Journal: Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging

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Abstract

Anatomical and functional coronary imaging to predict long-term outcome in patients with suspected coronary artery disease: the EVINCI-outcome study.

Neglia D, Liga R, Caselli C, Carpeggiani C, ... Knuuti J,
Aims
To investigate the prognostic relevance of coronary anatomy, coronary function, and early revascularization in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods and results
From March 2009 to June 2012, 430 patients with suspected CAD (61 ± 9 years, 62% men) underwent coronary anatomical imaging by computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) and coronary functional imaging followed by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) if at least one non-invasive test was abnormal. Obstructive CAD was documented by ICA in 119 patients and 90 were revascularized within 90 days of enrolment. Core laboratory analysis showed that 134 patients had obstructive CAD by CTCA (>50% stenosis in major coronary vessels) and 79 significant ischaemia by functional imaging [>10% left ventricular (LV) myocardium]. Over mean follow-up of 4.4 years, major adverse events (AEs) (all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or hospital admission for unstable angina or heart failure) or AEs plus late revascularization (LR) occurred in 40 (9.3%) and 58 (13.5%) patients, respectively. Obstructive CAD at CTCA was the only independent imaging predictor of AEs [hazard ratio (HR) 3.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-9.30; P = 0.033] and AEs plus LR (HR 4.3, 95% CI 1.56-11.81; P = 0.005). Patients with CAD in whom early revascularization was performed in the presence of ischaemia and deferred in its absence had fewer AEs, similar to patients without CAD (HR 2.0, 95% CI 0.71-5.51; P = 0.195).
Conclusion
Obstructive CAD imaged by CTCA is an independent predictor of clinical outcome. Early management of CAD targeted to the combined anatomical and functional disease phenotype improves clinical outcome.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 07 Nov 2019; epub ahead of print
Neglia D, Liga R, Caselli C, Carpeggiani C, ... Knuuti J,
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 07 Nov 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31701136
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Abstract

Vascular age derived from coronary artery calcium score on the risk stratification of individuals with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia.

Miname MH, Bittencourt MS, Pereira AC, Jannes CE, ... Nasir K, Santos RD
Aims
The objective of this study was to evaluate if vascular age derived from coronary artery calcium (CAC) score improves atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk discrimination in primary prevention asymptomatic heterozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) patients undergoing standard lipid-lowering therapy.
Methods and results
Two hundred and six molecularly confirmed FH individuals (age 45 ± 14 years, 36% males, baseline LDL-cholesterol 6.2 ± 2.2 mmol/L; 239 ± 85mg/dL) were followed by 4.4 ± 2.9 years (median: 3.7 years, interquartile ranges 2.7-6.8). CAC measurement was performed, and lipid-lowering therapy was optimized according to FH guidelines. Vascular age was derived from CAC and calculated according to the Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis algorithm. Risk estimation based on the Framingham equations was calculated for both biological (bFRS) and vascular (vaFRS) age. During follow-up, 15 ASCVD events (7.2%) were documented. The annualized rate of events for bFRS <10%, 10-20%, and >20% was respectively: 8.45 [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.17-22.52], 23.28 (95% CI 9.69-55.94), and 28.13 (95% CI 12.63-62.61) per 1000 patients. The annualized rate of events for vaFRS <10%, 10-20%, and >20% was respectively: 0, 0, and 50.37 (95% CI 30.37-83.56) per 1000 patients. vaFRS presented a better discrimination for ASCVD events compared to bFRS 0.7058 (95% CI 0.5866-0.8250) vs. vaFRS 0.8820 (95% CI 0.8286-0.9355), P = 0.0005.
Conclusion
CAC derived vascular age can improve ASCVD risk discrimination in primary prevention FH subjects. This tool may help further stratify risk in FH patients already receiving lipid-lowering medication who might be candidates for further treatment with newer therapies.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 07 Nov 2019; epub ahead of print
Miname MH, Bittencourt MS, Pereira AC, Jannes CE, ... Nasir K, Santos RD
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 07 Nov 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31702778
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Abstract

Myocardial fibrosis in arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy: a genotype-phenotype correlation study.

Segura-Rodríguez D, Bermúdez-Jiménez FJ, Carriel V, López-Fernández S, ... Tercedor L, Jiménez-Jáimez J
Aims
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) is a life-threatening entity with a highly heterogeneous genetic background. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging can identify fibrofatty scar by late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Our aim is to investigate genotype-phenotype correlation in ARVC/D mutation carriers, focusing on CMR-LGE and myocardial fibrosis patterns.
Methods and results
A cohort of 44 genotyped patients, 33 with definite and 11 with borderline ARVC/D diagnosis, was characterized using CMR and divided into groups according to their genetic condition (desmosomal, non-desmosomal mutation, or negative). We collected information on cardiac volumes and function, as well as LGE pattern and extension. In addition, available ventricular myocardium samples from patients with pathogenic gene mutations were histopathologically analysed. Half of the patients were women, with a mean age of 41.6 ± 17.5 years. Next-generation sequencing identified a potential pathogenic mutation in 71.4% of the probands. The phenotype varied according to genetic status, with non-desmosomal male patients showing lower left ventricular (LV) systolic function. LV fibrosis was similar between groups, but distribution in non-desmosomal patients was frequently located at the posterolateral LV wall; a characteristic LV subepicardial circumferential LGE pattern was significantly associated with ARVC/D caused by desmin mutation. Histological analysis showed increased fibrillar connective tissue and intercellular space in all the samples.
Conclusion
Desmosomal and non-desmosomal mutation carriers showed different morphofunctional features but similar LV LGE presence. DES mutation carriers can be identified by a specific and extensive LV subepicardial circumferential LGE pattern. Further studies should investigate the specificity of LGE in ARVC/D.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 07 Nov 2019; epub ahead of print
Segura-Rodríguez D, Bermúdez-Jiménez FJ, Carriel V, López-Fernández S, ... Tercedor L, Jiménez-Jáimez J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 07 Nov 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31702781
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Abstract

Imaging in ESC clinical guidelines: chronic coronary syndromes.

Saraste A, Barbato E, Capodanno D, Edvardsen T, ... Wijns W, Knuuti J

The European Society of Cardiology (ESC) has recently published new guidelines on the diagnosis and management of chronic coronary syndromes (CCS). The 2019 guideline identified six common clinical scenarios of CCS defined by the different evolutionary phases of coronary artery disease (CAD), excluding the situations in which an acute coronary event, often with coronary thrombus formation, dominates the clinical presentation. This review aims at providing a summary of novel or revised concepts in the guidelines together with the recent data underlying the major changes on the use of cardiac imaging in patients with suspected or known CCS. Based on data from contemporary cohorts of patients referred for diagnostic testing, the pre-test probabilities of CAD based on age, sex and symptoms have been adjusted substantially downward as compared with 2013 ESC guidelines. Further, the impact of various risk factors and modifiers on the pre-test probability was highlighted and a new concept of \'Clinical likelihood of CAD\' was introduced. Recommendations regarding diagnostic tests to establish or rule-out obstructive CAD have been updated with recent data on their diagnostic performance in different patient groups and impact on patient outcome. As the initial strategy to diagnose CAD in symptomatic patients, non-invasive functional imaging for myocardial ischaemia, coronary computed tomography angiography or invasive coronary angiography combined with functional evaluation may be used, unless obstructive CAD can be excluded by clinical assessment alone. When available, imaging tests instead of the exercise electrocardiogram are recommended when following the non-invasive diagnostic strategy.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]up.com.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1187-1197
Saraste A, Barbato E, Capodanno D, Edvardsen T, ... Wijns W, Knuuti J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1187-1197 | PMID: 31642920
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Abstract

Carotid intraplaque neovascularization predicts coronary artery disease and cardiovascular events.

Mantella LE, Colledanchise KN, Hétu MF, Feinstein SB, Abunassar J, Johri AM
Aims
It is thought that the majority of cardiovascular (CV) events are caused by vulnerable plaque. Such lesions are rupture prone, in part due to neovascularization. It is postulated that plaque vulnerability may be a systemic process and that vulnerable lesions may co-exist at multiple sites in the vascular bed. This study sought to examine whether carotid plaque vulnerability, characterized by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS)-assessed intraplaque neovascularization (IPN), was associated with significant coronary artery disease (CAD) and future CV events.
Methods and results
We investigated carotid IPN using carotid CEUS in 459 consecutive stable patients referred for coronary angiography. IPN was graded based on the presence and location of microbubbles within each plaque (0, not visible; 1, peri-adventitial; and 2, plaque core). The grades of each plaque were averaged to obtain an overall score per patient. Coronary plaque severity and complexity was also determined angiographically. Patients were followed for 30 days following their angiogram. This study found that a higher CEUS-assessed carotid IPN score was associated with significant CAD (≥50% stenosis) (1.8 ± 0.4 vs. 0.5 ± 0.6, P < 0.0001) and greater complexity of coronary lesions (1.7 ± 0.5 vs. 1.3 ± 0.8, P < 0.0001). Furthermore, an IPN score ≥1.25 could predict significant CAD with a high sensitivity (92%) and specificity (89%). The Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated a significantly higher proportion of participants having CV events with an IPN score ≥1.25 (P = 0.004).
Conclusion
Carotid plaque neovascularization was found to be predictive of significant and complex CAD and future CV events. CEUS-assessed carotid IPN is a clinically useful tool for CV risk stratification in high-risk cardiac patients.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1239-1247
Mantella LE, Colledanchise KN, Hétu MF, Feinstein SB, Abunassar J, Johri AM
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1239-1247 | PMID: 31621834
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Abstract

Impact of a decreasing pre-test probability on the performance of diagnostic tests for coronary artery disease.

Juarez-Orozco LE, Saraste A, Capodanno D, Prescott E, ... Wijns W, Knuuti J
Aims
To provide a pooled estimation of contemporary pre-test probabilities (PTPs) of significant coronary artery disease (CAD) across clinical patient categories, re-evaluate the utility of the application of diagnostic techniques according to such estimates, and propose a comprehensive diagnostic technique selection tool for suspected CAD.
Methods and results
Estimates of significant CAD prevalence across sex, age, and type of chest pain categories from three large-scale studies were pooled (n = 15 815). The updated PTPs and diagnostic performance profiles of exercise electrocardiogram, invasive coronary angiography, coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA), positron emission tomography (PET), stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), and SPECT were integrated to define the PTP ranges in which ruling-out CAD is possible with a post-test probability of <10% and <5%. These ranges were then integrated in a new colour-coded tabular diagnostic technique selection tool. The Bayesian relationship between PTP and the rate of diagnostic false positives was explored to complement the characterization of their utility. Pooled CAD prevalence was 14.9% (range = 1-52), clearly lower than that used in current clinical guidelines. Ruling-out capabilities of non-invasive imaging were good overall. The greatest ruling-out capacity (i.e. post-test probability <5%) was documented by CCTA, PET, and stress CMR. With decreasing PTP, the fraction of false positive findings rapidly increased, although a lower CAD prevalence partially cancels out such effect.
Conclusion
The contemporary PTP of significant CAD across symptomatic patient categories is substantially lower than currently assumed. With a low prevalence of the disease, non-invasive testing can rarely rule-in the disease and focus should shift to ruling-out obstructive CAD. The large proportion of false positive findings must be taken into account when patients with low PTP are investigated.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1198-1207
Juarez-Orozco LE, Saraste A, Capodanno D, Prescott E, ... Wijns W, Knuuti J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1198-1207 | PMID: 30982851
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Abstract

Fast manual long-axis strain assessment provides optimized cardiovascular event prediction following myocardial infarction.

Schuster A, Backhaus SJ, Stiermaier T, Kowallick JT, ... Thiele H, Eitel I
Aims
Cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) global longitudinal strain (GLS) provides incremental prognostic value following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) but requires substantial post-processing. Alternatively, manual global long-axis strain (LAS) can be easily assessed from standard steady state free precession images. We aimed to define the prognostic value of LAS in a large multicentre study in patients following AMI.
Methods and results
A total of 1235 patients with myocardial infarction [n = 795 with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and 440 with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)] underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in eight centres across Germany. Assessment of LAS was performed in a blinded core-laboratory measuring the systolic shortening between the epicardial apical border and the middle of a line connecting the origins of the mitral leaflets. Primary clinical endpoint was the occurrence of major adverse clinical events (MACE) including death, reinfarction, and congestive heart failure within 1 year after AMI. During 1-year follow-up, 76 patients suffered from MACE. Impaired LAS was associated with higher MACE occurrence both in STEMI (P < 0.001) and NSTEMI (P = 0.001) patients. Association of LAS remained significant (P = 0.017) after correction for univariate significant parameters for MACE prediction. C-statistics revealed incremental value of additional LAS assessment for optimized event prediction compared with left ventricular ejection fraction (MACE P = 0.044; mortality P = 0.013) and a combination of established clinical and imaging parameters (MACE P = 0.084; mortality P = 0.027), but not CMR-FT GLS (MACE P = 0.075; mortality P = 0.380).
Conclusion
LAS provides software independent, widely available, easy and fast approximation of longitudinal left ventricular shortening early after reperfused AMI with incremental prognostic value beyond established risk stratification parameters.
Clinical trials.gov
NCT00712101 and NCT01612312.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1262-1270
Schuster A, Backhaus SJ, Stiermaier T, Kowallick JT, ... Thiele H, Eitel I
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1262-1270 | PMID: 31329854
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Abstract

Long-term prognostic utility of computed tomography coronary angiography in older populations.

Gnanenthiran SR, Naoum C, Leipsic JA, Achenbach S, ... Kritharides L, Min JK
Aims
The long-term prognostic value of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)-identified coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been evaluated in elderly patients (≥70 years). We compared the ability of coronary CCTA to predict 5-year mortality in older vs. younger populations.
Methods and results
From the prospective CONFIRM (COronary CT Angiography EvaluatioN For Clinical Outcomes: An InteRnational Multicenter) registry, we analysed CCTA results according to age <70 years (n = 7198) vs. ≥70 years (n = 1786). The severity of CAD was classified according to: (i) maximal stenosis degree per vessel: none, non-obstructive (1-49%), or obstructive (>50%); (ii) segment involvement score (SIS): number of segments with plaque. Cox-proportional hazard models assessed the relationship between CCTA findings and time to mortality. At a mean 5.6 ± 1.1 year follow-up, CCTA-identified CAD predicted increased mortality compared with patients with a normal CCTA in both <70 years [non-obstructive hazard ratio (HR) confidence interval (CI): 1.70 (1.19-2.41); one-vessel: 1.65 (1.03-2.67); two-vessel: 2.24 (1.21-4.15); three-vessel/left main: 4.12 (2.27-7.46), P < 0.001] and ≥70 years [non-obstructive: 1.84 (1.15-2.95); one-vessel: HR (CI): 2.28 (1.37-3.81); two-vessel: 2.36 (1.33-4.19); three-vessel/left main: 2.41 (1.33-4.36), P = 0.014]. Similarly, SIS was predictive of mortality in both <70 years [SIS 1-3: 1.57 (1.10-2.24); SIS ≥4: 2.42 (1.65-3.57), P < 0.001] and ≥70 years [SIS 1-3: 1.73 (1.07-2.79); SIS ≥4: 2.45 (1.52-3.93), P < 0.001]. CCTA findings similarly predicted long-term major adverse cardiovascular outcomes (MACE) (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and late revascularization) in both groups compared with patients with no CAD.
Conclusion
The presence and extent of CAD is a meaningful stratifier of long-term mortality and MACE in patients aged <70 years and ≥70 years old. The presence of obstructive and non-obstructive disease and the burden of atherosclerosis determined by SIS remain important predictors of prognosis in older populations.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1279-1286
Gnanenthiran SR, Naoum C, Leipsic JA, Achenbach S, ... Kritharides L, Min JK
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1279-1286 | PMID: 30993334
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Abstract

Pre-test probability prediction in patients with a low to intermediate probability of coronary artery disease: a prospective study with a fractional flow reserve endpoint.

Winther S, Nissen L, Westra J, Schmidt SE, ... Bøtker HE, Bøttcher M
Aims
European and North American guidelines currently recommend pre-test probability (PTP) stratification based on simple probability models in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). However, no unequivocal recommendation has yet been established. We aimed to compare the ability of risk factors and different PTP stratification models to predict haemodynamically obstructive CAD with fractional flow reserve (FFR) as reference in low to intermediate probability patients.
Methods and results
We prospectively included 1675 patients with low to intermediate risk who had been referred to coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). Patients with coronary stenosis were subsequently investigated by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) with FFR measurement if indicated. Discrimination and calibration were assessed for four models: the updated Diamond-Forrester (UDF), the CAD Consortium Basic, the Clinical, and the Clinical + Coronary artery calcium score (CACS). At coronary CTA, 24% of patients were diagnosed with a suspected stenosis and 10% had haemodynamically obstructive CAD at the ICA. Calibration for all CAD Consortium models increased compared with the UDF score. However, all models overestimated the probability of haemodynamically obstructive CAD. Discrimination increased by area under the receiver operating curve from 67% to 86% for UDF vs. CAD Consortium Clinical + CACS. The proportion of low-probability patients (pre-test score < 15%) was for the UDF, CAD Consortium Basic, Clinical, and Clinical + CACS: 14%, 58%, 51%, and 66%, respectively. The corresponding negative predictive values were 97%, 94%, 95%, and 98%, respectively.
Conclusion
CAD Consortium models improve PTP stratification compared with the UDF score, mainly due to superior calibration in low to intermediate probability patients. Adding the coronary calcium score to the models substantially increases discrimination.
Clinical trials. gov identifier
NCT02264717.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1208-1218
Winther S, Nissen L, Westra J, Schmidt SE, ... Bøtker HE, Bøttcher M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1208-1218 | PMID: 31083725
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Abstract

Relationship between patient presentation and morphology of coronary atherosclerosis by quantitative multidetector computed tomography.

de Knegt MC, Linde JJ, Fuchs A, Pham MHC, ... Kofoed KF,
Aims
Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) allows assessment of morphological features of coronary atherosclerosis. We aimed to test the hypothesis that clinical patient presentation is associated with distinct morphological features of coronary atherosclerosis.
Methods and results
A total of 1652 participants, representing a spectrum of clinical risk profiles [787 asymptomatic individuals from the general population, 468 patients with acute chest pain without acute coronary syndrome (ACS), and 397 patients with acute chest pain and ACS], underwent multidetector computed tomography. Of these, 274 asymptomatic individuals, 254 patients with acute chest pain without ACS, and 327 patients with acute chest pain and ACS underwent QCT to assess coronary plaque volumes and proportions of dense calcium (DC), fibrous, fibro fatty (FF), and necrotic core (NC) tissue. Furthermore, the presence of vulnerable plaques, defined by plaque volume and tissue composition, was examined. Coronary plaque volume increased significantly with worsening clinical risk profile [geometric mean (95% confidence interval): 148 (129-166) mm3, 257 (224-295) mm3, and 407 (363-457) mm3, respectively, P < 0.001]. Plaque composition differed significantly across cohorts, P < 0.0001. The proportion of DC decreased, whereas FF and NC increased with worsening clinical risk profile (mean proportions DC: 33%, 23%, 23%; FF: 50%, 61%, 57%; and NC: 17%, 17%, 20%, respectively). Significant differences in plaque composition persisted after multivariable adjustment for age, gender, body surface area, hypertension, statin use at baseline, diabetes, smoking, family history of ischaemic heart disease, total plaque volume, and tube voltage, P < 0.01.
Conclusion
Coronary atherosclerotic plaque volume and composition are strongly associated to clinical presentation.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2018. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1221-1230
de Knegt MC, Linde JJ, Fuchs A, Pham MHC, ... Kofoed KF,
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1221-1230 | PMID: 30325406
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Abstract

Differential association between the progression of coronary artery calcium score and coronary plaque volume progression according to statins: the Progression of AtheRosclerotic PlAque DetermIned by Computed TomoGraphic Angiography Imaging (PARADIGM) study.

