and curved and torturous-shaped VV were more frequently observed in the BDG and Fontan groups (P < 0.001, all). The median VV volume ratio was significantly greater in the BDG than in the control group (3.38% vs. 0.61%; P < 0.001). Although the VV volume ratio decreased significantly after the Fontan procedure (2.64%, P = 0.005 vs. BDG), the ratio remained higher than in the control group (P < 0.001 vs. control).
Conclusion
3D OCT imaging is a novel method that can be used to evaluate adventitial PA VV and may provide pathophysiological insight into the role of the PA VV in these patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:941-949
Hayabuchi Y, Homma Y, Kagami S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:941-949 | PMID: 32413104
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Abstract

A head-to-head comparison of speckle tracking echocardiography and feature tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in right ventricular deformation.

Taha K, Bourfiss M, Te Riele ASJM, Cramer MM, ... Velthuis BK, Teske AJ
Aims
Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and feature tracking cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (FT-CMR) are advanced imaging techniques which are both used for quantification of global and regional myocardial strain. Direct comparisons of STE and FT-CMR regarding right ventricular (RV) strain analysis are limited. We aimed to study clinical performance, correlation and agreement of RV strain by these techniques, using arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) as a model for RV disease.
Methods and results
We enrolled 110 subjects, including 34 patients with definite ARVC, 30 preclinical relatives of ARVC patients, and 46 healthy control subjects. Global and regional RV longitudinal peak strain (PS) were measured by STE and FT-CMR. Both modalities showed reduced strain values in ARVC patients compared to ARVC relatives (STE global PS: P < 0.001; FT-CMR global PS: P < 0.001) and reduced strain values in ARVC relatives compared to healthy control subjects (STE global PS: P = 0.042; FT-CMR global PS: P = 0.084). There was a moderate, albeit significant correlation between RV strain values obtained by STE and FT-CMR [global PS r = 0.578 (95% confidence interval 0.427-0.697), P < 0.001]. Agreement between the techniques was weak (limits of agreement for global PS: ±11.8%). Correlation and agreement both deteriorated when regional strain was studied.
Conclusion
RV STE and FT-CMR show a similar trend within the spectrum of ARVC and have significant correlation, but inter-modality agreement is weak. STE and FT-CMR may therefore both individually have added value for assessment of RV function, but RV PS values obtained by these techniques currently cannot be used interchangeably in clinical practice.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:950-958
Taha K, Bourfiss M, Te Riele ASJM, Cramer MM, ... Velthuis BK, Teske AJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:950-958 | PMID: 32462176
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Abstract

Intrinsic cardiac elastography in patients with primary mitral regurgitation: predictive role after mitral valve repair.

De Jesus T, Alashry MM, Padang R, Pislaru SV, ... Pellikka PA, Pislaru C
Aims 
Chronic volume-overload can impair systolic and diastolic myocardial properties. We tested the hypothesis that Intrinsic Cardiac Elastography may detect alterations in passive myocardial elasticity in patients with chronic severe mitral regurgitation (MR) and predict worsening left ventricular (LV) function after mitral valve repair (MVr).
Methods and results 
Comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac elastography were performed in 80 patients with primary MR (prolapse and/or flail leaflets) of varying severity and compared with 40 normal subjects. In patients who underwent MVr (n = 51), elastography measurements were related to changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at short-term (3-4 days post-op) and mid-term (1 year) follow-up. Most patients were asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic and had preserved LVEF (>60%). Intrinsic velocity propagation (iVP) of myocardial stretch, a direct measure of myocardial stiffness, was higher in patients with severe MR {median 2.0 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.5-2.2] m/s, range 1.1-3.4 m/s; n = 56} compared to normal subjects [median 1.7 (IQR 1.5-1.8) m/s; n = 40; P = 0.0005], but not in those with mild or moderate MR [median 1.7 (IQR 1.4-1.9) m/s; n = 24]. A higher iVP was associated with more severe LV volume-overload and LV and left atrial enlargement (P < 0.05 for all). In patients undergoing MVr, a higher iVP independently predicted a larger drop in LVEF post-intervention (short-term, P = 0.001; 1 year, P = 0.007), incrementally to pre-operative LVEF (P < 0.05).
Conclusion 
Non-invasive measurements of myocardial stiffness were able to predict functional deterioration after MVr for chronic primary MR. Further studies should investigate the mechanisms and practical utility of this novel measurement.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:912-921
De Jesus T, Alashry MM, Padang R, Pislaru SV, ... Pellikka PA, Pislaru C
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:912-921 | PMID: 32533173
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Abstract

Prognostic value of dipyridamole stress perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance in elderly patients >75 years with suspected coronary artery disease.

Pezel T, Sanguineti F, Kinnel M, Hovasse T, ... Morice MC, Garot J
Aims 
There are only very few data on the prognostic value of stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) in elderly people, while life expectancy of the general population is steadily increasing. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prognostic value of vasodilator stress perfusion CMR in elderly >75 years.
Methods and results 
Between 2008 and 2017, we included consecutive elderly >75 years without known coronary artery disease (CAD) referred for dipyridamole stress CMR. They were followed for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) including cardiac death or non-fatal myocardial infarction. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the prognostic value of ischaemia or late gadolinium enhancement. Of 754 elderly individuals (82.0 ± 3.9 years, 48.4% men), 659 (87.4%) completed the follow-up with median follow-up of 4.7 years. Using Kaplan-Meier analysis, the presence of myocardial ischaemia was associated with the occurrence of MACE [hazard ratio (HR) 5.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.56-9.56; P < 0.001]. In a multivariable Cox regression including clinical characteristics and CMR indexes, inducible ischaemia was an independent predictor of a higher incidence of MACE (HR 4.44, 95% CI: 2.51-7.86; P < 0.001). In patients without ischaemia, the occurrence of MACE was lower in women when compared with men (P < 0.01).
Conclusion 
Stress CMR is safe and has discriminative prognostic value in elderly, with a significantly lower event rate of future cardiovascular event or death in subjects without ischaemia or infarction.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:904-911
Pezel T, Sanguineti F, Kinnel M, Hovasse T, ... Morice MC, Garot J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:904-911 | PMID: 32756995
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Abstract

Strain by speckle tracking echocardiography correlates with electroanatomic scar location and burden in ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

Trivedi SJ, Campbell T, Stefani LD, Thomas L, Kumar S
Aims
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) in ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) originates from scar, identified as low-voltage areas with invasive high-density electroanatomic mapping (EAM). Abnormal myocardial deformation on speckle tracking strain echocardiography can non-invasively identify scar. We examined if regional and global longitudinal strain (GLS) can localize and quantify low-voltage scar identified with high-density EAM.
Methods and results
We recruited 60 patients, 40 ICM patients undergoing VT ablation and 20 patients undergoing ablation for other arrhythmias as controls. All patients underwent an echocardiogram prior to high-density left ventricular (LV) EAM. Endocardial bipolar and unipolar scar location and percentage were correlated with regional and multilayer GLS. Controls had normal GLS and normal bipolar and unipolar voltages. There was a strong correlation between endocardial and mid-myocardial longitudinal strain and endocardial bipolar scar percentage for all 17 LV segments (r = 0.76-0.87, P < 0.001) in ICM patients. Additionally, indices of myocardial contraction heterogeneity, myocardial dispersion (MD), and delta contraction duration (DCD) correlated with bipolar scar percentage. Endocardial and mid-myocardial GLS correlated with total LV bipolar scar percentage (r = 0.83; 0.82, P < 0.001 respectively), whereas epicardial GLS correlated with epicardial bipolar scar percentage (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Endocardial GLS -9.3% or worse had 93% sensitivity and 82% specificity for predicting endocardial bipolar scar >46% of LV surface area.
Conclusions
Multilayer strain analysis demonstrated good linear correlations with low-voltage scar by invasive EAM. Validation studies are needed to establish the utility of strain as a non-invasive tool for quantifying scar location and burden, thereby facilitating mapping and ablation of VT.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:855-865
Trivedi SJ, Campbell T, Stefani LD, Thomas L, Kumar S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:855-865 | PMID: 33585879
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Abstract

Right ventricular systolic function in severe tricuspid regurgitation: prognostic relevance of longitudinal strain.

Ancona F, Melillo F, Calvo F, Attalla El Halabieh N, ... Alfieri O, Agricola E
Aims 
The aim of this study is to analyse the prognostic implications of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction as detected by strain analysis in patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR). The evaluation of RV systolic function in presence of severe TR is of paramount importance for operative risk stratification; however, it remains challenging, as conventional echocardiographic indexes usually lead to overestimation.
Methods and results
We enrolled 250 consecutive patients with severe TR referred to our centre. Baseline clinical and echocardiographic data and follow-up outcomes were collected. Patients were predominantly female, with multiple cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities, history of heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Most of them had presented with clinical signs of RV heart failure (RVHF) and advanced New York Heart Association class. The RV strain analysis [both RV free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS) and RV global longitudinal strain (RVGLS)] reclassified ∼42-56% of patients with normal RV systolic function according to conventional parameters in patients with impaired RV systolic function. RVFWLS ≤17% (absolute values, AUC: 0.66, P = 0.002) predicted the presence of RVHF [odds ratio (OR) 0.93, P = 0.01]. At follow-up, patients with RVFWLS >14% (absolute values, AUC: 0.70, P = 0.001, sensitivity 72%, specificity 54%) showed a better survival (P = 0.01).
Conclusion
Different ranges of RVFWLS have different implications in patients with severe TR, allowing to identify a preclinical and a clinical window, with correlations to RVHF and survival.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:868-875
Ancona F, Melillo F, Calvo F, Attalla El Halabieh N, ... Alfieri O, Agricola E
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:868-875 | PMID: 33623973
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Abstract

Human immunodeficiency viral infection and differences in interstitial ventricular fibrosis and left atrial size.

Wu KC, Haberlen SA, Plankey MW, Palella FJ, ... Margolick JB, Post WS
Aims
The extent to which human immunodeficiency viral (HIV) infection is independently associated with myocardial disease in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) remains understudied. We assessed differences in cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) metrics among people living with HIV (PLWH) and without HIV (PWOH).
Methods and results
Among 436 participants (aged 54.7 ± 6.0 years, 29% women) from three cohorts, we acquired CMR cines, late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and T1 mapping. Multivariable linear regressions were used to evaluate associations between HIV serostatus and CMR metrics. Baseline characteristics were similar by HIV serostatus; 63% were PLWH of whom 88% received cART and 73% were virally suppressed. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was normal and similar by HIV serostatus (73%, PWOH vs. 72%, PLWH, P = 0.43) as were right ventricular function, biventricular volumes, and masses. LGE prevalence was similar (32%, PWOH vs. 36%, PLWH, P = 0.46) with low scar extents (4.1, PWOH vs. 4.9 g, PLWH, P = 0.51) and few ischaemic scars (3%, PWOH vs. 4%, PLWH, P = 0.70). Extracellular volume fraction (ECV) was higher among PLWH (29.2 ± 4.1% vs. 28.3 ± 3.7%, P = 0.04) as was indexed maximum left atrial (LA) volume (LAVI, 29.7 ± 10.3 vs. 27.8 ± 8.7 mL/m2, P = 0.05). After multivariate adjustment, ECV was 0.84% higher among PLWH (P = 0.05) and LAVI was 2.45 mL/m2 larger (P = 0.01). HIV seropositivity and higher ECV contributed to higher LAVI (P < 0.02). There were no associations between HIV disease severity and CMR metrics among PLWH.
Conclusion
HIV seropositivity was independently associated with greater diffuse non-ischaemic fibrosis and larger LA volume but no other differences in CMR metrics.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:888-895
Wu KC, Haberlen SA, Plankey MW, Palella FJ, ... Margolick JB, Post WS
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:888-895 | PMID: 33693554
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Abstract

Natural history of functional tricuspid regurgitation: impact of cardiac output.

Chen E, L\'official G, Guérin A, Dreyfus J, ... Oger E, Donal E
Aims
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) was long forgotten until recent studies alerting on its prognostic impact. Cardiac output (CO) is the main objective of heart mechanics. We sought to compare clinical and echocardiographic data of patients with TR from inclusion to 1-year follow-up according to initial CO.
Methods and results
Patients with isolated secondary TR and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥40% were prospectively included. All patients had a clinical and echocardiographic evaluation at baseline and after 1 year. Echocardiographic measurements were centralized. The patients were partitioned according to their CO at baseline. The primary outcome was all-cause death. Ninety-five patients completed their follow-up. The majority of patients had normal CO (n = 64, 67.4%), whereas 16 (16.8%) patients had low-CO and 12 (12.6%) had high-CO. right ventricular function was worse in the low-CO group but with improvement at 1 year (30% increase in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion). LVEF and global longitudinal strain were significantly worse in the low-CO group. Overall, 18 (19%) patients died during follow-up, of which 10 (55%) patients had abnormal CO. There was a U-shaped association between CO and mortality. Normal CO patients had significantly better survival (87.5% vs. 62.5% and 66.67%) in the low- and high-CO groups, respectively, even after adjustment (heart rate 2.23 for the low-CO group and 9.08 for high-CO group; P = 0.0174).
Conclusion
Significant isolated secondary TR was associated with 19% of mortality. It is also associated with higher long-term mortality if CO is abnormal, suggesting a possible role for evaluating better and selecting patients for intervention.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:878-885
Chen E, L'official G, Guérin A, Dreyfus J, ... Oger E, Donal E
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:878-885 | PMID: 33928339
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Abstract

From secondary to tertiary mitral regurgitation: the paradigm shifts, but uncertainties remain.

Landi A, Faletra FF, Pavon AG, Pedrazzini G, Valgimigli M
Secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is the most common and undertreated form of MR, whose contribution to poor prognosis and indications to correction remains under discussion. MR has been characterized into \'proportionate\' or \'disproportionate\', based on left ventricle (LV) and regurgitant volumes, whereas \'tertiary\' MR identifies conditions, in which regurgitation is pathologic per se and actively contributes to LV dysfunction. Echocardiographic and anatomo-pathological studies revealed that secondary MR prompts subtle leaflet maladaptive changes, actively contributing to the dynamic progression of secondary MR. We critically discuss the paradigm shift from secondary to tertiary MR and question the notion that MV leaflets play a passive role in secondary MR. We also review the role of standard transthoracic echocardiography for appraising and quantifying maladaptive MV leaflet changes and LV volumes and call for a more sophisticated and comprehensive imaging framework for classifying MR in future interventional studies.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:835-843
Landi A, Faletra FF, Pavon AG, Pedrazzini G, Valgimigli M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:835-843 | PMID: 33982052
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Abstract

Multimodality imaging of myocardial viability: an expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI).

Almeida AG, Carpenter JP, Cameli M, Donal E, ... chair of the 2018–2020 EACVI Scientific Documents Committee: , 2018–2020 EACVI President:
In clinical decision making, myocardial viability is defined as myocardium in acute or chronic coronary artery disease and other conditions with contractile dysfunction but maintained metabolic and electrical function, having the potential to improve dysfunction upon revascularization or other therapy. Several pathophysiological conditions may coexist to explain this phenomenon. Cardiac imaging may allow identification of myocardial viability through different principles, with the purpose of prediction of therapeutic response and selection for treatment. This expert consensus document reviews current insight into the underlying pathophysiology and available methods for assessing viability. In particular the document reviews contemporary viability imaging techniques, including stress echocardiography, single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and computed tomography and provides clinical recommendations for how to standardize these methods in terms of acquisition and interpretation. Finally, it presents clinical scenarios where viability assessment is clinically useful.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:e97-e125
Almeida AG, Carpenter JP, Cameli M, Donal E, ... chair of the 2018–2020 EACVI Scientific Documents Committee: , 2018–2020 EACVI President:
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jul 2021; 22:e97-e125 | PMID: 34097006
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Abstract

Association between computed tomography-derived tricuspid annular dimensions and prognosis: insights from whole-beat computed tomography assessment.

