Journal: Circ Cardiovasc Imaging

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Abstract

Long-Term Prognostic Value of Stress Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance-Related Coronary Revascularization to Predict Death: A Large Registry With >200 000 Patient-Years of Follow-Up.

Pezel T, Unterseeh T, Garot P, Hovasse T, ... Champagne S, Garot J
Background
Although the benefit of coronary revascularization in patients with stable coronary disease is debated, data assessing the potential interest of stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) to guide coronary revascularization are limited. We aimed to assess the long-term prognostic value of stress CMR-related coronary revascularization in consecutive patients from a large registry.
Methods
Between 2008 and 2018, a retrospective cohort study with a median follow-up of 6.0 years (interquartile range, 5.0-8.0) included all consecutive patients referred for stress CMR. CMR-related coronary revascularization was defined by any coronary revascularization performed within 90 days after CMR. The primary outcome was all-cause death based on the National Death Registry.
Results
Among the 31 762 consecutive patients (mean age 63.7±12.1 years and 65.7% males), 2679 (8.4%) died at 206 453 patient-years of follow-up. Inducible ischemia and late gadolinium enhancement by CMR were associated with death (both P<0.001). In multivariable Cox regression, inducible ischemia and late gadolinium enhancement were independent predictors of death (hazard ratio, 1.61 [99.5% CI, 1.41-1.84]; hazard ratio, 1.62 [99.5% CI, 1.41-1.86], respectively; P<0.001). In the overall population, CMR-related coronary revascularization was an independent predictor of greater survival (hazard ratio, 0.58 [99.5% CI, 0.46-0.74]; P<0.001). In 1680, 1:1 matched patients using a limited number of variables (840 revascularized, 840 nonrevascularized), CMR-related revascularization was associated with a lower incidence of death in patients with severe inducible ischemia (≥6 segments, P<0.001) but showed no benefit in patients with mild or moderate ischemia (<6 segments, P=0.109). Using multivariable analysis in the propensity-matched population, CMR-related revascularization remained an independent predictor of a lower incidence of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, 0.66 [99.5% CI, 0.54-0.80], P<0.001).
Conclusions
In this large observational series of consecutive patients, stress perfusion CMR had important incremental long-term prognostic value to predict death over traditional risk factors. CMR-related revascularization was associated with a lower incidence of death in patients with severe ischemia.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 05 Oct 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012789; epub ahead of print
Pezel T, Unterseeh T, Garot P, Hovasse T, ... Champagne S, Garot J
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 05 Oct 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012789; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34612046
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Abstract

Myocardial Perfusion in Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: Risk Factors for the Right Ventricular Microcirculation.

Rickers C, Wegner P, Silberbach M, Madriago E, ... Jerosch-Herold M, Kramer HH
Background
The status of the systemic right ventricular coronary microcirculation in hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) is largely unknown. It is presumed that the systemic right ventricle\'s coronary microcirculation exhibits unique pathophysiological characteristics of HLHS in Fontan circulation. The present study sought to quantify myocardial blood flow by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and evaluate the determinants of microvascular coronary dysfunction and myocardial ischemia in HLHS.
Methods
One hundred nineteen HLHS patients (median age, 4.80 years) and 34 healthy volunteers (median age, 5.50 years) underwent follow-up cardiac magnetic resonance imaging ≈1.8 years after total cavopulmonary connection. Right ventricle volumes and function, myocardial perfusion, diffuse fibrosis, and late gadolinium enhancement were assessed in 4 anatomic HLHS subtypes. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was quantified at rest and during adenosine-induced hyperemia. Coronary conductance was estimated from MBF at rest and catheter-based measurements of mean aortic pressure (n=99).
Results
Hyperemic MBF in the systemic ventricle was lower in HLHS compared with controls (1.89±0.57 versus 2.70±0.84 mL/g per min; P<0.001), while MBF at rest normalized by the rate-pressure product, was similar (1.25±0.36 versus 1.19±0.33; P=0.446). Independent risk factors for a reduced hyperemic MBF were an HLHS subtype with mitral stenosis and aortic atresia (P=0.017), late gadolinium enhancement (P=0.042), right ventricular diastolic dysfunction (P=0.005), and increasing age at total cavopulmonary connection (P=0.022). The coronary conductance correlated negatively with systemic blood oxygen saturation (r, -0.29; P=0.02). The frequency of late gadolinium enhancement increased with age at total cavopulmonary connection (P=0.014).
Conclusions
The coronary microcirculation of the systemic ventricle in young HLHS patients shows significant differences compared with controls. These hypothesis-generating findings on HLHS-specific risk factors for microvascular dysfunction suggest a potential benefit from early relief of frank cyanosis by total cavopulmonary connection.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 05 Oct 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012468; epub ahead of print
Rickers C, Wegner P, Silberbach M, Madriago E, ... Jerosch-Herold M, Kramer HH
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 05 Oct 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012468; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34610753
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Abstract

Worsened Tricuspid Regurgitation Following Pericardiectomy for Constrictive Pericarditis.