Lee SE, Sung JM, Andreini D, Budoff MJ, ... Min JK, Chang HJ
Aims
Coronary artery calcium score (CACS) is a strong predictor of major adverse cardiac events (MACE). Conversely, statins, which markedly reduce MACE risk, increase CACS. We explored whether CACS progression represents compositional plaque volume (PV) progression differently according to statin use.
Methods and results
From a prospective multinational registry of consecutive patients (n = 2252) who underwent serial coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) at a ≥ 2-year interval, 654 patients (61 ± 10 years, 56% men, inter-scan interval 3.9 ± 1.5 years) with information regarding the use of statins and having a serial CACS were included. Patients were divided into non-statin (n = 246) and statin-taking (n = 408) groups. Coronary PVs (total, calcified, and non-calcified; sum of fibrous, fibro-fatty, and lipid-rich) were quantitatively analysed, and CACS was measured from both CCTAs. Multivariate linear regression models were constructed for both statin-taking and non-statin group to assess the association between compositional PV change and change in CACS. In multivariate linear regression analysis, in the non-statin group, CACS increase was positively associated with both non-calcified (β = 0.369, P = 0.004) and calcified PV increase (β = 1.579, P < 0.001). However, in the statin-taking group, CACS increase was positively associated with calcified PV change (β = 0.756, P < 0.001) but was negatively associated with non-calcified PV change (β = -0.194, P = 0.026).
Conclusion
In the non-statin group, CACS progression indicates the progression of both non-calcified and calcified PV progression. However, under the effect of statins, CACS progression indicates only calcified PV progression, but not non-calcified PV progression. Thus, the result of serial CACS should be differently interpreted according to the use of statins.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1307-1314
Lee SE, Sung JM, Andreini D, Budoff MJ, ... Min JK, Chang HJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1307-1314 | PMID: 30789215
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Abstract

Referral of patients for fractional flow reserve using quantitative flow ratio.

Smit JM, Koning G, van Rosendael AR, El Mahdiui M, ... Bax JJ, Scholte AJ
Aims
Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a recently developed technique to calculate fractional flow reserve (FFR) based on 3D quantitative coronary angiography and computational fluid dynamics, obviating the need for a pressure-wire and hyperaemia induction. QFR might be used to guide patient selection for FFR and subsequent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) referral in hospitals not capable to perform FFR and PCI. We aimed to investigate the feasibility to use QFR to appropriately select patients for FFR referral.
Methods and results
Patients who underwent invasive coronary angiography in a hospital where FFR and PCI could not be performed and were referred to our hospital for invasive FFR measurement, were included. Angiogram images from the referring hospitals were retrospectively collected for QFR analysis. Based on QFR cut-off values of 0.77 and 0.86, our patient cohort was reclassified to \'no referral\' (QFR ≥0.86), referral for \'FFR\' (QFR 0.78-0.85), or \'direct PCI\' (QFR ≤0.77). In total, 290 patients were included. Overall accuracy of QFR to detect an invasive FFR of ≤0.80 was 86%. Based on a QFR cut-off value of 0.86, a 50% reduction in patient referral for FFR could be obtained, while only 5% of these patients had an invasive FFR of ≤0.80 (thus, these patients were incorrectly reclassified to the \'no referral\' group). Furthermore, 22% of the patients that still need to be referred could undergo direct PCI, based on a QFR cut-off value of 0.77.
Conclusion
QFR is feasible to use for the selection of patients for FFR referral.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2018. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1231-1238
Smit JM, Koning G, van Rosendael AR, El Mahdiui M, ... Bax JJ, Scholte AJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1231-1238 | PMID: 30535361
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Abstract

Identification of invasive and radionuclide imaging markers of coronary plaque vulnerability using radiomic analysis of coronary computed tomography angiography.

Kolossváry M, Park J, Bang JI, Zhang J, ... Koo BK, Maurovich-Horvat P
Aims
Identification of invasive and radionuclide imaging markers of coronary plaque vulnerability by a single, widely available non-invasive technique may provide the opportunity to identify vulnerable plaques and vulnerable patients in broad populations. Our aim was to assess whether radiomic analysis outperforms conventional assessment of coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) images to identify invasive and radionuclide imaging markers of plaque vulnerability.
Methods and results
We prospectively included patients who underwent coronary CTA, sodium-fluoride positron emission tomography (NaF18-PET), intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and optical coherence tomography (OCT). We assessed seven conventional plaque features and calculated 935 radiomic parameters from CTA images. In total, 44 plaques of 25 patients were analysed. The best radiomic parameters significantly outperformed the best conventional CT parameters to identify attenuated plaque by IVUS [fractal box counting dimension of high attenuation voxels vs. non-calcified plaque volume, area under the curve (AUC): 0.72, confidence interval (CI): 0.65-0.78 vs. 0.59, CI: 0.57-0.62; P < 0.001], thin-cap fibroatheroma by OCT (fractal box counting dimension of high attenuation voxels vs. presence of low attenuation voxels, AUC: 0.80, CI: 0.72-0.88 vs. 0.66, CI: 0.58-0.73; P < 0.001), and NaF18-positivity (surface of high attenuation voxels vs. presence of two high-risk features, AUC: 0.87, CI: 0.82-0.91 vs. 0.65, CI: 0.64-0.66; P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Coronary CTA radiomics identified invasive and radionuclide imaging markers of plaque vulnerability with good to excellent diagnostic accuracy, significantly outperforming conventional quantitative and qualitative high-risk plaque features. Coronary CTA radiomics may provide a more accurate tool to identify vulnerable plaques compared with conventional methods. Further larger population studies are warranted.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1250-1258
Kolossváry M, Park J, Bang JI, Zhang J, ... Koo BK, Maurovich-Horvat P
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1250-1258 | PMID: 30838375
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Abstract

Hybrid coronary computed tomography angiography and positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging in evaluation of recurrent symptoms after coronary artery bypass grafting.

Maaniitty T, Jaakkola S, Saraste A, Knuuti J
Aims
Recurrent chest pain after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) poses a diagnostic challenge. We hypothesized that combining anatomy of bypass grafts and native coronary arteries with ischaemia detection by hybrid imaging could be used to gain valuable and complementary information in patients with recurrent symptoms after CABG.
Methods and results
We analysed 36 consecutive patients (67 ± 9 years, 81% male) who had undergone hybrid imaging using coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) and [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) myocardial perfusion imaging due to recurrent symptoms after CABG. Coronary tree and left ventricular myocardium were divided into three main territories, yielding a total of 108 coronary territories in 36 patients. The presence of obstructive (≥50%) stenosis and the patency of grafts were evaluated by CCTA, while myocardial ischaemia was assessed by quantitative adenosine-stress PET. Altogether 28 (78%) of the 36 study patients presented with matched PET/CCTA abnormalities. Forty-one coronary territories were supplied by non-obstructed bypass grafts or native coronary arteries (protected territory). However, 12 (29%) of these presented with a perfusion defect. In six cases, the perfusion defect involved myocardium distal to the graft-coronary anastomosis, as interpreted on the PET/CCTA fusion images. In turn, in 48 coronary territories the supplying artery was obstructed on CCTA (unprotected territory). Of these, 41 (85%, P < 0.001 vs. protected) presented with abnormal perfusion, involving myocardium distal to the anastomosis in 29 cases.
Conclusion
Hybrid imaging provides complementary information on the presence and localization of atherosclerotic lesions and myocardial perfusion abnormalities in symptomatic patients with previous CABG.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2018. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1298-1304
Maaniitty T, Jaakkola S, Saraste A, Knuuti J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1298-1304 | PMID: 30388202
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Abstract

Native T1 time of right ventricular insertion points by cardiac magnetic resonance: relation with invasive haemodynamics and outcome in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Nitsche C, Kammerlander AA, Binder C, Duca F, ... Hengstenberg C, Mascherbauer J
Aims
Increased afterload to the right ventricle (RV) has been shown to induce myocardial fibrosis at the RV insertion points (RVIPs). Such changes can be discrete but potentially detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) T1-mapping. Whether RVIP fibrosis is associated with prognosis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is unknown.
Methods and results
We prospectively investigated 167 consecutive HFpEF patients, a population frequently suffering from post-capillary pulmonary hypertension, who underwent CMR including T1-mapping. About 92.8% also underwent right heart catheterization for haemodynamic assessment.Native T1 times were 995 ± 73 ms at the anterior and 1040 ± 90 ms at the inferior RVIP. By Spearman\'s rank order testing, RVIP T1 times were significantly correlated with pulmonary artery pressure (mean PAP, r = 0.313 and 0.311 for anterior and inferior RVIP), pulmonary artery wedge pressure (r = 0.301 and 0.251) and right atrial pressure (r = 0.245 and 0.185; P for all <0.05). During a mean follow-up of 43.2 ± 22.6 months, 30 (18.0%) subjects died. By multivariable Cox regression, NTproBNP [Hazard ratio (HR) 2.105, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.332-3.328; P = 0.001], systolic PAP (HR 1.618, 95% CI 1.175-2.230; P = 0.003), and native T1 time of the anterior RVIP (HR 1.659, 95% CI 1.125-2.445; P = 0.011) were significantly associated with outcome. Also, by Kaplan-Meier analysis, T1 times at the anterior RVIPs had a significant effect on survival (log-rank, P = 0.002).
Conclusion
Interstitial expansion of the anterior RVIP as detected by CMR T1-mapping reflects haemodynamic alterations, and is independently related with prognosis in HFpEF.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 07 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Nitsche C, Kammerlander AA, Binder C, Duca F, ... Hengstenberg C, Mascherbauer J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 07 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31495874
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Abstract

Cardiovascular risk is associated with a transmural gradient of myocardial oxygenation during adenosine infusion.

Luu JM, Schmidt A, Flewitt J, Mikami Y, Ter Keurs H, Friedrich MG
Aims
In patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), a transmural gradient of myocardial perfusion has been repeatedly observed, with the subendocardial layer showing more pronounced perfusion deficits. Oxygenation-sensitive cardiovascular magnetic resonance (OS-CMR) allows for monitoring transmural changes of myocardial oxygenation in vivo. We hypothesized that OS-CMR could help identify a transmural oxygenation gradient as a disease marker in patients at risk for CAD.
Methods and results
We assessed 34 patients with known CAD and 28 subjects with coronary risk factors but no evidence of significant CAD. Results were compared with 11 healthy volunteers. OS-CMR was performed at 1.5 T, applying a T2*-weighted cine steady state free precession sequence at baseline and during infusion of adenosine. A reader blinded to patient data quantified the relative change of myocardial oxygenation in OS-CMR, defined by the change of signal intensity (ΔSI%) between baseline and during adenosine infusion in the entire myocardium, the subepicardial layer, and the subendocardial layer. SI changes were homogenous throughout the myocardium in healthy subjects, whereas both, patients with risk factors only and patients with CAD, had a significantly smaller ΔSI% in the subendocardial layer than in the subendocardial layer. Both patient groups had an overall decreased ΔSI% across all layers when compared with healthy subjects (P < 0.05).
Conclusion
Even in the absence of overt CAD, cardiovascular risk factors are associated with a transmural gradient of the myocardial oxygenation response to adenosine as assessed by OS-CMR. An inducible transmural oxygenation gradient may serve as a non-invasive marker for cardiovascular risk.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2018. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1287-1295
Luu JM, Schmidt A, Flewitt J, Mikami Y, Ter Keurs H, Friedrich MG
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1287-1295 | PMID: 30590548
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Abstract

Risk stratification by assessment of coronary artery disease using coronary computed tomography angiography in diabetes and non-diabetes patients: a study from the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry.

Olesen KKW, Riis AH, Nielsen LH, Steffensen FH, ... Sørensen HT, Maeng M
Aims
We examined whether severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) measured by coronary computed tomography angiography can be used to predict rates of myocardial infarction (MI) and death in patients with and without diabetes.
Methods and results
A cohort study of consecutive patients (n = 48 731) registered in the Western Denmark Cardiac Computed Tomography Registry from 2008 to 2016. Patients were stratified by diabetes status and CAD severity (no, non-obstructive, or obstructive). Endpoints were MI and death. Event rates per 1000 person-years, unadjusted and adjusted incidence rate ratios were computed. Median follow-up was 3.6 years. Among non-diabetes patients, MI event rates per 1000 person-years were 1.4 for no CAD, 4.1 for non-obstructive CAD, and 9.1 for obstructive CAD. Among diabetes patients, the corresponding rates were 2.1 for no CAD, 4.8 for non-obstructive CAD, and 12.6 for obstructive CAD. Non-diabetes and diabetes patients without CAD had similar low rates of MI [adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.71-2.78]. Among diabetes patients, the adjusted risk of MI increased with severity of CAD (no CAD: reference; non-obstructive CAD: adjusted incidence rate ratio 1.71, 95% CI: 0.79-3.68; obstructive CAD: adjusted incidence rate ratio 4.42, 95% CI: 2.14-9.17). Diabetes patients had higher death rates than non-diabetes patients, irrespective of CAD severity.
Conclusion
In patients without CAD, diabetes patients have a low risk of MI similar to non-diabetes patients. Further, MI rates increase with CAD severity in both diabetes and non-diabetes patients; with diabetes patients with obstructive CAD having the highest risk of MI.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1271-1278
Olesen KKW, Riis AH, Nielsen LH, Steffensen FH, ... Sørensen HT, Maeng M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Oct 2019; 20:1271-1278 | PMID: 31220229
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Abstract

The impact of visceral and general obesity on vascular and left ventricular function and geometry: a cross-sectional magnetic resonance imaging study of the UK Biobank.

van Hout MJP, Dekkers IA, Westenberg JJM, Schalij MJ, Scholte AJHA, Lamb HJ
Aims 
We aimed to evaluate the associations of body fat distribution with cardiovascular function and geometry in the middle-aged general population.
Methods and results 
Four thousand five hundred and ninety participants of the UK Biobank (54% female, mean age 61.1 ± 7.2 years) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance for assessment of left ventricular (LV) parameters [end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF), cardiac output (CO), and index (CI)] and magnetic resonance imaging for body composition analysis [subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT)]. Body fat percentage (BF%) was assessed by bioelectrical impedance. Linear regressions were performed to assess the impact of visceral (VAT) and general (SAT and BF%) obesity on cardiac function and geometry. Visceral obesity was associated with a smaller EDV [VAT: β -1.74 (-1.15 to -2.33)], lower EF [VAT: β -0.24 (-0.12 to -0.35), SAT: β 0.02 (-0.04 to 0.08), and BF%: β 0.02 (-0.02 to 0.06)] and the strongest negative association with CI [VAT: β -0.05 (-0.06 to -0.04), SAT: β -0.02 (-0.03 to -0.01), and BF% β -0.01 (-0.013 to -0.007)]. In contrast, general obesity was associated with a larger EDV [SAT: β 1.01 (0.72-1.30), BF%: β 0.37 (0.23-0.51)] and a higher CO [SAT: β 0.06 (0.05-0.07), BF%: β 0.02 (0.01-0.03)]. In the gender-specific analysis, only men had a significant association between VAT and EF [β -0.35 (-0.19 to -0.51)].
Conclusion 
Visceral obesity was associated with a smaller LV EDV and subclinical lower LV systolic function in men, suggesting that visceral obesity might play a more important role compared to general obesity in LV remodelling.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Nov 2019; epub ahead of print
van Hout MJP, Dekkers IA, Westenberg JJM, Schalij MJ, Scholte AJHA, Lamb HJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Nov 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31722392
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Abstract

Duration of early systolic lengthening: prognostic potential in the general population.

Brainin P, Biering-Sørensen SR, Møgelvang R, Jensen JS, Biering-Sørensen T
Background
When the left ventricle pressure rises during early systole, myocardial fibres with reduced contractility tend to stretch instead of shortening. This interval is known as duration of early systolic lengthening (DESL). We sought to investigate if DESL provides prognostic information on cardiovascular events.
Methods and results
In this prospective study we included 1210 participants from a low-risk general population who underwent speckle tracking echocardiography (men 41%, mean age 56 years, SD 16). Primary endpoints were incident heart failure (HF), myocardial infarction (MI), and cardiovascular death (CVD). We defined DESL as time from onset of Q-wave on the electrocardiogram to peak positive systolic strain. In addition, we assessed the ratio between DESL and duration of cardiac systole, DESLsystole.During median follow-up of 16 years, 90 (7%) developed HF, 50 (4%) MI, and 70 (6%) experienced CVD. Both DESL [hazard ratio (HR) 1.58 95%CI 1.16-2.15, P = 0.004 per 10 ms increase] and DESLsystole (HR 1.74 95%CI 1.24-2.47, P = 0.001 per 1% increase) were predictors of HF. Similarly, DESL (HR 1.40 95%CI 1.09-1.78, P = 0.007 per 10 ms increase) and DESLsystole (HR 1.58 95%CI 1.01-2.49, P = 0.047 per 1% increase) were predictors of MI. No associations were found with CVD. After adjusting for clinical and echocardiographic parameters, the associations remained significant. DESLsystole was superior to systolic echocardiographic parameters for predicting HF (P = 0.012).
Conclusion
DESL and the novel index of DESLsystole provide independent and novel prognostic information on the risk of HF and MI in the general population. Evaluation of DESL should be explored in future echocardiographic studies.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Brainin P, Biering-Sørensen SR, Møgelvang R, Jensen JS, Biering-Sørensen T
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31628809
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Abstract

The feasibility and clinical implication of tricuspid regurgitant velocity and pulmonary flow acceleration time evaluation for pulmonary pressure assessment during exercise stress echocardiography.

Wierzbowska-Drabik K, Picano E, Bossone E, Ciampi Q, Lipiec P, Kasprzak JD
Aims
Echocardiography can estimate pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) from tricuspid regurgitation velocity (TRV) or acceleration time (ACT) of pulmonary flow. We assessed the feasibility of TRV and ACT measurements during exercise stress echocardiography (ESE) and their correlation in all stages of ESE.
Methods and results
We performed ESE in 102 subjects [mean age 49 ± 17 years, 50 females, 39 healthy, 30 with cardiovascular risk factors, and 33 with pulmonary hypertension (PH)] referred for the assessment of exercise tolerance and ischaemia exclusion. ESE was performed on cycloergometer with the load increasing by 25 W for each 2 min. Assessment of TRV with continuous wave and ACT with pulsed Doppler were attempted in 306 time points: at rest, peak exercise, and recovery. In 20 PH patients we evaluated the correlations of TRV and ACT with invasively measured PAP. The success rate was 183/306 for TRV and 304/306 for ACT (feasibility: 60 vs. 99%, P < 0.0001). There was a close correlation between TRV and ACT: r = 0.787, P < 0.001 and ACT at peak ≤67 ms showed 94% specificity for elevated systolic PAP detection. Moreover, TRV and ACT at peak exercise reflected better that resting data the invasive systolic PAP and mean PAP with r = 0.76, P = 0.0004 and r = -0.67, P = 0.0018, respectively.
Conclusion
ACT is closely correlated with and substantially more feasible than TRV during ESE and inclusion of both parameters (TRACT approach) expands the possibility of PAP assessment, especially at exercise when TRV feasibility is the lowest but correlation with invasive PAP seems to increase.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1027-1034
Wierzbowska-Drabik K, Picano E, Bossone E, Ciampi Q, Lipiec P, Kasprzak JD
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1027-1034 | PMID: 30824900
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Abstract

Significant functional mitral regurgitation affects left atrial function in heart failure patients: haemodynamic correlations and prognostic implications.

Palmiero G, Melillo E, Ferro A, Carlomagno G, ... Ascione L, Caso P
Aims
Functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) is a well-known pathophysiological factor in heart failure (HF) patients, and left atrial function (LAF) is a novel determinant of clinical status and outcome in this setting. However, little is known about the pathophysiological role of FMR on LAF in HFrEF patients. Aim of this study is to explore the possible interplay between the severity of FMR and LAF in heart failure with reduce ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients and their possible consequences.
Methods and results
We studied 97 consecutive patients with FMR classified in two groups: mild-to-moderate MR ore less (FMR group, n = 38) and moderate-to-severe or more (SFMR group, n = 59). Using the phasic method, left atrial contractile, conduit, reservoir, and total emptying function (TLAEF) were calculated to assess LAF. SFMR group showed significantly lower values of LAF compared to FMR group. LA dysfunction (LA-dys) was defined for TLAEF values below the median and groups divided in four subgroups based on its presence. Patient with LA-Dys in SFMR group showed a worse clinical status, higher incidence of right ventricular dysfunction (RV-Dys), and pulmonary hypertension (PH), and a significant worse clinical survival compared to all other groups.
Conclusion
In our study, the survival was significantly lower in SFMR/LA-Dys+ group. Furthermore, LA-Dys was strongly related with worse clinical status and higher incidence of PH and RV-Dys. These results suggest that in patients with SFMR and HFrEF, LA-Dys may represent both a marker of more advanced disease and a novel prognostic factor.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1012-1019
Palmiero G, Melillo E, Ferro A, Carlomagno G, ... Ascione L, Caso P
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1012-1019 | PMID: 30863840
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Abstract

Cardiac perfusion, structure, and function in type 2 diabetes mellitus with and without diabetic complications.

