Journal: N Engl J Med

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Abstract

Everolimus-Eluting Stents or Bypass Surgery for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease.

Stone GW, Sabik JF, Serruys PW, Simonton CA, ... Kappetein AP, EXCEL Trial Investigators
Background Patients with obstructive left main coronary artery disease are usually treated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomized trials have suggested that drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to CABG in selected patients with left main coronary disease. Methods We randomly assigned 1905 eligible patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity to undergo either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). Anatomic complexity was assessed at the sites and defined by a Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of 32 or lower (the SYNTAX score reflects a comprehensive angiographic assessment of the coronary vasculature, with 0 as the lowest score and higher scores [no upper limit] indicating more complex coronary anatomy). The primary end point was the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years, and the trial was powered for noninferiority testing of the primary end point (noninferiority margin, 4.2 percentage points). Major secondary end points included the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days and the rate of a composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years. Event rates were based on Kaplan-Meier estimates in time-to-first-event analyses. Results At 3 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 15.4% of the patients in the PCI group and in 14.7% of the patients in the CABG group (difference, 0.7 percentage points; upper 97.5% confidence limit, 4.0 percentage points; P=0.02 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.26; P=0.98 for superiority). The secondary end-point event of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days occurred in 4.9% of the patients in the PCI group and in 7.9% in the CABG group (P<0.001 for noninferiority, P=0.008 for superiority). The secondary end-point event of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years occurred in 23.1% of the patients in the PCI group and in 19.1% in the CABG group (P=0.01 for noninferiority, P=0.10 for superiority). Conclusions In patients with left main coronary artery disease and low or intermediate SYNTAX scores by site assessment, PCI with everolimus-eluting stents was noninferior to CABG with respect to the rate of the composite end point of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EXCEL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01205776 .).

N Engl J Med: 30 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print
Stone GW, Sabik JF, Serruys PW, Simonton CA, ... Kappetein AP, EXCEL Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 30 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27797291
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Abstract

Public-Access Defibrillation and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Japan.

Kitamura T, Kiyohara K, Sakai T, Matsuyama T, ... Kawamura T, Iwami T
Background Early defibrillation plays a key role in improving survival in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests due to ventricular fibrillation (ventricular-fibrillation cardiac arrests), and the use of publicly accessible automated external defibrillators (AEDs) can help to reduce the time to defibrillation for such patients. However, the effect of dissemination of public-access AEDs for ventricular-fibrillation cardiac arrest at the population level has not been extensively investigated. Methods From a nationwide, prospective, population-based registry of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in Japan, we identified patients from 2005 through 2013 with bystander-witnessed ventricular-fibrillation arrests of presumed cardiac origin in whom resuscitation was attempted. The primary outcome measure was survival at 1 month with a favorable neurologic outcome (Cerebral Performance Category of 1 or 2, on a scale from 1 [good cerebral performance] to 5 [death or brain death]). The number of patients in whom survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was attributable to public-access defibrillation was estimated. Results Of 43,762 patients with bystander-witnessed ventricular-fibrillation arrests of cardiac origin, 4499 (10.3%) received public-access defibrillation. The percentage of patients receiving public-access defibrillation increased from 1.1% in 2005 to 16.5% in 2013 (P<0.001 for trend). The percentage of patients who were alive at 1 month with a favorable neurologic outcome was significantly higher with public-access defibrillation than without public-access defibrillation (38.5% vs. 18.2%; adjusted odds ratio after propensity-score matching, 1.99; 95% confidence interval, 1.80 to 2.19). The estimated number of survivors in whom survival with a favorable neurologic outcome was attributed to public-access defibrillation increased from 6 in 2005 to 201 in 2013 (P<0.001 for trend). Conclusions In Japan, increased use of public-access defibrillation by bystanders was associated with an increase in the number of survivors with a favorable neurologic outcome after out-of-hospital ventricular-fibrillation cardiac arrest.

N Engl J Med: 25 Oct 2016; 375:1649-1659
Kitamura T, Kiyohara K, Sakai T, Matsuyama T, ... Kawamura T, Iwami T
N Engl J Med: 25 Oct 2016; 375:1649-1659 | PMID: 27783922
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Abstract

Child-Parent Familial Hypercholesterolemia Screening in Primary Care.

Wald DS, Bestwick JP, Morris JK, Whyte K, Jenkins L, Wald NJ
Background Child-parent screening for familial hypercholesterolemia has been proposed to identify persons at high risk for inherited premature cardiovascular disease. We assessed the efficacy and feasibility of such screening in primary care practice. Methods We obtained capillary blood samples to measure cholesterol levels and to test for familial hypercholesterolemia mutations in 10,095 children 1 to 2 years of age during routine immunization visits. Children were considered to have positive screening results for familial hypercholesterolemia if their cholesterol level was elevated and they had either a familial hypercholesterolemia mutation or a repeat elevated cholesterol level 3 months later. A parent of each child with a positive screening result for familial hypercholesterolemia was considered to have a positive screening result for familial hypercholesterolemia if he or she had the same mutation as the child or, if no mutations were identified, had the higher cholesterol level of the two parents. Results The use of a prespecified cholesterol cutoff value of 1.53 multiples of the median (MoM, corresponding to a percentile of 99.2) identified 28 children who had positive screening results for familial hypercholesterolemia (0.3% of the 10,095 children; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2 to 0.4), including 20 with a familial hypercholesterolemia mutation and 8 with a repeat cholesterol level of at least 1.53 MoM. A total of 17 children who had a cholesterol level of less than 1.53 MoM also had a familial hypercholesterolemia mutation. The overall mutation prevalence was 1 in 273 children (37 in 10,095; 95% CI, 1 in 198 to 1 in 388). The use of an initial cholesterol cutoff value of 1.35 MoM (95th percentile) plus a mutation, or two cholesterol values of at least 1.50 MoM (99th percentile), identified 40 children who had positive screening results for familial hypercholesterolemia (0.4% of the 10,095 children, including 32 children who had a familial hypercholesterolemia mutation and 8 who did not have the mutation) and 40 parents who had positive screening results for familial hypercholesterolemia. Conclusions Child-parent screening was feasible in primary care practices at routine child immunization visits. For every 1000 children screened, 8 persons (4 children and 4 parents) were identified as having positive screening results for familial hypercholesterolemia and were consequently at high risk for cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the Medical Research Council.).

