Journal: Circ Cardiovasc Imaging

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Abstract

Imaging Considerations and Clinical Implications of Mitral Annular Disjunction.

Drescher CS, Kelsey MD, Yankey GS, Sun AY, ... Vemulapalli S, Kelsey AM
Mitral annular disjunction is increasingly recognized as an important anatomic feature of mitral valve disease. The presence of mitral annular disjunction, defined as separation between the left atrial wall at the point of mitral valve insertion and the left ventricular free wall, has been associated with increased degeneration of the mitral valve and increased incidence of sudden cardiac death. The clinical importance of this entity necessitates standard reporting on cardiovascular imaging reports if patients are to receive adequate risk stratification and management. We provide a narrative review of the literature pertaining to mitral annular disjunction, its clinical implications, and areas needing further research.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Sep 2022; 15:e014243
Drescher CS, Kelsey MD, Yankey GS, Sun AY, ... Vemulapalli S, Kelsey AM
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Sep 2022; 15:e014243 | PMID: 36126123
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Abstract

Deep Learning for Explainable Estimation of Mortality Risk From Myocardial Positron Emission Tomography Images.

Singh A, Kwiecinski J, Miller RJH, Otaki Y, ... Dey D, Slomka PJ
Background
We aim to develop an explainable deep learning (DL) network for the prediction of all-cause mortality directly from positron emission tomography myocardial perfusion imaging flow and perfusion polar map data and evaluate it using prospective testing.
Methods
A total of 4735 consecutive patients referred for stress and rest 82Rb positron emission tomography between 2010 and 2018 were followed up for all-cause mortality for 4.15 (2.24-6.3) years. DL network utilized polar maps of stress and rest perfusion, myocardial blood flow, myocardial flow reserve, and spill-over fraction combined with cardiac volumes, singular indices, and sex. Patients scanned from 2010 to 2016 were used for training and validation. The network was tested in a set of 1135 patients scanned from 2017 to 2018 to simulate prospective clinical implementation.
Results
In prospective testing, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for all-cause mortality prediction by DL (0.82 [95% CI, 0.77-0.86]) was higher than ischemia (0.60 [95% CI, 0.54-0.66]; P <0.001), myocardial flow reserve (0.70 [95% CI, 0.64-0.76], P <0.001) or a comprehensive logistic regression model (0.75 [95% CI, 0.69-0.80], P <0.05). The highest quartile of patients by DL had an annual all-cause mortality rate of 11.87% and had a 16.8 ([95% CI, 6.12%-46.3%]; P <0.001)-fold increase in the risk of death compared with the lowest quartile patients. DL showed a 21.6% overall reclassification improvement as compared with established measures of ischemia.
Conclusions
The DL model trained directly on polar maps allows improved patient risk stratification in comparison with established methods for positron emission tomography flow or perfusion assessments.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Sep 2022; 15:e014526
Singh A, Kwiecinski J, Miller RJH, Otaki Y, ... Dey D, Slomka PJ
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Sep 2022; 15:e014526 | PMID: 36126124
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Abstract

Role of Inferior Vena Cava Dynamics for Estimating Right Atrial Pressure in Congenital Heart Disease.

Egbe AC, Connolly HM, Pellikka PA, Anderson JH, Miranda WR
Background
Inferior vena cava (IVC) size and collapsibility (IVC dynamics) are used for estimating right atrial pressure (RAP). However, the diagnostic performance of the American Society of Echocardiography IVC criteria for estimating RAP in patients with congenital heart disease are unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of IVC dynamics for estimating RAP in adults with congenital heart disease.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study of adults with congenital heart disease that underwent cardiac catheterization and echocardiogram at Mayo Clinic (2003-2019). IVC diameter was measured at inspiration (IVCmin) and end-expiration (IVCmax), and IVC collapsibility index (IVCCI) was calculated.
Results
Based on 918 patients, we observed a good correlation between IVCmax and invasive RAP (r=0.56, P<0.001); IVCmin and RAP (r=0.58, P<0.001); and IVCCI (r=-0.72, P<0.001). There was excellent correlation between invasive RAP and estimated RAP using IVCCI (r=0.80, P<0.001). We observed that IVCCI <60% had superior diagnostic performance as compared with American Society of Echocardiography criteria (IVCmax >2.1 cm, area under the curve difference 0.15, P<0.001; IVCCI <50%, area under the curve difference 0.09, P=0.008; combination of IVCmax >2.1 cm; and IVCCI <50%, area under the curve difference 0.06, P=0.02). Estimated RAP >10 mm Hg based on IVCCI had comparable prognostic performance as invasive RAP but superior prognostic performance as the American Society of Echocardiography criteria.
Conclusions
IVCCI <60% was the best criterion to identify patients with elevated RAP. IVCCI was comparable to invasively measured RAP in its relation to prognosis. Further studies are required to determine whether the use of IVCCI in clinical decision-making will improve clinical outcomes in this population.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Sep 2022; 15:e014308
Egbe AC, Connolly HM, Pellikka PA, Anderson JH, Miranda WR
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Sep 2022; 15:e014308 | PMID: 36126125
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Abstract