Sørensen MH, Bojer AS, Broadbent DA, Plein S, Madsen PL, Gæde P
Aims
Coronary microvascular disease (CMD) is a known complication in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We examined the relationship between diabetic complications, left ventricular (LV) function and structure and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) as indicators of CMD in patients with T2DM and control subjects.
Methods and results
This was a cross-sectional study of 193 patients with T2DM and 25 controls subjects. Patients were grouped as uncomplicated diabetes (n = 71) and diabetes with complications (albuminuria, retinopathy, and autonomic neuropathy). LV structure, function, adenosine stress, and rest myocardial perfusion were evaluated by cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Echocardiography was used to evaluate diastolic function. Patients with uncomplicated T2DM did not have significantly different LV mass and E/e* but decreased MPR (3.8 ± 1.0 vs. 5.1 ± 1.5, P < 0.05) compared with controls. T2DM patients with albuminuria and retinopathy had decreased MPR (albuminuria: 2.4 ± 0.9 and retinopathy 2.6 ± 0.7 vs. 3.8 ± 1.0, P < 0.05 for both) compared with uncomplicated T2DM patients, along with significantly higher LV mass (149 ± 39 and 147 ± 40 vs. 126 ± 33 g, P < 0.05) and E/e* (8.3 ± 2.8 and 8.1 ± 2.2 vs. 7.0 ± 2.5, P < 0.05). When entered in a multiple regression model, reduced MPR was associated with increasing E/e* and albuminuria and retinopathy were associated with reduced MPR.
Conclusions
Patients with uncomplicated T2DM have reduced MPR compared with control subjects, despite equivalent LV mass and E/e*. T2DM patients with albuminuria or retinopathy have reduced MPR and increased LV mass and E/e* compared with patients with uncomplicated T2DM. E/e* and MPR are significantly associated after adjustment for age, hypertension, and LV mass, suggesting a link between CMD and cardiac diastolic function.
Clinical trial registration
https://www.clinicaltrials.org. Unique identifier: NCT02684331.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Sørensen MH, Bojer AS, Broadbent DA, Plein S, Madsen PL, Gæde P
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31642902
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Abstract

Subclinical leaflet thrombosis is associated with impaired reverse remodelling after transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Szilveszter B, Oren D, Molnár L, Apor A, ... Maurovich-Horvat P, Merkely B
Aims
Cardiac CT is increasingly applied for planning and follow-up of transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). However, there are no data available on reverse remodelling after TAVI assessed by CT. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the predictors and the prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) reverse remodelling following TAVI using CT angiography.
Methods and results
We investigated 117 patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) who underwent CT scanning before and after TAVI procedure with a mean follow-up time of 2.6 years after TAVI. We found a significant reduction in LV mass (LVM) and LVM indexed to body surface area comparing pre- vs. post-TAVI images: 180.5 ± 53.0 vs. 137.1 ± 44.8 g and 99.7 ± 25.4 vs. 75.4 ± 19.9 g/m2, respectively, both P < 0.001. Subclinical leaflet thrombosis (SLT) was detected in 25.6% (30/117) patients. More than 20% reduction in LVM was defined as reverse remodelling and was detected in 62.4% (73/117) of the patients. SLT, change in mean pressure gradient on echocardiography and prior myocardial infarction was independently associated with LV reverse remodelling after adjusting for age, gender, and traditional risk factors (hypertension, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidaemia): OR = 0.27, P = 0.022 for SLT and OR = 0.22, P = 0.006 for prior myocardial infarction, OR = 1.51, P = 0.004 for 10 mmHg change in mean pressure gradient. Reverse remodelling was independently associated with favourable outcomes (HR = 0.23; P = 0.019).
Conclusion
TAVI resulted in a significant LVM regression on CT. The presence of SLT showed an inverse association with LV reverse remodelling and thus it may hinder the beneficial LV structural changes. Reverse remodelling was associated with improved long-term prognosis.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Szilveszter B, Oren D, Molnár L, Apor A, ... Maurovich-Horvat P, Merkely B
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31665257
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Impact:
Abstract

Quantitative assessment of effective regurgitant orifice: impact on risk stratification, and cut-off for severe and torrential tricuspid regurgitation grade.

Peri Y, Sadeh B, Sherez C, Hochstadt A, ... Keren G, Topilsky Y
Aims 
Asses the added value of quantitative evaluation of tricuspid regurgitation (TR), the proper cut-off value for severe TR and \'torrential TR\' based on outcome data. The added value of quantitative evaluation of TR, and the cut-off values associated with increased mortality are unknown.
Methods and results
In patients with all-cause TR assessed both qualitatively and quantitatively by proximal iso-velocity surface area method, long-term and 1-year outcome analysis was conducted. Thresholds for excess mortality were assessed using spline curves, receiver-operating characteristic curves, and minimum P-value analysis. The study involved 676 patients with all-cause TR (age 73.9 ± 14 years, male 45%, ejection fraction 52.9 ± 14%). Effective regurgitant orifice (ERO) was strongly associated with decreased survival in unadjusted [hazard ratio (HR) 2.38 (1.79-3.01), P < 0.0001 per 0.1 cm2 increment] and adjusted [2.6 (1.25-5.0), P = 0.01] analyses. Quantitative grading was superior to qualitative grading in prediction of outcome (P < 0.01). The optimal cut-off value for the best separation in survival between groups of patients with severe vs. lesser degree of TR was 0.35 cm2 [P < 0.0001, HR =2.0 (1.5-2.7)]. ERO negatively impacted survival, even when including only the subgroup of patients with severe TR [HR 1.5 (1.01-2.3); P = 0.04]. The optimal threshold corresponding for the best separation for survival between groups of patients with severe vs. \'torrential\' TR was 0.7 cm2 [P = 0.005, HR =2.6 (1.2-5.1)].
Conclusion 
TR can be severe and even \'torrential\' and is associated with excess mortality. Quantitative assessment of TR by ERO measurement is a powerful independent predictor of outcome, superior to standard qualitative assessment. The optimal cut-off above which mortality is increased is 0.35 cm2, similar albeit slightly lower than suggested in recent guidelines. Torrential TR >0.7 cm2 is associated with poorer survival compared to patients with severe TR (ERO > 0.4 cm2 and <0.7 cm2).

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Peri Y, Sadeh B, Sherez C, Hochstadt A, ... Keren G, Topilsky Y
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31642895
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Abstract

Highlights of the 14th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac Computed Tomography.

Hyafil F, Jaber WA, Neglia D

The 14th International Conference on Nuclear Cardiology and Cardiac Computed Tomography was held from 12 May to 14 May 2019 in Lisbon, Portugal. In this article, the three Congress Programme Committee Chairs summarize selected highlights of the presented abstracts and lectures.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 25 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Hyafil F, Jaber WA, Neglia D
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 25 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31665263
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Impact:
Abstract

Associations of recreational and non-recreational physical activity with coronary artery calcium density vs. volume and cardiovascular disease events: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Thomas IC, Takemoto ML, Forbang NI, Larsen BA, ... Budoff MJ, Criqui MH
Aims 
The benefits of physical activity (PA) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well known. However, studies suggest PA is associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC), a subclinical marker of CVD. In this study, we evaluated the associations of self-reported recreational and non-recreational PA with CAC composition and incident CVD events. Prior studies suggest high CAC density may be protective for CVD events.
Methods and results 
We evaluated 3393 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis with prevalent CAC. After adjusting for demographics, the highest quintile of recreational PA was associated with 0.07 (95% confidence interval 0.01-0.13) units greater CAC density but was not associated with CAC volume. In contrast, the highest quintile of non-recreational PA was associated with 0.08 (0.02-0.14) units lower CAC density and a trend toward 0.13 (-0.01 to 0.27) log-units higher CAC volume. There were 520 CVD events over a 13.7-year median follow-up. Recreational PA was associated with lower CVD risk (hazard ratio 0.88, 0.79-0.98, per standard deviation), with an effect size that was not changed with adjustment for CAC composition or across levels of prevalent CAC.
Conclusion 
Recreational PA may be associated with a higher density but not a higher volume of CAC. Non-recreational PA may be associated with lower CAC density, suggesting these forms of PA may not have equivalent associations with this subclinical marker of CVD. While PA may affect the composition of CAC, the associations of PA with CVD risk appear to be independent of CAC.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Thomas IC, Takemoto ML, Forbang NI, Larsen BA, ... Budoff MJ, Criqui MH
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31670763
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic implications of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.

Kong WKF, Vollema EM, Prevedello F, Perry R, ... Delgado V, Bax JJ
Aims
In patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and preserved left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), the frequency of impaired LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) and its prognostic implications are unknown. The present study evaluated the proportion and prognostic value of impaired LV GLS in patients with BAV and preserved LVEF.
Methods and results
Five hundred and thirteen patients (68% men; mean age 44 ± 18 years) with BAV and preserved LVEF (>50%) were divided into five groups according to the type of BAV dysfunction: (i) normal function BAV, (ii) mild aortic stenosis (AS) or aortic regurgitation (AR), (iii) ≥moderate isolated AS, (iv) ≥moderate isolated AR, and (v) ≥moderate mixed AS and AR. LV systolic dysfunction based on 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography was defined as a cut-off value of LVGLS (-13.6%). The primary outcome was aortic valve intervention or all-cause mortality. The proportion of patients with LVGLS ≤-13.6% was the highest in the normal BAV group (97%) and the lowest in the group with moderate and severe mixed AS and AR (79%). During a median follow-up of 10 years, 210 (41%) patients underwent aortic valve replacement and 17 (3%) died. Patients with preserved LV systolic function (LVGLS ≤ -13.6%) had significantly better event-free survival compared to those with impaired LV systolic function (LVGLS > -13.6%). LVGLS was independently associated with increased risk of events (mainly aortic valve replacement): hazard ratio 1.09; P < 0.001.
Conclusion
Impaired LVGLS in BAV with preserved LVEF is not infrequent and was independently associated with increased risk of events (mainly aortic valve replacement events).

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 20 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Kong WKF, Vollema EM, Prevedello F, Perry R, ... Delgado V, Bax JJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 20 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31633159
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Abstract

Prognostic value of [15O]H2O positron emission tomography-derived global and regional myocardial perfusion.

Bom MJ, van Diemen PA, Driessen RS, Everaars H, ... Danad I, Knaapen P
Aims
To evaluate the prognostic value of global and regional quantitative [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) perfusion.
Methods and results
In this retrospective study, 648 patients with suspected or known coronary artery disease (CAD) who underwent [15O]H2O PET were followed for the occurrence of death and myocardial infarction (MI). Global and regional hyperaemic myocardial blood flow (hMBF) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) were obtained from [15O]H2O PET. During median follow-up of 6.9 (5.0-7.9) years, 64 (9.9%) patients experienced the composite of death (36-5.6%) and MI (28-4.3%). Impaired global hMBF (<2.65 mL/min/g) and CFR (<2.88) were both significant prognostic factors for death/MI after adjusting for clinical characteristics (both P < 0.001). However, after adjusting for clinical parameters and the combined use of hMBF and CFR, only hMBF remained an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.04). For regional perfusion, both impaired hMBF (<2.10 mL/min/g) and CFR (<2.07) demonstrated prognostic value for events (both P < 0.001). Similarly, after adjusting for clinical characteristics and combined use of hMBF and CFR, only hMBF had independent prognostic value (P = 0.04). The combination of global and regional perfusion did not improve prognostic performance over either global (P = 0.55) or regional perfusion (P = 0.37) alone.
Conclusion
Global and regional hMBF and CFR were all prognostic factors for death and MI. However, for both global and regional perfusion, hMBF remained the only independent prognostic factor after adjusting for the combined use of hMBF and CFR. Additionally, integrating global and regional perfusion did not increase prognostic performance compared to either regional or global perfusion alone.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 15 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Bom MJ, van Diemen PA, Driessen RS, Everaars H, ... Danad I, Knaapen P
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 15 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31620792
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Impact:
Abstract

Clarifying the anatomy of common arterial trunk: a clinical study of 70 patients.

Gupta SK, Aggarwal A, Shaw M, Gulati GS, ... Airan B, Anderson RH
Aims
Anatomic variations in hearts with common arterial trunk are well-known, although there is no large study of living patients. Detailed knowledge of the origins of the pulmonary and coronary arteries is vital for surgical management. We sought to clarify the variations using computed tomography.
Methods and results
We prospectively studied 70 consecutive patients using echocardiography and computed tomography. In 63 (90%) patients, there was aortic dominance, while 7 (10%) had dominance of the pulmonary component. In 27 (43%) patients with aortic dominance, part of the pulmonary segment arose from a truncal valvar sinus. A long confluent pulmonary channel was more common in patients with sinusal origin compared to those with non-sinusal origin of the pulmonary segment (19 vs. 0; P = 0.0005). Close proximity between the orifices of the coronary arteries and the pulmonary component was also more frequent with sinusal origin (21 vs. 6; P < 0.001) with 5 (19%) patients having pulmonary flow obstructed by a truncal valvar leaflet.
Conclusion
Sinusal origin of the pulmonary component is common with aortic dominance, frequently in association with a long confluent pulmonary segment, which may be in close proximity to the origin of a coronary artery. One-fifth of patients with sinusal origin of pulmonary component have a truncal valvar leaflet obstructing the pulmonary orifice. These morpho-anatomic findings have important implications for management.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Gupta SK, Aggarwal A, Shaw M, Gulati GS, ... Airan B, Anderson RH
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 18 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31628808
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Impact:
Abstract

Regional myocardial work by cardiac magnetic resonance and non-invasive left ventricular pressure: a feasibility study in left bundle branch block.

Larsen CK, Aalen JM, Stokke C, Fjeld JG, ... Smiseth OA, Hopp E
Aims
Regional myocardial work may be assessed by pressure-strain analysis using a non-invasive estimate of left ventricular pressure (LVP). Strain by speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) is not always accessible due to poor image quality. This study investigated the estimation of regional myocardial work from strain by feature tracking (FT) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and non-invasive LVP.
Methods and results
Thirty-seven heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction, left bundle branch block (LBBB), and no myocardial scar were compared to nine controls without LBBB. Circumferential strain was measured by FT-CMR in a mid-ventricular short-axis cine view, and longitudinal strain by STE. Segmental work was calculated by pressure-strain analysis. Twenty-five patients underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography. Segmental values were reported as percentages of the segment with maximum myocardial FDG uptake. In LBBB patients, net CMR-derived work was 51 ± 537 (mean ± standard deviation) in septum vs. 1978 ± 1084 mmHg·% in the left ventricular (LV) lateral wall (P < 0.001). In controls, however, there was homogeneous work distribution with similar values in septum and the LV lateral wall (non-significant). Reproducibility was good. Segmental CMR-derived work correlated with segmental STE-derived work and with segmental FDG uptake (average r = 0.71 and 0.80, respectively).
Conclusion
FT-CMR in combination with non-invasive LVP demonstrated markedly reduced work in septum compared to the LV lateral wall in patients with LBBB. Work distribution correlated with STE-derived work and energy demand as reflected in FDG uptake. These results suggest that FT-CMR in combination with non-invasive LVP is a relevant clinical tool to measure regional myocardial work.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Larsen CK, Aalen JM, Stokke C, Fjeld JG, ... Smiseth OA, Hopp E
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 09 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31599327
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Abstract

The role of 99mTc-HMPAO-labelled white blood cell scintigraphy in the diagnosis of cardiac device-related infective endocarditis.

Holcman K, Małecka B, Rubiś P, Ząbek A, ... Podolec P, Kostkiewicz M
Aims
The hybrid technique of single-photon emission tomography and computed tomography with technetium99m-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime-labelled leucocytes (99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT) is an emerging diagnostic technique in patients with cardiac device-related infective endocarditis (CDRIE). This prospective study assessed the 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT diagnostic profile and its added value to the modified Duke criteria (mDuke) in CDRIE diagnostic work-up.
Methods and results
The study examined 103 consecutive patients with suspected CDRIE, who underwent 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT. Diagnostic accuracy was calculated based on a final clinical CDRIE diagnosis, including microbiology, echocardiography, and a 6-month follow-up. Subsequently, we compared the diagnostic value of the initial mDuke classification with a classification including 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT positive results as an additional major CDRIE criterion: mDuke-SPECT/CT.Overall, CDRIE was diagnosed in 31 (31%) patients, whereas 35 (34%) 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT were positive. 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT was characterized by 86% accuracy, 0.69 Cohen\'s kappa coefficient, 84% sensitivity, 88% specificity, 93% negative, and 74% positive predictive values. The original mDuke displayed 83% accuracy, 0.52 kappa, whereas mDuke-SPECT/CT had 88% accuracy, and 0.73 kappa. Compared with mDuke, mDuke-SPECT/CT showed significantly higher sensitivity (87% vs. 48%, P < 0.001). According to mDuke, 49.5% of patients had possible CDRIE, and after reclassification, that figure dropped to 37%. Furthermore, having assessed the diagnosis categorization improvement following the incorporation of 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT, the net reclassification index value was found to be 31.4%.
Conclusion
In patients with CDRIE, 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT provides high diagnostic accuracy, whereas a negative scan excludes CDRIE with high probability. Inclusion of 99mTc-HMPAO-SPECT/CT into mDuke diagnostic criteria yields significantly higher sensitivity and a reduction in possible CDRIE diagnoses.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 10 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Holcman K, Małecka B, Rubiś P, Ząbek A, ... Podolec P, Kostkiewicz M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 10 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31605137
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Abstract

Ventricular response to dobutamine stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging is associated with adverse outcome during 8-year follow-up in patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.

van den Bosch E, Cuypers JAAE, Luijnenburg SE, Duppen N, ... Kapusta L, Helbing WA
Aims
The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible value of dobutamine stress cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) to predict adverse outcome in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients.
Methods and results
In previous prospective multicentre studies, TOF patients underwent low-dose dobutamine stress CMR (7.5 µg/kg/min). Subsequently, during regular-care patient follow-up, patients were assessed for reaching the composite endpoint (cardiac death, arrhythmia-related hospitalization, or cardioversion/ablation, VO2 max ≤65% of predicted). A normal stress response was defined as a decrease in end-systolic volume (ESV) and increase in ejection fraction. The relative parameter change during stress was calculated as relative parameter change = [(parameterstress - parameterrest)/parameterrest] * 100. The predictive value of dobutamine stress CMR for the composite endpoint was determined using time-to-event analyses (Kaplan-Meier) and Cox proportional hazard analysis. We studied 100 patients [67 (67%) male, median age at baseline CMR 17.8 years (interquartile range 13.5-34.0), age at TOF repair 0.9 years (0.6-2.1)]. After a median follow-up of 8.6 years (6.7-14.1), 10 patients reached the composite endpoint. An abnormal stress response (30% vs. 4.4%, P = 0.021) was more frequently observed in composite endpoint patients. Also in endpoint patients, the relative decrease in right ventricular ESV decreased less during stress compared with the patients without an endpoint (-17 ± 15 vs. -26 ± 13 %, P = 0.045). Multivariable analyses identified an abnormal stress response (hazard ratio 10.4; 95% confidence interval 2.5-43.7; P = 0.001) as predictor for the composite endpoint.
Conclusion
An abnormal ventricular response to dobutamine stress is associated with adverse outcome in patients with repaired TOF.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
van den Bosch E, Cuypers JAAE, Luijnenburg SE, Duppen N, ... Kapusta L, Helbing WA
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31596460
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Abstract

Carotid arterial stiffness is increased and related to left ventricular function in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Roşca M, Mandeş L, Ciupercă D, Călin A, ... Ginghină C, Popescu BA
Aims
To assess the carotid mechanical properties in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and the relation between arterial stiffness and left ventricular function in this setting.
Methods and results
We have prospectively enrolled 71 patients (52 ± 16 years, 34 men) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, divided into two groups depending on the presence (46 patients) or absence (25 patients) of cardiovascular risk factors associated with increased arterial stiffness. Twenty-five normal subjects similar by age and gender with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients without risk factors formed the control group. A comprehensive echocardiography was performed in all subjects. Carotid arterial stiffness index (β index), pressure-strain elastic modulus, arterial compliance, and pulse wave velocity were also obtained using an echo-tracking system. β index, pulse wave velocity, and pressure-strain elastic modulus were significantly higher in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy patients without risk factors compared to controls. After linear regression analysis, the increase in carotid β index was independently correlated with the presence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy [beta = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-3.02; P < 0.001]. In the entire hypertrophic cardiomyopathy population arterial stiffness parameters correlated with age, gender, hypertension degree, presence of hypercholesterolaemia, and the E/e\' ratio. In multivariable analysis, β index (beta = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.32-1.25; P = 0.001), global left ventricular longitudinal strain, and the presence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction were independently correlated with the E/e\' ratio.
Conclusion
In patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy arterial stiffness is increased independently of age or presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Carotid artery stiffness is independently related to left ventricular filling pressure, increased arterial stiffness representing a possible marker of a more severe phenotype.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Roşca M, Mandeş L, Ciupercă D, Călin A, ... Ginghină C, Popescu BA
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31580440
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Abstract

Prognostic value of ratio of transmitral early filling velocity to early diastolic strain rate in patients with Type 2 diabetes.