Hirasawa K, Fortuni F, van Rosendael PJ, Ajmone Marsan N, Bax JJ, Delgado V
Aims
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) has been associated with outcome in patients treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). Tricuspid annulus (TA) dimensions are associated with TR. However, the TA is highly dynamic during the cardiac cycle, and the interaction between the TA dimensions, TR, and patient prognosis has never been evaluated. This study aimed to characterize the dynamics of the TA along with the cardiac cycle and its association with prognosis in patients undergoing TAVI.
Methods and results 
Patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent whole-beat computed tomography (n = 393, mean age 80 ± 7 years, 53% male) were included. The ratio between anterior-posterior (AP) and septal-lateral (SL) diameter of the TA was calculated at end-systole (ES), mid-diastole (MD), and end-diastole (ED) to characterize the TA shape throughout the cardiac cycle. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. During a median 3.6 (1.7-5.5) years of follow-up, 146 patients died. While all the TA parameters at ES and MD were not associated with all-cause mortality, a low AP/SL ratio at ED (more circular geometry) was independently related with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio: 4.717, 95% confidence interval: 1.481-15.152; P = 0.009). In addition, a more circular TA shape at ED (AP/SL ratio < 1.20) was also associated with more right atrial and ventricular dilation, more significant TR, and a higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation.
Conclusion
Circular remodelling of the TA shape at ED is associated with more right atrial and ventricular dilation, and a higher long-term mortality after TAVI. The evaluation of the TA shape at ED may be a useful parameter in the risk stratification of patients undergoing TAVI.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Hirasawa K, Fortuni F, van Rosendael PJ, Ajmone Marsan N, Bax JJ, Delgado V
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34279577
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Abstract

Left ventricular remodelling in mitral valve prolapse patients: implications of apical papillary muscle insertion.

Moura-Ferreira S, Vandenberk B, Masci PG, Dresselaers T, ... Willems R, Bogaert J
Aims
Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) causes left ventricular (LV) remodelling even in the absence of significant mitral regurgitation. To evaluate whether apical insertion of the papillary muscle (PM) influences the pattern and severity of MVP-related LV remodelling.
Methods and results
All MVP patients who underwent CMR at our institution between December 2008 and December 2019 were included, thoroughly reviewed and grouped according to apical/non-apical PM insertion. Apical PM insertion was found in 53/92 patients (58%) and associated with mitral leaflet thickening (P < 0.01) and a trend towards higher prevalence of mitral annular disjunction (P = 0.05). Whereas no differences in ventricular volumes or ejection fraction were found, patients with apical PM insertion showed more lateral wall remodelling with mid lateral wall thinning [2.1 (1.8-2.5) vs. 4.0 (3.5-5.0) mm, P < 0.01], increased LV eccentricity and a lower GCS at this level (15 ± 3% vs. 20 ± 3%, P < 0.01). In long-axis direction, increased end-diastolic mid lateral wall angulation was found (i.e. angle <155° measured in the thinnest point of the mid lateral wall in four-chamber view) with a higher angle variation during systole (25 ± 11° vs. 17 ± 8°, P < 0.01). Remarkably, PM fibrosis was significantly more frequent in patients with apical PM insertion (i.e. 66% vs. 28%, P < 0.01). Finally, a higher burden of premature ventricular complexes (>5%) and non-sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias was found in patients with apical PM insertion: 53% vs. 25% (P = 0.04) and 38% vs. 18% (P = 0.04), respectively.
Conclusion
Apical PM insertion is part of the phenotypic spectrum of MVP, impacts significantly LV remodelling, and potentially may be related to increased ventricular arrhythmogenicity.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Moura-Ferreira S, Vandenberk B, Masci PG, Dresselaers T, ... Willems R, Bogaert J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34279022
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Abstract

99mTc-DPD scintigraphy in immunoglobulin light chain (AL) cardiac amyloidosis.

Quarta CC, Zheng J, Hutt D, Grigore SF, ... Hawkins PN, Wechalekar AD
Aims
Technetium-99m-labelled 3,3-diphosphono-1,2-propanodicarboxylic acid (99mTc-DPD scintigraphy) is recognized as highly accurate for the non-invasive diagnosis of transthyretin (ATTR) cardiac amyloidosis (CA). A proportion of patients with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) CA have also been reported to show cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake. Herein, we assessed the frequency and degree of cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake and its clinical significance among patients with AL CA.
Methods and results
Between 2010 and 2017, 292 consecutive patients with AL CA underwent 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy and were included in this study: 114 (39%) had cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake: grade 1 in 75%, grade 2 in 17%, and grade 3 in 8% of cases. Patients with cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake had poorer cardiac systolic function and higher N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. No differences were noted in cardiac magnetic resonance parameters between patients with and without cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake (N = 19 and 42, respectively). Patients with cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake showed a trend to worse survival than those with no uptake (log-rank P = 0.056). Among 22 patients who underwent serial 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy, 5 (23%) showed reduction in the grade of cardiac uptake.
Conclusions
In this large cohort of patients with AL CA, 99mTc-DPD scintigraphy ∼40% of cases showed cardiac uptake, including grade 2-3 in 10% of all patients (25% of those with cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake). Cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake was associated with poorer cardiac function and outcomes. These data highlight the critical importance of ruling out AL amyloidosis in all patients with cardiac 99mTc-DPD uptake to ensure such patients are not assumed to have ATTR CA.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Quarta CC, Zheng J, Hutt D, Grigore SF, ... Hawkins PN, Wechalekar AD
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34254119
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Abstract

Left ventricular longitudinal strain alterations in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic paediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Sirico D, Di Chiara C, Costenaro P, Bonfante F, ... Giaquinto C, Di Salvo G
Aims
Compared with adult patients, clinical manifestations of children\'s coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) are generally perceived as less severe. The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac involvement in previously healthy children with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.
Methods and results
We analysed a cohort of 53 paediatric patients (29 males, 55%), mean age 7.5 ± 4.7 years, who had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection and were asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic for COVID-19. Patients underwent standard transthoracic echocardiogram and speckle tracking echocardiographic study at least 3 months after diagnosis. Thirty-two age, sex, and body surface area comparable healthy subjects were used as control group. Left ventricular ejection fraction was within normal limits but significantly lower in the cases group compared to controls (62.4 ± 4.1% vs. 65.2 ± 5.5%; P = 0.012). Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (20.1 ± 3 mm vs. 19.8 ± 3.4 mm; P = 0.822) and left ventricular (LV) global longitudinal strain (-21.9 ± 2.4% vs. -22.6 ± 2.5%; P = 0.208) were comparable between the two groups. Regional LV strain analysis showed a significant reduction of the LV mid-wall segments strain among cases compared to controls. Furthermore, in the cases group, there were 14 subjects (26%) with a regional peak systolic strain below -16% (-2.5 Z score in our healthy cohort) in at least two segments. These subjects did not show any difference regarding symptoms or serological findings.
Conclusion
SARS-CoV-2 infection may affect left ventricular deformation in 26% of children despite an asymptomatic or only mildly symptomatic acute illness. A follow-up is needed to verify the reversibility of these alterations and their impact on long-term outcomes.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 04 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Sirico D, Di Chiara C, Costenaro P, Bonfante F, ... Giaquinto C, Di Salvo G
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 04 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34219155
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Abstract

Left ventricular function, strain, and infarct characteristics in patients with transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction compared to ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions.

Demirkiran A, van der Hoeven NW, Janssens GN, Lemkes JS, ... Robbers LFHJ, Nijveldt R
Aims
This study aims to explore cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived left ventricular (LV) function, strain, and infarct size characteristics in patients with transient ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (TSTEMI) compared to patients with ST-segment and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMI and NSTEMI, respectively).
Methods and results
In total, 407 patients were enrolled in this multicentre observational prospective cohort study. All patients underwent CMR examination 2-8 days after the index event. CMR cine imaging was performed for functional assessment and late gadolinium enhancement to determine infarct size and identify microvascular obstruction (MVO). TSTEMI patients demonstrated the highest LV ejection fraction and the most preserved global LV strain (longitudinal, circumferential, and radial) across the three groups (overall P ≤ 0.001). The CMR-defined infarction was less frequently observed in TSTEMI than in STEMI patients [77 (65%) vs. 124 (98%), P < 0.001] but was comparable with NSTEMI patients [77 (65%) vs. 66 (70%), P = 0.44]. A remarkably smaller infarct size was seen in TSTEMI compared to STEMI patients [1.4 g (0.0-3.9) vs. 13.5 g (5.3-26.8), P < 0.001], whereas infarct size was not significantly different from that in NSTEMI patients [1.4 g (0.0-3.9) vs. 2.1 g (0.0-8.6), P = 0.06]. Whilst the presence of MVO was less frequent in TSTEMI compared to STEMI patients [5 (4%) vs. 53 (31%), P < 0.001], no significant difference was seen compared to NSTEMI patients [5 (4%) vs. 5 (5%), P = 0.72].
Conclusion
TSTEMI yielded favourable cardiac LV function, strain, and infarct-related scar mass compared to STEMI and NSTEMI. LV function and infarct characteristics of TSTEMI tend to be more similar to NSTEMI than STEMI.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Demirkiran A, van der Hoeven NW, Janssens GN, Lemkes JS, ... Robbers LFHJ, Nijveldt R
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34195800
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Abstract

2D high resolution vs. 3D whole heart myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Nazir MS, Shome J, Villa ADM, Ryan M, ... Chiribiri A, Plein S
Aims
Developments in myocardial perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allow improvements in spatial resolution and/or myocardial coverage. Whole heart coverage may provide the most accurate assessment of myocardial ischaemic burden, while high spatial resolution is expected to improve detection of subendocardial ischaemia. The objective of this study was to compare myocardial ischaemic burden as depicted by 2D high resolution and 3D whole heart stress myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary artery disease.
Methods and results
Thirty-eight patients [age 61 ± 8 (21% female)] underwent 2D high resolution (spatial resolution 1.2 mm2) and 3D whole heart (in-plane spatial resolution 2.3 mm2) stress CMR at 3-T in randomized order. Myocardial ischaemic burden (%) was visually quantified as perfusion defect at peak stress perfusion subtracted from subendocardial myocardial scar and expressed as a percentage of the myocardium. Median myocardial ischaemic burden was significantly higher with 2D high resolution compared with 3D whole heart [16.1 (2.0-30.6) vs. 13.4 (5.2-23.2), P = 0.004]. There was excellent agreement between myocardial ischaemic burden (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.81; P < 0.0001), with mean ratio difference between 2D high resolution vs. 3D whole heart 1.28 ± 0.67 (95% limits of agreement -0.03 to 2.59). When using a 10% threshold for a dichotomous result for presence or absence of significant ischaemia, there was moderate agreement between the methods (κ = 0.58, P < 0.0001).
Conclusion
2D high resolution and 3D whole heart myocardial perfusion stress CMR are comparable for detection of ischaemia. 2D high resolution gives higher values for myocardial ischaemic burden compared with 3D whole heart, suggesting that 2D high resolution is more sensitive for detection of ischaemia.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Nazir MS, Shome J, Villa ADM, Ryan M, ... Chiribiri A, Plein S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34179941
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Impact:
Abstract

Validation of aortic valve calcium quantification thresholds measured by computed tomography in Asian patients with calcific aortic stenosis.

Guzzetti E, Oh JK, Shen M, Dweck MR, ... Song JK, Clavel MA
Aims
Sex-specific thresholds of aortic valve calcification (AVC) have been proposed and validated in Caucasians. Thus, we aimed to validate their accuracy in Asians.
Methods and results
Patients with calcific aortic stenosis (AS) from seven international centres were included. Exclusion criteria were ≥moderate aortic/mitral regurgitation and bicuspid valve. Optimal AVC and AVC-density sex-specific thresholds for severe AS were obtained in concordant grading and normal flow patients (CG/NF). We included 1263 patients [728 (57%) Asians, 573 (45%) women, 837 (66%) with CG/NF]. Mean gradient was 48 (26-64) mmHg and peak aortic velocity 4.5 (3.4-5.1) m/s. Optimal AVC thresholds were: 2145 Agatston Units (AU) in men and 1301 AU in women for Asians; and 1885 AU in men and 1129 AU in women for Caucasians. Overall, accuracy (% correctly classified) was high and comparable either using optimal or guidelines\' thresholds (2000 AU in men, 1200 AU in women). However, accuracy was lower in Asian women vs. Caucasian women (76-78% vs. 94-95%; P < 0.001). Accuracy of AVC-density (476 AU/cm2 in men and 292 AU/cm2 in women) was comparable to absolute AVC in Caucasians (91% vs. 91%, respectively, P = 0.74), but higher than absolute AVC in Asians (87% vs. 81%, P < 0.001). There was no interaction between AVC/AVC-density and ethnicity (all P > 0.41) with regards to AS haemodynamic severity.
Conclusion
AVC thresholds defining severe AS are comparable in Asian and Caucasian populations, and similar to those proposed in the guidelines. However, accuracy of AVC to identify severe AS in Asians (especially women) is sub-optimal. Therefore, the use of AVC-density is preferable in Asians.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 24 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Guzzetti E, Oh JK, Shen M, Dweck MR, ... Song JK, Clavel MA
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 24 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34172988
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Impact:
Abstract

Aortic enlargement and coronary artery calcification in a general population cohort.

Ballegaard CR, Pham MHC, Sigvardsen PE, Kühl JT, ... Køber LV, Kofoed KF
Aims
The role of atherosclerosis in the pathogenesis of aortic enlargement is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the diameters of the ascending, descending and abdominal aorta, and coronary artery calcification.
Methods and results
Individuals in the Copenhagen General Population Study underwent thoracic and abdominal computed tomography. Maximal aortic diameters were measured in each aortic segment and coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) were calculated. Participants were stratified into five predefined groups according to CACSs and compared to aortic dimensions. The relation between aortic diameter and CACS was adjusted for risk factors for aortic dilatation in a multivariable model. A total of 2678 eligible individuals were included. In all segments of the aorta, aortic diameter was associated to CACSs, with mean increases in aortic diameters ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 mm in individuals with calcified coronary arteries compared to non-calcified subjects (P-value < 0.001). After correction for risk factors, individuals with CACS above 400 had larger ascending, descending and abdominal aortic diameter than the non-calcified reference group (P-value < 0.01).
Conclusion
Enlarged thoracic and abdominal aortic vascular segments are associated with co-existing coronary artery calcification in the general population.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 23 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Ballegaard CR, Pham MHC, Sigvardsen PE, Kühl JT, ... Køber LV, Kofoed KF
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 23 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34166489
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Impact:
Abstract

Ultrasound contrast agent hypersensitivity in patients allergic to polyethylene glycol: position statement by the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

Senior R, Lindner JR, Edvardsen T, Cosyns B
The Food and Drug Administration alert enhances our understanding of the mechanism of severe reactions to ultrasound-enhancing agents (UEAs). The known incidence of these reactions remains low and unchanged (1 in 10 000 administrations). Because the risk-to-benefit ratio for ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) remains extremely low, we do not advise any changes to laboratory policy regarding indications for their use. The use of these agents should continue in situations where they have been shown to be impactful. Lipid-based UCAs (SonoVue and Luminity) are contraindicated in patients who have a history of prior hypersensitivity to these UEAs, to polyethylene glycol (PEG) (macrogol), or to PEG-containing products, such as certain bowel preps for colonoscopy or laxatives.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 23 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Senior R, Lindner JR, Edvardsen T, Cosyns B
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 23 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34164650
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Impact:
Abstract

Utility of echocardiographic right ventricular subcostal strain in critical care.