Tabucanon RS, Wang TKM, Chetrit M, Furqan MM, ... Johnston D, Klein AL
Background
Worsening tricuspid regurgitation (TR) severity may occur after pericardiectomy surgery for constrictive pericarditis patients; however, its mechanisms and predictors are not well established. We evaluated the clinical characteristics, associated factors, and outcomes of worsening TR after pericardiectomy.
Methods
Consecutive patients undergoing pericardiectomy for constrictive pericarditis without tricuspid valve surgery and with pre- and postoperative echocardiography available during 2000 to 2017 were retrospectively studied. Clinical, imaging, hemodynamic, and mortality characteristics were analyzed by those with and without worsening TR by at least one grade.
Results
Among 381 patients (age 61 [17] years, 318 [83.5%] male), 193 (50.7%) had worsening TR post-operatively, and 75 died during the 2.5 (5.4) years follow-up. In univariable analysis, worsening TR was associated with a history of congestive heart failure (47.2% versus 31.9%, P=0.003), increased left atrial volume indexed (23 versus 20 mL/m2, P=0.020), reduced right ventricular fractional area change (47% versus 54%, P<0.001), and worsening mitral regurgitation (39.7% versus 16.6%, P<0.001). Worsened TR had a trend toward reduced survival during follow-up (log-rank P=0.080), especially those with worsened TR but no recovery of TR grade on subsequent echocardiography within the first year compared with those without worsened TR (log-rank P=0.02). In multivariable analysis, right ventricular fractional area change, left atrial volume indexed, left ventricular mass indexed, pulmonary artery systolic pressure, and right atrial pressure/pulmonary capillary wedge pressure ratio were most associated with worsened TR, while blood urea nitrogen, hematocrit, lateral and medial e\' tissue Doppler and heart rate were most associated with mortality during follow-up.
Conclusions
Worsening TR severity was prevalent after pericardiectomy and had a trend toward reduced survival, especially if TR severity did not recover on subsequent echocardiography. Presence of parameters associated with worsened TR and reduced survival should alert clinicians to carefully manage these patients during follow-up.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 04 Oct 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012948; epub ahead of print
Tabucanon RS, Wang TKM, Chetrit M, Furqan MM, ... Johnston D, Klein AL
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 04 Oct 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012948; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34607446
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Abstract

Contraction Patterns of the Right Ventricle Associated with Different Degrees of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction.

Surkova E, Kovács A, Tokodi M, Lakatos BK, ... Parati G, Badano LP
Background
The functional adaptation of the right ventricle (RV) to the different degrees of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction remains to be clarified. We sought to (1) assess the changes in RV contraction pattern associated with the reduction of LV ejection fraction (EF) and (2) analyze whether the assessment of RV longitudinal, radial, and anteroposterior motion components of total RVEF adds prognostic value.
Methods
Consecutive patients with left-sided heart disease who underwent clinically indicated transthoracic echocardiography were enrolled in a single-center prospective observational study. Adverse outcome was defined as heart failure hospitalization or cardiac death. Cross-sectional analysis using the baseline 3-dimensional echocardiography studies was performed to quantify the relative contribution of the longitudinal, radial, and anteroposterior motion components to total RVEF.
Results
We studied 292 patients and followed them for 6.7±2.2 years. In patients with mildly and moderately reduced LVEF, the longitudinal and the anteroposterior components of RVEF decreased significantly, while the radial component increased resulting in preserved total RVEF (RVEF: 50% [46%-54%] versus 47% [44%-52%] versus 46% [42%-49%] in patients with no, mild, or moderate LV dysfunction, respectively; data presented as median and interquartile range). In patients with severe LV systolic dysfunction (n=34), a reduction in all 3 RV motion components led to a significant drop in RVEF (30% [25%-39%], P<0.001). In patients with normal RVEF (>45%), the anteroposterior component of total RVEF was a significant and independent predictor of outcome (hazard ratio, 0.960 [CI, 0.925-0.997], P<0.001).
Conclusions
In patients with left-sided heart disease, there is a significant remodeling of the RV associated with preservation of the RVEF in patients with mild or moderate LV dysfunction. In patients with normal RVEF, the measurement of the anteroposterior component of RV motion provided independent prognostic value.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Sep 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012774; epub ahead of print
Surkova E, Kovács A, Tokodi M, Lakatos BK, ... Parati G, Badano LP
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Sep 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012774; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34587749
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Abstract