Impact of Sex and Cardiovascular Risk Factors on Myocardial T1, Extracellular Volume Fraction, and T2 at 3 Tesla: Results From the Population-Based, Hamburg City Health Study.

Cavus E, Schneider JN, Bei der Kellen R, di Carluccio E, ... Lund GK, Muellerleile K
Background
Reliable reference intervals are crucial for clinical application of myocardial T1 and T2 mapping cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. This study evaluated the impact of sex and cardiovascular risk factors on myocardial T1, extracellular volume fraction (ECV), and T2 at 3T in the population-based HCHS (Hamburg City Health Study).
Methods
The final study sample consisted of 1576 consecutive HCHS participants between 46 and 78 years without prevalent heart disease, including 1020 (67.3%) participants with hypertension and 110 (7.5%) with diabetes. T1 and T2 mapping were performed on a 3T scanner using 5b(3b)3b modified Look-Locker inversion recovery and T2 prepared, fast-low-angle shot sequence, respectively. Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify variables with an independent impact on T1, ECV, and T2. Reference intervals were defined as the interval between the 2.5% and 97.5% quantiles.
Results
Sex was the major independent influencing factor of myocardial native T1, ECV, and T2. Female patients had significantly higher upper limits of reference intervals for native T1 (1112-1261 versus 1079-1241 ms), ECV (23%-33% versus 22%-32%), and T2 (36-46 versus 35-45 ms) compared with male patients (all P<0.001). Cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension, did not systematically affect native T1. There was an independent association of T2 by hypertension and, to a lesser degree, by left ventricular mass, heart rate (all P<0.001), and body mass index (P=0.001).
Conclusions
Sex needs to be considered as the major, independent influencing factor for clinical application of myocardial T1, ECV, and T2 measurements. Consequently, sex-specific reference intervals should be used in clinical routine. Our findings suggest that there is no need for specific reference intervals for myocardial T1 and ECV measurements in individuals with cardiovascular risk factors. However, hypertension should be considered as an additional factor for clinical application of T2 measurements.
Registration
URL: https://www.
Clinicaltrials
gov; Unique identifier: NCT03934957.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Sep 2022; 15:e014158
Cavus E, Schneider JN, Bei der Kellen R, di Carluccio E, ... Lund GK, Muellerleile K
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Sep 2022; 15:e014158 | PMID: 36126126
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Abstract

Pulmonary Blood Volume Among Older Adults in the Community: The MESA Lung Study.

Hermann EA, Motahari A, Hoffman EA, Allen N, ... Watson K, Barr RG
Background
The pulmonary vasculature is essential for gas exchange and impacts both pulmonary and cardiac function. However, it is difficult to assess and its characteristics in the general population are unknown. We measured pulmonary blood volume (PBV) noninvasively using contrast enhanced, dual-energy computed tomography to evaluate its relationship to age and symptoms among older adults in the community.
Methods
The MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) is an ongoing community-based, multicenter cohort. All participants attending the most recent MESA exam were selected for contrast enhanced dual-energy computed tomography except those with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. PBV was calculated by material decomposition of dual-energy computed tomography images. Multivariable models included age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, height, weight, smoking status, pack-years, and scanner model.
Results
The mean age of the 727 participants was 71 (range 59-94) years, and 55% were male. The race/ethnicity distribution was 41% White, 29% Black, 17% Hispanic, and 13% Asian. The mean±SD PBV in the youngest age quintile was 547±180 versus 433±194 mL in the oldest quintile (P<0.001), with an approximately linear decrement of 50 mL per 10 years of age ([95% CI, 32-67]; P<0.001). Findings were similar with multivariable adjustment. Lower PBV was associated independently with a greater dyspnea after a 6-minute walk (P=0.04) and greater composite dyspnea symptom scores (P=0.02). Greater PBV was also associated with greater height, weight, lung volume, Hispanic race/ethnicity, and nonsmoking history.
Conclusions
Pulmonary blood volume was substantially lower with advanced age and was associated independently with greater symptoms scores in the elderly.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Aug 2022:101161CIRCIMAGING122014380; epub ahead of print
Hermann EA, Motahari A, Hoffman EA, Allen N, ... Watson K, Barr RG
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 08 Aug 2022:101161CIRCIMAGING122014380; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35938411
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Abstract