Bleakley C, de Marvao A, Morosin M, Androulakis E, ... Cowie M, Price S
Aims
Right ventricular (RV) strain is a known predictor of outcomes in various heart and lung pathologies but has been considered too technically challenging for routine use in critical care. We examined whether RV strain acquired from the subcostal view, frequently more accessible in the critically ill, is an alternative to conventionally derived RV strain in intensive care.
Methods and results
RV strain data were acquired from apical and subcostal views on transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in 94 patients (35% female), mean age 50.5 ± 15.2 years, venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VVECMO) (44%). RV strain values from the apical (mean ± standard deviation; -20.4 ± 6.7) and subcostal views (-21.1 ± 7) were highly correlated (Pearson\'s r -0.89, P < 0.001). RV subcostal strain correlated moderately well with other echocardiography parameters including tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (r -0.44, P < 0.001), RV systolic velocity (rho = -0.51, P < 0.001), fractional area change (r -0.66, P < 0.01), and RV outflow tract velocity time integral (r -0.49, P < 0.001). VVECMO was associated with higher RV subcostal strain (non-VVECMO -19.6 ± 6.7 vs. VVECMO -23.2 ± 7, P = 0.01) but not apical RV strain. On univariate analysis, RV subcostal strain was weakly associated with survival at 30 days (R2 = 0.04, P = 0.05, odds ratio =1.08) while apical RV was not (P = 0.16).
Conclusion 
RV subcostal deformation imaging is a reliable surrogate for conventionally derived strain in critical care and may in time prove to be a useful diagnostic marker in this cohort.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Bleakley C, de Marvao A, Morosin M, Androulakis E, ... Cowie M, Price S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34160032
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Impact:
Abstract

Ring-like late gadolinium enhancement for predicting ventricular tachyarrhythmias in non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy.

Chen W, Qian W, Zhang X, Li D, ... Xu Y, Zou J
Aims
Myocardial fibrosis is associated with clinical ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VTA) events in patients with non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Subepicardial or mid-wall ring-like late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) has received increasing attention in recent years. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between ring-like LGE and VTAs in DCM.
Methods and results
Patients diagnosed with non-ischaemic DCM who underwent cardiac magnetic resonance with LGE imaging at baseline were investigated. The composite outcome was the occurrence of VTAs defined as sustained ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation/flutter, aborted sudden cardiac death (SCD), SCD, and appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator intervention. The final cohort comprised 157 patients, including 36 (22.9%) in no LGE group, 48 (30.6%) in focal LGE group, 40 (25.5%) in multi-focal LGE group, and 33 (21%) in ring-like LGE group. Ring-like LGE group patients were younger compared to focal and multi-focal LGE group (P < 0.001) with higher left ventricular ejection fraction (33.0% vs. 24.4% vs. 22.1%, P < 0.001). After a median of 13 ± 7 months follow-up, compared to patients with no LGE, the hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VTAs were 2.90 (0.56-15.06), 5.55 (1.21-25.44), and 11.75 (2.66-51.92) for patients with focal LGE, multi-focal LGE, and ring-like LGE, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, ring-like LGE group remained associated with increased risk of VTAs (adjusted HR 10.00, 95% CI 1.54-64.98; P = 0.016) independent of the global LGE burden.
Conclusion
The ring-like pattern of LGE is independently associated with an increased risk of VTAs in patients with non-ischaemic DCM.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Chen W, Qian W, Zhang X, Li D, ... Xu Y, Zou J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34160025
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Abstract

The myocardial phenotype of Fabry disease pre-hypertrophy and pre-detectable storage.

Augusto JB, Johner N, Shah D, Nordin S, ... Moon JC, Namdar M
Aims
Cardiac involvement in Fabry disease (FD) occurs prior to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and is characterized by low myocardial native T1 with sphingolipid storage reflected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and electrocardiogram (ECG) changes. We hypothesize that a pre-storage myocardial phenotype might occur even earlier, prior to T1 lowering.
Methods and results
FD patients and age-, sex-, and heart rate-matched healthy controls underwent same-day ECG with advanced analysis and multiparametric CMR [cines, global longitudinal strain (GLS), T1 and T2 mapping, stress perfusion (myocardial blood flow, MBF), and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE)]. One hundred and fourteen Fabry patients (46 ± 13 years, 61% female) and 76 controls (49 ± 15 years, 50% female) were included. In pre-LVH FD (n = 72, 63%), a low T1 (n = 32/72, 44%) was associated with a constellation of ECG and functional abnormalities compared to normal T1 FD patients and controls. However, pre-LVH FD with normal T1 (n = 40/72, 56%) also had abnormalities compared to controls: reduced GLS (-18 ± 2 vs. -20 ± 2%, P < 0.001), microvascular changes (lower MBF 2.5 ± 0.7 vs. 3.0 ± 0.8 mL/g/min, P = 0.028), subtle T2 elevation (50 ± 4 vs. 48 ± 2 ms, P = 0.027), and limited LGE (%LGE 0.3 ± 1.1 vs. 0%, P = 0.004). ECG abnormalities included shorter P-wave duration (88 ± 12 vs. 94 ± 15 ms, P = 0.010) and T-wave peak time (Tonset - Tpeak; 104 ± 28 vs. 115 ± 20 ms, P = 0.015), resulting in a more symmetric T wave with lower T-wave time ratio (Tonset - Tpeak)/(Tpeak - Tend) (1.5 ± 0.4 vs. 1.8 ± 0.4, P < 0.001) compared to controls.
Conclusion
FD has a measurable myocardial phenotype pre-LVH and pre-detectable myocyte storage with microvascular dysfunction, subtly impaired GLS and altered atrial depolarization and ventricular repolarization intervals.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:790-799
Augusto JB, Johner N, Shah D, Nordin S, ... Moon JC, Namdar M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:790-799 | PMID: 32514567
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Impact:
Abstract

Sex-specific difference in the association between arterial stiffness and subclinical left ventricular dysfunction.

Yoshida Y, Nakanishi K, Daimon M, Ishiwata J, ... Homma S, Komuro I
Aims 
Increased arterial stiffness is one of the key mechanisms of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, the possible association between arterial stiffness and subclinical left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and its sex-specific difference remains unclarified. LV strain is emerging as a highly sensitive tool to unmask early LV abnormalities.
Methods and results 
We examined 1155 participants free of overt cardiovascular disease who underwent extensive cardiovascular examination. Speckle-tracking echocardiography was employed to assess LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) and circumferential strain (GCS), and arterial stiffness was assessed by cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). Mean age was 62 ± 12 years, and 56% were men. CAVI as continuous variable was associated with abnormal LVGLS (>-18.6%) independent of cardiovascular risk factors and echocardiographic parameters [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.23, P = 0.027] but not with LVGCS. In sex-stratified analysis, more pronounced association between quartiles of CAVI and abnormal LVGLS was observed in women than in men (unadjusted OR = 6.43 in women and 2.46 in men for upper quartile vs. lower quartile; both P < 0.01). CAVI was significantly associated with abnormal LVGLS independent of cardiovascular risk factors in both sexes. However, after further adjustment for LV mass index and diastolic parameters, the independent association persisted only in women (adjusted OR 1.67, P = 0.007), but not in men (adjusted OR 1.14, P = 0.227).
Conclusion 
Increased arterial stiffness was independently associated with decreased LVGLS even without overt cardiovascular disease; a sex-specific pattern exists in the alteration of vascular-ventricular coupling, which might partially explain the greater susceptibility to HFpEF in women.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:817-823
Yoshida Y, Nakanishi K, Daimon M, Ishiwata J, ... Homma S, Komuro I
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:817-823 | PMID: 32594106
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Abstract

Glycogen storage cardiomyopathy (PRKAG2): diagnostic findings of standard and advanced echocardiography techniques.

Pena JLB, Santos WC, Siqueira MHA, Sampaio IH, Moura ICG, Sternick EB
Aims 
Describe the findings obtained using standard echocardiography (Echo) and deformation indices (2D and 3D speckle tracking strain) in patients (Pts) with PRKAG2 cardiomyopathy. Seek to identify any peculiar characteristics and possible strain patterns that may distinguish this condition from other causes of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).
Methods and results 
Thirty Pts with genetically proven PRKAG2 (R302Q and H401Q), 16 (53.3%) male, mean age 39.1± 15.4 years old, were examined using standard, speckle tracking (STE), and 3D Echo. Pacemaker (PM) had been implanted in 12 (40%) Pts with a mean age of 38.1 ± 13 years. Hypertrophy was found in varying degrees in 18 (86%) Pts. Seven Pts (24%) presented 3D ejection fraction (EF) below normal limits. Diastolic function was abnormal in 17 (63%) Pts. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) on 2D measured -16.4% ± 5.3%. GLS measured -13.2% ± 4.8%, global radial strain 40.8% ± 13.8%, global circumferential strain (GCS) -16.1% ± 4.4%, and global area strain -26.1% ± 6.7% by 3D Echo offline analyses. Pts with PM presented lower EF and GCS compared with those without PM. EF/GLS measured 3.65 ± 1.00. In the bull\'s eye map, a strain pattern similar to stripes in 18 (60%) Pts was identified, which might be a differentiating signal among LVH.
Conclusion 
Echocardiography is a valuable tool in detecting diffuse and focal myocardial abnormalities in PRKAG2 cardiomyopathy. The deformation indices are especially revealing because they may help distinguish this rare infiltrative disease, thereby favouring early diagnosis, enhanced treatment, and improved outcome.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:800-807
Pena JLB, Santos WC, Siqueira MHA, Sampaio IH, Moura ICG, Sternick EB
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:800-807 | PMID: 32747946
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Impact:
Abstract

Prevalence, multimodality imaging characterization, and mid-term prognosis of quadricuspid aortic valves: an analysis of eight cases, based on 160 004 exams performed during 12 years in a tertiary care hospital.

Manuel AM, Ladeiras-Lopes R, Ribeiro J, Ferreira ND, ... Braga P, Fontes-Carvalho R
Aims
Quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare abnormality, which may cause aortic regurgitation (AR) requiring surgical intervention in some patients. The characteristics associated with aortic valve functional degeneration in patients with QAV are still unknown. The aim of this study is to describe QAV prevalence, characterize the disease by multimodality imaging, evaluate predictors of severe AR, and assess mid-term prognosis.
Methods and results
Retrospective search in imaging exams database of one tertiary centre, for patients diagnosed with QAV between January 2007 and September 2019. QAV was characterized by cardiac computed tomography, transthoracic/transoesophageal echocardiography, and cardiac magnetic resonance. A total of 160 004 exams were reviewed and eight patients with QAV were identified (50% men, mean age 53.5 ± 10.7 years). The prevalence of QAV was 0.005%. During a median follow-up of 52 months (interquartile range 16-88), there were no deaths. Seven patients (88%) had pure AR (three severe, one moderate, and three mild) and one patient (12%) had moderate AR and moderate aortic stenosis. Three patients (38%) with severe AR underwent valve surgery (two replacements and one repair). Analysis of predictors of severe AR was not statistically significant.
Conclusion
QAV is a rare congenital cardiac defect, with a prevalence of 0.005% in our study. Its predominant functional abnormality was regurgitation and about one-third of the patients required aortic valve surgery. Multimodality imaging may play a pivotal role in assessing patients with QAV with significant valve dysfunction or associated congenital heart disease and improve their treatment strategy.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:765-776
Manuel AM, Ladeiras-Lopes R, Ribeiro J, Ferreira ND, ... Braga P, Fontes-Carvalho R
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:765-776 | PMID: 33400773
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Impact:
Abstract

Bicuspid aortic valve and aortopathy: novel prognostic predictors for the identification of high-risk patients.

Longobardo L, Carerj S, Bitto A, Cusmà-Piccione M, ... Khandheria BK, Zito C
Aims
Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) may be complicated by aortic aneurysms and dissection. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic efficacy of markers from cardiac imaging, as well as genetic and new biomarkers, to early predict aortic complications.
Methods and results
We re-evaluated after a mean time of 48 ± 11 months 47 BAV patients who had undergone previous echocardiography for evaluation of aortic stiffness and 2D aortic longitudinal strain (LS) (by speckle-tracking analysis), and who had given a blood sample for the assessment of a single-nucleotide polymorphism of elastin gene (ELN rs2 071307) and quantification of elastin soluble fragments (ESF). Surgical treatment of aortic aneurysm/dissection was the primary endpoint, and an aortic dimension increase (of one or more aortic segments) ≥1 mm/year was the secondary endpoint. Nine patients underwent surgical treatment of ascending aorta (AA) aneurysms. Out of the 38 patients who did not need surgical intervention, 16 showed an increase of aortic root and/or AA dimension ≥1 mm/year. At multivariate Cox regression analysis, an impaired AA LS was an independent predictor of aortic surgery [P = 0.04; hazard ratio (HR) 0.961; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.924-0.984] and aortic dilatation (P = 0.007; HR 0.960; 95% CI 0.932-0.989). An increased quantity of ESF was correlated (P = 0.015) with the primary endpoint at univariate Cox regression analysis but it did not keep statistical significance at multivariate analysis.
Conclusion
In BAV patients, impairment of elastic properties of the AA, as assessed by 2D LS, is an effective predictor of aortic complications.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:808-816
Longobardo L, Carerj S, Bitto A, Cusmà-Piccione M, ... Khandheria BK, Zito C
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:808-816 | PMID: 33026072
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Impact:
Abstract

External elastic lamina vs. luminal diameter measurement for determining stent diameter by optical coherence tomography: an ILUMIEN III substudy.

Shlofmitz E, Jeremias A, Parviz Y, Karimi Galougahi K, ... Shlofmitz RA, Ali ZA
Aims
Optical coherence tomography (OCT)-guided external elastic lamina (EEL)-based stent sizing is safe and as effective as intravascular ultrasound in achieving post-procedural lumen dimensions. However, when compared with automated lumen diameter (LD) measurements, this approach is time-consuming. We aimed to compare vessel diameter measurements and stent diameter selection using either of these approaches and examined whether applying a correction factor to automated LD measurements could result in selecting similar stent diameters to the EEL-based approach.
Methods and results
We retrospectively compared EEL-based measurements vs. automated LD in reference segments in 154 OCT acquisitions and derived a correction factor for stent sizing using the ratio of EEL to LD measurements. We then prospectively applied the correction factor in 119 OCT acquisitions. EEL could be adequately identified in 100 acquisitions (84%) at the distal reference to allow vessel diameter measurement. Vessel diameters were larger with EEL-based vs. LD measurements at both proximal (4.12 ± 0.74 vs. 3.14 ± 0.67 mm, P < 0.0001) and distal reference segments (3.34 ± 0.75 vs. 2.64 ± 0.65 mm, P < 0.0001). EEL-based downsizing led to selection of larger stents vs. an LD-based upsizing approach (3.33 ± 0.47 vs. 2.70 ± 0.44, P < 0.0001). Application of correction factors to LD [proximal 1.32 (IQR 1.23-1.37) and distal 1.25 (IQR 1.19-1.36)] resulted in discordance in stent sizing by >0.25 mm in 63% and potentially hazardous stent oversizing in 41% of cases.
Conclusion
EEL-based stent downsizing led to selection of larger stent diameters vs. LD upsizing. While applying a correction factor to automated LD measurements resulted in similar mean diameters to EEL-based measurements, this approach cannot be used clinically due to frequent and potentially hazardous stent over-sizing.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:753-759
Shlofmitz E, Jeremias A, Parviz Y, Karimi Galougahi K, ... Shlofmitz RA, Ali ZA
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:753-759 | PMID: 33167000
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Impact:
Abstract

Current use of cardiac magnetic resonance in tertiary referral centres for the diagnosis of cardiomyopathy: the ESC EORP Cardiomyopathy/Myocarditis Registry.