N Engl J Med: 25 Oct 2016; 375:1628-1637
Wald DS, Bestwick JP, Morris JK, Whyte K, Jenkins L, Wald NJ
N Engl J Med: 25 Oct 2016; 375:1628-1637 | PMID: 27783906
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Abstract

Niacin in Patients with Low HDL Cholesterol Levels Receiving Intensive Statin Therapy.


Background In patients with established cardiovascular disease, residual cardiovascular risk persists despite the achievement of target low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels with statin therapy. It is unclear whether extended-release niacin added to simvastatin to raise low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is superior to simvastatin alone in reducing such residual risk. Methods We randomly assigned eligible patients to receive extended-release niacin, 1500 to 2000 mg per day, or matching placebo. All patients received simvastatin, 40 to 80 mg per day, plus ezetimibe, 10 mg per day, if needed, to maintain an LDL cholesterol level of 40 to 80 mg per deciliter (1.03 to 2.07 mmol per liter). The primary end point was the first event of the composite of death from coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, hospitalization for an acute coronary syndrome, or symptom-driven coronary or cerebral revascularization. Results A total of 3414 patients were randomly assigned to receive niacin (1718) or placebo (1696). The trial was stopped after a mean follow-up period of 3 years owing to a lack of efficacy. At 2 years, niacin therapy had significantly increased the median HDL cholesterol level from 35 mg per deciliter (0.91 mmol per liter) to 42 mg per deciliter (1.08 mmol per liter), lowered the triglyceride level from 164 mg per deciliter (1.85 mmol per liter) to 122 mg per deciliter (1.38 mmol per liter), and lowered the LDL cholesterol level from 74 mg per deciliter (1.91 mmol per liter) to 62 mg per deciliter (1.60 mmol per liter). The primary end point occurred in 282 patients in the niacin group (16.4%) and in 274 patients in the placebo group (16.2%) (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 1.21; P=0.79 by the log-rank test). Conclusions Among patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and LDL cholesterol levels of less than 70 mg per deciliter (1.81 mmol per liter), there was no incremental clinical benefit from the addition of niacin to statin therapy during a 36-month follow-up period, despite significant improvements in HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Abbott Laboratories; AIM-HIGH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00120289 .).

N Engl J Med: 16 Nov 2011; epub ahead of print
N Engl J Med: 16 Nov 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22085343
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Abstract

Five-Year Outcomes after Off-Pump or On-Pump Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting.

Lamy A, Devereaux PJ, Prabhakaran D, Taggart DP, ... Yusuf S, CORONARY Investigators
Background We previously reported that there was no significant difference at 30 days or at 1 year in the rate of the composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or renal failure between patients who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) performed with a beating-heart technique (off-pump) and those who underwent CABG performed with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump). We now report the results at 5 years (the end of the trial). Methods A total of 4752 patients (from 19 countries) who had coronary artery disease were randomly assigned to undergo off-pump or on-pump CABG. For this report, we analyzed a composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, or repeat coronary revascularization (either CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention). The mean follow-up period was 4.8 years. Results There were no significant differences between the off-pump group and the on-pump group in the rate of the composite outcome (23.1% and 23.6%, respectively; hazard ratio with off-pump CABG, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87 to 1.10; P=0.72) or in the rates of the components of the outcome, including repeat coronary revascularization, which was performed in 2.8% of the patients in the off-pump group and in 2.3% of the patients in the on-pump group (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.73; P=0.29). The secondary outcome for the overall period of the trial - the mean cost in U.S. dollars per patient - also did not differ significantly between the off-pump group and the on-pump group ($15,107 and $14,992, respectively; between-group difference, $115; 95% CI, -$697 to $927). There were no significant between-group differences in quality-of-life measures. Conclusions In our trial, the rate of the composite outcome of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, renal failure, or repeat revascularization at 5 years of follow-up was similar among patients who underwent off-pump CABG and those who underwent on-pump CABG. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; CORONARY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00463294 .).

N Engl J Med: 23 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print
Lamy A, Devereaux PJ, Prabhakaran D, Taggart DP, ... Yusuf S, CORONARY Investigators
N Engl J Med: 23 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27771985
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Abstract

Prevalence of Pulmonary Embolism among Patients Hospitalized for Syncope.

Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Prins MH, Ciammaichella M, ... Barbar S, PESIT Investigators
Background The prevalence of pulmonary embolism among patients hospitalized for syncope is not well documented, and current guidelines pay little attention to a diagnostic workup for pulmonary embolism in these patients. Methods We performed a systematic workup for pulmonary embolism in patients admitted to 11 hospitals in Italy for a first episode of syncope, regardless of whether there were alternative explanations for the syncope. The diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was ruled out in patients who had a low pretest clinical probability, which was defined according to the Wells score, in combination with a negative d-dimer assay. In all other patients, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography or ventilation-perfusion lung scanning was performed. Results A total of 560 patients (mean age, 76 years) were included in the study. A diagnosis of pulmonary embolism was ruled out in 330 of the 560 patients (58.9%) on the basis of the combination of a low pretest clinical probability of pulmonary embolism and negative d-dimer assay. Among the remaining 230 patients, pulmonary embolism was identified in 97 (42.2%). In the entire cohort, the prevalence of pulmonary embolism was 17.3% (95% confidence interval, 14.2 to 20.5). Evidence of an embolus in a main pulmonary or lobar artery or evidence of perfusion defects larger than 25% of the total area of both lungs was found in 61 patients. Pulmonary embolism was identified in 45 of the 355 patients (12.7%) who had an alternative explanation for syncope and in 52 of the 205 patients (25.4%) who did not. Conclusions Pulmonary embolism was identified in nearly one of every six patients hospitalized for a first episode of syncope. (Funded by the University of Padua; PESIT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01797289 .).

N Engl J Med: 30 Oct 2016; 375:1524-1531
Prandoni P, Lensing AW, Prins MH, Ciammaichella M, ... Barbar S, PESIT Investigators
N Engl J Med: 30 Oct 2016; 375:1524-1531 | PMID: 27797317
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Abstract

Tranexamic Acid in Patients Undergoing Coronary-Artery Surgery.

Myles PS, Smith JA, Forbes A, Silbert B, ... Wallace S, ATACAS Investigators of the ANZCA Clinical Trials Network
Background Tranexamic acid reduces the risk of bleeding among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, but it is unclear whether this leads to improved outcomes. Furthermore, there are concerns that tranexamic acid may have prothrombotic and proconvulsant effects. Methods In a trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned patients who were scheduled to undergo coronary-artery surgery and were at risk for perioperative complications to receive aspirin or placebo and tranexamic acid or placebo. The results of the tranexamic acid comparison are reported here. The primary outcome was a composite of death and thrombotic complications (nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary embolism, renal failure, or bowel infarction) within 30 days after surgery. Results Of the 4662 patients who were enrolled and provided consent, 4631 underwent surgery and had available outcomes data; 2311 were assigned to the tranexamic acid group and 2320 to the placebo group. A primary outcome event occurred in 386 patients (16.7%) in the tranexamic acid group and in 420 patients (18.1%) in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.81 to 1.05; P=0.22). The total number of units of blood products that were transfused during hospitalization was 4331 in the tranexamic acid group and 7994 in the placebo group (P<0.001). Major hemorrhage or cardiac tamponade leading to reoperation occurred in 1.4% of the patients in the tranexamic acid group and in 2.8% of the patients in the placebo group (P=0.001), and seizures occurred in 0.7% and 0.1%, respectively (P=0.002 by Fisher\'s exact test). Conclusions Among patients undergoing coronary-artery surgery, tranexamic acid was associated with a lower risk of bleeding than was placebo, without a higher risk of death or thrombotic complications within 30 days after surgery. Tranexamic acid was associated with a higher risk of postoperative seizures. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; ATACAS Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12605000557639 .).

N Engl J Med: 23 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print
Myles PS, Smith JA, Forbes A, Silbert B, ... Wallace S, ATACAS Investigators of the ANZCA Clinical Trials Network
N Engl J Med: 23 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27774838
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Abstract

Drug-Eluting or Bare-Metal Stents for Coronary Artery Disease.

Bønaa KH, Mannsverk J, Wiseth R, Aaberge L, ... Nordrehaug JE, NORSTENT Investigators
Background Limited data are available on the long-term effects of contemporary drug-eluting stents versus contemporary bare-metal stents on rates of death, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stent thrombosis and on quality of life. Methods We randomly assigned 9013 patients who had stable or unstable coronary artery disease to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with the implantation of either contemporary drug-eluting stents or bare-metal stents. In the group receiving drug-eluting stents, 96% of the patients received either everolimus- or zotarolimus-eluting stents. The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause and nonfatal spontaneous myocardial infarction after a median of 5 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included repeat revascularization, stent thrombosis, and quality of life. Results At 6 years, the rates of the primary outcome were 16.6% in the group receiving drug-eluting stents and 17.1% in the group receiving bare-metal stents (hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88 to 1.09; P=0.66). There were no significant between-group differences in the components of the primary outcome. The 6-year rates of any repeat revascularization were 16.5% in the group receiving drug-eluting stents and 19.8% in the group receiving bare-metal stents (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.85; P<0.001); the rates of definite stent thrombosis were 0.8% and 1.2%, respectively (P=0.0498). Quality-of-life measures did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions In patients undergoing PCI, there were no significant differences between those receiving drug-eluting stents and those receiving bare-metal stents in the composite outcome of death from any cause and nonfatal spontaneous myocardial infarction. Rates of repeat revascularization were lower in the group receiving drug-eluting stents. (Funded by the Norwegian Research Council and others; NORSTENT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00811772 .).