Relative Prognostic Significance of Positron Emission Tomography Myocardial Perfusion Imaging Markers in Cardiomyopathy.

Thomas M, Sperry BW, Peri-Okonny P, Malik AO, ... Bateman TM, Patel KK
Background
Rubidium-82 positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging provides measurements of perfusion, myocardial blood flow and reserve (MBFR), and changes in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at rest and peak stress. Although all of these variables are known to provide prognostic information, they have not been well studied in patients with heart failure due to reduced LVEF.
Methods
Between 2010 and 2016, 1255 consecutive unique patients with LVEF≤40% were included in this study who underwent rubidium-82 positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging and did not have subsequent revascularization within 90 days. Perfusion assessment was scored semiquantitatively, and LVEF reserve (stress-rest LVEF) and global MBFR (stress/rest MBF) were quantified using automated software. Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for 14 clinical and 7 test characteristics were used to define the independent prognostic significance of MBFR on all-cause mortality.
Results
Of 1255 patients followed for a mean of 3.2 years, 454 (36.2%) died. After adjusting for clinical variables, the magnitude of fixed and reversible perfusion defects was prognostic of death (P=0.02 and 0.01, respectively), while the rest LVEF was not (P=0.18). The addition of LVEF reserve did not add any incremental value, while the addition of MBFR revealed incremental prognostic value (hazard ratio per 0.1 unit decrease in MBFR=1.08 [95% CI, 1.05-1.11], P<0.001) with fixed and reversible defects becoming nonsignificant (P=0.07 and 0.29, respectively). There was no interaction between MBFR and cause of cardiomyopathy (ischemic versus nonischemic).
Conclusions
In patients with a known cardiomyopathy who did not require early revascularization, reduced MBFR as obtained by positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging is associated with all-cause mortality while other positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging measures were not.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Sep 2021; 14:e012426
Thomas M, Sperry BW, Peri-Okonny P, Malik AO, ... Bateman TM, Patel KK
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 29 Sep 2021; 14:e012426 | PMID: 34665673
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Abstract

Loss of Pulmonary Vascular Volume as a Predictor of Right Ventricular Dysfunction and Mortality in Acute Pulmonary Embolism.

Minhas J, Nardelli P, Hassan SM, Al-Naamani N, ... Washko GR, Rahaghi FN
Background
In acute pulmonary embolism, chest computed tomography angiography derived metrics, such as the right ventricle (RV): left ventricle ratio are routinely used for risk stratification. Paucity of intraparenchymal blood vessels has previously been described, but their association with clinical biomarkers and outcomes has not been studied. We sought to determine if small vascular volumes measured on computed tomography scans were associated with an abnormal RV on echocardiography and mortality. We hypothesized that decreased small venous volume would be associated with greater RV dysfunction and increased mortality.
Methods
A retrospective cohort of patients with intermediate risk pulmonary embolism admitted to Brigham and Women\'s Hospital between 2009 and 2017 was assembled, and clinical and radiographic data were obtained. We performed 3-dimensional reconstructions of vasculature to assess intraparenchymal vascular volumes. Statistical analyses were performed using multivariable regression and cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, sex, lung volume, and small arterial volume.
Results
Seven hundred twenty-two subjects were identified of whom 573 had documented echocardiography. A 50% reduction in small venous volume was associated with an increased risk of RV dilation (relative risk: 1.38 [95% CI, 1.18-1.63], P<0.001), RV dysfunction (relative risk: 1.62 [95% CI, 1.36-1.95], P<0.001), and RV strain (relative risk: 1.67 [95% CI, 1.37-2.04], P<0.001); increased cardiac biomarkers, and higher 30-day and 90-day mortality (hazard ratio: 2.50 [95% CI, 1.33-4.67], P=0.004 and hazard ratio: 1.84 [95% CI, 1.11-3.04], P=0.019, respectively).
Conclusions
Loss of small venous volume quantified from computed tomography angiography is associated with increased risk of abnormal RV on echocardiography, abnormal cardiac biomarkers, and higher risk of 30- and 90-day mortality. Small venous volume may be a useful marker for assessing disease severity in acute pulmonary embolism.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Aug 2021; 14:e012347
Minhas J, Nardelli P, Hassan SM, Al-Naamani N, ... Washko GR, Rahaghi FN
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Aug 2021; 14:e012347 | PMID: 34544259
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Abstract