Mizia-Stec K, Charron P, Gimeno Blanes JR, Elliott P, ... Caforio ALP, EORP Cardiomyopathy Registry Investigators
Aims 
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is recommended in the diagnosis of cardiomyopathies, but it is time-consuming, expensive, and limited in availability in some European regions. The aim of this study was to determine the use of CMR in cardiomyopathy patients enrolled into the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) cardiomyopathy registry [part of the EURObservational Research Programme (EORP)].
Methods and results 
Three thousand, two hundred, and eight consecutive adult patients (34.6% female; median age: 53.0 ± 15 years) with cardiomyopathy were studied: 1260 with dilated (DCM), 1739 with hypertrophic (HCM), 66 with restrictive (RCM), and 143 with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). CMR scans were performed at baseline in only 29.4% of patients. CMR utilization was variable according to cardiomyopathy subtypes: from 51.1% in ARVC to 36.4% in RCM, 33.8% in HCM, and 20.6% in DCM (P < 0.001). CMR use in tertiary referral centres located in different European countries varied from 1% to 63.2%. Patients undergoing CMR were younger, less symptomatic, less frequently had implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)/pacemaker implanted, had fewer cardiovascular risk factors and comorbidities (P < 0.001). In 28.6% of patients, CMR was used along with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE); 67.6% patients underwent TTE alone, and 0.9% only CMR.
Conclusion 
Less than one-third of patients enrolled in the registry underwent CMR and the use varied greatly between cardiomyopathy subtypes, clinical profiles of patients, and European tertiary referral centres. This gap with current guidelines needs to be considered carefully by scientific societies to promote wider availability and use of CMR in patients with cardiomyopathies.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:781-789
Mizia-Stec K, Charron P, Gimeno Blanes JR, Elliott P, ... Caforio ALP, EORP Cardiomyopathy Registry Investigators
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:781-789 | PMID: 33417664
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Impact:
Abstract

Long-term risk of sudden cardiac death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a cardiac magnetic resonance outcome study.

Greulich S, Seitz A, Herter D, Günther F, ... Sechtem U, Mahrholdt H
Aims
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is an appalling complication of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). There is an ongoing discussion about the optimal SCD risk stratification strategy since established SCD risk models have suboptimal discriminative power. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for SCD risk stratification compared to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) SCD risk score and traditional risk factors in an >10-year follow-up.
Methods and results
Two hundred and twenty consecutive patients with HCM and LGE-CMR were enrolled. Follow-up data were available in 203 patients (median age 58 years, 61% male) after a median follow-up period of 10.4 years. LGE was present in 70% of patients with a median LGE amount of 1.6%, the median ESC 5-year SCD risk score was 1.84. In the overall cohort, SCD rates were 2.3% at 5 years, 4.8% at 10 years, and 15.7% at 15 years, independent from established risk models. An LGE amount of >5% left ventricular (LV) mass portends the highest risk for SCD with SCD prevalences of 5.5% at 5 years, 13.0% at 10 years, and 33.3% at 15 years. Conversely, patients with no or ≤5% LGE of LV mass have favourable prognosis.
Conclusions
LGE-CMR in HCM patients allows effective 10-year SCD risk stratification beyond established risk factors. LGE amount might be added to established risk models to improve its discriminatory power. Specifically, patients with >5% LGE should be carefully monitored and might be adequate candidates for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator during the clinical long-term course.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:732-741
Greulich S, Seitz A, Herter D, Günther F, ... Sechtem U, Mahrholdt H
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:732-741 | PMID: 33458753
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Impact:
Abstract

Myocardial work in Stage 1 and 2 hypertensive patients.

Jaglan A, Roemer S, Perez Moreno AC, Khandheria BK
Aims
Myocardial work (MW) is a novel parameter that can be used in a clinical setting to assess left ventricular (LV) pressures and deformation. We sought to distinguish patterns of global MW index in hypertensive vs. non-hypertensive patients and to look at differences between categories of hypertension.
Methods and results
Sixty-five hypertensive patients (mean age 65 ± 13 years; 30 male) and 15 controls (mean age 38 ± 12 years; 7 male) underwent transthoracic echocardiography at rest. Hypertensive patients were subdivided into Stage 1 (n = 32) and Stage 2 (n = 33) hypertension based on 2017 American College of Cardiology guidelines. Exclusion criteria were suboptimal image quality for myocardial deformation analysis, reduced ejection fraction, valvular heart disease, intracardiac shunt, and arrhythmia. Global work index (GWI), global constructive work (GCW), global wasted work (GWW), and global work efficiency were estimated from LV pressure-strain loops utilizing proprietary software from speckle-tracking echocardiography. LV systolic and diastolic pressures were estimated using non-invasive brachial artery cuff pressure. Global longitudinal strain and LV ejection fraction were preserved between the groups with no statistically significant difference, whereas there was a statically significant difference between the control and two hypertension groups in GWI (P = 0.01), GCW (P < 0.001), and GWW (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Non-invasive MW analysis allows better understanding of LV response under conditions of increased afterload. MW is an advanced assessment of LV systolic function in hypertension patients, giving a closer look at the relationship between LV pressure and contractility in settings of increased load dependency than LV ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:744-750
Jaglan A, Roemer S, Perez Moreno AC, Khandheria BK
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 21 Jun 2021; 22:744-750 | PMID: 33693608
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Impact:
Abstract

Risk predicting for acute coronary syndrome based on machine learning model with kinetic plaque features from serial coronary computed tomography angiography.

Wang Y, Chen H, Sun T, Li A, ... Wang X, Cao F
Aims
More patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as gatekeeper. However, the prospective relation of plaque features to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events has not been previously explored.
Methods and results
One hundred and one out of 452 patients with documented ACS event and received more than once CCTA during the past 12 years were recruited. Other 101 patients without ACS event were matched as case control. Baseline, follow-up, and changes of anatomical, compositional, and haemodynamic parameters [e.g. luminal stenosis, plaque volume, necrotic core, calcification, and CCTA-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR)] were analysed by independent CCTA measurement core laboratories. Baseline anatomical, compositional, and haemodynamic parameters of lesions showed no significant difference between the two cohorts (P > 0.05). While the culprit lesions exhibited significant increase of luminal stenosis (10.18 ± 2.26% vs. 3.62 ± 1.41%, P = 0.018), remodelling index (0.15 ± 0.14 vs. 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.01), and necrotic core (4.79 ± 1.84% vs. 0.43 ± 1.09%, P = 0.019) while decrease of CT-FFR (-0.05 ± 0.005 vs. -0.01 ± 0.003, P < 0.01) and calcium ratio (-4.28 ± 2.48% vs. 4.48 ± 1.46%, P = 0.004) between follow-up CCTA and baseline scans in comparison to that of non-culprit lesion. The XGBoost model comprising the top five important plaque features revealed higher predictive ability (area under the curve 0.918, 95% confidence interval 0.861-0.968).
Conclusions
Dynamic changes of plaque features are highly relative with subsequent ACS events. The machine learning model of integrating these lesion characteristics (e.g. CT-FFR, necrotic core, remodelling index, plaque volume, and calcium) can improve the ability for predicting risks of ACS events.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 20 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Wang Y, Chen H, Sun T, Li A, ... Wang X, Cao F
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 20 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34151931
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Impact:
Abstract

Real-world performance and accuracy of stress echocardiography: the EVAREST observational multi-centre study.

Woodward W, Dockerill C, McCourt A, Upton R, ... Schofield R, Sultan A
Aims
Stress echocardiography is widely used to identify obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). High accuracy is reported in expert hands but is dependent on operator training and image quality. The EVAREST study provides UK-wide data to evaluate real-world performance and accuracy of stress echocardiography.
Methods and results
Participants undergoing stress echocardiography for CAD were recruited from 31 hospitals. Participants were followed up through health records which underwent expert adjudication. Cardiac outcome was defined as anatomically or functionally significant stenosis on angiography, revascularization, medical management of ischaemia, acute coronary syndrome, or cardiac-related death within 6 months. A total of 5131 patients (55% male) participated with a median age of 65 years (interquartile range 57-74). 72.9% of studies used dobutamine and 68.5% were contrast studies. Inducible ischaemia was present in 19.3% of scans. Sensitivity and specificity for prediction of a cardiac outcome were 95.4% and 96.0%, respectively, with an accuracy of 95.9%. Sub-group analysis revealed high levels of predictive accuracy across a wide range of patient and protocol sub-groups, with the presence of a resting regional wall motion abnormalitiy significantly reducing the performance of both dobutamine (P < 0.01) and exercise (P < 0.05) stress echocardiography. Overall accuracy remained consistently high across all participating hospitals.
Conclusion
Stress echocardiography has high accuracy across UK-based hospitals and thus indicates stress echocardiography is being delivered effectively in real-world practice, reinforcing its role as a first-line investigation in the assessment of patients with stable chest pain.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Woodward W, Dockerill C, McCourt A, Upton R, ... Schofield R, Sultan A
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34148078
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Impact:
Abstract

Clinical intra-cardiac 4D flow CMR: acquisition, analysis, and clinical applications.

Demirkiran A, van Ooij P, Westenberg JJM, Hofman MBM, ... van Rossum AC, Götte MJW
Identification of flow patterns within the heart has long been recognized as a potential contribution to the understanding of physiological and pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular diseases. Although the pulsatile flow itself is multi-dimensional and multi-directional, current available non-invasive imaging modalities in clinical practice provide calculation of flow in only 1-direction and lack 3-dimensional volumetric velocity information. Four-dimensional flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (4D flow CMR) has emerged as a novel tool that enables comprehensive and critical assessment of flow through encoding velocity in all 3 directions in a volume of interest resolved over time. Following technical developments, 4D flow CMR is not only capable of visualization and quantification of conventional flow parameters such as mean/peak velocity and stroke volume but also provides new hemodynamic parameters such as kinetic energy. As a result, 4D flow CMR is being extensively exploited in clinical research aiming to improve understanding of the impact of cardiovascular disease on flow and vice versa. Of note, the analysis of 4D flow data is still complex and accurate analysis tools that deliver comparable quantification of 4D flow values are a necessity for a more widespread adoption in clinic. In this article, the acquisition and analysis processes are summarized and clinical applications of 4D flow CMR on the heart including conventional and novel hemodynamic parameters are discussed. Finally, clinical potential of other emerging intra-cardiac 4D flow imaging modalities is explored and a near-future perspective on 4D flow CMR is provided.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 17 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Demirkiran A, van Ooij P, Westenberg JJM, Hofman MBM, ... van Rossum AC, Götte MJW
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 17 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34143872
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Impact:
Abstract

State-of-the-art intra-procedural imaging for the mitral and tricuspid PASCAL Repair System.

Hahn RT, Kodali SK
Advanced intra-procedural imaging techniques have been integral to technical and procedural success transcatheter devices. A novel leaflet approximation therapy, the PASCAL Transcatheter Valve Repair System (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine, CA, USA) has demonstrated high procedural success, acceptable safety, and significant clinical improvement in patients with severe mitral and tricuspid regurgitation and has CE mark approval in Europe with pivotal trials underway in the USA. This review outlines the pre-procedural imaging views and advanced transoesophageal imaging protocols both mitral and tricuspid valve device implantation.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 16 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Hahn RT, Kodali SK
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 16 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34136901
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Impact:
Abstract

Left atrial strain by speckle tracking predicts atrial fibrosis in patients undergoing heart transplantation.

Lisi M, Mandoli GE, Cameli M, Pastore MC, ... Mondillo S, Henein MY
Aims
In patients with heart failure (HF), chronically raised left ventricular (LV) filling pressures lead to progressive left atrial (LA) dysfunction and fibrosis. We aimed to assess the correlation of LA reservoir strain (peak atrial longitudinal strain, PALS) by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) and LA fibrosis assessed by myocardial biopsy in patients undergoing heart transplantation (HTx).
Methods and results
Forty-eight patients with advanced HF [mean age 51.2 ± 8.1 years, 29% females; LV ejection fraction ≤25% and New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III-IV] referred for HTx were enrolled and underwent pre-operative echocardiographic evaluation, right heart catheterization, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Exclusion criteria were non-sinus rhythm, mechanical ventilation, severe mitral/tricuspid regurgitation, or other valvular disease and poor acoustic window. After HTx, LA bioptic samples were collected and analysed to determine the extent of myocardial fibrosis (%). LA fibrosis showed correlation with PALS (R = -0.88, P < 0.0001), VO2max (R = -0.68, P < 0.0001), NYHA class (R = 0.66, P < 0.0001), LA stiffness (R = 0.58, P = 0.0002), and E/e\' (R = 0.44, P = 0.005), while poorly correlated with E/A ratio (R = 0.23, P = 0.21). PALS had a good correlation with NYHA class (R = -0.64, P < 0.0001), PAoP (R = -0.61, P = 0.03) and VO2max (R = 0.57, P = 0.0001). Multivariate regression analysis identified PALS (beta = -0.91, P < 0.001) and LA Volume (beta = -0.19, P = 0.03) as predictors of LA Fibrosis, while E/e\' was not a significant predictor (beta = 0.15, P = 0.08).
Conclusion
Emerging as a possible index of myocardial fibrosis in patients with advanced HF, PALS could help to optimize the management and the selection of those patients with irreversible LA structural damage for advanced therapeutic strategies.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 11 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Lisi M, Mandoli GE, Cameli M, Pastore MC, ... Mondillo S, Henein MY
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 11 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34118154
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Impact:
Abstract

Aortic flow dynamics and stiffness in Loeys-Dietz syndrome patients: a comparison with healthy volunteers and Marfan syndrome patients.

Ruiz-Muñoz A, Guala A, Rodriguez-Palomares J, Dux-Santoy L, ... Evangelista A, Teixido-Tura G
Aims
To assess aortic flow and stiffness in patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) by 4D flow and cine cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and compare the results with those of healthy volunteers (HV) and Marfan syndrome (MFS) patients.
Methods and results
Twenty-one LDS and 44 MFS patients with no previous aortic dissection or surgery and 35 HV underwent non-contrast-enhanced 4D flow CMR. In-plane rotational flow (IRF), systolic flow reversal ratio (SFRR), and aortic diameters were obtained at 20 planes from the ascending (AAo) to the proximal descending aorta (DAo). IRF and SFRR were also quantified for aortic regions (proximal and distal AAo, arch and proximal DAo). Peak-systolic wall shear stress (WSS) maps were also estimated. Aortic stiffness was quantified using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and proximal AAo longitudinal strain. Compared to HV, LDS patients had lower rotational flow at the distal AAo (P = 0.002), arch (P = 0.002), and proximal DAo (P < 0.001) even after adjustment for age, stroke volume, and local diameter. LDS patients had higher SFRR in the proximal DAo compared to both HV (P = 0.024) and MFS patients (P = 0.015), even after adjustment for age and local diameter. Axial and circumferential WSS in LDS patients were lower than in HV. AAo circumferential WSS was lower in LDS compared to MFS patients. AAo and DAo PWV and proximal AAo longitudinal strain revealed stiffer aortas in LDS patients compared to HV (P = 0.007, 0.005, and 0.029, respectively) but no differences vs. MFS patients.
Conclusion
Greater aortic stiffness as well as impaired IRF and WSS were present in LDS patients compared to HV. Conversely, similar aortic stiffness and overlapping aortic flow features were found in Loeys-Dietz and Marfan patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Ruiz-Muñoz A, Guala A, Rodriguez-Palomares J, Dux-Santoy L, ... Evangelista A, Teixido-Tura G
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34104946
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Impact:
Abstract

Comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation of the right heart in patients with pulmonary vascular diseases: the PVDOMICS experience.