N Engl J Med: 29 Aug 2016; epub ahead of print
Bønaa KH, Mannsverk J, Wiseth R, Aaberge L, ... Nordrehaug JE, NORSTENT Investigators
N Engl J Med: 29 Aug 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27572953
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Abstract

The Long-Term Effect of Premier Pay for Performance on Patient Outcomes.

Jha AK, Joynt KE, Orav EJ, Epstein AM
Background Pay for performance has become a central strategy in the drive to improve health care. We assessed the long-term effect of the Medicare Premier Hospital Quality Incentive Demonstration (HQID) on patient outcomes. Methods We used Medicare data to compare outcomes between the 252 hospitals participating in the Premier HQID and 3363 control hospitals participating in public reporting alone. We examined 30-day mortality among more than 6 million patients who had acute myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or pneumonia or who underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) between 2003 and 2009. Results At baseline, the composite 30-day mortality was similar for Premier and non-Premier hospitals (12.33% and 12.40%, respectively; difference, -0.07 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.40 to 0.26). The rates of decline in mortality per quarter at the two types of hospitals were also similar (0.04% and 0.04%, respectively; difference, -0.01 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.02 to 0.01), and mortality remained similar after 6 years under the pay-for-performance system (11.82% for Premier hospitals and 11.74% for non-Premier hospitals; difference, 0.08 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.30 to 0.46). We found that the effects of pay for performance on mortality did not differ significantly among conditions for which outcomes were explicitly linked to incentives (acute myocardial infarction and CABG) and among conditions not linked to incentives (congestive heart failure and pneumonia) (P=0.36 for interaction). Among hospitals that were poor performers at baseline, mortality was similar in the two groups of hospitals at the start of the study (15.12% and 14.73%; difference, 0.39 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.36 to 1.15), with similar rates of improvement per quarter (0.10% and 0.07%; difference, -0.03 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.08 to 0.02) and similar mortality rates at the end of the study (13.37% and 13.21%; difference, 0.15 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.70 to 1.01). Conclusions We found no evidence that the largest hospital-based pay-for-performance program led to a decrease in 30-day mortality. Expectations of improved outcomes for programs modeled after Premier HQID should therefore remain modest.

N Engl J Med: 28 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print
Jha AK, Joynt KE, Orav EJ, Epstein AM
N Engl J Med: 28 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22455751
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Abstract

Outcomes of PCI at Hospitals with or without On-Site Cardiac Surgery.

Aversano T, Lemmon CC, Liu L, the Atlantic CPORT Investigators
Background Performance of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is usually restricted to hospitals with cardiac surgery on site. We conducted a noninferiority trial to compare the outcomes of PCI performed at hospitals without and those with on-site cardiac surgery. Methods We randomly assigned participants to undergo PCI at a hospital with or without on-site cardiac surgery. Patients requiring primary PCI were excluded. The trial had two primary end points: 6-week mortality and 9-month incidence of major adverse cardiac events (the composite of death, Q-wave myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization). Noninferiority margins for the risk difference were 0.4 percentage points for mortality at 6 weeks and 1.8 percentage points for major adverse cardiac events at 9 months. Results A total of 18,867 patients were randomly assigned in a 3:1 ratio to undergo PCI at a hospital without on-site cardiac surgery (14,149 patients) or with on-site cardiac surgery (4718 patients). The 6-week mortality rate was 0.9% at hospitals without on-site surgery versus 1.0% at those with on-site surgery (difference, -0.04 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.31 to 0.23; P=0.004 for noninferiority). The 9-month rates of major adverse cardiac events were 12.1% and 11.2% at hospitals without and those with on-site surgery, respectively (difference, 0.92 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.04 to 1.80; P=0.05 for noninferiority). The rate of target-vessel revascularization was higher in hospitals without on-site surgery (6.5% vs. 5.4%, P=0.01). Conclusions We found that PCI performed at hospitals without on-site cardiac surgery was noninferior to PCI performed at hospitals with on-site cardiac surgery with respect to mortality at 6 weeks and major adverse cardiac events at 9 months. (Funded by the Cardiovascular Patient Outcomes Research Team [C-PORT] participating sites; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00549796 .).

N Engl J Med: 25 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print
Aversano T, Lemmon CC, Liu L, the Atlantic CPORT Investigators
N Engl J Med: 25 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22443460
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Abstract

Off-Pump or On-Pump Coronary-Artery Bypass Grafting at 30 Days.

Lamy A, Devereaux PJ, Prabhakaran D, Taggart DP, ... Yusuf S, the CORONARY Investigators
Background The relative benefits and risks of performing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) with a beating-heart technique (off-pump CABG), as compared with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump CABG), are not clearly established. Methods At 79 centers in 19 countries, we randomly assigned 4752 patients in whom CABG was planned to undergo the procedure off-pump or on-pump. The first coprimary outcome was a composite of death, nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or new renal failure requiring dialysis at 30 days after randomization. Results There was no significant difference in the rate of the primary composite outcome between off-pump and on-pump CABG (9.8% vs. 10.3%; hazard ratio for the off-pump group, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.14; P=0.59) or in any of its individual components. The use of off-pump CABG, as compared with on-pump CABG, significantly reduced the rates of blood-product transfusion (50.7% vs. 63.3%; relative risk, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.75 to 0.85; P<0.001), reoperation for perioperative bleeding (1.4% vs. 2.4%; relative risk, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.93; P=0.02), acute kidney injury (28.0% vs. 32.1%; relative risk, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80 to 0.96; P=0.01), and respiratory complications (5.9% vs. 7.5%; relative risk, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.98; P=0.03) but increased the rate of early repeat revascularizations (0.7% vs. 0.2%; hazard ratio, 4.01; 95% CI, 1.34 to 12.0; P=0.01). Conclusions There was no significant difference between off-pump and on-pump CABG with respect to the 30-day rate of death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or renal failure requiring dialysis. The use of off-pump CABG resulted in reduced rates of transfusion, reoperation for perioperative bleeding, respiratory complications, and acute kidney injury but also resulted in an increased risk of early revascularization. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; CORONARY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00463294 .).