Sex Differences in the Impact of Aortic Valve Calcium Score on Mortality After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Patel PP, El Sabbagh A, Johnson PW, Suliman R, ... Carter RE, Adedinsewo D
Background
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is now an approved alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement for the treatment of severe aortic stenosis. As the clinical adoption of TAVR expands, it remains important to identify predictors of mortality after TAVR. We aimed to evaluate the impact of sex differences in aortic valve calcium score (AVCS) on long-term mortality following TAVR in a large patient sample.
Methods
We included consecutive patients who successfully underwent TAVR for treatment of severe native aortic valve stenosis from June 2010 to May 2021 across all US Mayo Clinic sites with follow-up through July 2021. AVCS values were obtained from preoperative computed tomography of the chest. Additional clinical data were abstracted from medical records. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox-proportional hazard regression models were employed to evaluate the effect of AVCS on long-term mortality.
Results
A total of 2543 patients were evaluated in the final analysis. Forty-one percent were women, median age was 82 years (Q1: 76, Q3: 86), 18.4% received a permanent pacemaker following TAVR, and 88.5% received a balloon expandable valve. We demonstrate an increase in mortality risk with higher AVCS after multivariable adjustment (P<0.001). When stratified by sex, every 500-unit increase in AVCS was associated with a 7% increase in mortality risk among women (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.02-1.12]) but not in men.
Conclusions
We demonstrate a notable sex difference in the association between AVCS and long-term mortality in a large TAVR patient sample. This study highlights the potential value of AVCS in preprocedural risk stratification, specifically among women undergoing TAVR. Additional studies are needed to validate this finding.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 03 Aug 2022:101161CIRCIMAGING122014034; epub ahead of print
Patel PP, El Sabbagh A, Johnson PW, Suliman R, ... Carter RE, Adedinsewo D
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 03 Aug 2022:101161CIRCIMAGING122014034; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35920157
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Abstract

Prediction of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Response Using a Lead Placement Score Derived From 4-Dimensional Computed Tomography.

Manohar A, Colvert GM, Yang J, Chen Z, ... Nielsen JC, McVeigh ER
Background
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment for patients with heart failure; however, 30% of patients do not respond to the treatment. We sought to derive patient-specific left ventricle maps of lead placement scores (LPS) that highlight target pacing lead sites for achieving a higher probability of CRT response.
Methods
Eighty-two subjects recruited for the ImagingCRT trial (Empiric Versus Imaging Guided Left Ventricular Lead Placement in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) were retrospectively analyzed. All 82 subjects had 2 contrast-enhanced full cardiac cycle 4-dimensional computed tomography scans: a baseline and a 6-month follow-up scan. CRT response was defined as a reduction in computed tomography-derived end-systolic volume ≥15%. Eight left ventricle features derived from the baseline scans were used to train a support vector machine via a bagging approach. An LPS map over the left ventricle was created for each subject as a linear combination of the support vector machine feature weights and the subject\'s own feature vector. Performance for distinguishing responders was performed on the original 82 subjects.
Results
Fifty-two (63%) subjects were responders. Subjects with an LPS≤Q1 (lower-quartile) had a posttest probability of responding of 14% (3/21), while subjects with an LPS≥ Q3 (upper-quartile) had a posttest probability of responding of 90% (19/21). Subjects with Q1<LPS<Q3 had a posttest probability of responding that was essentially unchanged from the pretest probability (75% versus 63%, P=0.2). An LPS threshold that maximized the geometric mean of true-negative and true-positive rates identified 26/30 of the nonresponders. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve for identifying responders with an LPS threshold was 87%.
Conclusions
An LPS map was defined using 4-dimensional computed tomography-derived features of left ventricular mechanics. The LPS correlated with CRT response, reclassifying 25% of the subjects into low probability of response, 25% into high probability of response, and 50% unchanged. These encouraging results highlight the potential utility of 4-dimensional computed tomography in guiding patient selection for CRT. The present findings need verification in larger independent data sets and prospective trials.



Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Aug 2022; 15:e014165
Manohar A, Colvert GM, Yang J, Chen Z, ... Nielsen JC, McVeigh ER
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Aug 2022; 15:e014165 | PMID: 35973012
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This program is still in alpha version.