Jellis CL, Park MM, Abidov A, Borlaug BA, ... Thomas JD, PVDOMICS Study Group
Aims
There is a wide spectrum of diseases associated with pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary vascular remodelling, and right ventricular dysfunction. The NIH-sponsored PVDOMICS network seeks to perform comprehensive clinical phenotyping and endophenotyping across these disorders to further evaluate and define pulmonary vascular disease.
Methods and results
Echocardiography represents the primary non-invasive method to phenotype cardiac anatomy, function, and haemodynamics in these complex patients. However, comprehensive right heart evaluation requires the use of multiple echocardiographic parameters and optimized techniques to ensure optimal image acquisition. The PVDOMICS echo protocol outlines the best practice approach to echo phenotypic assessment of the right heart/pulmonary artery unit.
Conclusion
Novel workflow processes, methods for quality control, data for feasibility of measurements, and reproducibility of right heart parameters derived from this study provide a benchmark frame of reference. Lessons learned from this protocol will serve as a best practice guide for echocardiographic image acquisition and analysis across the spectrum of right heart/pulmonary vascular disease.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 06 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Jellis CL, Park MM, Abidov A, Borlaug BA, ... Thomas JD, PVDOMICS Study Group
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 06 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34097027
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Impact:
Abstract

Coronary artery calcium is associated with increased risk for lung and colorectal cancer in men and women: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

Dzaye O, Berning P, Dardari ZA, Mortensen MB, ... Whelton SP, Blaha MJ
Aims
This study explored the association of coronary artery calcium (CAC) with incident cancer subtypes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). CAC is an established predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD), with emerging data also supporting independent predictive value for cancer. The association of CAC with risk for individual cancer subtypes is unknown.
Methods and results
We included 6271 MESA participants, aged 45-84 and without known CVD or self-reported history of cancer. There were 777 incident cancer cases during mean follow-up of 12.9 ± 3.1 years. Lung and colorectal cancer (186 cases) were grouped based on their strong overlap with CVD risk profile; prostate (men) and ovarian, uterine, and breast cancer (women) were considered as sex-specific cancers (in total 250 cases). Incidence rates and Fine and Gray competing risks models were used to assess relative risk of cancer-specific outcomes stratified by CAC groups or Log(CAC+1). The mean age was 61.7 ± 10.2 years, 52.7% were women, and 36.5% were White. Overall, all-cause cancer incidence increased with CAC scores, with rates per 1000 person-years of 13.1 [95% confidence interval (CI): 11.7-14.7] for CAC = 0 and 35.8 (95% CI: 30.2-42.4) for CAC ≥400. Compared with CAC = 0, hazards for those with CAC ≥400 were increased for lung and colorectal cancer in men [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR): 2.2 (95% CI: 1.1-4.7)] and women [SHR: 2.2 (95% CI: 1.0-4.6)], but not significantly for sex-specific cancers across sexes.
Conclusion
CAC scores were associated with cancer risk in both sexes; however, this was stronger for lung and colorectal when compared with sex-specific cancers. Our data support potential synergistic use of CAC scores in the identification of both CVD and lung and colorectal cancer risk.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 03 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Dzaye O, Berning P, Dardari ZA, Mortensen MB, ... Whelton SP, Blaha MJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 03 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34086883
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Impact:
Abstract

Adverse functional remodelling of the subpulmonary left ventricle in patients with a systemic right ventricle is associated with clinical outcome.

Santens B, Helsen F, Van De Bruaene A, De Meester P, ... Bogaert J, Budts W
Aims
Early recognition of adverse remodelling is important since outcome is unfavorable once patients with a systemic right ventricle (sRV) become symptomatic. We aimed assessing prognostic markers linked to short-term clinical evolution in this population.
Methods and results
Thirty-three patients (76% male) with sRV (atrial switch repair for D-transposition of the great arteries and congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries) underwent detailed phenotyping including exercise cardiac magnetic resonance and were followed over mean follow-up time of 3 years. Mean age was 40 ± 8 (range 26-57) years at latest follow-up. Adverse outcome was a composite of heart failure (HF) and tachyarrhythmia. Descriptive statistics and univariate cox regression analyses were performed. When compared with baseline: (i) most patients remained in New York Heart Association functional class I (76%), (ii) the degree of severity of the systemic atrioventricular valve regurgitation rose, and (iii) more electrical instability was documented at latest follow-up. Six (18%) of a total of 9 events were counted as first cardiovascular events (9% HF and 9% arrhythmia). NT-proBNP, oxygen pulse, left ventricle end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVi), and stroke volume index (SVi) of the subpulmonary left ventricle (LV) both in rest and at peak exercise were significantly associated with the first cardiovascular event.
Conclusion
NT-proBNP was by far the best prognostic marker for clinical outcome. Adverse remodelling with increase of LVEDVi and SVi of the subpulmonary LV at rest and during exercise were associated with worse clinical outcome. We theorize that remodelling of the subpulmonary ventricle might be an early sign of a failing sRV circulation.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Santens B, Helsen F, Van De Bruaene A, De Meester P, ... Bogaert J, Budts W
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34059878
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Impact:
Abstract

18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography imaging in atrial fibrillation: a pilot prospective study.

Xie B, Chen BX, Nanna M, Wu JY, ... Liu X, Yang MF
Aims
This prospective study explored relevant factors and clinical significance of atrial 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
Methods and results
One hundred AF patients underwent baseline FDG imaging prior to radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA). Of those, 30 subjects underwent additional FDG imaging at 3 months post-RFCA. Voltage mapping of the left atrium was analysed as a voltage score. Patients who received RFCA were followed for 26 months (17-31 months) to assess recurrence. At baseline FDG imaging, 74% of patients with persistent AF (PsAF) and 24% of patients with paroxysmal AF showed increased atrial FDG uptake. The prevalence was higher in the right atrium (49%) than in the left atrium (15%, P < 0.001) or left atrial appendage (21%, P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that PsAF and elevated B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) were related to enhanced right atrial (RA) activity, and increased epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) activity was predictive of left atrial (LA) activity. LA activity was inversely associated with voltage score, while increased FDG uptake in the right atrium was predictive of successful AF termination by RFCA. Atrial FDG activities decreased significantly post-RFCA, but none of the FDG parameters were predictive of AF recurrence.
Conclusions
Enhanced RA activity was associated with elevated BNP level, whereas LA activity was related to the increased activity of EAT and inversely correlated with LA fibrosis. Increased RA activity was predictive of successful AF termination by RFCA in PsAF patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 28 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Xie B, Chen BX, Nanna M, Wu JY, ... Liu X, Yang MF
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 28 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34050641
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Impact:
Abstract

Prevalence, distribution, and determinants of pulmonary venous systolic flow reversal in severe mitral regurgitation.

Itakura K, Utsunomiya H, Takemoto H, Takahari K, ... Fukuda Y, Nakano Y
Aims
This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of pulmonary venous systolic flow reversal (PVSFR) in patients with severe mitral regurgitation (MR), and to examine the relationship between PVSFR profile and cardiac parameters.
Methods and results
A total of 125 patients with severe MR who had transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) performed were reviewed. Of these, 121 (96.8%) patients showed all four pulmonary venous (PV) flows by TOE. They were categorized into three groups by the MR aetiology: degenerative MR (DMR) (n = 72), ventricular functional MR (V-FMR) (n = 20), and atrial functional MR (A-FMR) (n = 16). Eighteen (16.7%) patients had PVSFR in all four PVs. Twenty-nine (26.9%) had PVSFR in three PVs, 23 (21.3%) in two PVs, and 23 (21.3%) in one PV. PVSFR appeared at right PVs more frequently compared with left PVs. A high number of PVSFR was significantly correlated with higher pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) and 3D vena contracta area (3D-VCA). With regard to MR aetiology, the number of PVSFRs was correlated with high 3D-VCA in patients with DMR and A-FMR, while it was correlated with high PCWP in patients with V-FMR. Laminar-type PVSFR appeared more frequently in FMR compared with DMR, and it had a relationship with higher PCWP and lower right ventricular fractional area change (RVFAC).
Conclusion
All four PV were detected in 96.8%, and 16.8% patients had PVSFR in all four PVs. PCWP and 3D-VCA were correlated with the number of PVSFRs in severe MR patients. Laminar-type PVSFR was related to higher PCWP and lower RVFAC.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 25 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Itakura K, Utsunomiya H, Takemoto H, Takahari K, ... Fukuda Y, Nakano Y
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 25 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34041531
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic value of right ventricular dilatation in patients with COVID-19: a multicentre study.

Soulat-Dufour L, Fauvel C, Weizman O, Barbe T, ... Coisne A, Cohen A
Aims
Although cardiac involvement has prognostic significance in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is associated with severe forms, few studies have explored the prognostic role of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). We investigated the link between TTE parameters and prognosis in COVID-19.
Methods and results
Consecutive patients with COVID-19 admitted to 24 French hospitals were retrospectively included. Comprehensive data, including clinical and biological parameters, were recorded at admission. Focused TTE was performed during hospitalization, according to clinical indication. Patients were followed for a primary composite outcome of death or transfer to intensive care unit (ICU) during hospitalization. Among 2878 patients, 445 (15%) underwent TTE. Most of these had cardiovascular risk factors, a history of cardiovascular disease, and were on cardiovascular treatments. Dilatation and dysfunction were observed in, respectively, 12% (48/412) and 23% (102/442) of patients for the left ventricle, and in 12% (47/407) and 16% (65/402) for the right ventricle (RV). Primary composite outcome occurred in 44% (n = 196) of patients [9% (n = 42) for death without ICU transfer and 35% (n = 154) for admission to ICU]. RV dilatation was the only TTE parameter associated with the primary outcome. After adjustment, male sex [hazard ratio (HR) 1.56, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09 - 2.25; P = 0.02], higher body mass index (HR 1.10, 95% CI 1.02 - 1.18; P = 0.01), anticoagulation (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.33 - 0.86; P = 0.01), and RV dilatation (HR 1.66, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.64; P = 0.03) remained independently associated with the primary outcome.
Conclusion
Echocardiographic evaluation of RV dilatation could be useful for assessing risk of severe COVID-19 developing in hospitalized patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Soulat-Dufour L, Fauvel C, Weizman O, Barbe T, ... Coisne A, Cohen A
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34008835
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic implications of left ventricular myocardial work index in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction.

Butcher SC, Lustosa RP, Abou R, Marsan NA, Bax JJ, Delgado V
Aims
This study aimed to determine whether lower values of left ventricular (LV) global work index (GWI) at baseline were associated with a reduction in LV functional recovery and poorer long-term prognosis in patients with reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF ≤40%) following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
Methods and results
A total of 197 individuals (62 ± 12 years, 75% male) with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention and reduced LVEF were evaluated. All patients were followed up for the occurrence of all-cause mortality and the presence of LVEF normalization at 6 months (LVEF ≥50%). The median LVEF was 36% (interquartile range 32-38) and the mean value of LV GWI was 1041 ± 404 mmHg% at baseline. At 6-month follow-up, 41% of patients had normalized LVEF. On multivariable logistic regression, higher values of LV GWI were independently associated with LVEF normalization at 6 months of follow-up (odds ratio 1.32 per 250 mmHg%, P = 0.038). Over a median follow-up of 112 months, 40 patients (20%) died. LV GWI <750 mmHg% was independently associated with all-cause mortality (HR 3.85, P < 0.001) and was incremental to LV global longitudinal strain (P = 0.039) and LVEF (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
In individuals with an LVEF ≤40% following STEMI, higher values of LV GWI were associated with a greater probability of LVEF normalization at 6-month follow-up. In addition, lower values of LV GWI were independently associated with increased all-cause mortality at long-term follow-up, providing incremental prognostic value over LVEF and minor incremental prognostic value over LV global longitudinal strain.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 15 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Butcher SC, Lustosa RP, Abou R, Marsan NA, Bax JJ, Delgado V
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 15 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33993227
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Impact:
Abstract

Associations of cognitive performance with cardiovascular magnetic resonance phenotypes in the UK Biobank.

Raisi-Estabragh Z, M\'Charrak A, McCracken C, Biasiolli L, ... Petersen SE, Neubauer S
Aims
Existing evidence suggests links between brain and cardiovascular health. We investigated associations between cognitive performance and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) phenotypes in the UK Biobank, considering a range of potential confounders.
Methods and results
We studied 29 763 participants with CMR and cognitive testing, specifically, fluid intelligence (FI, 13 verbal-numeric reasoning questions), and reaction time (RT, a timed pairs matching exercise); both were considered continuous variables for modelling. We included the following CMR metrics: left and right ventricular (LV and RV) volumes in end-diastole and end-systole, LV/RV ejection fractions, LV/RV stroke volumes, LV mass, and aortic distensibility. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate the association of each CMR measure with FI and RT, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, education, deprivation, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, prior myocardial infarction, alcohol intake, and exercise level. We report standardized beta-coefficients, 95% confidence intervals, and P-values adjusted for multiple testing. In this predominantly healthy cohort (average age 63.0 ± 7.5 years), better cognitive performance (higher FI, lower RT) was associated with larger LV/RV volumes, higher LV/RV stroke volumes, greater LV mass, and greater aortic distensibility in fully adjusted models. There was some evidence of non-linearity in the relationship between FI and LV end-systolic volume, with reversal of the direction of association at very high volumes. Associations were consistent for men and women and in different ages.
Conclusion
Better cognitive performance is associated with CMR measures likely representing a healthier cardiovascular phenotype. These relationships remained significant after adjustment for a range of cardiometabolic, lifestyle, and demographic factors, suggesting possible involvement of alternative disease mechanisms.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 13 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Raisi-Estabragh Z, M'Charrak A, McCracken C, Biasiolli L, ... Petersen SE, Neubauer S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 13 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33987659
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Impact:
Abstract

Comparison between cardiac magnetic resonance stress T1 mapping and [15O]H2O positron emission tomography in patients with suspected obstructive coronary artery disease.

Everaars H, van Diemen PA, Biesbroek PS, Hopman LHGA, ... Driessen RS, Knaapen P
Aims
To compare cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) measurement of T1 reactivity (ΔT1) with [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) measurements of quantitative myocardial perfusion.
Methods and results
Forty-three patients with suspected obstructed coronary artery disease underwent [15O]H2O PET and CMR at 1.5-T, including rest and adenosine stress T1 mapping (ShMOLLI) and late gadolinium enhancement to rule out presence of scar tissue. ΔT1 was determined for the three main vascular territories and compared with [15O]H2O PET-derived regional stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR). ΔT1 showed a significant but poor correlation with stress MBF (R2 = 0.04, P = 0.03) and MFR (R2 = 0.07, P = 0.004). Vascular territories with impaired stress MBF (i.e. ≤2.30 mL/min/g) demonstrated attenuated ΔT1 compared with vascular territories with preserved stress MBF (2.9 ± 2.2% vs. 4.1 ± 2.2%, P = 0.008). In contrast, ΔT1 did not differ between vascular territories with impaired (i.e. <2.50) and preserved MFR (3.2 ± 2.6% vs. 4.0 ± 2.1%, P = 0.25). Receiver operating curve analysis of ΔT1 resulted in an area under the curve of 0.66 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.75, P = 0.009] for diagnosing impaired stress MBF and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.53-0.71, P = 0.07) for diagnosing impaired MFR.
Conclusions
CMR stress T1 mapping has poor agreement with [15O]H2O PET measurements of absolute myocardial perfusion. Stress T1 and ΔT1 are lower in vascular territories with reduced stress MBF but have poor accuracy for detecting impaired myocardial perfusion.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Everaars H, van Diemen PA, Biesbroek PS, Hopman LHGA, ... Driessen RS, Knaapen P
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33982071
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Impact:
Abstract

Phasic left atrial strain analysis to discriminate cardiac amyloidosis in patients with unclear thick heart pathology.

Brand A, Frumkin D, Hübscher A, Dreger H, ... Baldenhofer G, Knebel F
Aims 
Traditional echocardiographic parameters for the assessment of suspected cardiac amyloidosis (CA) are of limited diagnostic accuracy. We sought to explore differences and the discriminative value of phasic left atrial strain (LAS) reductions and of regional longitudinal left ventricular (LV) strain alterations (relative apical sparing; RELAPS) in CA and other causes of LV wall thickening (LVH).
Methods and results 
We included 54 patients with unclear LVH (mean septal diastolic wall thickness 17.8 ± 3.5 mm); CA was bioptically confirmed in 35 patients (8 mATTR, 6 wtATTR, 20 AL, and 1 AA amyloidosis) and LVH in 19 subjects. We analysed RELAPS as well as LA reservoir (LASr), conduit (LAScd), and contraction strain (LASct) using 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (EchoPAC software, GE). RELAPS was higher (1.37 ± 0.94 vs. 0.86 ± 0.29, P < 0.007), whereas atrial mechanics were significantly reduced in CA (LASr, LAScd, and LASct: 9.7 ± 5.2%, -6.5 ± 3.5%, and -5.0 ± 4.1% in CA; and 22.7 ± 7.8%, -13.9 ± 5.2%, and -13.0 ± 5.5% in LVH, respectively; P < 0.001 each). With an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.99], LASr showed a higher diagnostic accuracy in discriminating CA than RELAPS (AUC 0.74, 95% CI 0.59-0.88). LASr and LAScd remained significantly associated with CA in a multivariate regression model.
Conclusion 
Phasic LAS was significantly reduced in patients with CA and showed a higher diagnostic accuracy in discriminating CA than RELAPS. The additional assessment of phasic LAS may be useful to rule in the possible diagnosis of CA in patients with unclear LVH.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:680-687
Brand A, Frumkin D, Hübscher A, Dreger H, ... Baldenhofer G, Knebel F
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:680-687 | PMID: 32243500
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Impact:
Abstract

The remodelling index risk stratifies patients with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy.