N Engl J Med: 26 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print
Lamy A, Devereaux PJ, Prabhakaran D, Taggart DP, ... Yusuf S, the CORONARY Investigators
N Engl J Med: 26 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22449296
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Abstract

CT Angiography for Safe Discharge of Patients with Possible Acute Coronary Syndromes.

Litt HI, Gatsonis C, Snyder B, Singh H, ... Pacella CB, Hollander JE
Background Admission rates among patients presenting to emergency departments with possible acute coronary syndromes are high, although for most of these patients, the symptoms are ultimately found not to have a cardiac cause. Coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) has a very high negative predictive value for the detection of coronary disease, but its usefulness in determining whether discharge of patients from the emergency department is safe is not well established. Methods We randomly assigned low-to-intermediate-risk patients presenting with possible acute coronary syndromes, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo CCTA or to receive traditional care. Patients were enrolled at five centers in the United States. Patients older than 30 years of age with a Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction risk score of 0 to 2 and signs or symptoms warranting admission or testing were eligible. The primary outcome was safety, assessed in the subgroup of patients with a negative CCTA examination, with safety defined as the absence of myocardial infarction and cardiac death during the first 30 days after presentation. Results We enrolled 1370 subjects: 908 in the CCTA group and 462 in the group receiving traditional care. The baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. Of 640 patients with a negative CCTA examination, none died or had a myocardial infarction within 30 days (0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0 to 0.57). As compared with patients receiving traditional care, patients in the CCTA group had a higher rate of discharge from the emergency department (49.6% vs. 22.7%; difference, 26.8 percentage points; 95% CI, 21.4 to 32.2), a shorter length of stay (median, 18.0 hours vs. 24.8 hours; P<0.001), and a higher rate of detection of coronary disease (9.0% vs. 3.5%; difference, 5.6 percentage points; 95% CI, 0 to 11.2). There was one serious adverse event in each group. Conclusions A CCTA-based strategy for low-to-intermediate-risk patients presenting with a possible acute coronary syndrome appears to allow the safe, expedited discharge from the emergency department of many patients who would otherwise be admitted. (Funded by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania Department of Health and the American College of Radiology Imaging Network Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00933400 .).

N Engl J Med: 26 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print
Litt HI, Gatsonis C, Snyder B, Singh H, ... Pacella CB, Hollander JE
N Engl J Med: 26 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22449295
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Abstract

Comparative Effectiveness of Revascularization Strategies.

Weintraub WS, Grau-Sepulveda MV, Weiss JM, O\'Brien SM, ... Dangas GD, Edwards FH
Background Questions persist concerning the comparative effectiveness of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF) and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) collaborated to compare the rates of long-term survival after PCI and CABG. Methods We linked the ACCF National Cardiovascular Data Registry and the STS Adult Cardiac Surgery Database to claims data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services for the years 2004 through 2008. Outcomes were compared with the use of propensity scores and inverse-probability-weighting adjustment to reduce treatment-selection bias. Results Among patients 65 years of age or older who had two-vessel or three-vessel coronary artery disease without acute myocardial infarction, 86,244 underwent CABG and 103,549 underwent PCI. The median follow-up period was 2.67 years. At 1 year, there was no significant difference in adjusted mortality between the groups (6.24% in the CABG group as compared with 6.55% in the PCI group; risk ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.00). At 4 years, there was lower mortality with CABG than with PCI (16.4% vs. 20.8%; risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.82). Similar results were noted in multiple subgroups and with the use of several different analytic methods. Residual confounding was assessed by means of a sensitivity analysis. Conclusions In this observational study, we found that, among older patients with multivessel coronary disease that did not require emergency treatment, there was a long-term survival advantage among patients who underwent CABG as compared with patients who underwent PCI. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.).

N Engl J Med: 27 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print
Weintraub WS, Grau-Sepulveda MV, Weiss JM, O'Brien SM, ... Dangas GD, Edwards FH
N Engl J Med: 27 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22452338
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Abstract

Vorapaxar in the Secondary Prevention of Atherothrombotic Events.

Morrow DA, Braunwald E, Bonaca MP, Ameriso SF, ... Murphy SA, the TRA 2P–TIMI 50 Steering Committee and Investigators
Background Thrombin potently activates platelets through the protease-activated receptor PAR-1. Vorapaxar is a novel antiplatelet agent that selectively inhibits the cellular actions of thrombin through antagonism of PAR-1. Methods We randomly assigned 26,449 patients who had a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or peripheral arterial disease to receive vorapaxar (2.5 mg daily) or matching placebo and followed them for a median of 30 months. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, or stroke. After 2 years, the data and safety monitoring board recommended discontinuation of the study treatment in patients with a history of stroke owing to the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Results At 3 years, the primary end point had occurred in 1028 patients (9.3%) in the vorapaxar group and in 1176 patients (10.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for the vorapaxar group, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.94; P<0.001). Cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or recurrent ischemia leading to revascularization occurred in 1259 patients (11.2%) in the vorapaxar group and 1417 patients (12.4%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.95; P=0.001). Moderate or severe bleeding occurred in 4.2% of patients who received vorapaxar and 2.5% of those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.43 to 1.93; P<0.001). There was an increase in the rate of intracranial hemorrhage in the vorapaxar group (1.0%, vs. 0.5% in the placebo group; P<0.001). Conclusions Inhibition of PAR-1 with vorapaxar reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or ischemic events in patients with stable atherosclerosis who were receiving standard therapy. However, it increased the risk of moderate or severe bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Merck; TRA 2P-TIMI 50 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00526474 .).

