Topic: Cardiogenetics

Abstract
<div><h4>Prospective prenatal cell-free DNA screening for genetic conditions of heterogenous etiologies.</h4><i>Zhang J, Wu Y, Chen S, Luo Q, ... Xu C, Huang H</i><br /><AbstractText>Prenatal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) screening uses extracellular fetal DNA circulating in the peripheral blood of pregnant women to detect prevalent fetal chromosomal anomalies. However, numerous severe conditions with underlying single-gene defects are not included in current prenatal cfDNA screening. In this prospective, multicenter and observational study, pregnant women at elevated risk for fetal genetic conditions were enrolled for a cfDNA screening test based on coordinative allele-aware target enrichment sequencing. This test encompasses the following three of the most frequent pathogenic genetic variations: aneuploidies, microdeletions and monogenic variants. The cfDNA screening results were compared to invasive prenatal or postnatal diagnostic test results for 1,090 qualified participants. The comprehensive cfDNA screening detected a genetic alteration in 135 pregnancies with 98.5% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity relative to standard diagnostics. Of 876 fetuses with suspected structural anomalies on ultrasound examination, comprehensive cfDNA screening identified 55 (56.1%) aneuploidies, 6 (6.1%) microdeletions and 37 (37.8%) single-gene pathogenic variants. The inclusion of targeted monogenic conditions alongside chromosomal aberrations led to a 60.7% increase (from 61 to 98) in the detection rate. Overall, these data provide preliminary evidence that a comprehensive cfDNA screening test can accurately identify fetal pathogenic variants at both the chromosome and single-gene levels in high-risk pregnancies through a noninvasive approach, which has the potential to improve prenatal evaluation of fetal risks for severe genetic conditions arising from heterogenous molecular etiologies. ClinicalTrials.gov registration: ChiCTR2100045739 .</AbstractText><br /><br />© 2024. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.<br /><br /><small>Nat Med: 22 Jan 2024; epub ahead of print</small></div>
Zhang J, Wu Y, Chen S, Luo Q, ... Xu C, Huang H
Nat Med: 22 Jan 2024; epub ahead of print | PMID: 38253798
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Abstract
<div><h4>Familial Hypercholesterolemia Variant and Cardiovascular Risk in Individuals With Elevated Cholesterol.</h4><i>Zhang Y, Dron JS, Bellows BK, Khera AV, ... de Ferranti SD, Moran AE</i><br /><b>Importance</b><br />Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder that often results in severely high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and high risk of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the impact of FH variants on CHD risk among individuals with moderately elevated LDL-C is not well quantified.<br /><b>Objective</b><br />To assess CHD risk associated with FH variants among individuals with moderately (130-189 mg/dL) and severely (≥190 mg/dL) elevated LDL-C and to quantify excess CHD deaths attributable to FH variants in US adults.<br /><b>Design, setting, and participants</b><br />A total of 21 426 individuals without preexisting CHD from 6 US cohort studies (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study Offspring cohort, Jackson Heart Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis) were included, 63 of whom had an FH variant. Data were collected from 1971 to 2018, and the median (IQR) follow-up was 18 (13-28) years. Data were analyzed from March to May 2023.<br /><b>Exposures</b><br />LDL-C, cumulative past LDL-C, FH variant status.<br /><b>Main outcomes and measures</b><br />Cox proportional hazards models estimated associations between FH variants and incident CHD. The Cardiovascular Disease Policy Model projected excess CHD deaths associated with FH variants in US adults.<br /><b>Results</b><br />Of the 21 426 individuals without preexisting CHD (mean [SD] age 52.1 [15.5] years; 12 041 [56.2%] female), an FH variant was found in 22 individuals with moderately elevated LDL-C (0.3%) and in 33 individuals with severely elevated LDL-C (2.5%). The adjusted hazard ratios for incident CHD comparing those with and without FH variants were 2.9 (95% CI, 1.4-6.0) and 2.6 (95% CI, 1.4-4.9) among individuals with moderately and severely elevated LDL-C, respectively. The association between FH variants and CHD was slightly attenuated when further adjusting for baseline LDL-C level, whereas the association was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for cumulative past LDL-C exposure. Among US adults 20 years and older with no history of CHD and LDL-C 130 mg/dL or higher, more than 417 000 carry an FH variant and were projected to experience more than 12 000 excess CHD deaths in those with moderately elevated LDL-C and 15 000 in those with severely elevated LDL-C compared with individuals without an FH variant.<br /><br /><b>Conclusions:</b><br/>and relevance</b><br />In this pooled cohort study, the presence of FH variants was associated with a 2-fold higher CHD risk, even when LDL-C was only moderately elevated. The increased CHD risk appeared to be largely explained by the higher cumulative LDL-C exposure in individuals with an FH variant compared to those without. Further research is needed to assess the value of adding genetic testing to traditional phenotypic FH screening.<br /><br /><br /><br /><small>JAMA Cardiol: 31 Jan 2024; epub ahead of print</small></div>
Zhang Y, Dron JS, Bellows BK, Khera AV, ... de Ferranti SD, Moran AE
JAMA Cardiol: 31 Jan 2024; epub ahead of print | PMID: 38294787
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Abstract
<div><h4>A polygenic risk score added to a QRISK®2 cardiovascular disease risk calculator demonstrated robust clinical acceptance and clinical utility in the primary care setting.</h4><i>Fuat A, Adlen E, Monane M, Coll R, ... Harrison S, Donnelly P</i><br /><b>Aims</b><br />The aim of the study was to assess the real-world feasibility, acceptability, and impact of an integrated risk tool for cardiovascular disease (CVD IRT, combining the standard QRISK®2 risk algorithm with a polygenic risk score), implemented within routine primary practice in the UK National Health Service.<br /><b>Methods and results</b><br />The Healthcare Evaluation of Absolute Risk Testing Study (NCT05294419) evaluated participants undergoing primary care health checks. Both QRISK2 and CVD IRT scores were returned to the healthcare providers (HCPs), who then communicated the results to participants. The primary outcome of the study was feasibility of CVD IRT implementation. Secondary outcomes included changes in CVD risk (QRISK2 vs. CVD IRT) and impact of the CVD IRT on clinical decision-making. A total of 832 eligible participants (median age 55 years, 62% females, 97.5% White ethnicity) were enrolled across 12 UK primary care practices. Cardiovascular disease IRT scores were obtained on 100% of the blood samples. Healthcare providers stated that the CVD IRT could be incorporated into routine primary care in a straightforward manner in 90.7% of reports. Participants stated they were \'likely\' or \'very likely\' to recommend the use of this test to their family or friends in 86.9% of reports. Participants stated that the test was personally useful (98.8%) and that the results were easy to understand (94.6%). When CVD IRT exceeded QRISK2, HCPs planned changes in management for 108/388 (27.8%) of participants and 47% (62/132) of participants with absolute risk score changes of >2%.<br /><b>Conclusion</b><br />Amongst HCPs and participants who agreed to the trial of genetic data for refinement of clinical risk prediction in primary care, we observed that CVD IRT implementation was feasible and well accepted. The CVD IRT results were associated with planned changes in prevention strategies.<br /><br />© The Author(s) 2024. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.<br /><br /><small>Eur J Prev Cardiol: 19 Jan 2024; epub ahead of print</small></div>
Fuat A, Adlen E, Monane M, Coll R, ... Harrison S, Donnelly P
Eur J Prev Cardiol: 19 Jan 2024; epub ahead of print | PMID: 38243727
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This program is still in alpha version.