Association Between Impaired Myocardial Flow Reserve on Rubidium Positron Emission Tomography Imaging and Adverse Events in Patients With Autoimmune Rheumatic Disease.

Feher A, Boutagy NE, Oikonomou EK, Liu YH, ... Sinusas AJ, Hinchcliff M
Background
Coronary microvascular dysfunction has been described in patients with autoimmune rheumatic disease (ARD). However, it is unknown whether positron emission tomography (PET)-derived myocardial flow reserve (MFR) can predict adverse events in this population.
Methods
Patients with ARD without coronary artery disease who underwent dynamic rest-stress 82Rubidium PET were retrospectively studied and compared with patients without ARD matched for age, sex, and comorbidities. The association between MFR and a composite end point of mortality or myocardial infarction or heart failure admission was evaluated with time to event and Cox-regression analyses.
Results
In 101 patients with ARD (88% female, age: 62±10 years), when compared with matched patients without ARD (n=101), global MFR was significantly reduced (median: 1.68 [interquartile range: 1.34-2.05] versus 1.86 [interquartile range: 1.58-2.28]) and reduced MFR (<1.5) was more frequent (40% versus 22%). MFR did not differ among subtypes of ARDs. In survival analysis, patients with ARD and low MFR (MFR<1.5) had decreased event-free survival for the combined end point, when compared with patients with and without ARD and normal MFR (MFR>1.5) and when compared with patients without ARD and low MFR, after adjustment for the nonlaboratory-based Framingham risk score, rest left ventricular ejection fraction, severe coronary calcification, and the presence of medium/large perfusion defects. In Cox-regression analysis, ARD diagnosis and reduced MFR were both independent predictors of adverse events along with congestive heart failure diagnosis and presence of medium/large stress perfusion defects on PET. Further analysis with inclusion of an interaction term between ARD and impaired MFR revealed no significant interaction effects between ARD and impaired MFR.
Conclusions
In our retrospective cohort analysis, patients with ARD had significantly reduced PET MFR compared with age-, sex-, and comorbidity-matched patients without ARD. Reduced PET MFR and ARD diagnosis were both independent predictors of adverse outcomes.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Aug 2021; 14:e012208
Feher A, Boutagy NE, Oikonomou EK, Liu YH, ... Sinusas AJ, Hinchcliff M
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Aug 2021; 14:e012208 | PMID: 34503339
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Abstract

Prognostic Value of Complementary Echocardiography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Quantitative Evaluation for Isolated Tricuspid Regurgitation.

Wang TKM, Akyuz K, Reyaldeen R, Griffin BP, ... Xu B, Desai MY
Background
Isolated tricuspid regurgitation (TR) remains a management dilemma with poor outcomes. Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) are valuable tools for evaluating TR, but their prognostic utility has rarely been studied together in this setting. We aimed to determine the prognostic value and thresholds for echocardiography and CMR parameters for isolated severe TR.
Methods
Consecutive patients with isolated severe TR by echocardiography and undergoing CMR during January 2007 to June 2019 were studied. Echocardiography and CMR-derived quantitative parameters were analyzed for independent associations with and thresholds for predicting the primary end point of all-cause mortality during follow-up.
Results
Among 262 patients studied, mean age was 62.8±15.6 years, 156 (59.5%) were females, 207 (79.0%) had secondary TR, and 87 (33.2%) underwent tricuspid valve surgery after CMR. There were 68 (26.0%) deaths during a mean follow-up of 2.5 years. Both CMR-derived tricuspid regurgitant fraction (per 5% increase) and right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain (per 1% decrease in magnitude) were independently associated with worse survival, with hazard ratios (95% CIs) of 1.15 (1.05-1.25) and 1.10 (1.04-1.17), respectively, along with right heart failure symptoms of 2.03 (1.14-3.60), while tricuspid valve surgery was borderline protective with 0.55 (0.31-0.997). Regurgitant fraction ≥30%, regurgitant volume ≥35 mL and right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain ≥-11% (by velocity vector imaging technique, which yields lower magnitude values than other conventional strain techniques) were the optimal thresholds for mortality during follow-up.
Conclusions
TR quantification by CMR and right ventricle free wall longitudinal strain by echocardiography were the key imaging parameters independently associated with reduced survival in isolated TR, incremental to conventional clinical factors. Clinically significant thresholds for these parameters were determined and may help guide decision-making for TR management.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Aug 2021; 14:e012211
Wang TKM, Akyuz K, Reyaldeen R, Griffin BP, ... Xu B, Desai MY
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Aug 2021; 14:e012211 | PMID: 34521215
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Abstract