N Engl J Med: 25 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print
Morrow DA, Braunwald E, Bonaca MP, Ameriso SF, ... Murphy SA, the TRA 2P–TIMI 50 Steering Committee and Investigators
N Engl J Med: 25 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22443427
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Abstract

Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement for Inoperable Severe Aortic Stenosis.

Makkar RR, Fontana GP, Jilaihawi H, Kapadia S, ... Leon MB, the PARTNER Trial Investigators
Background Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) is the recommended therapy for patients with severe aortic stenosis who are not suitable candidates for surgery. The outcomes beyond 1 year in such patients are not known. Methods We randomly assigned patients to transfemoral TAVR or to standard therapy (which often included balloon aortic valvuloplasty). Data on 2-year outcomes were analyzed. Results A total of 358 patients underwent randomization at 21 centers. The rates of death at 2 years were 43.3% in the TAVR group and 68.0% in the standard-therapy group (P<0.001), and the corresponding rates of cardiac death were 31.0% and 62.4% (P<0.001). The survival advantage associated with TAVR that was seen at 1 year remained significant among patients who survived beyond the first year (hazard ratio, 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36 to 0.92; P=0.02 with the use of the log-rank test). The rate of stroke was higher after TAVR than with standard therapy (13.8% vs. 5.5%, P=0.01), owing, in the first 30 days, to the occurrence of more ischemic events in the TAVR group (6.7% vs. 1.7%, P=0.02) and, beyond 30 days, to the occurrence of more hemorrhagic strokes in the TAVR group (2.2% vs. 0.6%, P=0.16). At 2 years, the rate of rehospitalization was 35.0% in the TAVR group and 72.5% in the standard-therapy group (P<0.001). TAVR, as compared with standard therapy, was also associated with improved functional status (P<0.001). The data suggest that the mortality benefit after TAVR may be limited to patients who do not have extensive coexisting conditions. Echocardiographic analysis showed a sustained increase in aortic-valve area and a decrease in aortic-valve gradient, with no worsening of paravalvular aortic regurgitation. Conclusions Among appropriately selected patients with severe aortic stenosis who were not suitable candidates for surgery, TAVR reduced the rates of death and hospitalization, with a decrease in symptoms and an improvement in valve hemodynamics that were sustained at 2 years of follow-up. The presence of extensive coexisting conditions may attenuate the survival benefit of TAVR. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00530894 .).

N Engl J Med: 25 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print
Makkar RR, Fontana GP, Jilaihawi H, Kapadia S, ... Leon MB, the PARTNER Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 25 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22443478
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Abstract

Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy in Obese Patients with Diabetes.

Schauer PR, Kashyap SR, Wolski K, Brethauer SA, ... Nissen SE, Bhatt DL
Background Observational studies have shown improvement in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus after bariatric surgery. Methods In this randomized, nonblinded, single-center trial, we evaluated the efficacy of intensive medical therapy alone versus medical therapy plus Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy in 150 obese patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 49±8 years, and 66% were women. The average glycated hemoglobin level was 9.2±1.5%. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with a glycated hemoglobin level of 6.0% or less 12 months after treatment. Results Of the 150 patients, 93% completed 12 months of follow-up. The proportion of patients with the primary end point was 12% (5 of 41 patients) in the medical-therapy group versus 42% (21 of 50 patients) in the gastric-bypass group (P=0.002) and 37% (18 of 49 patients) in the sleeve-gastrectomy group (P=0.008). Glycemic control improved in all three groups, with a mean glycated hemoglobin level of 7.5±1.8% in the medical-therapy group, 6.4±0.9% in the gastric-bypass group (P<0.001), and 6.6±1.0% in the sleeve-gastrectomy group (P=0.003). Weight loss was greater in the gastric-bypass group and sleeve-gastrectomy group (-29.4±9.0 kg and -25.1±8.5 kg, respectively) than in the medical-therapy group (-5.4±8.0 kg) (P<0.001 for both comparisons). The use of drugs to lower glucose, lipid, and blood-pressure levels decreased significantly after both surgical procedures but increased in patients receiving medical therapy only. The index for homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) improved significantly after bariatric surgery. Four patients underwent reoperation. There were no deaths or life-threatening complications. Conclusions In obese patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes, 12 months of medical therapy plus bariatric surgery achieved glycemic control in significantly more patients than medical therapy alone. Further study will be necessary to assess the durability of these results. (Funded by Ethicon Endo-Surgery and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00432809 .).

N Engl J Med: 26 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print
Schauer PR, Kashyap SR, Wolski K, Brethauer SA, ... Nissen SE, Bhatt DL
N Engl J Med: 26 Mar 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22449319
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Abstract

Levosimendan for the Prevention of Acute Organ Dysfunction in Sepsis.