Lassen MCH, Jensen MT, Biering-Sørensen T, Møgelvang R, ... Rossing P, Jørgensen PG
Aims
The ratio of early mitral inflow velocity to global diastolic strain rate (E/e\'sr) has recently emerged as a novel measure of left ventricular filling pressure. E/e\'sr has in previous studies demonstrated to have good prognostic value in various patient populations. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of E/e\'sr in a large cohort of patients with Type 2 diabetes in relation to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
Methods and results
In this prospective study, 848 Type 2 diabetic patients (mean age 63.6 ± 10.3 years, 64.7% male) underwent comprehensive echocardiographic examination including 2D speckle tracking in which E/e\'sr along with novel and conventional echocardiographic variables were obtained. During follow-up (median: 4.8 years, interquartile range: 4.0-5.3), 122 (14.1%) met the composite outcome of cardiovascular disease, hospitalization, and mortality. Both E/e\'sr and E/e\' were significantly associated with the outcome [E/e\'sr: hazard ratio (HR) 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-1.10; P < 0.001, per 0.10 m increase] and (E/e\': HR 1.07, 95% CI: 1.05-1.10; P = 0.001, per 1 unit increase). E/e\'sr remained an independent predictor after multivariable adjustment for demographical, clinical, and echocardiographic parameters (HR 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01-1.12; P = 0.032, per 10 cm increase). The same was true for E/e\' (HR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.14; P < 0.001, per 1 unit increase). Additionally, E/e\'sr provided incremental prognostic information beyond the UK \'Prospective Diabetes Study risk engine\' 0.72 (0.68-0.77) vs. 0.74 (0.70-79), P = 0.040.
Conclusion
In patients with Type 2 diabetes, E/e\'sr provides independent and incremental prognostic information regarding cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1171-1178
Lassen MCH, Jensen MT, Biering-Sørensen T, Møgelvang R, ... Rossing P, Jørgensen PG
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1171-1178 | PMID: 31329838
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Abstract

Clinical impact of native T1 mapping for detecting myocardial impairment in takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

Aikawa Y, Noguchi T, Morita Y, Tateishi E, ... Fukuda T, Yasuda S
Aims
To investigate the clinical impact of T1 mapping for detecting myocardial impairment in takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) over time.
Methods and results
In 23 patients with the apical ballooning type of TTC, the following 3T magnetic resonance (MR) examinations were performed at baseline and 3 months after TTC onset: T2-weighted imaging, T2 mapping, native T1 mapping, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and late gadolinium enhancement. Eight healthy controls underwent the same MR examinations. Serial echocardiography was performed daily for ≥7 days and monthly until 3 months after onset. The median time from onset to MR examination was 7 days. During the acute phase, patients had, relative to controls, higher native T1 (1438 ± 162 vs. 1251 ± 90 ms, P < 0.001), ECV (35 ± 5% vs. 29 ± 4%, P < 0.001), and T2 (90 ± 34 vs. 68 ± 12 ms, P < 0.001) for the entire heart. Per-region analysis showed that higher native T1 and T2 in the basal region were correlated with lower left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -0.599, P = 0.004 and r = -0.598, P = 0.003, respectively). Receiver operator characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for native T1 (0.96) was significantly larger than that for T2 (0.86; P = 0.005) but similar to that for ECV (0.92; P = 0.104). At 3-month follow-up, native T1, ECV, and T2 in the apical region remained significantly elevated in all patients with TTC. The number of left ventricular (LV) segments with elevated native T1 (cut-off value 1339 ms) was significantly correlated with prolonged LV wall motion recovery time (r = 0.494, P = 0.027).
Conclusion
Characterization of myocardium with native T1 mapping is a promising method for predicting LV wall motion restoration in TTC.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1147-1155
Aikawa Y, Noguchi T, Morita Y, Tateishi E, ... Fukuda T, Yasuda S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1147-1155 | PMID: 30879048
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic value of right ventricular free wall longitudinal strain in a large cohort of outpatients with left-side heart disease.

Gavazzoni M, Badano LP, Vizzardi E, Raddino R, ... Metra M, Muraru D
Aims
Right ventricular free wall longitudinal strain (RVFWLS) has been proposed as an accurate and sensitive measure of right ventricular function that could integrate other conventional parameters such as tricuspid annulus plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) and fractional area change (FAC%). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between RVFWLS and outcomes in stable asymptomatic outpatients with left-sided structural heart disease.
Methods and results
We enrolled 458 asymptomatic patients with left-side heart diseases and any ejection fraction who were referred for echocardiography to two Italian centres. The composite endpoint of death for any cause and heart failure hospitalization was used as primary outcome of this analysis. After a mean follow-up of 5.4 ± 1.2 years, 145 patients (31%) reached the combined endpoint. Most of echocardiographic parameters were related to outcomes, including right ventricular functional parameters. Mean value of RVFWLS in our cohort was -21 ± 8% and it was significantly related to the combined endpoint and in multivariable Cox-regression model; when tested with other echocardiographic parameters that were significantly related to outcome at univariate analysis, RVFWLS maintained its independent association with outcome (hazard ratio 0.963, 95% confidence interval 0.948-0.978; P = 0.0001). The best cut-off value of RVFWLS to predict outcome was -22% (area under the curve 0.677; P < 0.001; sensitivity 70%; 65% specificity).
Conclusion
RVFWLS may help clinicians to identify patients with left-sided structural heart disease at higher risk for first heart failure hospitalization and death for any cause.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Gavazzoni M, Badano LP, Vizzardi E, Raddino R, ... Metra M, Muraru D
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31596464
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Impact:
Abstract

Non-invasive assessment of ventriculo-arterial coupling using aortic wave intensity analysis combining central blood pressure and phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Bhuva AN, D\'Silva A, Torlasco C, Nadarajan N, ... Manisty CH, Hughes AD
Background
Wave intensity analysis (WIA) in the aorta offers important clinical and mechanistic insight into ventriculo-arterial coupling, but is difficult to measure non-invasively. We performed WIA by combining standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) flow-velocity and non-invasive central blood pressure (cBP) waveforms.
Methods and results
Two hundred and six healthy volunteers (age range 21-73 years, 47% male) underwent sequential phase contrast CMR (Siemens Aera 1.5 T, 1.97 × 1.77 mm2, 9.2 ms temporal resolution) and supra-systolic oscillometric cBP measurement (200 Hz). Velocity (U) and central pressure (P) waveforms were aligned using the waveform foot, and local wave speed was calculated both from the PU-loop (c) and the sum of squares method (cSS). These were compared with CMR transit time derived aortic arch pulse wave velocity (PWVtt). Associations were examined using multivariable regression. The peak intensity of the initial compression wave, backward compression wave, and forward decompression wave were 69.5 ± 28, -6.6 ± 4.2, and 6.2 ± 2.5 × 104 W/m2/cycle2, respectively; reflection index was 0.10 ± 0.06. PWVtt correlated with c or cSS (r = 0.60 and 0.68, respectively, P < 0.01 for both). Increasing age decade and female sex were independently associated with decreased forward compression wave (-8.6 and -20.7 W/m2/cycle2, respectively, P < 0.01) and greater wave reflection index (0.02 and 0.03, respectively, P < 0.001).
Conclusion
This novel non-invasive technique permits straightforward measurement of wave intensity at scale. Local wave speed showed good agreement with PWVtt, and correlation was stronger using the cSS than the PU-loop. Ageing and female sex were associated with poorer ventriculo-arterial coupling in healthy individuals.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Bhuva AN, D'Silva A, Torlasco C, Nadarajan N, ... Manisty CH, Hughes AD
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31501858
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Impact:
Abstract

Right ventricular strain rate during exercise accurately identifies male athletes with right ventricular arrhythmias.

Claeys M, Claessen G, Claus P, De Bosscher R, ... Heidbuchel H, La Gerche A
Aims
Athletes with right ventricular (RV) arrhythmias, even in the absence of desmosomal mutations, may have subtle RV abnormalities which can be unmasked by deformation imaging. As exercise places a disproportionate stress on the right ventricle, evaluation of cardiac function and deformation during exercise might improve diagnostic performance.
Methods and results
We performed bicycle stress echocardiography in 17 apparently healthy endurance athletes (EAs), 12 non-athletic controls (NAs), and 17 athletes with RV arrhythmias without desmosomal mutations (EI-ARVCs) and compared biventricular function at rest and during low (25% of upright peak power) and moderate intensity (60%). At rest, we observed no differences in left ventricular (LV) or RV function between groups. During exercise, however, the increase in RV fractional area change (RVFAC), RV free wall strain (RVFWSL), and strain rate (RVFWSRL) were significantly attenuated in EI-ARVCs as compared to EAs and NAs. At moderate exercise intensity, EI-ARVCs had a lower RVFAC, RVFWSL, and RVFWSRL (all P < 0.01) compared to the control groups. Exercise-related increases in LV ejection fraction, strain, and strain rate were also attenuated in EI-ARVCs (P < 0.05 for interaction). Exercise but not resting parameters identified EI-ARVCs and RVFWSRL with a cut-off value of >-2.35 at moderate exercise intensity had the greatest accuracy to detect EI-ARVCs (area under the curve 0.95).
Conclusion
Exercise deformation imaging holds promise as a non-invasive diagnostic tool to identify intrinsic RV dysfunction concealed at rest. Strain rate appears to be the most accurate parameter and should be incorporated in future, prospective studies to identify subclinical disease in an early stage.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Claeys M, Claessen G, Claus P, De Bosscher R, ... Heidbuchel H, La Gerche A
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31578557
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Impact:
Abstract

Mechanisms of mitral regurgitation after percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip.

Ikenaga H, Makar M, Rader F, Siegel RJ, ... Makkar RR, Shiota T
Aims
We sought to find the morphological mechanisms of recurrent mitral regurgitation (MR) after MitraClip procedure using 3D transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE).
Methods and results
Of 478 consecutive patients treated with the initial MitraClip procedure, 41 patients who underwent repeat mitral valve (MV) transcatheter or surgical intervention for recurrent MR were retrospectively reviewed. Using 3D-TOE, we investigated morphological changes of MV leading to repeat MV intervention. Aetiology of MR at the index intervention was primary in 24 (59%) and secondary in 17 (41%) patients. In the primary MR group, worsening leaflet prolapse at the clip site caused recurrent MR in 12 (50%) patients, while 7 (29%) patients had a leaflet tear at the clip site. Acute single leaflet device detachment was seen in four patients and one patient had recurrent MR between the plug and the clip. In secondary MR, left ventricular (LV)/left atrial dilation caused recurrent MR in 13 (76%) patients. Significant increase in the LV end-diastolic volume and tenting height were observed from post-index procedure to repeat intervention (LV end-diastolic volume; from 205 to 237 ml, P < 0.001, tenting height; from 0.8 to 1.3 cm, P < 0.001). New emergent leaflet prolapse/flail was seen in 3 (18%) patients, suggesting iatrogenic MR.
Conclusion
Mechanisms of recurrent MR after MitraClip procedure varied and depended on the underlying MV pathology: in primary MR, worsening mitral leaflet prolapse and in secondary MR, progressive LV dilation with worsening tenting were the main causes of recurrent MR.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 11 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Ikenaga H, Makar M, Rader F, Siegel RJ, ... Makkar RR, Shiota T
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 11 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31605479
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Impact:
Abstract

Longitudinal patterns of N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide, troponin T, and C-reactive protein in relation to the dynamics of echocardiographic parameters in heart failure patients.

Klimczak-Tomaniak D, van den Berg VJ, Strachinaru M, Akkerhuis KM, ... van Dalen BM, Kardys I
Aims
To further elucidate the nature of the association between N-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-TnT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and clinical outcome, we examined the relationship between serial simultaneous measurements of echocardiographic parameters and these biomarkers in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients.
Methods and results
In 117 CHF patients with ejection fraction ≤50%, NT-proBNP, hs-TnT, and CRP were measured simultaneously with echocardiographic evaluation at 6-month intervals until the end of 30 months follow-up or until an adverse clinical event occurred. Linear mixed effects models were used for data-analysis. Median follow-up was 2.2 years (interquartile range 1.5-2.6). We performed up to six follow-up evaluations with 55% of patients having at least three evaluations performed. A model containing all three biomarkers revealed that doubling of NT-proBNP was associated with a decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction by 1.83 (95% confidence interval -2.63 to -1.03)%, P < 0.0001; relative increase in mitral E/e\' ratio by 12 (6-18)%, P < 0.0001; relative increase in mitral E/A ratio by 16 (9-23)%, P < 0.0001; decrease in tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion by 0.66 (-1.27 to -0.05) mm, P = 0.03; rise in tricuspid regurgitation peak systolic gradient by 2.74 (1.43-4.05) mmHg, P = 0.001; and increase in left ventricular and atrial dimensions, P < 0.05. Hs-TnT and CRP showed significant associations with some echocardiographic parameters after adjustment for clinical covariates, but after adjustment for the other biomarkers the associations were not significant.
Conclusion
Serum NT-proBNP independently reflects changes in echocardiographic parameters of systolic function, left ventricular filling pressures, estimated pulmonary pressure, and chamber dimensions. Our results support further studies on NT-proBNP as a surrogate marker for haemodynamic congestion and herewith support its potential value for therapy guidance.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Klimczak-Tomaniak D, van den Berg VJ, Strachinaru M, Akkerhuis KM, ... van Dalen BM, Kardys I
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31596459
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Impact:
Abstract

Use of echocardiography to stratify the risk of atrial fibrillation: comparison of left atrial and ventricular strain.

Kawakami H, Ramkumar S, Pathan F, Wright L, Marwick TH
Aims
Although both left atrial (LA) and ventricular (LV) dysfunction has been accepted as an important risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF), usefulness of LA and LV strain has not been fully compared for prediction of AF. The aims of this study were to clarify the associations of both LA and LV strain with AF and to compare their predictive values in the risk stratification for AF.
Methods and results
We evaluated 531 consecutive patients (median age 67 years, 56% male), with no history of AF who underwent echocardiography after cryptogenic stroke. Standard echocardiographic parameters were measured, and speckle-tracking was used to measure LA (reservoir, pump, and conduit strain) and LV strain (global longitudinal strain, GLS). The baseline clinical and echocardiographic parameters of the patients who developed AF and those who did not were compared. Median 36 months of follow-up, 61 patients (11%) had newly diagnosed AF. LA pump strain and GLS were significantly and independently associated with AF and provided incremental predictive value over clinical and standard echocardiographic parameters. Areas under the receiver-operating curves for GLS (0.841) were comparable to LA pump (0.825) and reservoir (0.851) strain. However, predictive value of both strains was different between patients with and without LA enlargement at the time of transthoracic echocardiography screening. LA strain was more useful than LV strain in patients with normal LA volumes, while LV strain was more useful than LA strain in patients with abnormal LA volumes.
Conclusion
Both LA and LV strain are significantly and independently associated with AF and provide incremental predictive value over clinical and standard echocardiographic parameters. However, priorities of strain assessment are different depends on patients\' condition at the time of echocardiography.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Kawakami H, Ramkumar S, Pathan F, Wright L, Marwick TH
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31578558
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Abstract

Usefulness of myocardial work measurement in the assessment of left ventricular systolic reserve response to spironolactone in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

Przewlocka-Kosmala M, Marwick TH, Mysiak A, Kosowski W, Kosmala W
Aims
Improvement in left ventricular (LV) systolic reserve, including exertional increase in global longitudinal strain (GLS), may contribute to the clinical benefit from therapeutic interventions in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, GLS is an afterload-dependent parameter, and its measurements may not adequately reflect myocardial contractility recruitment with exercise. The estimation of myocardial work (MW) allows correction of GLS for changing afterload. We sought to investigate the associations of GLS and MW parameters with the response of exercise capacity to spironolactone in HFpEF.
Methods and results
We analysed 114 patients (67 ± 8 years) participating in the STRUCTURE study (57 randomized to spironolactone and 57 to placebo). Resting and immediately post-exercise echocardiograms were performed at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. The following indices of MW were assessed: global work index (GWI), global constructive work (GCW), global wasted work, and global work efficiency. The amelioration of exercise intolerance at follow-up in the spironolactone group was accompanied by a significant improvement in exertional increase in GCW (P = 0.002) but not in GLS and other MW parameters. Increase in exercise capacity at 6 months was independently correlated with change in exertional increase in GCW from baseline to follow-up (β = 0.24; P = 0.009) but not with GLS (P = 0.14); however, no significant interaction with the use of spironolactone on peak VO2 was found (P = 0.97).
Conclusion
GCW as a measure of LV contractile response to exertion is a better determinant of exercise capacity in HFpEF than GLS. Improvement in functional capacity during follow-up is associated with improvement in exertional increment of GCW.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1138-1146
Przewlocka-Kosmala M, Marwick TH, Mysiak A, Kosowski W, Kosmala W
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1138-1146 | PMID: 31502637
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Abstract

Left ventricular remodelling and change in left ventricular global longitudinal strain after cardiac resynchronization therapy: prognostic implications.

van der Bijl P, Kostyukevich MV, Khidir M, Ajmone Marsan N, Delgado V, Bax JJ
Aims
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) can reduce left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV), and a decrease of ≥15% is defined as a response. CRT can also improve LV global longitudinal strain (GLS). Changes in LVESV and LV GLS are individually associated with outcome post-CRT. We investigated LVESV and LV GLS changes and prognostic implications of improvement in LVESV and/or LV GLS, compared with no improvement in either parameter.
Methods and results
Baseline and 6-month echocardiograms were analysed from CRT recipients with heart failure. LV reverse remodelling was defined as a ≥15% reduction in LVESV at 6 months post-CRT. A ≥5% absolute improvement in LV GLS was defined as a change in LV GLS. A total of 1185 patients were included (mean age 65 ± 10 years, 73% male), and those with an improvement in LVESV and LV GLS (n = 131, 11.1%) had significantly lower mortality compared with other groups. On multivariable analysis, an improvement in both LVESV and LV GLS [hazard ratio (HR): 0.47; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.71; P < 0.001] or an improvement in either LVESV or LV GLS (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.47-0.71; P < 0.001) were independently associated with better prognosis, compared with no improvement in either parameter.
Conclusion
Either a reduction in LVESV and/or an improvement in LV GLS at 6 months post-CRT are independently associated with improved long-term prognosis, compared with no change in both LVESV and LV GLS. This supports the use of LV GLS as a meaningful parameter in defining CRT response.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1112-1119
van der Bijl P, Kostyukevich MV, Khidir M, Ajmone Marsan N, Delgado V, Bax JJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1112-1119 | PMID: 31329827
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Abstract

Clinical utility of the 2016 ASE/EACVI recommendations for the evaluation of left ventricular diastolic function in the stratification of post-discharge prognosis in patients with acute heart failure.

Machino-Ohtsuka T, Seo Y, Ishizu T, Hamada-Harimura Y, ... Aonuma K, Ieda M
Aims
Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) has prognostic significance in heart failure (HF). We aimed to assess the impact of LVDD grade stratified by the updated 2016 echocardiographic algorithm (DD2016) on post-discharge outcomes in patients admitted for acute HF and compare with the previous 2009 algorithm (DD2009).
Methods and results
The study included 481 patients hospitalized for acute decompensated HF. Comprehensive echocardiography and LVDD evaluation were performed just before hospital discharge. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiovascular death and readmission for HF. The concordance between DD2016 and DD2009 was moderate (κ = 0.44, P < 0.001); the reclassification rate was 39%. During the follow-up (median: 15 months), 127 (26%) patients experienced the primary endpoint. In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, Grade III in DD2016 showed a lower event-free survival rate than Grades I and II (log rank, P < 0.001 and P = 0.048, respectively) and was independently associated with a higher incidence of the primary endpoint than Grade I [hazard ratio 1.89; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.04; P = 0.009]. Grade II or III in DD2016, reflecting elevation of left ventricular (LV) filling pressure, added an incremental predictive value of the primary endpoint to clinical variables irrespective of LV ejection fraction. DD2016 was comparable to DD2009 in predicting the endpoint (net reclassification improvement = 11%; 95% CI -7% to 30%, P = 0.23).
Conclusion
Despite simplification of the algorithm for LVDD evaluation, the prognostic value of DD2016 for post-discharge cardiovascular events in HF patients was maintained and not compromised in comparison with DD2009.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1129-1137
Machino-Ohtsuka T, Seo Y, Ishizu T, Hamada-Harimura Y, ... Aonuma K, Ieda M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1129-1137 | PMID: 31074794
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Abstract

Quantitative estimation of extravascular lung water volume and preload by dynamic 15O-water positron emission tomography.