Prognostic Implications of Left Ventricular Myocardial Work Indices in Patients With Secondary Mitral Regurgitation.

Yedidya I, Lustosa RP, Fortuni F, van der Bijl P, ... Bax JJ, Delgado V
Background
Assessment of left ventricular (LV) function in patients with secondary mitral regurgitation (SMR) remains challenging but is an important parameter for risk stratification. The association of LV myocardial work components (work index [GWI], constructive [GCW] and wasted [GWW] work, and work efficiency) derived from pressure-strain loops obtained with speckle tracking echocardiography, and all-cause mortality in patients with SMR was investigated.
Methods
LV myocardial GWI, GCW, GWW, and global work efficiency were measured with speckle tracking strain echocardiography in 373 patients (72% men, median age 68 years) with various grades of SMR. All-cause mortality was the primary end point.
Results
Mild SMR was observed in 143 patients, 128 had moderate SMR, and 102 had severe SMR. Patients with severe SMR had the largest LV volumes and the worst LV ejection fraction and LV global longitudinal strain. In patients with severe SMR, LV GWI and GCW were more impaired (500 mm Hg% versus 680 mm Hg% P=0.024 and 678 mm Hg% versus 851 mm Hg% P=0.006, respectively), while GWW was lower (130 mm Hg% versus 260 mm Hg% P<0.001, respectively) and global work efficiency was significantly higher (82% versus 76%, P=0.001) compared with patients with mild SMR. After a median follow-up of 56 months, 161 patients died. LV GWI≤500 mm Hg%, LV GCW≤750 mm Hg%, and LV GWW<300 mm Hg% were independently associated with excess mortality.
Conclusions
Patients with severe SMR had the worst LV GWI and LV GCW but better LV GWW and global work efficiency reflecting the unloading of the LV in the low-pressure left atrial chamber. These parameters were independently associated with worse long-term survival in patients with SMR.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Aug 2021; 14:e012142
Yedidya I, Lustosa RP, Fortuni F, van der Bijl P, ... Bax JJ, Delgado V
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Aug 2021; 14:e012142 | PMID: 34521214
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Abstract

Progress and Research Priorities in Imaging Genomics for Heart and Lung Disease: Summary of an NHLBI Workshop.

Nayor M, Shen L, Hunninghake GM, Kochunov P, ... Arnett DK, Vasan RS
Imaging genomics is a rapidly evolving field that combines state-of-the-art bioimaging with genomic information to resolve phenotypic heterogeneity associated with genomic variation, improve risk prediction, discover prevention approaches, and enable precision diagnosis and treatment. Contemporary bioimaging methods provide exceptional resolution generating discrete and quantitative high-dimensional phenotypes for genomics investigation. Despite substantial progress in combining high-dimensional bioimaging and genomic data, methods for imaging genomics are evolving. Recognizing the potential impact of imaging genomics on the study of heart and lung disease, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop to review cutting-edge approaches and methodologies in imaging genomics studies, and to establish research priorities for future investigation. This report summarizes the presentations and discussions at the workshop. In particular, we highlight the need for increased availability of imaging genomics data in diverse populations, dedicated focus on less common conditions, and centralization of efforts around specific disease areas.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Aug 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012943; epub ahead of print
Nayor M, Shen L, Hunninghake GM, Kochunov P, ... Arnett DK, Vasan RS
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 12 Aug 2021:CIRCIMAGING121012943; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34387095
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Abstract

Biventricular Global Function Index Is Associated With Adverse Outcomes in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot.