Le TT, Lim V, Ibrahim R, Teo MT, ... Cook S, Chin CWL
Aims 
Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased cardiovascular events. We previously developed the remodelling index (RI) that incorporated left ventricular (LV) volume and wall-thickness in a single measure of advanced hypertrophy in hypertensive patients. This study examined the prognostic potential of the RI in reference to contemporary LVH classifications.
Methods and results 
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance was performed in 400 asymptomatic hypertensive patients. The newly derived RI (EDV3t, where EDV is LV end-diastolic volume and t is the maximal wall thickness across 16 myocardial segments) stratified hypertensive patients: no LVH, LVH with normal RI (LVHNormal-RI), and LVH with low RI (LVHLow-RI). The primary outcome was a composite of all-cause mortality, acute coronary syndromes, strokes, and decompensated heart failure. LVHLow-RI was associated with increased LV mass index, fibrosis burden, impaired myocardial function and elevated biochemical markers of myocardial injury (high-sensitive cardiac troponin I), and wall stress. Over 18.3 ± 7.0 months (601.3 patient-years), 14 adverse events occurred (2.2 events/100 patient-years). Patients with LVHLow-RI had more than a five-fold increase in adverse events compared to those with LVHNormal-RI (11.6 events/100 patient-years vs. 2.0 events/100 patient-years, respectively; log-rank P < 0.001). The RI provided incremental prognostic value over and above a model consisting of clinical variables, LVH and concentricity; and predicted adverse events independent of clinical variables, LVH, and other prognostic markers. Concentric and eccentric LVH were associated with adverse prognosis (log-rank P = 0.62) that was similar to the natural history of hypertensive LVH (5.1 events/100 patient-years).
Conclusion 
The RI provides prognostic value that improves risk stratification of hypertensive LVH.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:670-679
Le TT, Lim V, Ibrahim R, Teo MT, ... Cook S, Chin CWL
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:670-679 | PMID: 32255186
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Impact:
Abstract

Exercise stress echocardiography of the pulmonary circulation and right ventricular-arterial coupling in healthy adolescents.

Forton K, Motoji Y, Caravita S, Faoro V, Naeije R
Aims 
To explore the effects of age and sex in adolescents vs. young or middle-aged adults on pulmonary vascular function and right ventricular-arterial (RV-PA) coupling as assessed by exercise stress echocardiography.
Methods and results 
Forty healthy adolescents aged 12-15 years were compared with 40 young adults aged 17-22 years and 40 middle-aged adults aged 30-50 years. Sex distribution was equal in the three groups. All the subjects underwent an exercise stress echocardiography. A pulmonary vascular distensibility coefficient α was determined from multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-flow relationships. RV-PA coupling was assessed by the tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) to systolic pulmonary artery pressure (PASP) ratio, who has been previously validated by invasive study. While cardiac index and mean PAP were not different, adolescents compared to young and middle-aged adults, respectively had higher pulmonary vascular distensibility coefficients α (1.60 ± 0.31%/mmHg vs. 1.39 ± 0.29%/mmHg vs. 1.20 ± 0.35%/mmHg, P < 0.00001). Adolescents and young adults compared to middle-aged adults, respectively had higher TAPSE/PASP ratios at rest (1.24 ± 0.18 mm/mmHg and 1.22 ± 0.17 mm/mmHg vs. 1.07 ± 0.18 mm/mmHg, P < 0.008) and during exercise (0.86 ± 0.24, 0.80 ± 0.15 and 0.72 ± 0.15 mm/mmHg, P < 0.04). The TAPSE/PASP ratio decreased with exercise. There were no sex differences in α or TAPSE/PASP.
Conclusion 
Compared to adults, adolescents present with a sex-independent more distensible pulmonary circulation. Resting and exercise RV-PA coupling is decreased in middle-aged adults.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:688-694
Forton K, Motoji Y, Caravita S, Faoro V, Naeije R
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:688-694 | PMID: 32380528
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic implications of left ventricular myocardial work indices in cardiac amyloidosis.

Clemmensen TS, Eiskjær H, Ladefoged B, Mikkelsen F, ... Flachskampf FA, Poulsen SH
Aims
Left ventricular (LV) myocardial work index (LVMWI) derived from pressure-strain analysis resembles a novel non-invasive method for LV function evaluation. LV global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) has proven beneficial for risk stratification in cardiac amyloidosis (CA) patients. This study aimed to evaluate the potential additive value of LVMWI for outcome prediction in CA patients.
Methods and results
We enrolled 100 CA patients in the period 2014-19 from Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark and Uppsala University Hospital, Sweden. All patients underwent comprehensive echocardiographic evaluation and were prospectively followed until censuring date on 31 March 2019 or death. During follow-up, we registered major adverse cardiac events (MACE) comprising heart failure requiring hospitalization and all-cause mortality. The median follow-up was 490 (228-895) days. During follow-up, a total of 42% of patients experienced MACE and 29% died. Patients with LVMWI <1043 mmHg% had higher MACE risk than patients with LVMWI >1043 mmHg% [hazard ratio (HR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-4.3; P = 0.01]. Furthermore, patients with LVMWI <1039 mmHg% also had higher all-cause mortality risk than patients with LVMWI >1039 mmHg% (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.5; P < 0.05). Moreover, the apical-to-basal segmental work ratio was a significant MACE and all-cause mortality predictor. By combining LVMWI and apical-to-basal segmental work ratio, we obtained an independent model for all-cause mortality prediction (high vs. low risk: HR 6.4, 95% CI 2.4-17.1; P < 0.0001). In contrast, LVGLS did not predict all-cause mortality.
Conclusion
LV myocardial work may be of prognostic value in CA patients by predicting both MACE and all-cause mortality.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:695-704
Clemmensen TS, Eiskjær H, Ladefoged B, Mikkelsen F, ... Flachskampf FA, Poulsen SH
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:695-704 | PMID: 32529207
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostically safe stress-only single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging guided by machine learning: report from REFINE SPECT.

Hu LH, Miller RJH, Sharir T, Commandeur F, ... Berman DS, Slomka PJ
Aims
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) stress-only protocols reduce radiation exposure and cost but require clinicians to make immediate decisions regarding rest scan cancellation. We developed a machine learning (ML) approach for automatic rest scan cancellation and evaluated its prognostic safety.
Methods and results 
In total, 20 414 patients from a solid-state SPECT MPI international multicentre registry with clinical data and follow-up for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were used to train ML for MACE prediction as a continuous probability (ML score), using 10-fold repeated hold-out testing to separate test from training data. Three ML score thresholds (ML1, ML2, and ML3) were derived by matching the cancellation rates achieved by physician interpretation and two clinical selection rules. Annual MACE rates were compared in patients selected for rest scan cancellation between approaches. Patients selected for rest scan cancellation with ML had lower annualized MACE rates than those selected by physician interpretation or clinical selection rules (ML1 vs. physician interpretation: 1.4 ± 0.1% vs. 2.1 ± 0.1%; ML2 vs. clinical selection: 1.5 ± 0.1% vs. 2.0 ± 0.1%; ML3 vs. stringent clinical selection: 0.6 ± 0.1% vs. 1.7 ± 0.1%, all P < 0.0001) at matched cancellation rates (60 ± 0.7, 64 ± 0.7, and 30 ± 0.6%). Annualized all-cause mortality rates in populations recommended for rest cancellation by physician interpretation, clinical selection approaches were higher (1.3%, 1.2%, and 1.0%, respectively) compared with corresponding ML thresholds (0.6%, 0.6%, and 0.2%).
Conclusion
ML, using clinical and stress imaging data, can be used to automatically recommend cancellation of rest SPECT MPI scans, while ensuring higher prognostic safety than current clinical approaches.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:705-714
Hu LH, Miller RJH, Sharir T, Commandeur F, ... Berman DS, Slomka PJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:705-714 | PMID: 32533137
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Impact:
Abstract

Impact of arterio-ventricular interaction on first-phase ejection fraction in aortic stenosis.

Einarsen E, Hjertaas JJ, Gu H, Matre K, ... Chambers JB, Saeed S
Aims 
First-phase ejection fraction (EF1), the EF at the time to peak aortic jet velocity, has been proposed as a novel marker of peak systolic function in aortic stenosis (AS). This study aimed to explore the association of myocardial contractility and arterial load with EF1 in AS patients.
Methods and results 
Data from a prospective, cross-sectional study of 114 patients with mild, moderate, and severe AS with preserved left ventricular EF (>50%) were analysed. EF1 was measured as the volume change from end-diastole to the time that corresponded to peak aortic jet velocity. Myocardial contractility was assessed by strain rate measured by speckle tracking echocardiography. Arterial stiffness was assessed by central pulse pressure/stroke volume index ratio (PP/SVi). The total study population included 48% women, median age was 73 years, and mean peak aortic jet velocity was 3.47 m/s. In univariable linear regression analyses, lower EF1 was associated with higher age, higher peak aortic jet velocity, lower global EF, lower global longitudinal strain, lower strain rate, and higher PP/SVi. There was no significant association between EF1 and heart rate or sex. In multivariable linear regression analysis, EF1 was associated with lower strain rate and higher PP/SVi, independent of AS severity. Replacing PP/SVi by valvular impedance did not change the results.
Conclusion 
In patients with AS, reduced myocardial contractility and increased arterial load were associated with lower EF1 independent of the severity of valve stenosis.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:650-657
Einarsen E, Hjertaas JJ, Gu H, Matre K, ... Chambers JB, Saeed S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:650-657 | PMID: 32793965
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Impact:
Abstract

Myocardial work assessment in severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Jain R, Bajwa T, Roemer S, Huisheree H, ... Tajik AJ, Khandheria BK
Aims
Myocardial work is a novel echocardiographic algorithm that corrects speckle-tracking-derived global longitudinal strain (GLS) for afterload using non-invasive systolic blood pressure as a surrogate for left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP). Yet, in patients with severe aortic stenosis, non-invasive systolic blood pressure does not equal LVSP.
Methods and results
We evaluated 35 patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Transthoracic echocardiography, including myocardial mechanics, was performed pre- and post-TAVR. We performed simultaneous echocardiographic and cardiac catheterization measurements in 23 of the 35 patients at the time of TAVR. Peak and mean aortic gradients were calculated from echocardiographic and cardiac catheterization data. Peak-to-peak LV-aortic gradient correlated highly with mean LV-aortic gradient (r = 0.96); measured LVSP correlated highly with our novel method of non-invasively estimated LVSP (non-invasive systolic blood pressure cuff + Doppler-derived mean aortic gradient, r = 0.92). GLS improved from pre- to post-TAVR (-14.2% ± 4.3 vs. -15.1% ± 3.2), and myocardial work reduced from corrected pre-TAVR to post-TAVR (global work index: 1856.2 mmHg% ± 704.6 vs. 1534.8 ± 385.0).
Conclusion
We propose that non-invasive assessment of myocardial work can be reliably performed in aortic stenosis by the addition of mean aortic gradient to non-invasive systolic blood pressure. From this analysis, we note the novel and unique finding that GLS can improve as myocardial work reduces post-TAVR in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Both GLS and myocardial work post-TAVR remain below normal values, requiring further studies.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:715-721
Jain R, Bajwa T, Roemer S, Huisheree H, ... Tajik AJ, Khandheria BK
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:715-721 | PMID: 33106854
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Impact:
Abstract

Defining the prognostic value of [15O]H2O positron emission tomography-derived myocardial ischaemic burden.

van Diemen PA, Wijmenga JT, Driessen RS, Bom MJ, ... Danad I, Knaapen P
Aims 
Myocardial ischaemic burden (IB) is used for the risk stratification of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This study sought to define a prognostic threshold for quantitative [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET)-derived IB.
Methods and results 
A total of 623 patients with suspected or known CAD who underwent [15O]H2O PET perfusion imaging were included. The endpoint was a composite of death and non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI). A hyperaemic myocardial blood flow (hMBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR)-derived IB were determined. During a median follow-up time of 6.7 years, 62 patients experienced an endpoint. A hMBF IB of 24% and MFR IB of 28% were identified as prognostic thresholds. Patients with a high hMBF or MFR IB (above threshold) had worse outcome compared to patients with a low hMBF IB [annualized event rates (AER): 2.8% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001] or low MFR IB [AER: 2.4% vs. 0.6%, P < 0.001]. Patients with a concordant high IB had the worst outcome (AER: 3.1%), whereas patients with a concordant low or discordant IB result had similar and low AERs of 0.5% and 0.9% (P = 0.953), respectively. Both thresholds were of prognostic value beyond clinical characteristics, however, only the hMBF IB threshold remained predictive when adjusted for clinical characteristics and combined use of the hMBF and MFR thresholds.
Conclusion 
A hMBF IB ≥24% was a stronger predictor of adverse outcome than an MFR IB ≥28%. Nevertheless, classifying patients according to concordance of IB result allowed for the identification of low- and high-risk patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:638-646
van Diemen PA, Wijmenga JT, Driessen RS, Bom MJ, ... Danad I, Knaapen P
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:638-646 | PMID: 33200201
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Impact:
Abstract

Non-calcific aortic tissue quantified from computed tomography angiography improves diagnosis and prognostication of patients referred for transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Grodecki K, Tamarappoo BK, Huczek Z, Jedrzejczyk S, ... Filipiak KJ, Dey D
Aims
We aimed to investigate the role of aortic valve tissue composition from quantitative cardiac computed tomography angiography (CTA) in patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) for the differentiation of disease subtypes and prognostication after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI).
Methods and results
Our study included 447 consecutive AS patients from six high-volume centres reporting to a prospective nationwide registry of TAVI procedures (POL-TAVI), who underwent cardiac CTA before TAVI, and 224 matched controls with normal aortic valves. Components of aortic valve tissue were identified using semi-automated software as calcific and non-calcific. Volumes of each tissue component and composition [(tissue component volume/total tissue volume) × 100%] were quantified. Relationship of aortic valve composition with clinical outcomes post-TAVI was evaluated using Valve Academic Research Consortium (VARC)-2 definitions.High-gradient (HG) AS patients had significantly higher aortic tissue volume compared to low-flow low-gradient (LFLG)-AS (1672.7 vs. 1395.3 mm3, P < 0.001) as well as controls (509.9 mm3, P < 0.001), but increased non-calcific tissue was observed in LFLG compared to HG patients (1063.6 vs. 860.2 mm3, P < 0.001). Predictive value of aortic valve calcium score [area under the curve (AUC) 0.989, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.981-0.996] for severe AS was improved after addition of non-calcific tissue volume (AUC 0.995, 95% CI: 0.991-0.999, P = 0.011). In the multivariable analysis of clinical and quantitative computed tomography parameters of aortic valve tissue, non-calcific tissue volume [odds ratio (OR) 5.2, 95% CI 1.8-15.4, P = 0.003] and history of stroke (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.5, P = 0.037) were independent predictors of 30-day major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE).
Conclusion
Quantitative CTA assessment of aortic valve tissue volume and composition can improve detection of severe AS, differentiation between HG and LFLG-AS in patients referred for TAVI as well as prediction of 30-day MACEs post-TAVI, over the current clinical standard.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:626-635
Grodecki K, Tamarappoo BK, Huczek Z, Jedrzejczyk S, ... Filipiak KJ, Dey D
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:626-635 | PMID: 33247903
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Impact:
Abstract

Computed tomography imaging needs for novel transcatheter tricuspid valve repair and replacement therapies.