Nielsen RR, Sörensen J, Tolbod L, Alstrup AKO, ... Frøkier J, Harms HJ
Aims
Left ventricular filling pressure (preload) can be assessed by pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) during pulmonary arterial catheterization (PAC). An emerging method [pulse indexed contour cardiac output (PICCO)] can estimate preload by global end-diastolic volume (GEDV) and congestion as extravascular lung water (EVLW) content. However, no reliable quantitative non-invasive methods are available. Hence, in a porcine model of pulmonary congestion, we evaluated EVLW and GEDV by positron emission tomography (PET). The method was applied in 35 heart failure (HF) patients and 9 healthy volunteers.
Methods and results
Eight pigs were studied. Pulmonary congestion was induced by a combination of beta-blockers, angiotensin-2 agonist and saline infusion. PAC, PICCO, computerized tomography, and 15O-H2O-PET were performed. EVLW increased from 521 ± 76 to 973 ± 325 mL (P < 0.001) and GEDV from 1068 ± 170 to 1254 ± 85 mL (P < 0.001). 15O-H2O-PET measures of EVLW increased from 566 ± 151 to 797 ± 231 mL (P < 0.001) and GEDV from 364 ± 60 to 524 ± 92 mL (P < 0.001). Both EVLW and GEDV measured with PICCO and 15O-H2O-PET correlated (r2 = 0.40, P < 0.001; r2 = 0.40, P < 0.001, respectively). EVLW correlated with Hounsfield units (HU; PICCO: r2 = 0.36, P < 0.001, PET: r2 = 0.46, P < 0.001) and GEDV with PCWP (PICCO: r2 = 0.20, P = 0.01, PET: r2 = 0.29, P = 0.002). In human subjects, measurements were indexed (I) for body surface area. Neither EVLWI nor HU differed between chronic stable HF patients and healthy volunteers (P = 0.11, P = 0.29) whereas GEDVI was increased in HF patients (336 ± 66 mL/m2 vs. 276 ± 44 mL/m2, P = 0.01).
Conclusion
The present study demonstrates that 15O-H2O-PET can assess pulmonary congestion and preload quantitatively. Hence, prognostic information from 15O-H2O-PET examinations should be evaluated in clinical trials.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1120-1128
Nielsen RR, Sörensen J, Tolbod L, Alstrup AKO, ... Frøkier J, Harms HJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1120-1128 | PMID: 30887037
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Abstract

Long-term prognostic value of morphological plaque features on coronary computed tomography angiography.

Finck T, Stojanovic A, Will A, Hendrich E, ... Hausleiter J, Hadamitzky M
Aims
To investigate the incremental prognostic value of morphological plaque features beyond clinical risk and coronary stenosis levels. Although associated with the degree of coronary stenosis, most cardiac events occur on the basis of ruptured non-obstructive plaques and consecutive vessel thrombosis. As such, identification of vulnerable plaques is paramount for cardiovascular risk prediction and treatment decisions.
Methods and results
A total of 1615 patients with suspected but not previously diagnosed coronary artery disease (CAD) were examined by coronary computed tomography angiography and morphological plaque features were assessed. Mean follow-up was 10.5 (interquartile range 9.2-11.4) years. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used for the composite endpoint of cardiac death and non-fatal myocardial infarction. The study endpoint was reached in 51 patients (36 cardiac deaths, 15 non-fatal myocardial infarctions). In addition to quantitative parameters (presence of any calcified/non-calcified plaque or elevated plaque load), morphologic plaque features such as a spotty or gross calcification pattern and napkin-ring sign (NRS) were predictive for events. However, only spotty calcified plaques and NRS could confer additive prognostic value beyond clinical risk and coronary stenosis level. In a stepwise approach, endpoint prediction beyond clinical risk (Morise score) could be improved by inclusion of CAD severity (χ2 of 27.5, P < 0.001) and further discrimination for spotty calcified plaques (χ2 of 3.89, P = 0.049).
Conclusion
Improved cardiovascular risk prediction beyond clinical risk and coronary stenosis levels can be made by discriminating for the presence of spotty calcified plaques. Thus, an intensified prophylactic anti-atherosclerotic treatment appears to be warranted in patients with coronary plaques that show spotty calcifications.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Finck T, Stojanovic A, Will A, Hendrich E, ... Hausleiter J, Hadamitzky M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31578556
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Abstract

Right ventricular systolic dysfunction but not dilatation correlates with prognostically significant reductions in exercise capacity in repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.

Rashid I, Mahmood A, Ismail TF, O\'Meagher S, ... Celermajer D, Puranik R
Aims
The optimal timing for pulmonary valve replacement in asymptomatic patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) and pulmonary regurgitation remains uncertain but is often guided by increases in right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume. As cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) performance is a strong prognostic indicator, we assessed which cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) parameters correlate with reductions in exercise capacity to potentially improve identification of high-risk patients.
Methods and results
In all, 163 patients with rTOF (mean age 24.5 ± 10.2 years) who had previously undergone CMR and standardized CPET protocols were included. The indexed right and left ventricular end-diastolic volumes (RVEDVi, LVEDVi), right and left ventricular ejection fractions (RVEF, LVEF), indexed RV stroke volume (RVSVi), and pulmonary regurgitant fraction (PRF) were quantified by CMR and correlated with CPET-determined peak oxygen consumption (VO2) or peak work. On univariable analysis, there was no significant correlation between RVEDVi and PRF with peak VO2 or peak work (% Jones-predicted). In contrast, RVEF and RVSVi had significant correlations with both peak VO2 and peak work that remained significant on multivariable analysis. For a previously established prognostic peak VO2 threshold of <27 mL/kg/min, receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated a Harrell\'s c of 0.70 for RVEF (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.79) with a sensitivity of 88% for RVEF <40%.
Conclusion
In rTOF, CMR indices of RV systolic function are better predictors of CPET performance than RV size. An RVEF <40% may be useful to identify prognostically significant reductions in exercise capacity in patients with varying degrees of RV dilatation.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print
Rashid I, Mahmood A, Ismail TF, O'Meagher S, ... Celermajer D, Puranik R
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Oct 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31578553
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Abstract

Deterioration of biventricular strain is an early marker of cardiac involvement in confirmed sarcoidosis.

Kusunose K, Fujiwara M, Yamada H, Nishio S, ... Wakatsuki T, Sata M
Aims
Risk assessment of developing cardiac involvement in systemic sarcoidosis can be challenging because of limited data. Recently, attention has been given to left ventricular and right ventricular (LV and RV) involvement in cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) and its prevalence, relevance, and prognostic value. The aim of this study was to assess the role of biventricular strain to predict prognosis in confirmed sarcoidosis patients.
Methods and results
LV and RV longitudinal strains (LSs) were evaluated by 2D speckle tracking in 139 consecutive confirmed sarcoidosis patients without other pre-existing structural heart diseases, and 52 age- and gender-matched control subjects. The primary endpoint was CS-related events (cardiac death or development of cardiac involvement). Sarcoidosis without cardiac involvement had significantly lower LV and RV free wall LS compared with control subjects. Basal LS had a higher area under the curve for differentiation of sarcoidosis in patients without cardiac involvement compared to control (cut-off value: -18% with 89% sensitivity and 69% specificity). During a median period of 50 months, the occurrence of CS-related events was observed in 20 patients. In a multivariate analysis, basal LV LS and RV free wall LS were associated with the events [hazard ratio (HR) 0.72, P < 0.001 and HR: 0.83, P = 0.006, respectively]. Patients with impaired biventricular function had significantly shorter event-free survival than those with preserved biventricular function (P < 0.001).
Conclusion
Deterioration of biventricular strain was associated with CS-related events. This information might be useful for clinical evaluation and follow-up in sarcoidosis.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Kusunose K, Fujiwara M, Yamada H, Nishio S, ... Wakatsuki T, Sata M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31566217
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Abstract

Cardiovascular risk scoring and magnetic resonance imaging detected subclinical cerebrovascular disease.

Anand SS, Tu JV, Desai D, Awadalla P, ... Friedrich MG,
Aims
Cardiovascular risk factors are used for risk stratification in primary prevention. We sought to determine if simple cardiac risk scores are associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-detected subclinical cerebrovascular disease including carotid wall volume (CWV), carotid intraplaque haemorrhage (IPH), and silent brain infarction (SBI).
Methods and results
A total of 7594 adults with no history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) underwent risk factor assessment and a non-contrast enhanced MRI of the carotid arteries and brain using a standardized protocol in a population-based cohort recruited between 2014 and 2018. The non-lab-based INTERHEART risk score (IHRS) was calculated in all participants; the Framingham Risk Score was calculated in a subset who provided blood samples (n = 3889). The association between these risk scores and MRI measures of CWV, carotid IPH, and SBI was determined. The mean age of the cohort was 58 (8.9) years, 55% were women. Each 5-point increase (∼1 SD) in the IHRS was associated with a 9 mm3 increase in CWV, adjusted for sex (P < 0.0001), a 23% increase in IPH [95% confidence interval (CI) 9-38%], and a 32% (95% CI 20-45%) increase in SBI. These associations were consistent for lacunar and non-lacunar brain infarction. The Framingham Risk Score was also significantly associated with CWV, IPH, and SBI. CWV was additive and independent to the risk scores in its association with IPH and SBI.
Conclusion
Simple cardiovascular risk scores are significantly associated with the presence of MRI-detected subclinical cerebrovascular disease, including CWV, IPH, and SBI in an adult population without known clinical CVD.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Anand SS, Tu JV, Desai D, Awadalla P, ... Friedrich MG,
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31565735
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Abstract

Multimodality imaging in the diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of patients with dilated cardiomyopathies: an expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging.

Donal E, Delgado V, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Galli E, ... Popescu BA,

Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is defined by the presence of left ventricular or biventricular dilatation and systolic dysfunction in the absence of abnormal loading conditions or coronary artery disease sufficient to explain these changes. This is a heterogeneous disease frequently having a genetic background. Imaging is important for the diagnosis, the prognostic assessment and for guiding therapy. A multimodality imaging approach provides a comprehensive evaluation of all the issues related to this disease. The present document aims to provide recommendations for the use of multimodality imaging according to the clinical question. Selection of one or another imaging technique should be based on the clinical condition and context. Techniques are presented with the aim to underscore what is \'clinically relevant\' and what are the tools that \'can be used\'. There remain some gaps in evidence on the impact of multimodality imaging on the management and the treatment of DCM patients where ongoing research is important.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1075-1093
Donal E, Delgado V, Bucciarelli-Ducci C, Galli E, ... Popescu BA,
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1075-1093 | PMID: 31504368
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Abstract

Aortic growth rates are not increased in Turner syndrome-a prospective CMR study.

Mortensen KH, Wen J, Erlandsen M, Trolle C, ... Andersen NH, Gravholt CH
Background
Aortic disease is a key determinant of outcomes in Turner syndrome (TS). The present study characterized aortic growth rates and outcomes over nearly a decade in adult women with TS.
Methods and results
Prospective observational study assessing aortic diameters twice with cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging in women with TS [N = 91; mean follow-up 8.8 ± 3.3 (range 1.6-12.6) years] and healthy age-matched female controls [N = 37; mean follow-up 6.7 ± 0.5 (range 5.9-8.1) years]. Follow-up also included aortic outcomes and mortality, antihypertensive treatment and ambulatory blood pressure. Aortic growth rates were similar or smaller in TS, but the variation was larger. The proximal aorta in TS grew by 0.20 ± 0.26 (mid-ascending) to 0.32 ± 0.36 (sinuses) mm/year. This compared to 0.26 ± 0.14 (mid-ascending) and 0.32 ± 0.17 (sinuses) mm/year in the controls. During 799 years at risk, 7 suffered an aortic outcome (1 aortic death, 2 aortic dissections, 2 aortic interventions, 2 surgical aortic listings) with further 2 aortic valve replacements. At baseline, two women were excluded. One died during subacute aortic surgery (severe dilatation) and one had a previously undetected type A dissection. The combined aortic outcome rate was 1126 per 100 000 observation years. The aortic and all-cause mortality rates were 1 per 799 years (125 deaths per 100 000 observation years) and 9 per 799 years (1126 deaths per 100 000 observation years). Aortic growth patterns were particularly perturbed in bicuspid aortic valves (BAV) and aortic coarctation (CoA).
Conclusion
Aortic growth rates in TS are not increased. BAVs and CoA are major factors that impact aortic growth. Aortic outcomes remain a concern.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1164-1170
Mortensen KH, Wen J, Erlandsen M, Trolle C, ... Andersen NH, Gravholt CH
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1164-1170 | PMID: 31329837
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Abstract

The impact of aortic valve replacement on survival in patients with normal flow low gradient severe aortic stenosis: a propensity-matched comparison.

Saeed S, Vamvakidou A, Seifert R, Khattar R, Li W, Senior R
Aims
To assess the survival benefit of aortic valve replacement (AVR) in patients with normal flow low gradient severe aortic stenosis (AS).
Methods and results
A retrospective study of prospectively collected data of 276 patients (mean age 75 ± 15 years, 51% male) with normal transaortic flow [flow rate (FR) ≥200 mL/s or stroke volume index (SVi) ≥35 mL/m2] and severe AS (aortic valve area <1.0 cm2). The outcome measure was all-cause mortality. Of the 276 patients, 151 (55%) were medically treated, while 125 (45%) underwent an AVR. Over a mean follow-up of 3.2 ± 1.8 years (range 0-6.9 years), a total of 96 (34.8%) deaths occurred: 17 (13.6%) in AVR group vs. 79 (52.3%) in those medically treated, when transaortic flow was defined by FR (P < 0.001). When transaortic flow was defined by SVi, a total of 79 (31.3%) deaths occurred: 18 (15.1%) in AVR group vs. 61 (45.9%) in medically treated (P < 0.001). In a propensity-matched multivariable Cox regression analysis adjusting for age, gender, body surface area, smoking, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, peripheral vascular disease, chronic kidney disease, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass, and mean aortic gradient, not having AVR was associated with a 6.3-fold higher hazard ratio (HR) of all-cause mortality [HR 6.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.34-13.16; P < 0.001] when flow was defined by FR. In the SVi-guided model, it was 3.83-fold (HR 3.83, 95% CI 2.30-6.37; P < 0.001).
Conclusion
In patients with normal flow low gradient severe AS, AVR was associated with a significantly improved survival compared with those who received standard medical treatment.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1094-1101
Saeed S, Vamvakidou A, Seifert R, Khattar R, Li W, Senior R
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1094-1101 | PMID: 31327014
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Impact:
Abstract

Time course of left ventricular remodelling and mechanics after aortic valve surgery: aortic stenosis vs. aortic regurgitation.

Vollema EM, Singh GK, Prihadi EA, Regeer MV, ... Bax JJ, Delgado V
Aims
Pressure overload in aortic stenosis (AS) and both pressure and volume overload in aortic regurgitation (AR) induce concentric and eccentric hypertrophy, respectively. These structural changes influence left ventricular (LV) mechanics, but little is known about the time course of LV remodelling and mechanics after aortic valve surgery (AVR) and its differences in AS vs. AR. The present study aimed to characterize the time course of LV mass index (LVMI) and LV mechanics [by LV global longitudinal strain (LV GLS)] after AVR in AS vs. AR.
Methods and results
Two hundred and eleven (61 ± 14 years, 61% male) patients with severe AS (63%) or AR (37%) undergoing surgical AVR with routine echocardiographic follow-up at 1, 2, and/or 5 years were evaluated. Before AVR, LVMI was larger in AR patients compared with AS. Both groups showed moderately impaired LV GLS, but preserved LV ejection fraction. After surgery, both groups showed LV mass regression, although a more pronounced decline was seen in AR patients. Improvement in LV GLS was observed in both groups, but characterized by an initial decline in AR patients while LV GLS in AS patients remained initially stable.
Conclusion
In severe AS and AR patients undergoing AVR, LV mass regression and changes in LV GLS are similar despite different LV remodelling before AVR. In AR, relief of volume overload led to reduction in LVMI and an initial decline in LV GLS. In contrast, relief of pressure overload in AS was characterized by a stable LV GLS and more sustained LV mass regression.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1105-1111
Vollema EM, Singh GK, Prihadi EA, Regeer MV, ... Bax JJ, Delgado V
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1105-1111 | PMID: 30932153
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Impact:
Abstract

Assessment of left ventricular outflow tract and aortic root: comparison of 2D and 3D transthoracic echocardiography with multidetector computed tomography.

Visby L, Kristensen CB, Pedersen FHG, Sigvardsen PE, ... Hassager C, Møgelvang R
Aims
Accurate echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the aortic root is necessary for risk stratification and choice of appropriate treatment in patients with pathologies of the aortic valve and aortic root. Conventional 2D transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) assessment is based on the assumption of a circular shaped LVOT and aortic root, although previous studies have indicated a more ellipsoid shape. 3D TTE and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) applies planimetry and are not dependent on geometrical assumptions. The aim was to test accuracy, feasibility, and reproducibility of 3D TTE compared to 2D TTE assessment of LVOT and aortic root areas, with MDCT as reference.
Methods and results
We examined 51 patients with 2D/3D TTE and MDCT at the same day. All patients were re-examined with 2D/3D TTE on a different day to evaluate 2D and 3D re-test variability. Areas of LVOT, aortic annulus, and sinus were assessed using 2D, 3D TTE, and MDCT. Both 2D/3D TTE underestimated the areas compared to MDCT; however, 3D TTE areas were significantly closer to MDCT-areas. 2D vs. 3D mean MDCT-differences: LVOT 1.61 vs. 1.15 cm2, P = 0.019; aortic annulus 1.96 vs. 1.06 cm2, P < 0.001; aortic sinus 1.66 vs. 1.08 cm2, P = 0.015. Feasibility was 3D 76-79% and 2D 88-90%. LVOT and aortic annulus areas by 3D TTE had lowest variabilities; intraobserver coefficient of variation (CV) 9%, re-test variation CV 18-20%.
Conclusion
Estimation of LVOT and aortic root areas using 3D TTE is feasible, more precise and more accurate than 2D TTE.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1156-1163
Visby L, Kristensen CB, Pedersen FHG, Sigvardsen PE, ... Hassager C, Møgelvang R
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Sep 2019; 20:1156-1163 | PMID: 30879047
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Abstract

Accuracy of fully automated right ventricular quantification software with 3D echocardiography: direct comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance and semi-automated quantification software.

Otani K, Nabeshima Y, Kitano T, Takeuchi M
Aims
The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy and reproducibility of a novel, fully automated 3D echocardiography (3DE) right ventricular (RV) quantification software compared with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and semi-automated 3DE RV quantification software.
Methods and results
RV volumes and the RV ejection fraction (RVEF) were measured using a fully automated software (Philips), a semi-automated software (TomTec), and CMR in 100 patients who had undergone both CMR and 3DE examinations on the same day. The feasibility of the fully automated software was 91%. Although the fully automated software, without any manual editing, significantly underestimated RV end-diastolic volume (bias: -12.6 mL, P < 0.001) and stroke volume (-5.1 mL, P < 0.001) compared with CMR, there were good correlations between the two modalities (r = 0.82 and 0.78). No significant differences in RVEF between the fully automated software and CMR were observed, and there was a fair correlation (r = 0.72). The RVEF determined by the semi-automated software was significantly larger than that by CMR or the fully automated software (P < 0.001). The fully automated software had a shorter analysis time compared with the semi-automated software (15 s vs. 120 s, P < 0.001) and had a good reproducibility.
Conclusion
A novel, fully automated 3DE RV quantification software underestimated RV volumes but successfully approximated RVEF when compared with CMR. No inferiority of this software was observed when compared with the semi-automated software. Rapid analysis and higher reproducibility also support the routine adoption of this method in the daily clinical workflow.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Otani K, Nabeshima Y, Kitano T, Takeuchi M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31549722
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Impact:
Abstract

Tricuspid regurgitation and long-term clinical outcomes.