Alsaied T, Geva T, Graf JA, Sleeper LA, Marie Valente A
Introduction
Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) derived biventricular global function index (BVGFI) is a new CMR parameter that integrates biventricular volumes, mass, and function using clinically available CMR parameters. The associations of BVGFI with clinical outcomes in repaired tetralogy of Fallot are unknown.
Methods
Patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot who had a CMR before the occurrence of a composite outcome of death, resuscitated sudden death, or sustained ventricular tachycardia were studied. BVGFI was calculated as the average of right and left GFI. GFI was defined as (ventricular stroke volume×100)/(ventricular mean cavity volume + total ventricular myocardial volume). Ventricular mean cavity volume was defined as ([end-diastolic + end-systolic volume]/2). Cox multivariable regression analysis and classification and regression tree methodology were used.
Results
Of the 736 eligible subjects (mean age at CMR 25.4±14.5 years), with a median follow-up of 28 months, 55 subjects (7.4%) reached the composite outcome (46 deaths and 9 sustained ventricular tachycardia). Independent associations with the composite outcome were as follows: BVGFI <37 (hazard ratio, 2.52; P=0.004), right ventricular end-systolic volume index >85 mL/m2 (hazard ratio, 3.25; P<0.001), atrial tachycardia (hazard ratio, 2.03; P=0.021), and age at repair >2.5 years (hazard ratio, 3.37; P<0.001). Classification and regression tree analysis identified BVGFI as the most discriminatory CMR parameter associated with a high risk for adverse outcomes.
Conclusions
BVGFI, a novel CMR-derived imaging biomarker combining biventricular volumes, mass, and function, may improve risk stratification for adverse clinical outcomes in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e012519
Alsaied T, Geva T, Graf JA, Sleeper LA, Marie Valente A
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e012519 | PMID: 34387102
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Abstract

Impact of Flow on Prosthesis-Patient Mismatch Following Transcatheter and Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement.

Abbas AE, Ternacle J, Pibarot P, Xu K, ... Leon M, Thourani VH
Background
Severe prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) is diagnosed by an indexed effective orifice area <0.65 cm2/m2, which is derived from stroke volume index. We examined the impact of flow, determined by stroke volume index, on severe PPM following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR).
Methods
We included SAVR patients from the PARTNER 2A trial (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve 2A) and TAVR patients from the PARTNER 2 S3i (Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valve 2 S3i) registry. The primary end point was the separate analysis of all-cause death, cardiac death, and rehospitalization at 5 years. Following TAVR and SAVR, we compared the primary end points between severe versus no-severe PPM in all patients, in low flow (LF), and in normal flow. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine variables associated with the end points.
Results
Nine hundred fifty-four TAVR and 726 SAVR patients with PPM and flow data were included. Severe PPM following TAVR was significantly lower compared with SAVR in all patients (9% versus 28%, P<0.0001), in normal flow (5% versus 8%, P=0.04), and in LF (20% versus 42%, P<0.0001). Severe PPM was associated with rehospitalization following TAVR (odds ratio, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.01-2.29], P=0.0456) and SAVR (odds ratio, 1.51 [95% CI, 1.06-2.16], P=0.0237). Severe PPM in LF was independently associated with cardiac death following TAVR (odds ratio, 1.85 [95% CI, 1.06-3.23], P=0.0308). Following SAVR, severe PPM in LF and low ejection fraction was associated with increased cardiac death (35.26% versus 12.51%, P=0.01) and rehospitalization (37.59% versus 15.46%, P=0.006) compared with severe PPM in LF and preserved ejection fraction, respectively. Severe PPM in normal flow was not associated with clinical outcomes despite higher gradients and smaller valves compared with severe PPM in LF.
Conclusions
Severe PPM is more common following SAVR compared with TAVR. Regardless of the implanted valve size or gradient, severe PPM impacts mortality only in patients with LF following TAVR and LF and low ejection fraction following SAVR. Severe PPM in normal flow is not associated with poor outcomes. Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifiers: NCT01314313 and NCT02687035.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e012364
Abbas AE, Ternacle J, Pibarot P, Xu K, ... Leon M, Thourani VH
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e012364 | PMID: 34387097
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Abstract

Single-View Echocardiography by Nonexpert Practitioners to Detect Rheumatic Heart Disease: A Prospective Study of Diagnostic Accuracy.