Hell MM, Emrich T, Kreidel F, Kreitner KF, ... Münzel T, von Bardeleben RS
Transcatheter tricuspid valve therapies are an emerging field in structural heart interventions due to the rising number of patients with severe tricuspid regurgitation and the high risk for surgical treatment. Computed tomography (CT) allows exact measurements of the annular plane, evaluation of adjacent structures, assessment of the access route, and can also be used to identify optimal fluoroscopic projection planes to enhance periprocedural imaging. This review provides an overview of current transcatheter tricuspid valve repair and replacement therapies and to what extent CT can support these interventions.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:601-610
Hell MM, Emrich T, Kreidel F, Kreitner KF, ... Münzel T, von Bardeleben RS
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:601-610 | PMID: 33247897
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Impact:
Abstract

Imaging the adult with simple shunt lesions: position paper from the EACVI and the ESC WG on ACHD. Endorsed by AEPC (Association for European Paediatric and Congenital Cardiology).

Budts W, Miller O, Babu-Narayan SV, Li W, ... Gatzoulis M, Di Salvo G
In 2018, the position paper \'Imaging the adult with congenital heart disease: a multimodality imaging approach\' was published. The paper highlights, in the first part, the different imaging modalities applied in adult congenital heart disease patients. In the second part, these modalities are discussed more detailed for moderate to complex anatomical defects. Because of the length of the paper, simple lesions were not touched on. However, imaging modalities to use for simple shunt lesions are still poorly known. One is looking for structured recommendations on which they can rely when dealing with an (undiscovered) shunt lesion. This information is lacking for the initial diagnostic process, during repair and at follow-up. Therefore, this paper will focus on atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, and persistent arterial duct. Pre-, intra-, and post-procedural imaging techniques will be systematically discussed. This position paper will offer algorithms that might help at a glance. The document is prepared for general cardiologists, trainees, medical students, imagers/technicians to select the most appropriate imaging modality and to detect the requested information for each specific lesion. It might serve as reference to which researchers could refer when setting up a (imaging) study.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:e58-e70
Budts W, Miller O, Babu-Narayan SV, Li W, ... Gatzoulis M, Di Salvo G
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:e58-e70 | PMID: 33338215
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Abstract

Right atrial volume is a major determinant of tricuspid annulus area in functional tricuspid regurgitation: a three-dimensional echocardiographic study.

Muraru D, Addetia K, Guta AC, Ochoa-Jimenez RC, ... Badano LP, Lang RM
Aims
The aim of this study is to explore the relationships of tricuspid annulus area (TAA) with right atrial maximal volume (RAVmax) and right ventricular end-diastolic volume (RVEDV) in healthy subjects and patients with functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) of different aetiologies and severities.
Methods and results
We enrolled 280 patients (median age 66 years, 59% women) with FTR due to left heart disease (LHD), pulmonary hypertension (PH), corrected tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), chronic atrial fibrillation (AF), and 210 healthy volunteers (45 years, 53% women). We measured TAA at mid-systole and end-diastole, tenting volume of tricuspid leaflets, RAVmax, and RVEDV by 3D echocardiography. Irrespective of TA measurement timing, TAA correlated more closely with RAVmax than with RVEDV in both controls and FTR patients. On multivariable analysis, RAVmax was the most important determinant of TAA, accounting for 41% (normals) and 56% (FTR) of TAA variance. In FTR patients, age, RVEDV, and left ventricular ejection fraction were also independently correlated with TAA. RAVmax (AUC = 0.81) and TAA (AUC = 0.78) had a greater ability than RVEDV (AUC = 0.72) to predict severe FTR (P < 0.05). Among FTR patients, those with AF had the largest RAVmax and smallest RVEDV. RAVmax and TA were significantly dilated in all FTR groups, except in TOF. PH and TOF had largest RVEDV, yet tenting volume was increased only in PH and LHD.
Conclusion
RA volume is a major determinant of TAA, and RA enlargement is an important mechanism of TA dilation in FTR irrespective of cardiac rhythm and RV loading conditions.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:660-669
Muraru D, Addetia K, Guta AC, Ochoa-Jimenez RC, ... Badano LP, Lang RM
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:660-669 | PMID: 33387441
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Abstract

EACVI recommendations on cardiovascular imaging for the detection of embolic sources: endorsed by the Canadian Society of Echocardiography.

Cohen A, Donal E, Delgado V, Pepi M, ... Reviewers: This document was reviewed by members of the 2018–2020 EACVI Scientific Documents Committee , chair of the 2018–2020 EACVI Scientific Documents Committee
Cardioaortic embolism to the brain accounts for approximately 15-30% of ischaemic strokes and is often referred to as \'cardioembolic stroke\'. One-quarter of patients have more than one cardiac source of embolism and 15% have significant cerebrovascular atherosclerosis. After a careful work-up, up to 30% of ischaemic strokes remain \'cryptogenic\', recently redefined as \'embolic strokes of undetermined source\'. The diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke remains difficult because a potential cardiac source of embolism does not establish the stroke mechanism. The role of cardiac imaging-transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE), cardiac computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-in the diagnosis of potential cardiac sources of embolism, and for therapeutic guidance, is reviewed in these recommendations. Contrast TTE/TOE is highly accurate for detecting left atrial appendage thrombosis in patients with atrial fibrillation, valvular and prosthesis vegetations and thrombosis, aortic arch atheroma, patent foramen ovale, atrial septal defect, and intracardiac tumours. Both CT and MRI are highly accurate for detecting cavity thrombosis, intracardiac tumours, and valvular prosthesis thrombosis. Thus, CT and cardiac magnetic resonance should be considered in addition to TTE and TOE in the detection of a cardiac source of embolism. We propose a diagnostic algorithm where vascular imaging and contrast TTE/TOE are considered the first-line tool in the search for a cardiac source of embolism. CT and MRI are considered as alternative and complementary tools, and their indications are described on a case-by-case approach.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:e24-e57
Cohen A, Donal E, Delgado V, Pepi M, ... Reviewers: This document was reviewed by members of the 2018–2020 EACVI Scientific Documents Committee , chair of the 2018–2020 EACVI Scientific Documents Committee
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:e24-e57 | PMID: 33709114
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Abstract

Prevalence and extent of mitral annular disjunction in structurally normal hearts: comprehensive 3D analysis using cardiac computed tomography.

Toh H, Mori S, Izawa Y, Fujita H, ... Tretter JT, Hirata KI
Aims
Mitral annular disjunction is fibrous separation between the attachment of the posterior mitral leaflet and the basal left ventricular myocardium initially described in dissected hearts. Currently, it is commonly evaluated by echocardiography, and potential relationships with mitral valve prolapse and ventricular arrhythmia have been suggested. However, controversy remains as its prevalence and extent have not been fully elucidated in normal living subjects.
Methods and results
Systolic datasets of cardiac computed tomography obtained from 98 patients (mean age, 69.1 ± 12.6 years; 81% men) with structurally normal hearts were assessed retrospectively. Circumferential extent of both mitral leaflets and disjunction was determined by rotating orthogonal multiplanar reconstruction images around the central axis of the mitral valvar orifice. Distribution angle within the circumference of the mitral valvar attachment and maximal height of disjunction were quantified. In total, 96.0% of patients demonstrated disjunction. Average distribution angles of the anterior and posterior mitral leaflets were 91.3 ± 9.4° and 269.8 ± 9.7°, respectively. Average distribution angle of the disjunction was 105.1 ± 49.2°, corresponding to 39.0 ± 18.2% of the entire posterior mitral valvar attachment. Median value of the maximal height of disjunction was 3.0 (1.5-7.0) mm. Distribution prevalence map of the disjunction revealed characteristic double peaks, with frequent sites of the disjunction located at the anterior to antero-lateral and inferior to infero-septal regions.
Conclusion
Mitral annular disjunction is a rather common finding in the normal adult heart with bimodal distribution predominantly observed involving the P1 and P3 scallops of the posterior mitral leaflet.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:614-622
Toh H, Mori S, Izawa Y, Fujita H, ... Tretter JT, Hirata KI
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; 22:614-622 | PMID: 33713105
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Abstract

EACVI survey on the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function.

Sitges M, Ajmone Marsan N, Cameli M, D\'Andrea A, ... Haugaa KH, Dweck MR
Aims
The aim of this study is to analyse how current recommendations on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function assessment have been adopted. Identifying potential discrepancies between recommendations and everyday clinical practice would enable us to better understand and address the remaining challenges in this controversial and complex field.
Methods and results
A total of 93 centres, mainly from tertiary care settings, responded to the survey. More than three-quarters (77%) of centres follow the 2016 ASE/EACVI recommendations for LV diastolic function evaluation in patients with preserved ejection fraction based upon e\', E/e\', tricuspid regurgitation velocity, and left atrial (LA) volume. These recommendations were generally preferred to the previous 2009 version. Many centres also consider strain assessments in the LV (48%) and left atrium (53%) as well as diastolic stress echocardiography (33%) to be useful as additional assessments of LV diastolic function. Echocardiographic assessments of LV diastolic function were used frequently to guide therapy in 72% of centres.
Conclusion
There is widespread adoption of current recommendation on the evaluation of LV diastolic function and these are frequently used to guide patient management. Many centres now also consider LV and LA strain assessments useful in the clinical assessment of diastolic function. These may be considered in future recommendations.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Sitges M, Ajmone Marsan N, Cameli M, D'Andrea A, ... Haugaa KH, Dweck MR
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33969402
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Abstract

Incidence and clinical relevance of left atrial appendage membranes: a new congenital heart disease?

Cresti A, Solari M, Gismondi AL, Baratta P, ... Breschi M, Limbruno U
Aims
Left atrial appendage (LAA) membranes are rare congenital anomalies. Those involving the appendage orifice may obstruct its emptying flows, thus promoting blood stasis and clot formation. However, the epidemiology of LAA membranes has never been studied and a correlation with appendage thrombosis has never been proved. Very few case reports described LAA membranes, therefore, their frequency and clinical significance are not known. Moreover, their presence and degree are of crucial importance in planning LAA percutaneous closure, a procedure whose indication is evolving, and whether their presence can represent technical issues during the device implantation is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the incidence and the clinical significance of LAA membranes.
Methods and results
A population of 6030 consecutive transoesophageal echo (TOE) studies has been retrospectively reviewed in order to find those patients in whom an LAA membrane has been found. A literature research has been performed to review previous described cases. Among 6030 TOE cases, an LAA membrane has been described in 6 (prevalence of 1/1000). In one case, the membrane was associated to a severe LAA hypoplasia and in another case to an LAA thrombus (these represent the first cases ever described). All patients had an atrial fibrillation (AF) history and two were in AF during the TOE exam.
Conclusion
LAA membranes are rare congenital abnormalities occasionally discovered during a TOE exam, frequently in patients affected by AF. In half of the cases, they obstruct the LAA flow, thus theoretically pre-disposing to clot formation. They may be rarely associated to an appendage hypoplasia. During a TOE exam, cardiac imagers should always rule out their presence.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 04 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Cresti A, Solari M, Gismondi AL, Baratta P, ... Breschi M, Limbruno U
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 04 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33948621
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Abstract

Dynamic nature of the LVOT following transcatheter mitral valve replacement with LAMPOON: new insights from post-procedure imaging.

Kohli K, Wei ZA, Sadri V, Khan JM, ... Yoganathan AP, Babaliaros VC
Aims
To characterize the dynamic nature of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) geometry and flow rate in patients following transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) with anterior leaflet laceration (LAMPOON) and derive insights to help guide future patient selection.
Methods and results
Time-resolved LVOT geometry and haemodynamics were analysed with post-procedure computed tomography and echocardiography in subjects (N = 19) from the LAMPOON investigational device exemption trial. A novel post hoc definition for LVOT obstruction was employed to account for systolic flow rate and quality of life improvement [obstruction was defined as LVOT gradient >30 mmHg or LVOT effective orifice area (EOA) ≤1.15 cm2]. The neo-LVOT and skirt neo-LVOT were observed to vary substantially in area throughout systole (64 ± 27% and 25 ± 14% change in area, respectively). The peak systolic flow rate occurred most commonly just prior to mid-systole, while minimum neo-LVOT (and skirt neo-LVOT) area occurred most commonly in early-diastole. Subjects with LVOT obstruction (n = 5) had smaller skirt neo-LVOT values across systole. Optimal thresholds for skirt neo-LVOT area were phase-specific (260, 210, 200, and 180 mm2 for early-systole, peak flow, mid-systole, and end-systole, respectively).
Conclusion
The LVOT geometry and flow rate exhibit dynamic characteristics following TMVR with LAMPOON. Subjects with LVOT obstruction had smaller skirt neo-LVOT areas across systole. The authors recommend the use of phase-specific threshold values for skirt neo-LVOT area to guide future patient selection for this procedure. LVOT EOA is a \'flow-independent\' metric which has the potential to aid in characterizing LVOT obstruction severity.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Kohli K, Wei ZA, Sadri V, Khan JM, ... Yoganathan AP, Babaliaros VC
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34009283
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Impact:
Abstract

Long-term implications of left atrial appendage thrombus identified incidentally by pre-procedural cardiac computed tomography angiography in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

Szekely Y, Shmilovich H, Hochstadt A, Ghantous E, ... Finkelstein A, Halkin A
Aims
The prevalence and prognostic implications of left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus (LAAT) in patients considered for transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) are incompletely defined. We, therefore, studied pre-procedural cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) scans of TAVR candidates to determine the prevalence of LAAT and its association with late outcomes.
Methods and results
Baseline clinical variables and CCTA findings from a prospective TAVR registry were analysed for the prevalence of pre-procedural LAAT and its impact on in-hospital outcomes and late mortality. LAAT was differentiated from LAA filling defects (LAAFD) reflecting stasis without clot. Patients (n = 561) with complete in-hospital and late mortality data were included in the study (median follow-up 31.6 months). LAAT and LAAFD were evidenced on pre-procedural CCTA in 24 (4.3%) and 26 (4.6%) patients, respectively. One hundred fourteen (20.3%) patients died during the study period. Though in-hospital adverse event rates (including stroke) did not differ among groups, mortality at long-term follow-up was higher among LAAT patients compared with those with or without LAAFD (58.3% vs. 11.5% vs. 19.0%, respectively; P < 0.003). By multivariable analysis, LAAT (but not LAAFD) was independently associated with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) = 3.33 (1.83-6.00), P < 0.001]. In patients with LAAT, oral anticoagulation at discharge was associated with lower mortality risk, independently of atrial fibrillation status.
Conclusions
LAAT visualized by pre-procedural CCTA is an independent predictor of late mortality following TAVR, but not peri-procedural stroke. When reporting TAVR-CCTA, particular note should be made of LAA features and presence of LAAT which may have prognostic and management implications.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:563-571
Szekely Y, Shmilovich H, Hochstadt A, Ghantous E, ... Finkelstein A, Halkin A
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:563-571 | PMID: 32154881
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Abstract

Impaired myocardial reserve underlies reduced exercise capacity and heart rate recovery in preterm-born young adults.