Chorin E, Rozenbaum Z, Topilsky Y, Konigstein M, ... Keren G, Banai S
Aims
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a frequent echocardiographic finding; however, its effect on outcome is unclear. The objectives of current study were to evaluate the impact of TR severity on heart failure hospitalization and mortality.
Methods and results
We retrospectively reviewed consecutive echocardiograms performed between 2011 and 2016 at the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. TR severity was determined using semi-quantitative approach including colour jet area, vena contracta width, density of continuous Doppler jet, hepatic vein flow pattern, trans-tricuspid inflow pattern, annular diameter, right ventricle, and right atrial size. Major comorbidities, re-admissions and all-cause mortality were extracted from the electronic health records. The final analysis included 33 305 patients with median follow-up period of 3.34 years (interquartile range 2.11-4.54). TR (≥mild) was present in 31% of our cohort. One-year mortality rates were 7.7% for patients with no/trivial TR, 16.8% for patients with mild TR, 29.5% for moderate TR, and 45.6% for patients with severe TR (P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate analyses demonstrated a positive correlation between TR severity and overall mortality and rates of heart failure re-admission after adjustment for potential confounders. The proportional hazards method for overall mortality showed that patients with moderate [hazard ratio (HR) 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.3, P = 0.024] and severe TR (HR 1.43, 95% CI 1.08-1.88, P = 0.011) had a worse prognosis than those with no or minimal TR.
Conclusions
The presence of any degree of TR is associated with adverse clinical outcome. At least moderate TR is independently associated with increased mortality.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Chorin E, Rozenbaum Z, Topilsky Y, Konigstein M, ... Keren G, Banai S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31544933
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Abstract

Improved regional myocardial blood flow and flow reserve after coronary revascularization as assessed by serial 15O-water positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

Aikawa T, Naya M, Koyanagawa K, Manabe O, ... Tamaki N, Anzai T
Aims
Myocardial perfusion imaging without and with quantitative myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) plays an important role in the diagnosis and risk stratification of patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to quantify the effects of coronary revascularization on regional stress MBF and MFR and to determine whether the presence of subendocardial infarction was associated with these changes.
Methods and results
Forty-seven patients with stable CAD were prospectively enrolled. They underwent 15O-water positron emission tomography at baseline and 6 months after optimal medical therapy alone (n = 16), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (n = 18), or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) (n = 13). Stenosis of ≥50% diameter was detected in 98/141 vessels (70%). The regional MFR was significantly increased from baseline to follow-up [1.84 (interquartile range, IQR 1.28-2.17) vs. 2.12 (IQR 1.69-2.63), P < 0.001] in vessel territories following PCI or CABG due to an increase in the stress MBF [1.33 (IQR 0.97-1.67) mL/g/min vs. 1.64 (IQR 1.38-2.17) mL/g/min, P < 0.001], whereas there was no significant change in the regional stress MBF or MFR in vessel territories without revascularization. A multilevel mixed-effects models adjusted for baseline characteristics, subendocardial infarction assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, and intra-patient correlation showed that the degree of angiographic improvement after coronary revascularization was significantly associated with increased regional stress MBF and MFR (P < 0.05 for all).
Conclusion
Coronary revascularization improved the regional stress MBF and MFR in patients with stable CAD. The magnitude of these changes was associated with the extent of revascularization independent of subendocardial infarction.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Aikawa T, Naya M, Koyanagawa K, Manabe O, ... Tamaki N, Anzai T
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31544927
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Abstract

European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging expert consensus paper: a comprehensive review of cardiovascular magnetic resonance normal values of cardiac chamber size and aortic root in adults and recommendations for grading severity.

Petersen SE, Khanji MY, Plein S, Lancellotti P, Bucciarelli-Ducci C

This consensus paper provides a framework for grading of severity of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging-based assessment of chamber size, function, and aortic measurements. This does not currently exist for CMR measures. Differences exist in the normal reference values between echocardiography and CMR along with differences in methods used to derive these. We feel that this document will significantly complement the current literature and provide a practical guide for clinicians in daily reporting and interpretation of CMR scans. This manuscript aims to complement a recent comprehensive review of CMR normal value publications to recommend cut-off values required for severity grading. Standardization of severity grading for clinically useful CMR parameters is encouraged to lead to clearer and easier communication with referring clinicians and may contribute to better patient care. To this end, the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) has formed this expert panel that has critically reviewed the literature and has come to a consensus on approaches to severity grading for commonly quantified CMR parameters.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Petersen SE, Khanji MY, Plein S, Lancellotti P, Bucciarelli-Ducci C
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 22 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31544926
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Impact:
Abstract

Development and prognostic validation of partition values to grade right ventricular dysfunction severity using 3D echocardiography.

Muraru D, Badano LP, Nagata Y, Surkova E, ... Palermo C, Takeuchi M
Aims
Transthoracic 3D echocardiography (3DE) has been shown to be feasible and accurate to measure right ventricular (RV) ejection fraction (EF) when compared with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). However, RV EF, either measured with CMR or 3DE, has always been reported as normal (RV EF > 45%) or abnormal (RV EF ≤ 45%). We therefore sought to identify the partition values of RV EF to stratify RV dysfunction in mildly, moderately, or severely reduced as we are used to do with the left ventricle.
Methods and results
We used 3DE to measure RV EF in 412 consecutive patients (55 ± 18 years, 65% men) with various cardiac conditions who were followed for 3.7 ± 1.4 years to obtain the partition values which defined mild, moderate, and severe reduction of RV EF (derivation cohort). Then, the prognostic value of these partition values was tested in an independent population of 446 patients (67 ± 14 years, 58% men) (validation cohort). During follow-up, we recorded 59 cardiac deaths (14%) in the derivation cohort. Using K-Adaptive partitioning for survival data algorithm we identified four groups of patients with significantly different mortality according to RV EF: very low > 46%, 40.9% < low ≤ 46%, 32.1% < moderate ≤ 40.9%, and high ≤ 32.1%. To make the partition values easier to remember, we approximated them to 45%, 40%, and 30%. During 4.1 ± 1.2 year follow-up, 38 cardiac deaths and 88 major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, ventricular fibrillation, or admission for heart failure) occurred in the validation cohort. The partition values of RV EF identified in the derivation cohort were able to stratify both the risk of cardiac death (log-rank = 100.1; P < 0.0001) and MACEs (log-rank = 117.6; P < 0.0001) in the validation cohort too.
Conclusion
Our study confirms the independent prognostic value of RV EF in patients with heart diseases, and identifies the partition values of RV EF to stratify the risk of cardiac death and MACE.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Muraru D, Badano LP, Nagata Y, Surkova E, ... Palermo C, Takeuchi M
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31539046
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Impact:
Abstract

Morpho-metabolic post-surgical patterns of non-infected prosthetic heart valves by [18F]FDG PET/CTA: \"normality\" is a possible diagnosis.

Roque A, Pizzi MN, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Permanyer E, ... Tornos P, Aguadé-Bruix S
Aims
To define characteristic PET/CTA patterns of FDG uptake and anatomic changes following prosthetic heart valves (PVs) implantation over time, to help not to misdiagnose post-operative inflammation and avoid false-positive cases.
Methods and results
Prospective evaluation of 37 post-operative patients without suspected infection that underwent serial cardiac PET/CTA examinations at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery, in which metabolic features (FDG uptake distribution pattern and intensity) and anatomic changes were evaluated. Standardized uptake values (SUVs) were obtained and a new measure, the valve uptake index (VUI), (SUVmax-SUVmean)/SUVmax, was tested to homogenize SUV results.In total, 111 PET/CTA scans were performed in 37 patients (19 aortic and 18 mitral valves). FDG uptake was visually detectable in 79.3% of patients and showed a diffuse, homogeneous distribution pattern in 93%. Quantitative analysis yielded a mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of 4.46 ± 1.50 and VUI of 0.35 ± 0.10. There were no significant differences in FDG distribution or uptake values between 1, 6, or 12 months. No abnormal anatomic changes or endocarditis lesions were detected in any patient during follow-up.
Conclusions
FDG uptake, often seen in recently implanted PVs, shows a characteristic pattern of post-operative inflammation and, in the absence of associated anatomic lesions, could be considered a normal finding. These features remain stable for at least 1 year after surgery, so questioning the recommended 3-month safety period. A new measure, the VUI, can be useful for evaluating the FDG distribution pattern.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print
Roque A, Pizzi MN, Fernández-Hidalgo N, Permanyer E, ... Tornos P, Aguadé-Bruix S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 19 Sep 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31539031
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Abstract

Criteria for surveys: from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging Scientific Initiatives Committee.

Haugaa KH, Marsan NA, Cameli M, D\'Andrea A, ... Maurer G, Edvardsen T

The European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) is committed to maintaining the highest standards of professional excellence in all aspects of cardiovascular imaging. The mission of the EACVI is to promote excellence in clinical diagnosis, research, technical development, and education in cardiovascular imaging with a particular focus on education, training, scientific initiatives, and research. The EACVI established the Scientific Initiatives Committee (SIC) in December 2018. This committee has responsibility for surveys among imagers, patients\' surveys and surveys including data from clinical practice. The current document describes the aims of the EACVI SIC and the creation of the international EACVI survey network. This document summarizes the EACVI\'s standards for the survey questions and standards for writing the papers with the results of the surveys. These are in accordance with previous recommendations and were approved by the EACVI SIC and the EACVI Board in 2019.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:963-966
Haugaa KH, Marsan NA, Cameli M, D'Andrea A, ... Maurer G, Edvardsen T
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:963-966 | PMID: 31436816
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Impact:
Abstract

Aortic valve replacement-induced changes in native T1 are related to prognosis in severe aortic stenosis: T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study.

Hwang IC, Kim HK, Park JB, Park EA, ... Sohn DW, Oh JK
Aims
Native T1 times from T1 mapping cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) are associated with myocardial fibrosis in aortic stenosis (AS). We investigated whether changing patterns in native T1 predict clinical outcomes after aortic valve replacement (AVR) in severe AS patients.
Methods and results
Forty-three patients with severe AS (65.9 ± 8.1 years; 24 men) who underwent T1 mapping CMR at baseline and 1 year after AVR were prospectively enrolled. Upper limit of native T1 from healthy volunteers was used to define normal myocardium and diffuse fibrosis (native T1 < 1208.4 and ≥1208.4 ms, respectively). Participants were categorized into Group 1 (pre- and post-AVR normal myocardium; n = 11), Group 2 (pre-AVR diffuse fibrosis and post-AVR normal myocardium; n = 18), and Group 3 (post-AVR diffuse fibrosis; n = 14). Native T1 significantly decreased 1 year after AVR (pre-AVR, 1233.8 ± 49.7 ms; post-AVR, 1189.1 ± 58.4 ms; P < 0.001), which was associated with left ventricular (LV) mass regression (△native T1 vs. △LV mass index, r = 0.454, P = 0.010) and systolic function improvement (△native T1 vs. △LV ejection fraction, r = -0.379, P = 0.012). Group 2 showed greater functional improvements, whereas these benefits were blunted in Group 3. Group 3 had significantly worse outcomes than Group 1 [hazard ratio (HR), 9.479, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.176-76.409; P = 0.035] and Group 2 (HR 3.551, 95% CI 1.178-10.704; P = 0.024).
Conclusion
AVR-induced changes in native T1 values are associated with LV systolic functional changes as well as prognosis in severe AS. Post-AVR T1 mapping CMR can be used as an imaging biomarker.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 03 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Hwang IC, Kim HK, Park JB, Park EA, ... Sohn DW, Oh JK
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 03 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31377777
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Impact:
Abstract

Impact of aortic stenosis on layer-specific longitudinal strain: relationship with symptoms and outcome.

Ilardi F, Marchetta S, Martinez C, Sprynger M, ... Dulgheru R, Lancellotti P
Aims
The present study sought to assess the impact of aortic stenosis (AS) on myocardial function as assessed by layer-specific longitudinal strain (LS) and its relationship with symptoms and outcome.
Methods and results
We compared 211 patients (56% males, mean age 73 ± 12 years) with severe AS and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥50% (114 symptomatic, 97 asymptomatic) with 50 controls matched for age and sex. LS was assessed from endocardium, mid-myocardium, and epicardium by 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography. Despite similar LVEF, multilayer strain values were significantly lower in symptomatic patients, compared to asymptomatic and controls [global LS: 17.9 ± 3.4 vs. 19.1 ± 3.1 vs. 20.7 ± 2.1%; endocardial LS: 20.1 ± 4.9 vs. 21.7 ± 4.2 vs. 23.4 ± 2.5%; epicardial LS: 15.8 ± 3.1 vs. 16.8 ± 2.8 vs. 18.3 ± 1.8%; P < 0.001 for all]. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, endocardial LS was independently associated to symptoms (P = 0.012), together with indexed left atrial volume (P = 0.006) and LV concentric remodelling (P = 0.044). During a mean follow-up of 22 months, 33 patients died of a cardiovascular event. On multivariable Cox-regression analysis, age (P = 0.029), brain natriuretic peptide values (P = 0.003), LV mass index (P = 0.0065), LV end-systolic volume (P = 0.012), and endocardial LS (P = 0.0057) emerged as independently associated with cardiovascular death. The best endocardial LS values associated with outcome was 20.6% (sensitivity 70%, specificity 52%, area under the curve = 0.626, P = 0.022). Endocardial LS (19.1 ± 3.3 vs. 20.7 ± 3.3, P = 0.02) but not epicardial LS (15.2 ± 2.8 vs. 15.9 ± 2.5, P = 0.104) also predicted the outcome in patients who were initially asymptomatic.
Conclusion
In patients with severe AS, LS impairment involves all myocardial layers and is more prominent in the advanced phases of the disease, when the symptoms occur. In this setting, the endocardial LS is independently associated with symptoms and patient outcome.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 28 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Ilardi F, Marchetta S, Martinez C, Sprynger M, ... Dulgheru R, Lancellotti P
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 28 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31504364
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Abstract

PM2.5 concentration in the ambient air is a risk factor for the development of high-risk coronary plaques.

Yang S, Lee SP, Park JB, Lee H, ... Kim YJ, Chang HJ
Aims
We aimed to investigate whether long-term exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the ambient air is related to the development or growth of coronary plaques.
Methods and results
This study involved 364 residents of Seoul, Korea, who underwent serial coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) at an interval of ≥2 years. Each participant\'s average concentration of residential PM2.5 between the two CCTAs was calculated. Primary endpoint was the development of high-risk plaque (HRP), defined as a plaque with low attenuation, spotty calcium, and positive remodelling. Secondary endpoints were the volume increase of total plaque and its component volume. Among those without HRP at baseline (n = 341), 20 patients developed HRP at follow-up CCTA, the residential PM2.5 concentration of which was significantly higher than those without HRP at follow-up (25.8 ± 2.0 vs. 25.0 ± 1.7 μg/m3 for patients with newly developed HRP vs. patients without HRP at follow-up; P = 0.047). An increase in PM2.5 concentration was associated with increased incidence of HRP at follow-up [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.22-2.15, P < 0.001]. In a secondary analysis, the PM2.5 concentration was associated with an increased risk of the formation of either fibrofatty or necrotic core component in newly developed plaques (aHR 1.41, 95% CI 1.23-1.61, P < 0.001), and with a higher risk of total plaque volume progression in the pre-existing plaques (aHR 1.14, 95% CI 1.05-1.23, P = 0.002).
Conclusion
Exposure to higher concentration of PM2.5 in the ambient air is significantly associated with the development of high-risk coronary plaques.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 13 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Yang S, Lee SP, Park JB, Lee H, ... Kim YJ, Chang HJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 13 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31410457
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Impact:
Abstract

Non-invasive in vivo imaging of acute thrombosis: development of a novel factor XIIIa radiotracer.

Andrews JPM, Portal C, Walton T, Macaskill MG, ... Newby DE, Tavares AAS
Aims
Cardiovascular thrombosis is responsible a quarter of deaths annually worldwide. Current imaging methods for cardiovascular thrombosis focus on anatomical identification of thrombus but cannot determine thrombus age or activity. Molecular imaging techniques hold promise for identification and quantification of thrombosis in vivo. Our objective was to assess a novel optical and positron-emitting probe targeting Factor XIIIa (ENC2015) as biomarker of active thrombus formation.
Methods and results
Optical and positron-emitting ENC2015 probes were assessed ex vivo using blood drawn from human volunteers and passed through perfusion chambers containing denuded porcine aorta as a model of arterial injury. Specificity of ENC2015 was established with co-infusion of a factor XIIIa inhibitor. In vivo18F-ENC2015 biodistribution, kinetics, radiometabolism, and thrombus binding were characterized in rats. Both Cy5 and fluorine-18 labelled ENC2015 rapidly and specifically bound to thrombi. Thrombus uptake was inhibited by a factor XIIIa inhibitor. 18F-ENC2015 remained unmetabolized over 8 h when incubated in ex vivo human blood. In vivo, 42% of parent radiotracer remained in blood 60 min post-administration. Biodistribution studies demonstrated rapid clearance from tissues with elimination via the urinary system. In vivo,18F-ENC2015 uptake was markedly increased in the thrombosed carotid artery compared to the contralateral patent artery (mean standard uptake value ratio of 2.40 vs. 0.74, P < 0.0001).
Conclusion 
ENC2015 rapidly and selectively binds to acute thrombus in both an ex vivo human translational model and an in vivo rodent model of arterial thrombosis. This probe holds promise for the non-invasive identification of thrombus formation in cardiovascular disease.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Andrews JPM, Portal C, Walton T, Macaskill MG, ... Newby DE, Tavares AAS
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31408105
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Impact:
Abstract

Pulmonary blood volume index as a quantitative biomarker of haemodynamic congestion in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Ricci F, Aung N, Thomson R, Boubertakh R, ... Aquaro GD, Petersen SE
Aims
The non-invasive assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function and filling pressure in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is still an open issue. Pulmonary blood volume index (PBVI) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) has been proposed as a quantitative biomarker of haemodynamic congestion. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of PBVI for left atrial pressure (LAP) estimation in patients with HCM.
Methods and results
We retrospectively identified 69 consecutive HCM outpatients (age 58 ± 11 years; 83% men) who underwent both transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and CMR. Guideline-based detection of LV diastolic dysfunction was assessed by TTE, blinded to CMR results. PBVI was calculated as the product of right ventricular stroke volume index and the number of cardiac cycles for a bolus of gadolinium to pass through the pulmonary circulation as assessed by first-pass perfusion imaging. Compared to patients with normal LAP, patients with increased LAP showed significantly larger PBVI (463 ± 127 vs. 310 ± 86 mL/m2, P < 0.001). PBVI increased progressively with worsening New York Heart Association functional class and echocardiographic stages of diastolic dysfunction (P < 0.001 for both). At the best cut-off point of 413 mL/m2, PBVI yielded good diagnostic accuracy for the diagnosis of LV diastolic dysfunction with increased LAP [C-statistic = 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.94]. At multivariable logistic regression analysis, PBVI was an independent predictor of increased LAP (odds ratio per 10% increase: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.06-3.68; P = 0.03).
Conclusion
PBVI is a promising CMR application for assessment of diastolic function and LAP in patients with HCM and may serve as a quantitative marker for detection, grading, and monitoring of haemodynamic congestion.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 28 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Ricci F, Aung N, Thomson R, Boubertakh R, ... Aquaro GD, Petersen SE
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 28 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31504370
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Impact:
Abstract

Left ventricular mechanical dispersion in a general population: Data from the Akershus Cardiac Examination 1950 study.

Aagaard EN, Kvisvik B, Pervez MO, Lyngbakken MN, ... Røsjø H, Steine K
Aims
Increased left ventricular mechanical dispersion by 2D speckle tracking echocardiography predicts ventricular arrhythmias in ischaemic heart disease and heart failure. However, little is known about mechanical dispersion in the general population. We aimed to study mechanical dispersion in the general population and in diseases associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Methods and results
The present cross-sectional study consists of 2529 subjects born in 1950 included in the Akershus Cardiac Examination (ACE) 1950 study. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) was assessed from 17 strain segments, and mechanical dispersion calculated as the standard deviation of contraction duration of all segments. The cohort was divided according to the median value of mechanical dispersion, and multivariable linear regression models were performed with mechanical dispersion as the dependent variable. The prevalence of coronary artery disease (CAD), hypertension, obesity, and diabetes (P < 0.01 for all) was significantly higher in subjects with supra-median mechanical dispersion. In a multivariable clinical model, CAD (B = 7.05), hypertension (B = 4.15; both P < 0.001), diabetes (B = 3.39), and obesity (B = 1.89; both P < 0.05) were independently associated with increasing mechanical dispersion. When echocardiographic indices were added to the multivariable model, CAD (B = 4.38; P < 0.01) and hypertension (B = 2.86; P < 0.001) remained significant in addition to peak early diastolic tissue velocity e\' (B = -2.00), GLS (B = 1.68), and ejection fraction (B = 0.22; P < 0.001 for all).
Conclusion
In a general middle-aged population, prevalent CAD and hypertension were associated with increasing mechanical dispersion, possibly indicating elevated risk of fatal arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Albeit weaker, systolic and diastolic dysfunction, were also associated with increasing mechanical dispersion.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 28 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Aagaard EN, Kvisvik B, Pervez MO, Lyngbakken MN, ... Røsjø H, Steine K
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 28 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31504360
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Impact:
Abstract

Screening relatives in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy: yield of imaging and electrical investigations.