Francis JR, Whalley GA, Kaethner A, Fairhurst H, ... Ralph AP, Remenyi B
Background
Echocardiographic screening can detect asymptomatic cases of rheumatic heart disease (RHD), facilitating access to treatment. Barriers to implementation of echocardiographic screening include the requirement for expensive equipment and expert practitioners. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an abbreviated echocardiographic screening protocol (single parasternal-long-axis view with a sweep of the heart) performed by briefly trained, nonexpert practitioners using handheld ultrasound devices.
Methods
Participants aged 5 to 20 years in Timor-Leste and the Northern Territory of Australia had 2 echocardiograms: one performed by an expert echocardiographer using a GE Vivid I or Vivid Q portable ultrasound device (reference test), and one performed by a nonexpert practitioner using a GE Vscan handheld ultrasound device (index test). The accuracy of the index test, compared with the reference test, for identifying cases with definite or borderline RHD was determined.
Results
There were 3111 enrolled participants; 2573 had both an index test and reference test. Median age was 12 years (interquartile range, 10-15); 58.2% were female. Proportion with definite or borderline RHD was 5.52% (95% CI, 4.70-6.47); proportion with definite RHD was 3.23% (95% CI, 2.61-3.98). Compared with the reference test, sensitivity of the index test for definite or borderline RHD was 70.4% (95% CI, 62.2-77.8), specificity was 78.1% (95% CI, 76.4-79.8).
Conclusions
Nonexpert practitioners can be trained to perform single parasternal-long-axis view with a sweep of the heart echocardiography. However, the specificity and sensitivity are inadequate for echocardiographic screening. Improved training for nonexpert practitioners should be investigated.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e011790
Francis JR, Whalley GA, Kaethner A, Fairhurst H, ... Ralph AP, Remenyi B
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e011790 | PMID: 34384239
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Abstract

Clinical Significance of Partial Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connections (Isolated and Atrial Septal Defect Associated) Determined by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance.

Hatipoglu S, Almogheer B, Mahon C, Houshmand G, ... Pennell DJ, Izgi C
Background
Partial anomalous venous connections (PAPVC) are associated with left to right shunting and right heart dilatation. Identification of PAPVC has increased with widespread use of cross-sectional imaging modalities. However, management strategies are mostly based on expert opinion given the scarcity of data from large series. We aimed to define types and significance of isolated and atrial septal defect (ASD) associated PAPVC detected by cardiovascular magnetic resonance.
Methods
We retrospectively reviewed our cardiovascular magnetic resonance database from 2002 to 2018 to identify isolated or ASD-associated PAPVC cases.
Results
A total of 215 patients (median age 46 years; range, 6-83) with isolated or ASD-associated PAPVC were identified among 102 135 clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance studies. Of these, 104 were isolated and 111 were associated with an ASD. Anomalous connection of right upper pulmonary vein was the most common single venous anomaly (99/215), but in the isolated PAPVC group there were more anomalous left than right upper pulmonary veins (39 versus 34). The Qp/Qs was significantly higher for isolated anomalous single right upper pulmonary vein than left upper pulmonary vein (1.6 versus 1.4 respectively; P=0.01) as were right ventricular end-diastolic volumes (113.7±30.9 versus 90 [57-157] mL/m2, P=0.004). In the PAPVC with an ASD group, sinus venosus ASDs (82%) were associated with right-sided PAPVCs while both right and left-sided venous anomalies were seen in secundum ASDs (18%). In a substantial number of patients (30 out of 91) with sinus venosus ASDs, PAPVCs were more complex and involved more than a single anomalous right upper pulmonary vein; and in 5 patients with ASD, PAPVC was identified only after the ASD closure.
Conclusions
This large series provides descriptive and hemodynamic features for isolated and ASD-associated PAPVCs. Anomalous isolated right upper pulmonary vein may cause a significant shunt (Qp/Qs >1.5). PAPVC associated with sinus venosus and secundum ASDs might be more complex than a single anomalous pulmonary vein and missed before ASD correction.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e012371
Hatipoglu S, Almogheer B, Mahon C, Houshmand G, ... Pennell DJ, Izgi C
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e012371 | PMID: 34384233
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Abstract

Impaired Exercise Tolerance in Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot Is Associated With Impaired Biventricular Contractile Reserve: An Exercise-Stress Real-Time Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Study.