Huckstep OJ, Burchert H, Williamson W, Telles F, ... Leeson P, Lewandowski AJ
Aims 
We tested the hypothesis that the known reduction in myocardial functional reserve in preterm-born young adults is an independent predictor of exercise capacity (peak VO2) and heart rate recovery (HRR).
Methods and results 
We recruited 101 normotensive young adults (n = 47 born preterm; 32.8 ± 3.2 weeks\' gestation and n = 54 term-born controls). Peak VO2 was determined by cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), and lung function assessed using spirometry. Percentage predicted values were then calculated. HRR was defined as the decrease from peak HR to 1 min (HRR1) and 2 min of recovery (HRR2). Four-chamber echocardiography views were acquired at rest and exercise at 40% and 60% of CPET peak power. Change in left ventricular ejection fraction from rest to each work intensity was calculated (EFΔ40% and EFΔ60%) to estimate myocardial functional reserve. Peak VO2 and per cent of predicted peak VO2 were lower in preterm-born young adults compared with controls (33.6 ± 8.6 vs. 40.1 ± 9.0 mL/kg/min, P = 0.003 and 94% ± 20% vs. 108% ± 25%, P = 0.001). HRR1 was similar between groups. HRR2 decreased less in preterm-born young adults compared with controls (-36 ± 13 vs. -43 ± 11 b.p.m., P = 0.039). In young adults born preterm, but not in controls, EFΔ40% and EFΔ60% correlated with per cent of predicted peak VO2 (r2 = 0.430, P = 0.015 and r2 = 0.345, P = 0.021). Similarly, EFΔ60% correlated with HRR1 and HRR2 only in those born preterm (r2 = 0.611, P = 0.002 and r2 = 0.663, P = 0.001).
Conclusions 
Impaired myocardial functional reserve underlies reductions in peak VO2 and HRR in young adults born moderately preterm. Peak VO2 and HRR may aid risk stratification and treatment monitoring in this population.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:572-580
Huckstep OJ, Burchert H, Williamson W, Telles F, ... Leeson P, Lewandowski AJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:572-580 | PMID: 32301979
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Abstract

Variation in left ventricular cardiac magnetic resonance normal reference ranges: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Raisi-Estabragh Z, Kenawy AAM, Aung N, Cooper J, ... Petersen SE, Khanji MY
Aims
To determine population-related and technical sources of variation in cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) reference ranges for left ventricular (LV) quantification through a formal systematic review and meta-analysis.
Methods and results
This study is registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (CRD42019147161). Relevant studies were identified through electronic searches and assessed by two independent reviewers based on predefined criteria. Fifteen studies comprising 2132 women and 1890 men aged 20-91 years are included in the analysis. Pooled LV reference ranges calculated using random effects meta-analysis with inverse variance weighting revealed significant differences by age, sex, and ethnicity. Men had larger LV volumes and higher LV mass than women [LV end-diastolic volume (mean difference = 6.1 mL/m2, P-value = 0.014), LV end-systolic volume (MD = 4 mL/m2, P-value = 0.033), LV mass (mean difference = 12 g/m2, P-value = 7.8 × 10-9)]. Younger individuals had larger LV end-diastolic volumes than older ages (20-40 years vs. ≥65 years: women MD = 14.0 mL/m2, men MD = 14.7 mL/m2). East Asians (Chinese, Korean, Singaporean-Chinese, n = 514) had lower LV mass than Caucasians (women: MD = 6.4 g/m2, P-value = 0.016; men: MD = 9.8 g/m2, P-value = 6.7 × 10-5). Between-study heterogeneity was high for all LV parameters despite stratification by population-related factors. Sensitivity analyses identified differences in contouring methodology, magnet strength, and post-processing software as potential sources of heterogeneity.
Conclusion
There is significant variation between CMR normal reference ranges due to multiple population-related and technical factors. Whilst there is need for population-stratified reference ranges, limited sample sizes and technical heterogeneity precludes derivation of meaningful unified ranges from existing reports. Wider representation of different populations and standardization of image analysis is urgently needed to establish such reference distributions.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:494-504
Raisi-Estabragh Z, Kenawy AAM, Aung N, Cooper J, ... Petersen SE, Khanji MY
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:494-504 | PMID: 32460308
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Abstract

Sex differences in aortic valve calcification in severe aortic valve stenosis: association between computer tomography assessed calcification and valvular calcium concentrations.

Linde L, Carter-Storch R, Christensen NL, Øvrehus KA, ... Møller JE, Dahl JS
Aims
The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation and sex differences between total valve calcium, valve calcium concentration, and aortic valve calcification (AVC) in explanted valves from patients with severe aortic valve stenosis undergoing aortic valve replacement (AVR).
Methods and results
Sixty-nine patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) scheduled for elective AVR underwent echocardiography and cardiac computed tomography (CT) prior to surgery (AVCin vivo) and CT of the explanted aortic valve (AVCex vivo). Explanted valves were prepared in acid solution, sonicated, and analysed with Arsenazo III dye to estimate total valve calcium and valve calcium concentration. Median AVCex vivo was 2082 (1421-2973) AU; mean valve calcium concentration was 1.43 ± 0.42 µmol Ca2+/mg tissue; median total valve calcium 156 (111-255) mg Ca2+, and valve calcium density 52 (35-81) mg/cm2. AVC displayed a strong correlation with total valve calcium (R2 = 0.98, P < 0.001) and a moderate correlation with valve calcium concentration (R2 = 0.62, P < 0.001). Valvular calcium concentration was associated with sex, aortic valve area, and mean gradient. After adjusting for age and estimated glomerular filtration rate, sex and mean gradient remained associated with valve calcium concentrations.
Conclusion
AVC score provides a strong estimate for total valve calcium but to a lesser degree calcium concentration in the valve tissue of patients with severe AS. Females presented lower valvular calcium concentrations than males irrespective of AS severity, adding evidence and providing support to the important point that sex differences in valvular calcium concentration in AS does not reflect valvular size.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:581-588
Linde L, Carter-Storch R, Christensen NL, Øvrehus KA, ... Møller JE, Dahl JS
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:581-588 | PMID: 32500142
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Abstract

Assessment of left atrial electro-mechanical delay to predict atrial fibrillation in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Tjahjadi C, Hiemstra YL, van der Bijl P, Pio SM, ... Delgado V, Bax JJ
Aims
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is frequently observed in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is associated with poor clinical outcome. Total atrial conduction time, estimated by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI), the so-called PA-TDI duration, reflects the left atrial (LA) structural and electrical remodelling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between PA-TDI and new-onset AF in patients with HCM.
Methods and results
From a large cohort of patients with HCM, 208 patients (64% male, mean age 53 ± 14 years) without AF were selected. PA-TDI duration was measured from the onset P wave on electrocardiogram to the peak A\' wave of the lateral LA wall using TDI. The incidence of new-onset AF was 20% over a median follow-up of 7.3 (3.5-10.5) years. Patients with incident AF had longer PA-TDI duration when compared with patients without AF (133.7 ± 23.0 vs. 110.5 ± 30.0 ms, P < 0.001). PA-TDI duration was independently associated with new-onset AF (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.05, P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Prolonged PA-TDI duration was independently associated with new-onset AF in patients with HCM. This novel parameter could be useful to risk-stratify patients with HCM who are at risk of having AF.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:589-596
Tjahjadi C, Hiemstra YL, van der Bijl P, Pio SM, ... Delgado V, Bax JJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:589-596 | PMID: 32588037
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Abstract

Value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the evaluation of pulmonary artery activity in patients with Takayasu\'s arteritis.

Gao W, Gong JN, Guo XJ, Wu JY, ... Yang YH, Yang MF
Aims
To explore the value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in the detection of active pulmonary artery (PA) lesions in patients with Takayasu\'s arteritis (TA).
Methods and results
Consecutive TA patients with PA involvement were prospectively recruited. Clinical activity was assessed according to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) criteria. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) or magnetic resonance pulmonary angiography was performed for evaluation of vascular structural characteristics, and mural thickening was considered as radiologically active. A vascular segment with 18F-FDG uptake ≥ liver was considered as PET-active. A total of 38 18F-FDG PET/CT scans were performed in 29 patients. In terms of disease activity, the sensitivity of 18F-FDG PET/CT did not significantly differ from radiological imaging (71.4% vs. 92.9%, P = 0.250), but 18F-FDG PET/CT had higher specificity (91.7% vs. 37.5%, P = 0.001) and accuracy (84.2% vs. 57.9%, P = 0.022). Although the majority of PET-active PA segments (54.9%) showed mural thickening, 14 PA segments with normal structure were also PET-active. 18F-FDG activity did not significantly differ between the PA and aorta in clinically active patients. In addition, 18F-FDG activity of the PA was positively correlated with inflammatory markers. Changes in 18F-FDG activity in PA during follow-up reflected therapeutic effects.
Conclusion
18F-FDG PET/CT can effectively evaluate PA activity in TA patients, and its diagnostic performance is superior to radiological imaging. The 18F-FDG activity of PA shows a good correlation with clinical disease status and inflammatory markers and can be used to monitor therapeutic effects.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:541-550
Gao W, Gong JN, Guo XJ, Wu JY, ... Yang YH, Yang MF
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:541-550 | PMID: 32793972
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic impact of transcatheter mitral valve repair in patients with exercise-induced secondary mitral regurgitation.

Izumo M, Kuwata S, Ishibashi Y, Suzuki T, ... Harada T, Akashi YJ
Aims
Although exercise-induced secondary mitral regurgitation (MR) is known to have a poor prognosis, the therapeutic strategy towards this condition remains to be investigated. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic impact of transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) using the MitraClip in patients with exercise-induced secondary MR.
Methods and results
Of the 200 consecutive patients with secondary MR who underwent exercise stress echocardiography, 46 (23%) that presented with exercise-induced secondary MR [i.e. increase in effective regurgitant orifice area (EROA) of ≥ 0.13 cm2] were enrolled in the present investigation. The composite endpoints of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure were evaluated. Of the 46 patients included in the current cohort, 19 (41%) underwent TMVr and 27 (59%) were medically managed (control group). Although the TMVr group tended to present with a greater EROA at rest (0.26 ± 0.10 vs. 0.20 ± 0.08 cm2, P = 0.047), there were no differences in the EROA changes during exercise between the two groups (0.18 ± 0.10 vs. 0.18 ± 0.04 cm2, P = 0.940). While the TMVr group reported a higher event-free survival rate after the 13-month follow-up period (log-rank P = 0.017), the Cox proportional-hazard analysis suggested the TMVr to be associated with clinical outcomes (hazard ratio: 0.419, P = 0.044).
Conclusion
As opposed to the medical management, TMVr treatment was associated with a lower risk of composite endpoints in patients with exercise-induced secondary MR. Exercise stress echocardiography is considered to have played an important role in decision-making for secondary MR.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:530-538
Izumo M, Kuwata S, Ishibashi Y, Suzuki T, ... Harada T, Akashi YJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:530-538 | PMID: 32856088
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Impact:
Abstract

Stress CMR in patients with obesity: insights from the Stress CMR Perfusion Imaging in the United States (SPINS) registry.

Ge Y, Steel K, Antiochos P, Bingham S, ... Simonetti OP, Kwong RY
Aims
Non-invasive assessment and risk stratification of coronary artery disease in patients with large body habitus is challenging. We aim to examine whether body mass index (BMI) modifies the prognostic value and diagnostic utility of stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in a multicentre registry.
Methods and results
The SPINS Registry enrolled consecutive intermediate-risk patients who presented with a clinical indication for stress CMR in the USA between 2008 and 2013. Baseline demographic data including BMI, CMR indices, and ratings of study quality were collected. Primary outcome was defined by a composite of cardiovascular death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. Of the 2345 patients with available BMI included in the SPINS cohort, 1177 (50%) met criteria for obesity (BMI ≥ 30) with 531 (23%) at or above Class 2 obesity (BMI ≥ 35). In all BMI categories, >95% of studies were of diagnostic quality for cine, perfusion, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) sequences. At a median follow-up of 5.4 years, those without ischaemia and LGE experienced a low annual rate of hard events (<1%), across all BMI strata. In patients with obesity, both ischaemia [hazard ratio (HR): 2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-3.50; P = 0.003] and LGE (HR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.83-5.22; P < 0.001) maintained strong adjusted association with the primary outcome in a multivariable Cox regression model. Downstream referral rates to coronary angiography, revascularization, and cost of care spent on ischaemia testing did not significantly differ within the BMI categories.
Conclusion
In this large multicentre registry, elevated BMI did not negatively impact the diagnostic quality and the effectiveness of risk stratification of patients referred for stress CMR.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:518-527
Ge Y, Steel K, Antiochos P, Bingham S, ... Simonetti OP, Kwong RY
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:518-527 | PMID: 33166994
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Abstract

Diastolic dysfunction and mortality in 436 360 men and women: the National Echo Database Australia (NEDA).

Playford D, Strange G, Celermajer DS, Evans G, ... Prior D, NEDA Investigators
Aims 
To examine the characteristics/prognostic impact of diastolic dysfunction (DD) according to 2016 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and European Society of Cardiovascular Imaging (ESCVI) guidelines, and individual parameters of DD.
Methods and results 
Data were derived from a large multicentre mortality-linked echocardiographic registry comprising 436 360 adults with ≥1 diastolic function measurement linked to 100 597 deaths during 2.2 million person-years follow-up. ASE/European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) algorithms could be applied in 392 009 (89.8%) cases; comprising 11.4% of cases with \'reduced\' left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF < 50%) and 88.6% with \'preserved\' LVEF (≥50%). Diastolic function was indeterminate in 21.5% and 62.2% of \'preserved\' and \'reduced\' LVEF cases, respectively. Among preserved LVEF cases, the risk of adjusted 5-year cardiovascular-related mortality was elevated in both DD [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-1.42; P < 0.001] and indeterminate status cases (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.04-1.18; P < 0.001) vs. no DD. Among impaired LVEF cases, the equivalent risk of cardiovascular-related mortality was 1.51 (95% CI 1.15-1.98, P < 0.001) for increased filling pressure vs. 1.25 (95% CI 0.96-1.64, P = 0.06) for indeterminate status. Mitral E velocity, septal e\' velocity, E:e\' ratio, and LAVi all correlated with mortality. On adjusted basis, pivot-points of increased risk for cardiovascular-related mortality occurred at 90 cm/s for E wave velocity, 9 cm/s for septal e\' velocity, an E:e\' ratio of 9, and an LAVi of 32 mL/m2.
Conclusion 
ASE/EACVI-classified DD is correlated with increased mortality. However, many cases remain \'indeterminate\'. Importantly, when analysed individually, mitral E velocity, septal e\' velocity, E:e\' ratio, and LAVi revealed clear pivot-points of increased risk of cardiovascular-related mortality.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:505-515
Playford D, Strange G, Celermajer DS, Evans G, ... Prior D, NEDA Investigators
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:505-515 | PMID: 33245344
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Abstract

The role of myocardial innervation imaging in different clinical scenarios: an expert document of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging and Cardiovascular Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine.

Gimelli A, Liga R, Agostini D, Bengel FM, ... Verschure DO, Slart RHJA
Cardiac sympathetic activity plays a key role in supporting cardiac function in both health and disease conditions, and nuclear cardiac imaging has always represented the only way for the non-invasive evaluation of the functional integrity of cardiac sympathetic terminals, mainly through the use of radiopharmaceuticals that are analogues of norepinephrine and, in particular, with the use of 123I-mIBG imaging. This technique demonstrates the presence of cardiac sympathetic dysfunction in different cardiac pathologies, linking the severity of sympathetic nervous system impairment to adverse patient\'s prognosis. This article will outline the state-of-the-art of cardiac 123I-mIBG imaging and define the value and clinical applications in the different fields of cardiovascular diseases.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:480-490
Gimelli A, Liga R, Agostini D, Bengel FM, ... Verschure DO, Slart RHJA
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:480-490 | PMID: 33523108
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Abstract

The structural heart disease interventional imager rationale, skills and training: a position paper of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

Agricola E, Ancona F, Brochet E, Donal E, ... Edvardsen T, Reviewers: This document was reviewed by members of the 2018-2020 EACVI Scientific Documents Committee
Percutaneous therapeutic options for an increasing variety of structural heart diseases (SHD) have grown dramatically. Within this context of continuous expansion of devices and procedures, there has been increased demand for physicians with specific knowledge, skills, and advanced training in multimodality cardiac imaging. As a consequence, a new subspecialty of \'Interventional Imaging\' for SHD interventions and a new dedicated professional figure, the \'Interventional Imager\' with specific competencies has emerged. The interventional imager is an integral part of the heart team and plays a central role in decision-making throughout the patient pathway, including the appropriateness and feasibility of a procedure, pre-procedural planning, intra-procedural guidance, and post-procedural follow-up. However, inherent challenges exist to develop a training programme for SHD imaging that differs from traditional cardiovascular imaging pathways. The purpose of this document is to provide the standard requirements for the training in SHD imaging, as well as a starting point for an official certification process for SHD interventional imager.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:471-479
Agricola E, Ancona F, Brochet E, Donal E, ... Edvardsen T, Reviewers: This document was reviewed by members of the 2018-2020 EACVI Scientific Documents Committee
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 27 Apr 2021; 22:471-479 | PMID: 33564848
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This program is still in alpha version.