Jurlander R, Mills HL, Espersen KI, Raja AA, ... Bundgaard H, Christensen AH
Aims
Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is an inherited disease and presymptomatic screening of relatives is recommended. In 2010, the Task Force Criteria (TFC2010) introduced specific diagnostic imaging parameters. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield of family screening and the value of different diagnostic modalities.
Methods and results
Family evaluation, including cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), is routinely offered to ARVC relatives at our institution. We retrospectively registered baseline characteristics, symptomatology, and results of non-invasive examinations from 2010 to 2016 and assessed the findings according to TFC2010. A total of 286 relatives (150 females; age 12-76 years; 251 first-degree) were included. A total of 103 (36%) individuals reported cardiovascular symptoms. The non-invasive workup showed that 101 (35%) relatives had ≥1 positive parameter on signal-averaged electrocardiogram (ECG), 40 (14%) had abnormal findings on Holter monitoring, 36 (13%) fulfilled an ECG criterion, six (2%) fulfilled CMR criteria, and echocardiographic abnormalities was seen in one (0.3%) relative. In total, 21 (7% overall; 13% among gene-positive subgroup) relatives were diagnosed with ARVC and 78 (27% overall; 49% among gene-positive subgroup) with borderline ARVC based on the combined non-invasive evaluations. Family history and electrical investigations alone diagnosed 20 out of 21 (95%) ARVC cases and 73 out of 78 (94%) borderline cases.
Conclusion
Consecutive evaluation of ARVC relatives diagnosed 7% with definite and 27% with borderline ARVC according to the TFC2010. Screening relatives for electrical abnormalities with 12 lead ECG, signal-averaged ECG, and Holter monitoring was more sensitive than imaging modalities.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 20 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Jurlander R, Mills HL, Espersen KI, Raja AA, ... Bundgaard H, Christensen AH
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 20 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31435658
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Impact:
Abstract

Change in left atrial function predicts incident atrial fibrillation: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Lim DJ, Ambale-Ventakesh B, Ostovaneh MR, Zghaib T, ... Post WS, Lima JAC
Aims
Longitudinal change in left atrial (LA) structure and function could be helpful in predicting risk for incident atrial fibrillation (AF). We used cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging to explore the relationship between change in LA structure and function and incident AF in a multi-ethnic population free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline.
Methods and results
In the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), 2338 participants, free at baseline of clinically recognized AF and cardiovascular disease, had LA volume and function assessed with CMR imaging, at baseline (2000-02), and at Exam 4 (2005-07) or 5 (2010-12). Free of AF, 124 participants developed AF over 3.8 ± 0.9 years (2015) following the second imaging. In adjusted Cox regression models, an average annualized change in all LA parameters were significantly associated with an increased risk of AF. An annual decrease of 1-SD unit in total LA emptying fractions (LAEF) was most strongly associated with risk of AF after adjusting for clinical risk factors for AF, baseline LA parameters, and left ventricular mass-to-volume ratio (hazard ratio per SD = 1.91, 95% confidence interval = 1.53-2.38, P < 0.001). The addition of change in total LAEF to an AF risk score improved model discrimination and reclassification (net reclassification improvement = 0.107, P = 0.017; integrative discrimination index = 0.049, P < 0.001).
Conclusion
In this multi-ethnic study population free of clinical cardiovascular disease at baseline, a greater increase in LA volumes and decrease in LA function were associated with incident AF. The addition of change in total LAEF to risk prediction models for AF improved model discrimination and reclassification of AF risk.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:979-987
Lim DJ, Ambale-Ventakesh B, Ostovaneh MR, Zghaib T, ... Post WS, Lima JAC
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:979-987 | PMID: 31356656
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Impact:
Abstract

Imaging for screening cardiovascular involvement in patients with systemic rheumatologic diseases: more questions than answers.

Sade LE, Akdogan A

Cardiovascular involvement due to systemic rheumatologic diseases (SRDs) remains largely underdiagnosed despite causing excess mortality and limiting the favourable effect of therapeutic developments on survival. Traditional risk scoring systems are poorly calibrated for SRD patients. There is an unmet need to develop a cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification tool and screening algorithm for CV involvement dedicated to asymptomatic patients with SRDs. Even though accelerated atherosclerosis is the most prominent cause of major CV events, a more comprehensive approach is crucial to detect different pathological processes associated with SRDs that are leading to CV complications. In that regard, incorporation of imaging parameters obtained from echocardiography and carotid ultrasound (CUS) might help to improve risk models, to detect and monitor subclinical CV involvement. These two imaging modalities should be an integral part of screening SRD patients with suspicion of CV involvement on top of electrocardiogram (ECG). Cardiac magnetic resonance and multi-slice computerized tomography angiography and nuclear imaging modalities seem very important to complement echocardiography and CUS for further evaluation. However, to answer the question \'Should asymptomatic patients with SRDs undergo screening with echocardiography and CUS on top of ECG?\' necessitates large studies performing cardiac screening with a standard approach by using these imaging methods to obtain longitudinal data with hard CV outcomes.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:967-978
Sade LE, Akdogan A
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:967-978 | PMID: 31230066
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Impact:
Abstract

Focal scar and diffuse myocardial fibrosis are independent imaging markers in repaired tetralogy of Fallot.

Cochet H, Iriart X, Allain-Nicolaï A, Camaioni C, ... Montaudon M, Thambo JB
Aims
To identify the correlates of focal scar and diffuse fibrosis in patients with history of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair.
Methods and results
Consecutive patients with prior TOF repair underwent electrocardiogram, 24-h Holter, transthoracic echocardiography, exercise testing, and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) including cine imaging to assess ventricular volumes and ejection fraction, T1 mapping to assess left ventricular (LV) and right ventricular (RV) diffuse fibrosis, and free-breathing late gadolinium-enhanced imaging to quantify scar area at high spatial resolution. Structural imaging data were related to clinical characteristics and functional imaging markers. Cine and T1 mapping results were compared with 40 age- and sex-matched controls. One hundred and three patients were enrolled (age 28 ± 15 years, 36% women), including 36 with prior pulmonary valve replacement (PVR). Compared with controls, TOF showed lower LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and RV ejection fraction (RVEF), and higher RV volume, RV wall thickness, and native T1 and extracellular volume values on both ventricles. In TOF, scar area related to LVEF and RVEF, while LV and RV native T1 related to RV dilatation. On multivariable analysis, scar area and LV native T1 were independent correlates of ventricular arrhythmia, while RVEF was not. Patients with history of PVR showed larger scars on RV outflow tract but shorter LV and RV native T1.
Conclusion
Focal scar and biventricular diffuse fibrosis can be characterized on CMR after TOF repair. Scar size relates to systolic dysfunction, and diffuse fibrosis to RV dilatation. Both independently relate to ventricular arrhythmias. The finding of shorter T1 after PVR suggests that diffuse fibrosis may reverse with therapy.

© The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:990-1003
Cochet H, Iriart X, Allain-Nicolaï A, Camaioni C, ... Montaudon M, Thambo JB
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:990-1003 | PMID: 30993335
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Impact:
Abstract

Hybrid positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance imaging for assessing different stages of cardiac impairment in patients with Anderson-Fabry disease: AFFINITY study group.

Imbriaco M, Nappi C, Ponsiglione A, Pisani A, ... Chow K, Cuocolo A
Aims
Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder associated with multi-organ dysfunction. While native myocardial T1 mapping by magnetic resonance (MR) allow non-invasive measurement of myocyte sphingolipid accumulation, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and MR are able to identify different pathological patterns of disease progression. We investigated the relationship between T1 mapping and 18F-FDG uptake by hybrid PET-MR cardiac imaging in AFD female patients.
Methods and results
Twenty AFD females without cardiac symptoms underwent cardiac PET-MR using 18F-FDG for glucose uptake. In all patients and in seven age- and sex-matched control subjects, T1 mapping was performed using native T1 Modified Look-Locker Inversion-recovery prototype sequences. 18F-FDG myocardial uptake was quantified by measuring the coefficient of variation (COV) of the standardized uptake value using a 17-segment model. T1 values of AFD patients were lower compared with control subjects (1236 ± 49 ms vs. 1334 ± 27 ms, P < 0.0001). Focal 18F-FDG uptake with COV >0.17 was detected in seven patients. COV was 0.32 ± 0.1 in patients with focal 18F-FDG uptake and 0.12 ± 0.04 in those without (P < 0.001). Patients with COV >0.17 had higher T1 values of lateral segments of the mid ventricular wall, compared with those with COV ≤0.17 (1216 ± 22 ms vs. 1160 ± 59 ms, P < 0.05).
Conclusion
In females with AFD, focal 18F-FDG uptake with a trend towards a pseudo-normalization of abnormal T1 mapping values, may represent an intermediate stage before the development of myocardial fibrosis. These findings suggest a potential relationship between progressive myocyte sphingolipid accumulation and inflammation.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1004-1011
Imbriaco M, Nappi C, Ponsiglione A, Pisani A, ... Chow K, Cuocolo A
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1004-1011 | PMID: 30879055
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Impact:
Abstract

Severe right ventricular dilatation after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot is associated with increased left ventricular preload and stroke volume.

Gnanappa GK, Celermajer DS, Zhu D, Puranik R, Ayer J
Aims
Pulmonary regurgitation (PR) and right ventricular (RV) dilatation are common in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). Left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is an important risk factor in rTOF. The effect of PR/RV dilatation on LV performance and RV-LV interactions in rTOF are incompletely understood. We examined LV responses and exercise capacity in rTOF, both before and after pulmonary valve replacement (PVR).
Methods and results
Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging scans in 126 rTOF patients (age 17.3 ± 7.6 years) were analysed, comparing subjects with indexed RV end-diastolic volume (RVEDVi) <170 mL/m2 (mild/moderate dilatation, n = 95) and RVEDVi ≥170 mL/m2 (severe dilatation, n = 31). Indexed PR volume (PRVi), RV end-systolic (RVESVi), RV end-diastolic (RVEDVi), RV stroke volume (RVSVi), net pulmonary forward flow (NPFFi), LV end-diastolic (LVEDVi), LV end-systolic (LVESVi), LV stroke volume (LVSVi), RV and LV ejection fraction (EF), and diastolic septal curvature were obtained. Peak aerobic capacity (VO2 max) was measured. In a subset (n = 30), measures were obtained pre-and-post surgical PVR. Compared to those with mild/moderate RV dilatation, patients with severe RV dilation had greater PRVi (38 ± 12 vs. 24 ± 9 mL/m2, P < 0.0001), NPFFi (53 ± 9 vs. 44 ± 11 mL/m2, P < 0.0001), LVEDVi (87 ± 14 vs. 73 ± 13 mL/m2, P < 0.0001), LVESVi (39 ± 12 vs. 30 ± 8 mL/m2, P < 0.0001), and LVSVi (48 ± 7 vs. 43  ±  8 mL/m2, P = 0.002) but lower RV ejection fraction (46 ± 8 vs. 53 ± 7%, P < 0.0001). Septal curvature and VO2 max were similar in both groups. After PVR, there was no change in LVEDVi, LVSVi, septal curvature, or VO2 max.
Conclusions
Chronic PR with severe RV dilatation is associated with increased NPFFi, LVEDVi, and LVSVi. This may potentially explain preserved exercise capacity in rTOF with severe PR and RV dilatation.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1020-1026
Gnanappa GK, Celermajer DS, Zhu D, Puranik R, Ayer J
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1020-1026 | PMID: 30874802
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Impact:
Abstract

Mid-term outcome of severe tricuspid regurgitation: are there any differences according to mechanism and severity?

Santoro C, Marco Del Castillo A, González-Gómez A, Monteagudo JM, ... Zamorano Gomez JL, Fernández-Golfín C
Aims
Patients with significant tricuspid regurgitation (TR) addressed according the new classification in torrential TR may have different prognosis compared with just severe TR patients. We sought to determine distribution and mechanism of consecutive severe TR patients, in accordance with aetiology and severity by applying the new proposed classification scheme and their long-term outcomes.
Methods and results
Between January and December 2013, 249 patients with significant TR referred to the cardiac imaging unit (mean age 79.9 ± 10.2 years; 29.8% female) were included. Patients were divided according to aetiology in six groups, and TR severity was reclassified into severe, massive, and torrential TR. The follow-up period was of 313 ± 103 days. When considering cardiovascular mortality, patients in the massive/torrential group showed the highest number of events (P < 0.007). Patients with TR due to pulmonary diseases had the worst prognosis according to different aetiology. Noteworthy, the best predictors for the combined endpoint [cardiovascular mortality and readmission admission for heart failure (HF)] were TR severity according to the new classification [hazard ratio (HR) 2.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25-4.93] and clinical scores such as New York Heart Association classification and congestive status (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.28-2.49; HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.06-4.06, respectively).
Conclusion
Patients with massive/torrential TR and patients with comorbidities, especially pulmonary disease, were identified as populations at higher risk of death and readmission for HF. New classification scheme and clinical assessment may establish who may benefit the most of intensive therapeutic treatments and intervention on the tricuspid valve.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1035-1042
Santoro C, Marco Del Castillo A, González-Gómez A, Monteagudo JM, ... Zamorano Gomez JL, Fernández-Golfín C
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1035-1042 | PMID: 30830219
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Impact:
Abstract

The prognostic value of 2D strain in assessment of the right ventricle in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

Seo J, Jung IH, Park JH, Kim GS, ... Kim BO, Rhee KJ
Aims
Several studies have been reported using right ventricular (RV) strain as a method for evaluating RV function in patients with various cardiovascular diseases; however, the clinical relevance of RV strain in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients with sinus rhythm is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between RV strain and adverse events in DCM patients with sinus rhythm.
Methods and results
We enrolled 143 DCM patients with sinus rhythm who had been first diagnosed, evaluated, and followed at Sanggye Paik Hospital between March 2013 and August 2017. We performed echocardiography and measured RV strain values using the apical four-chamber view. The mean age was 64.6 years. During the median follow-up period of 40.0 months, adverse cardiovascular events developed in 21 patients (14.7%). By Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis, only RV free wall longitudinal strain (RV-FWLS) independently predicted the primary outcome. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the optimal RV-FWLS cut-off value to identify patients with an event was -16.5% (area under the curve = 0.703, P = 0.003). When we divided the subjects into two groups based on the RV-FWLS of -16.5%, patients with RV-FWLS <-16.5% showed more favourable clinical outcomes than that in those with RV-FWLS ≥-16.5% (log-rank test, P < 0.001).
Conclusion
RV-FWLS was associated with a significant prognostic impact in DCM patients with sinus rhythm.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1043-1050
Seo J, Jung IH, Park JH, Kim GS, ... Kim BO, Rhee KJ
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1043-1050 | PMID: 30796431
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Impact:
Abstract

Prognostic implications of small left atria on hospitalized patients.

Rozenbaum Z, Topilsky Y, Aviram G, Entin-Meer M, ... Steinvil A, Biner S
Aims
To demonstrate the association between small left atria (LA) and outcome in a relatively large heterogeneous population of hospitalized patients.
Methods and results
In a single-centre retrospective study, all inpatients that underwent an echocardiographic assessment between 2011 and 2016 and had an available left atrial volume index (LAVI) measurement were included. The cohort consisted of 17 343 inpatients who had an available LAVI measurement, 288 with small LA (LAVI <16 mL/m2), 7531 patients had LAVI within normal limits (16-34 mL/m2) divided into low normal (16-24.9 mL/m2; n = 2636) and high normal (25-34 mL/m2; n = 4895), 4720 patients had large LAVI (34.1-45 mL/m2) and 4804 had very large LAVI (>45 mL/m2). Median follow-up time was 2.4 years. After adjustments for age, gender, and baseline characteristics with a P-value <0.2 in univariable analyses (body mass index, haemoglobin, ischaemic heart disease, valvulopathy, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, smoking, renal dysfunction, lung disease, and malignancy) small LA was associated with a higher risk for in-hospital mortality (odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4-5.7; P = 0.002] and all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 2.1, 95% CI 1.6-2.8; P < 0.001] compared with high normal LA. For every mL/m2 decrease below high normal LA size the risk for in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality increased by 10% (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.02-1.18; P = 0.005) and 8% (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.05-1.12; P < 0.001), respectively.
Conclusion
Small LA are independently associated poorer short- and long-term mortality. LA volume should be referred to as J-shaped in terms of mortality.
Helsinki committee approval number
0170-17-TLV.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1051-1058
Rozenbaum Z, Topilsky Y, Aviram G, Entin-Meer M, ... Steinvil A, Biner S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1051-1058 | PMID: 30689832
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Impact:
Abstract

Atrial mechanics and their prognostic impact in Takotsubo syndrome: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging study.

Backhaus SJ, Stiermaier T, Lange T, Chiribiri A, ... Eitel I, Schuster A
Aims
The exact pathophysiology of Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) remains not fully understood with most studies focussing on ventricular pathology. Since atrial involvement may have a significant role, we assessed the diagnostic and prognostic potential of atrial cardiovascular magnetic resonance feature tracking (CMR-FT) in TTS.
Methods and results
This multicentre study recruited 152 TTS patients who underwent CMR on average within 3 days after hospitalization. Reservoir [total strain εs and peak positive strain rate (SR) SRs], conduit (passive strain εe and peak early negative SRe), and booster pump function (active strain εa and peak late negative SRa) were assessed in a core laboratory. Results were compared with 21 control patients with normal biventricular function. A total of 20 patients underwent follow-up CMR (median 3.5 months, interquartile range 3-5). All patients were approached for general follow-up. Left atrial (LA) but not right atrial (RA) reservoir and conduit function were impaired during the acute phase (εs: P = 0.043, εe: P < 0.001, SRe: P = 0.047 vs. controls) and recovered until follow-up (εs: P < 0.001, SRs: P = 0.04, εe: P = 0.001, SRe: P = 0.04). LA and RA booster pump function were increased in the acute setting (LA-εa: P = 0.045, SRa: P = 0.002 and RA-εa: P = 0.004, SRa: P = 0.002 vs. controls). LA-εs predicted mortality [hazard ratio 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.20; P = 0.037] irrespectively of established cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.019, multivariate analysis) including left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (area under the curve 0.71, 95% CI 0.55-0.86, P = 0.048).
Conclusion
TTS pathophysiology comprises transient impairments in LA reservoir and conduit functions and enhanced bi-atrial active booster pump functions. Atrial CMR-FT may evolve as a superior marker of adverse events over and above established parameters such as LVEF and atrial volume.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1059-1069
Backhaus SJ, Stiermaier T, Lange T, Chiribiri A, ... Eitel I, Schuster A
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Aug 2019; 20:1059-1069 | PMID: 30649241
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Impact:
Abstract

Correlation between non-invasive myocardial work indices and main parameters of systolic and diastolic function: results from the EACVI NORRE study.

Manganaro R, Marchetta S, Dulgheru R, Sugimoto T, ... Lang RM, Lancellotti P
Aims
The present study sought to evaluate the correlation between indices of non-invasive myocardial work (MW) and left ventricle (LV) size, traditional and advanced parameters of LV systolic and diastolic function by 2D echocardiography (2DE).
Methods and results
A total of 226 (85 men, mean age: 45 ± 13 years) healthy subjects were enrolled at 22 collaborating institutions of the Normal Reference Ranges for Echocardiography (NORRE) study. Global work index (GWI), global constructive work (GCW), global work waste (GWW), and global work efficiency (GWE) were estimated from LV pressure-strain loops using custom software. Peak LV pressure was estimated non-invasively from brachial artery cuff pressure. LV size, parameters of systolic and diastolic function and ventricular-arterial coupling were measured by echocardiography. As advanced indices of myocardial performance, global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), and global radial strain (GRS) were obtained. On multivariable analysis, GWI was significantly correlated with GLS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.23, P < 0.001), ejection fraction (EF) (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.15, P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.56, P < 0.001) and GRS (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.19, P = 0.004), while GCW was correlated with GLS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.55, P < 0.001), SBP (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.71, P < 0.001), GRS (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.11, P = 0.02), and GCS (standardized beta-coefficient = -0.10, P = 0.01). GWE was directly correlated with EF and inversely correlated with Tei index (standardized beta-coefficient = 0.18, P = 0.009 and standardized beta-coefficient = -0.20, P = 0.004, respectively), the opposite occurred for GWW (standardized beta-coefficient =--0.14, P = 0.03 and standardized beta-coefficient = 0.17, P = 0.01, respectively).
Conclusion
The non-invasive MW indices show a good correlation with traditional 2DE parameters of myocardial systolic function and myocardial strain.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Manganaro R, Marchetta S, Dulgheru R, Sugimoto T, ... Lang RM, Lancellotti P
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31408147
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Impact:
Abstract

Does isolated mitral annular calcification in the absence of mitral valve disease affect clinical outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve replacement?