Steinmetz M, Stümpfig T, Seehase M, Schuster A, ... Uecker M, Paul T
Background
Correction of tetralogy of Fallot (cTOF) often results in pulmonary valve pathology and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. Reduced exercise capacity in cTOF patients cannot be explained by these findings alone. We aimed to explore why cTOF patients exhibit impaired exercise capacity with the aid of a comprehensive cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) and real-time cardiovascular magnetic resonance exercise testing (CMR-ET) protocol.
Methods
Thirty three cTOF patients and 35 matched healthy controls underwent CPET and CMR-ET in a prospective case-control study. Real-time steady-state free precession cine and phase-contrast sequences were obtained during incremental supine in-scanner cycling at 50, 70, and 90 W. RV and left ventricle (LV) volumes and pulmonary blood flow (Qp) were calculated. Differences of CPET and CMR-ET between cTOF versus controls and correlations between CPET and CMR-ET parameters in cTOF were evaluated statistically for all CMR exercise levels using Mann-Whitney U and Spearman rank-order correlation tests.
Results
CPET capacity was significantly lower in cTOF than in controls. cTOF patients exhibited not only significantly reduced Qp and RV function but also lower LV function on CMR-ET. Higher CPET values in cTOF correlated with higher Qp (Qp 90 W versus carbon dioxide ventilatory equivalent %: R=-0.519, P<0.05), higher LV-end-diastolic volume indexed to body surface area (LV-end-diastolic volume indexed to body surface area at 50 W versus oxygen uptake in % at maximum exercise on CPET R=0.452, P<0.05), and change in LV ejection fraction (EF; LV-EF at 90 W versus Watt %: r=-0.463, P<0.05). No correlation was found with regard to RV-EF. Significant RV-LV interaction was observed during CMR-ET (RV-EF versus LV-EF at 50 W and 70 W: r=0.66, P<0.02 and r=0.52, P<0.05, respectively).
Conclusions
Impaired exercise capacity in cTOF resulted from a reduction in not only RV, but also LV function. cTOF with good exercise capacity on CPET demonstrated higher LV reserve and pulmonary blood flow during incremental CMR-ET. Apart from RV parameters, CMR-ET-derived LV function could be a valuable tool to stratify cTOF patients for pulmonary valve replacement.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e011823
Steinmetz M, Stümpfig T, Seehase M, Schuster A, ... Uecker M, Paul T
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e011823 | PMID: 34384226
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Abstract

Myocardial Contraction Fraction for Risk Stratification in Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Rusinaru D, Bohbot Y, Kubala M, Diouf M, ... Vanoverschelde JL, Tribouilloy C
Background
Myocardial contraction fraction (MCF) is a volumetric measure of myocardial shortening independent of left ventricular size and geometry. This multicenter study investigates the usefulness of MCF for risk stratification in low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction.
Methods
We included 643 consecutive patients with low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction in whom MCF was computed at baseline and analyzed mortality during follow-up.
Results
Throughout follow-up with medical and surgical management (34.9 [16.1-65.3] months), lower MCF tertiles had higher mortality than the highest tertile. Eighty-month survival was 56±4% for MCF>41%, 41±4% for MCF 30% to 41%, and 40±4% for MCF<30% (P<0.001). After comprehensive adjustment, mortality risk remained high for MCF 30% to 41% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.53 [1.08-2.18]) and for MCF<30% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.82 [1.24-2.66]) versus MCF>41%. The optimal MCF cutoff point for mortality prediction was 41%. Age, body mass index, Charlson index, peak aortic velocity, and ejection fraction were independently associated with mortality. MCF (χ2 to improve 10.39; P=0.001), provided greater additional prognostic value over the baseline parameters than stroke volume (SV) index (χ2 to improve 5.41; P=0.042), left ventricular mass index (χ2 to improve 2.15; P=0.137), or global longitudinal strain (χ2 to improve 3.67; P=0.061). MCF outperformed ejection fraction for mortality prediction. When patients were classified by SV index and MCF, mortality risk was low when SV index was ≥30 mL/m2 and MCF>41%, higher for patients with SV index ≥30 mL/m2 and MCF≤41% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.47 [1.05-2.07]) and extremely high for patients with SV index <30 mL/m2 (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.29 [1.45-3.62]).
Conclusions
MCF is a valuable marker of risk in low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction and could improve decision-making, especially in normal-flow low-gradient severe aortic stenosis with preserved ejection fraction.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e012257
Rusinaru D, Bohbot Y, Kubala M, Diouf M, ... Vanoverschelde JL, Tribouilloy C
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 30 Jul 2021; 14:e012257 | PMID: 34403263
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This program is still in alpha version.