Gordon AC, Perkins GD, Singer M, McAuley DF, ... Liu KD, Ashby D
Background Levosimendan is a calcium-sensitizing drug with inotropic and other properties that may improve outcomes in patients with sepsis. Methods We conducted a double-blind, randomized clinical trial to investigate whether levosimendan reduces the severity of organ dysfunction in adults with sepsis. Patients were randomly assigned to receive a blinded infusion of levosimendan (at a dose of 0.05 to 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute) for 24 hours or placebo in addition to standard care. The primary outcome was the mean daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score in the intensive care unit up to day 28 (scores for each of five systems range from 0 to 4, with higher scores indicating more severe dysfunction; maximum score, 20). Secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality, time to weaning from mechanical ventilation, and adverse events. Results The trial recruited 516 patients; 259 were assigned to receive levosimendan and 257 to receive placebo. There was no significant difference in the mean (±SD) SOFA score between the levosimendan group and the placebo group (6.68±3.96 vs. 6.06±3.89; mean difference, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.07 to 1.29; P=0.053). Mortality at 28 days was 34.5% in the levosimendan group and 30.9% in the placebo group (absolute difference, 3.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -4.5 to 11.7; P=0.43). Among patients requiring ventilation at baseline, those in the levosimendan group were less likely than those in the placebo group to be successfully weaned from mechanical ventilation over the period of 28 days (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.97; P=0.03). More patients in the levosimendan group than in the placebo group had supraventricular tachyarrhythmia (3.1% vs. 0.4%; absolute difference, 2.7 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.1 to 5.3; P=0.04). Conclusions The addition of levosimendan to standard treatment in adults with sepsis was not associated with less severe organ dysfunction or lower mortality. Levosimendan was associated with a lower likelihood of successful weaning from mechanical ventilation and a higher risk of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. (Funded by the NIHR Efficacy and Mechanism Evaluation Programme and others; LeoPARDS Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN12776039 .).

N Engl J Med: 04 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print
Gordon AC, Perkins GD, Singer M, McAuley DF, ... Liu KD, Ashby D
N Engl J Med: 04 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27705084
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Abstract

Inactivating KISS1 mutation and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

Topaloglu AK, Tello JA, Kotan LD, Ozbek MN, ... Millar RP, Yuksel B
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is the central regulator of gonadotropins, which stimulate gonadal function. Hypothalamic neurons that produce kisspeptin and neurokinin B stimulate GnRH release. Inactivating mutations in the genes encoding the human kisspeptin receptor (KISS1R, formerly called GPR54), neurokinin B (TAC3), and the neurokinin B receptor (TACR3) result in pubertal failure. However, human kisspeptin loss-of-function mutations have not been described, and contradictory findings have been reported in Kiss1-knockout mice. We describe an inactivating mutation in KISS1 in a large consanguineous family that results in failure of pubertal progression, indicating that functional kisspeptin is important for puberty and reproduction in humans. (Funded by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey [TÜBİTAK] and others.).

N Engl J Med: 16 Feb 2012; 366:629-35
Topaloglu AK, Tello JA, Kotan LD, Ozbek MN, ... Millar RP, Yuksel B
N Engl J Med: 16 Feb 2012; 366:629-35 | PMID: 22335740
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Abstract

Semaglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, ... Vilsbøll T, SUSTAIN-6 Investigators
Background Regulatory guidance specifies the need to establish cardiovascular safety of new diabetes therapies in patients with type 2 diabetes in order to rule out excess cardiovascular risk. The cardiovascular effects of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue with an extended half-life of approximately 1 week, in type 2 diabetes are unknown. Methods We randomly assigned 3297 patients with type 2 diabetes who were on a standard-care regimen to receive once-weekly semaglutide (0.5 mg or 1.0 mg) or placebo for 104 weeks. The primary composite outcome was the first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. We hypothesized that semaglutide would be noninferior to placebo for the primary outcome. The noninferiority margin was 1.8 for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio. Results At baseline, 2735 of the patients (83.0%) had established cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, or both. The primary outcome occurred in 108 of 1648 patients (6.6%) in the semaglutide group and in 146 of 1649 patients (8.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.95; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Nonfatal myocardial infarction occurred in 2.9% of the patients receiving semaglutide and in 3.9% of those receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.08; P=0.12); nonfatal stroke occurred in 1.6% and 2.7%, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.99; P=0.04). Rates of death from cardiovascular causes were similar in the two groups. Rates of new or worsening nephropathy were lower in the semaglutide group, but rates of retinopathy complications (vitreous hemorrhage, blindness, or conditions requiring treatment with an intravitreal agent or photocoagulation) were significantly higher (hazard ratio, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.78; P=0.02). Fewer serious adverse events occurred in the semaglutide group, although more patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes who were at high cardiovascular risk, the rate of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke was significantly lower among patients receiving semaglutide than among those receiving placebo, an outcome that confirmed the noninferiority of semaglutide. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; SUSTAIN-6 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01720446 .).

N Engl J Med: 15 Sep 2016; epub ahead of print
Marso SP, Bain SC, Consoli A, Eliaschewitz FG, ... Vilsbøll T, SUSTAIN-6 Investigators
N Engl J Med: 15 Sep 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27633186
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Abstract

Dronedarone in High-Risk Permanent Atrial Fibrillation.