Okuno T, Asami M, Khan F, Praz F, ... Windecker S, Pilgrim T
Aims 
Mitral annular calcification (MAC) has been associated with adverse outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) but has been investigated in isolation of co-existent mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis, which may represent important confounders. This study sought to investigate the effect of MAC with and without concomitant mitral valve disease (MVD) on clinical outcomes in patients treated with TAVR.
Methods and results 
Computed tomography (CT) and echocardiographic data in consecutive TAVR patients enrolled into a prospective registry were categorized according to presence or absence of severe MAC and significant MVD, respectively. A total of 967 patients with adequate CT and echocardiography data were included between 2007 and 2017. Severe MAC was found in 172 patients (17.8%) and associated with MVD in 87 patients (50.6%). Compared to TAVR patients without severe MAC or MVD, all-cause mortality at 1 year was significantly increased among patients with severe MAC in combination with MVD [adjusted hazard ratio (HRadj): 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12-3.44, P = 0.018] and patients with isolated MVD (HRadj: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.56-3.47, P < 0.001), but not in patients with isolated severe MAC in the absence of MVD (HRadj: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.21-1.33, P = 0.173).
Conclusion 
We found no effect of isolated MAC on clinical outcomes following TAVR in patients with preserved mitral valve function. Patients with MVD had an increased risk of death at 1 year irrespective of MAC.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Okuno T, Asami M, Khan F, Praz F, ... Windecker S, Pilgrim T
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31408104
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Impact:
Abstract

Interplay of cardiac remodelling and myocardial stiffness in hypertensive heart disease: a shear wave imaging study using high-frame rate echocardiography.

Cvijic M, Bézy S, Petrescu A, Santos P, ... D\'hooge J, Voigt JU
Aims
To determine myocardial stiffness by means of measuring the velocity of naturally occurring myocardial shear waves (SWs) at mitral valve closure (MVC) and investigate their changes with myocardial remodelling in patients with hypertensive heart disease.
Methods and results
Thirty-three treated arterial hypertension (HT) patients with hypertrophic left ventricular (LV) remodelling (59 ± 14 years, 55% male) and 26 aged matched healthy controls (55±15 years, 77% male) were included. HT patients were further divided into a concentric remodelling (HT1) group (13 patients) and a concentric hypertrophy (HT2) group (20 patients). LV parasternal long-axis views were acquired with an experimental ultrasound scanner at 1266 ± 317 frames per seconds. The SW velocity induced by MVC was measured from myocardial acceleration maps. SW velocities differed significantly between HT patients and controls (5.83 ± 1.20 m/s vs. 4.04 ± 0.96 m/s; P < 0.001). In addition, the HT2 group had the highest SW velocities (P < 0.001), whereas values between controls and the HT1 group were comparable (P = 0.075). Significant positive correlations were found between SW velocity and LV remodelling (interventricular septum thickness: r = 0.786, P < 0.001; LV mass index: r = 0.761, P < 0.001). SW velocity normalized for wall stress indicated that myocardial stiffness in the HT2 group was twice as high as in controls (P < 0.001), whereas values of the HT1 group overlapped with the controls (P = 1.00).
Conclusions
SW velocity as measure of myocardial stiffness is higher in HT patients compared with healthy controls, particularly in advanced hypertensive heart disease. Patients with concentric remodelling have still normal myocardial properties whereas patients with concentric hypertrophy show significant stiffening.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print
Cvijic M, Bézy S, Petrescu A, Santos P, ... D'hooge J, Voigt JU
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 02 Aug 2019; epub ahead of print | PMID: 31377789
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Impact:
Abstract

Anatomy of mitral annulus insights from non-invasive imaging techniques.

Faletra FF, Leo LA, Paiocchi VL, Caretta A, ... Demertzis S, Ho SY

The mitral annulus (MA) is not a continuous ring of connective tissue from which are suspended mitral leaflets. Instead, it is a much more complex structure made up of a mix of fibrous, muscular, and adipose tissues. MA is a key structure in any type of mitral valve repair and recently it has been targeted for transcutaneous devices. Thus, a deep understanding of MA anatomy has never been more important. Traditionally, cardiac anatomy has been described using anatomic specimens. Currently, sophisticated non-invasive techniques allow imaging of MA with a richness of anatomical details unimaginable only two decades ago. The aim of this review is to provide a better understanding of the peculiar aspects of MA as they are revealed through these imaging techniques and discuss clinical implications related to this complex structure.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:843-857
Faletra FF, Leo LA, Paiocchi VL, Caretta A, ... Demertzis S, Ho SY
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:843-857 | PMID: 31219549
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Abstract

The year 2018 in the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging: Part I.

Edvardsen T, Haugaa KH, Petersen SE, Gimelli A, ... Popescu BA, Cosyns B

The European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging has become one of the leading multimodality cardiovascular imaging journal, since it was launched in 2012. The impact factor is an impressive 8.366 and it is now established as one of the top 10 cardiovascular journals. The journal is the most important cardiovascular imaging journal in Europe. The most important studies from 2018 will be highlighted in two reports. Part I of the review will focus on studies about myocardial function and risk prediction, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging, while Part II will focus on valvular heart disease, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart disease.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:858-865
Edvardsen T, Haugaa KH, Petersen SE, Gimelli A, ... Popescu BA, Cosyns B
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:858-865 | PMID: 31211353
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Abstract

Independent role of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in the absence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors.

Won KB, Park GM, Yang YJ, Ann SH, ... Kim SJ, Lee SG
Aims
Individuals without traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) still experience adverse events in clinical practice. This study evaluated the predictors of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in individuals without traditional CVRFs.
Methods and results
A total of 1250 (52.8 ± 6.5 years, 46.9% male) asymptomatic individuals without CVRFs who underwent coronary computed tomographic angiography for a general health examination were analysed. The following were considered as traditional CVRFs: systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg; fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL; total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) ≥160 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol <40 mg/dL; body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m2; current smoking status; and previous medical history of hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia. Subclinical atherosclerosis, defined as the presence of any coronary plaque, was present in 20.6% cases; the incidences of non-calcified, calcified, and mixed plaque were 9.6%, 12.6%, and 2.6%, respectively. Multivariate regression analysis showed that LDL-C level [odds ratio (OR): 1.008; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.001-1.015], together with age (OR: 1.101; 95% CI: 1.075-1.128) and male sex (OR: 5.574; 95% CI: 3.310-9.388), was associated with the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis (All P < 0.05). LDL-C level was significantly associated with an increased risk of calcified plaques rather than non-calcified or mixed plaques.
Conclusion
LDL-C, even at levels currently considered within normal range, is independently associated with the presence of subclinical coronary atherosclerosis in individuals without traditional CVRFs. Our results suggest that a stricter control of LDL-C levels may be necessary for primary prevention in individuals who are conventionally considered healthy.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:866-872
Won KB, Park GM, Yang YJ, Ann SH, ... Kim SJ, Lee SG
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:866-872 | PMID: 31086966
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Abstract

Left ventricular concentric remodelling and functional impairment in women with ischaemia with no obstructive coronary artery disease and intermediate coronary flow reserve: a report from the WISE-CVD study.

Park SM, Wei J, Cook-Wiens G, Nelson MD, ... Pepine CJ, Merz CNB
Aims
Women with evidence of ischaemia but no obstructive coronary artery disease (INOCA) often have coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD). Although invasively measured coronary flow reserve (CFR) is useful for the diagnosis of CMD, intermediate CFR values are often found of uncertain significance. We investigated myocardial flow reserve and left ventricular (LV) structural and functional remodelling in women with suspected INOCA and intermediate CFR.
Methods and results
Women\'s Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation-Coronary Vascular Dysfunction (WISE-CVD) study participants who had invasively measured intermediate CFR of 2.0≤ CFR ≤3.0 (n = 125) were included for this analysis. LV strain, peak filling rate (PFR) and myocardial perfusion reserve index (MPRI) were obtained by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Participants were divided: (i) Group 1 (n = 66) high MPRI ≥ 1.8, and (ii) Group 2 (n = 59) low MPRI < 1.8. The mean age was 54 ± 12 years and CFR was 2.46 ± 0.27. MPRI was significantly different but CFR did not differ between groups. LV relative wall thickness (RWT) trended higher in Group 2 and circumferential peak systolic strain and early diastolic strain rate were lower (P = 0.039 and P = 0.035, respectively), despite a similar LV ejection fraction and LV mass. PFR was higher in Group 1 and LV RWT was negatively related to PFR (r = -0.296, P = 0.001).
Conclusions
In women with suspected INOCA and intermediate CFR, those with lower MPRI had a trend towards more adverse remodelling and impaired diastolic LV function compared with those with higher MPRI. CFR was similar between the two groups. These findings provide evidence that both coronary microvessel vasomotion and structural and functional myocardial remodelling contribute to CMD.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:875-882
Park SM, Wei J, Cook-Wiens G, Nelson MD, ... Pepine CJ, Merz CNB
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:875-882 | PMID: 30904924
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Abstract

Normal values of aortic dimensions assessed by multidetector computed tomography in the Copenhagen General Population Study.

Pham MHC, Ballegaard C, de Knegt MC, Sigvardsen PE, ... Køber LV, Kofoed KF
Aims
Accurate assessment of aortic dimensions can be achieved using contrast-enhanced computed tomography. The aim of this study was to define normal values and determinants of aortic dimensions throughout multiple key anatomical landmarks of the aorta in healthy individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study.
Methods and results
The study group consisted of 902 healthy subjects selected from 3000 adults undergoing cardiovascular thoracic and abdominal computed tomography-angiography (CTA), where systematic measurements of aortic dimensions were performed retrospectively. Individuals included were without any of the following predefined cardiovascular risk factors: (i) self-reported angina pectoris; (ii) hypertension; (iii) hypercholesterolaemia; (iv) taking cardiovascular prescribed medication including diuretics, statins, or aspirin; (v) overweight (defined as body mass index ≥30 kg/m2); (vi) diabetes mellitus (self-reported or blood glucose >8 mmol/L); and (vii) chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Maximal aortic diameters were measured at seven aortic regions: sinuses of Valsalva, sinotubular junction, ascending aorta, mid-descending aorta, abdominal aorta at the diaphragm, abdominal aorta at the coeliac trunk, and infrarenal abdominal aorta. Median age was 52 years, and 396 (40%) were men. Men had significantly larger aortic diameters at all levels compared with women (P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that sex, age, and body surface area were associated with increasing aortic dimensions.
Conclusion
Normal values of maximal aortic dimensions at key aortic anatomical locations by contrast-enhanced CTA have been defined. Age, sex, and body surface area were significantly associated with these measures at all levels of aorta. Aortic dimensions follow an almost identical pattern throughout the vessel regardless of sex.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:939-948
Pham MHC, Ballegaard C, de Knegt MC, Sigvardsen PE, ... Køber LV, Kofoed KF
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:939-948 | PMID: 30809640
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Abstract

The independent and add-on values of radial intima thickness measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy for diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

Xu M, Zhang M, Xu J, Zhu M, ... Zhang P, Zhang Y
Aims
Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been widely used to risk stratify and predict coronary artery disease (CAD) despite its significant limitations. To test whether radial artery intima thickness (RIT) is closely associated with atherosclerotic risk factors, and whether RIT has an independent and additive value for diagnosis of CAD.
Methods and results
One hundred and sixteen consecutive CAD patients and 79 age and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in this study. RIT, radial media thickness, radial intima-media thickness, and CIMT were measured with a high-resolution ultrasound biomicroscopy. Binary logistic regression was used to assess association between CAD and ultrasonic parameters, biochemical biomarkers or traditional risk factors. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were plotted to compare performances of several diagnostic models. RIT was positively associated with age, systolic blood pressure, statin administration, and hypertension. The independent value of RIT for differentiating CAD was similar to that of CIMT, but the add-on value of RIT to traditional risk factors for detecting CAD was superior to that of CIMT. Moreover, addition of RIT and CIMT to traditional risk factors increased AUC for detecting CAD from 0.724 to 0.867 significantly (P = 0.003).
Conclusion
RIT could detect CAD independently similarly to CIMT. The add-on value of RIT to traditional risk factors for detecting CAD was superior to CIMT and addition of RIT and CIMT to traditional risk factors markedly increased the power to diagnose CAD. Thus, RIT measured by ultrasound biomicroscopy provided a novel approach to non-invasive diagnosis of CAD.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:889-896
Xu M, Zhang M, Xu J, Zhu M, ... Zhang P, Zhang Y
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:889-896 | PMID: 30796428
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Abstract

Coronary vascular function in patients with resistant hypertension and normal myocardial perfusion: a propensity score analysis.

Gaudieri V, Acampa W, Rozza F, Nappi C, ... Arumugam P, Cuocolo A
Aims
Impaired myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) may occur earlier than coronary atherosclerosis and it may be an early manifestation of developing coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with resistant hypertension (RH). We evaluated the relationship between RH and MPR in patients with systemic arterial hypertension after balancing for coronary risk factors.
Methods and results
We studied 360 subjects without overt CAD and normal myocardial perfusion at stress-rest 82Rb positron emission tomography/computed tomography. To account for differences in baseline characteristics between patients with resistant and controlled hypertension, we created a propensity score-matched cohort considering clinical variables and coronary risk factors. Before matching, patients with RH were significantly older, had higher prevalence of male gender and hypercholesterolaemia, and showed significantly lower global hyperaemic myocardial blood flow (MBF) and MPR compared with those with controlled hypertension, while baseline MBF and coronary artery calcium (CAC) content were similar in both groups. After matching, there were no significant differences in clinical variables and coronary risk factors between patients with resistant and controlled hypertension, but patients with RH still had lower hyperaemic MBF and MPR (both P < 0.001). At univariable and multivariable linear regression analyses, age, RH, and CAC resulted significant predictors of lower MPR values (all P < 0.05).
Conclusion
After balancing clinical characteristic by propensity score analysis, patients with RH had a blunted hyperaemic MBF and MPR compared with patients with controlled hypertension. The identification of impaired MPR could help to identify early structural alterations of the arterial walls in patients with RH.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:949-958
Gaudieri V, Acampa W, Rozza F, Nappi C, ... Arumugam P, Cuocolo A
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:949-958 | PMID: 30768182
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Abstract

Assessment of myocardial oxygenation, strain, and diastology in MYBPC3-related hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance and echocardiography study.

Grover S, Lloyd R, Perry R, Lou PW, ... Semsarian C, Selvanayagam JB
Aims
Myocardial oxygenation is impaired in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and possibly also in HCM gene carriers without LVH. Whether these oxygenation changes are also associated with abnormalities in diastolic function or left ventricular (LV) strain are unknown.
Methods and results
We evaluated 60 subjects: 20 MYBPC3 gene positive patients with LVH (G+LVH+), 18 MYBPC3 gene positive without LVH (G+LVH-), 11 gene negative siblings (G-), and 11 normal controls (NC). All subjects underwent 2D transthoracic echocardiography and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of ventricular volumes, mass, and myocardial oxygenation at rest and adenosine stress using the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) technique. Maximal septal thickness was 20 mm in the G+LVH+ group, vs. 9 mm for the G+LVH- group. As expected, the G+LVH+ group had a more blunted myocardial oxygenation response to stress when compared with the G+LVH- group (-5% ± 3% vs. 2% ± 4%, P < 0.05), G- siblings (-5% ± 3% vs. 11% ± 4%, P < 0.0001) and NC (-5% ± 3% vs. 15% ± 4%, P < 0.0001). A blunted BOLD response to stress was also seen in G+LVH- subjects when compared with gene negative siblings (2% ± 4% vs. 11% ± 4%, P < 0.05) and NC (15% ± 4%, P < 0.050). G+LVH+ patients exhibited abnormal diastolic function including lower E\', higher E to E\' ratio and greater left atrial area compared with the G+LVH- subjects who all had normal values for these indices.
Conclusion
Myocardial deoxygenation during stress is observed in MYBPC3 HCM patients, even in the presence of normal LV diastolic function, LV global longitudinal strain, and LV wall thickness.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:932-938
Grover S, Lloyd R, Perry R, Lou PW, ... Semsarian C, Selvanayagam JB
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:932-938 | PMID: 30668650
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Abstract

Characterization of functionally significant coronary artery disease by a coronary computed tomography angiography-based index: a comparison with positron emission tomography.

Anagnostopoulos CD, Siogkas PK, Liga R, Benetos G, ... Fotiadis DI, Neglia D
Aims
To test the hypothesis that virtual functional assessment index (vFAI) is related with regional flow parameters derived by quantitative positron emission tomography (PET) and can be used to assess abnormal vasodilating capability in coronary vessels with stenotic lesions at coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA).
Methods and results
vFAI, stress myocardial blood flow (MBF), and myocardial flow reserve (MFR) were assessed in 78 patients (mean age 62.2 ± 7.7 years) with intermediate pre-test likelihood of coronary artery disease (CAD). Coronary stenoses ≥50% were considered angiographically significant. PET was considered positive for significant CAD, when more than one contiguous segments showed stress MBF ≤2.3 mL/g/min for 15O-water or <1.79 mL/g/min for 13N-ammonia. MFR thresholds were ≤2.5 and ≤2.0, respectively. vFAI was lower in vessels with abnormal stress MBF (0.76 ± 0.10 vs. 0.89 ± 0.07, P < 0.001) or MFR (0.80 ± 0.10 vs. 0.89 ± 0.07, P < 0.001). vFAI had an accuracy of 78.6% and 75% in unmasking abnormal stress MBF and MFR in 15O-water and 82.7% and 71.2% in 13N-ammonia studies, respectively. Addition of vFAI to anatomical CCTA data increased the ability for predicting abnormal stress MBF and MFR in 15O-water studies [AUCccta + vfai = 0.866, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.783-0.949; P = 0.013 and AUCccta + vfai = 0.737, 95% CI 0.648-0.825; P = 0.007, respectively]. An incremental value was also demonstrated for prediction of stress MBF (AUCccta + vfai = 0.887, 95% CI 0.799-0.974; P = 0.001) in 13N-ammonia studies. A similar trend was recorded for MFR (AUCccta + vfai = 0.780, 95% CI 0.632-0.929; P = 0.13).
Conclusion
vFAI identifies accurately the presence of impaired vasodilating capability. In combination with anatomical data, vFAI enhances the diagnostic performance of CCTA.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2019. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:897-905
Anagnostopoulos CD, Siogkas PK, Liga R, Benetos G, ... Fotiadis DI, Neglia D
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:897-905 | PMID: 30629151
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Abstract

Utility of machine learning algorithms in assessing patients with a systemic right ventricle.

Diller GP, Babu-Narayan S, Li W, Radojevic J, ... Gatzoulis MA, Orwat S
Aims
To investigate the utility of novel deep learning (DL) algorithms in recognizing transposition of the great arteries (TGA) after atrial switch procedure or congenitally corrected TGA (ccTGA) based on routine transthoracic echocardiograms. In addition, the ability of DL algorithms for delineation and segmentation of the systemic ventricle was evaluated.
Methods and results
In total, 132 patients (92 TGA and atrial switch and 40 with ccTGA; 60% male, age 38.3 ± 12.1 years) and 67 normal controls (57% male, age 48.5 ± 17.9 years) with routine transthoracic examinations were included. Convolutional neural networks were trained to classify patients by underlying diagnosis and a U-Net design was used to automatically segment the systemic ventricle. Convolutional networks were build based on over 100 000 frames of an apical four-chamber or parasternal short-axis view to detect underlying diagnoses. The DL algorithm had an overall accuracy of 98.0% in detecting the correct diagnosis. The U-Net architecture model correctly identified the systemic ventricle in all individuals and achieved a high performance in segmenting the systemic right or left ventricle (Dice metric between 0.79 and 0.88 depending on diagnosis) when compared with human experts.
Conclusion
Our study demonstrates the potential of machine learning algorithms, trained on routine echocardiographic datasets to detect underlying diagnosis in complex congenital heart disease. Automated delineation of the ventricular area was also feasible. These methods may in future allow for the longitudinal, objective, and automated assessment of ventricular function.

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Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:925-931
Diller GP, Babu-Narayan S, Li W, Radojevic J, ... Gatzoulis MA, Orwat S
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 31 Jul 2019; 20:925-931 | PMID: 30629127
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This program is still in alpha version.