Connolly SJ, Camm AJ, Halperin JL, Joyner C, ... Hohnloser SH, the PALLAS Investigators
Background Dronedarone restores sinus rhythm and reduces hospitalization or death in intermittent atrial fibrillation. It also lowers heart rate and blood pressure and has antiadrenergic and potential ventricular anti-arrhythmic effects. We hypothesized that dronedarone would reduce major vascular events in high-risk permanent atrial fibrillation. Methods We assigned patients who were at least 65 years of age with at least a 6-month history of permanent atrial fibrillation and risk factors for major vascular events to receive dronedarone or placebo. The first coprimary outcome was stroke, myocardial infarction, systemic embolism, or death from cardiovascular causes. The second coprimary outcome was unplanned hospitalization for a cardiovascular cause or death. Results After the enrollment of 3236 patients, the study was stopped for safety reasons. The first coprimary outcome occurred in 43 patients receiving dronedarone and 19 receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34 to 3.94; P=0.002). There were 21 deaths from cardiovascular causes in the dronedarone group and 10 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 2.11; 95% CI, 1.00 to 4.49; P=0.046), including death from arrhythmia in 13 patients and 4 patients, respectively (hazard ratio, 3.26; 95% CI, 1.06 to 10.00; P=0.03). Stroke occurred in 23 patients in the dronedarone group and 10 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.11 to 4.88; P=0.02). Hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 43 patients in the dronedarone group and 24 in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.10 to 2.99; P=0.02). Conclusions Dronedarone increased rates of heart failure, stroke, and death from cardiovascular causes in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation who were at risk for major vascular events. Our data show that this drug should not be used in such patients. (Funded by Sanofi-Aventis; PALLAS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01151137 .).

N Engl J Med: 15 Nov 2011; epub ahead of print
Connolly SJ, Camm AJ, Halperin JL, Joyner C, ... Hohnloser SH, the PALLAS Investigators
N Engl J Med: 15 Nov 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22082198
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Abstract

Antenatal Thyroid Screening and Childhood Cognitive Function.

Lazarus JH, Bestwick JP, Channon S, Paradice R, ... Joomun M, Wald NJ
Background Children born to women with low thyroid hormone levels have been reported to have decreased cognitive function. Methods We conducted a randomized trial in which pregnant women at a gestation of 15 weeks 6 days or less provided blood samples for measurement of thyrotropin and free thyroxine (T(4)). Women were assigned to a screening group (in which measurements were obtained immediately) or a control group (in which serum was stored and measurements were obtained shortly after delivery). Thyrotropin levels above the 97.5th percentile, free T(4) levels below the 2.5th percentile, or both were considered a positive screening result. Women with positive findings in the screening group were assigned to 150 μg of levothyroxine per day. The primary outcome was IQ at 3 years of age in children of women with positive results, as measured by psychologists who were unaware of the group assignments. Results Of 21,846 women who provided blood samples (at a median gestational age of 12 weeks 3 days), 390 women in the screening group and 404 in the control group tested positive. The median gestational age at the start of levothyroxine treatment was 13 weeks 3 days; treatment was adjusted as needed to achieve a target thyrotropin level of 0.1 to 1.0 mIU per liter. Among the children of women with positive results, the mean IQ scores were 99.2 and 100.0 in the screening and control groups, respectively (difference, 0.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.1 to 2.6; P=0.40 by intention-to-treat analysis); the proportions of children with an IQ of less than 85 were 12.1% in the screening group and 14.1% in the control group (difference, 2.1 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.6 to 6.7; P=0.39). An on-treatment analysis showed similar results. Conclusions Antenatal screening (at a median gestational age of 12 weeks 3 days) and maternal treatment for hypothyroidism did not result in improved cognitive function in children at 3 years of age. (Funded by the Wellcome Trust UK and Compagnia di San Paulo, Turin; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN46178175 .).

N Engl J Med: 09 Feb 2012; 366:493-501
Lazarus JH, Bestwick JP, Channon S, Paradice R, ... Joomun M, Wald NJ
N Engl J Med: 09 Feb 2012; 366:493-501 | PMID: 22316443
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Abstract

Irbesartan in patients with atrial fibrillation.

ACTIVE I Investigators, Yusuf S, Healey JS, Pogue J, ... Pfeffer MA, Connolly SJ
Background The risk of cardiovascular events among patients with atrial fibrillation is high. We evaluated whether irbesartan, an angiotensin-receptor blocker, would reduce this risk. Methods We randomly assigned patients with a history of risk factors for stroke and a systolic blood pressure of at least 110 mm Hg to receive either irbesartan at a target dose of 300 mg once daily or double-blind placebo. These patients were already enrolled in one of two trials (of clopidogrel plus aspirin versus aspirin alone or versus oral anticoagulants). The first coprimary outcome was stroke, myocardial infarction, or death from vascular causes; the second was this composite outcome plus hospitalization for heart failure. Results A total of 9016 patients were enrolled and followed for a mean of 4.1 years. The mean reduction in systolic blood pressure was 2.9 mm Hg greater in the irbesartan group than in the placebo group, and the mean reduction in diastolic blood pressure was 1.9 mm Hg greater. The first coprimary outcome occurred at a rate of 5.4% per 100 person-years in both groups (hazard ratio with irbesartan, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.91 to 1.08; P=0.85). The second coprimary outcome occurred at a rate of 7.3% per 100 person-years among patients receiving irbesartan and 7.7% per 100 person-years among patients receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.02; P=0.12). The rates of first hospitalization for heart failure (a prespecified secondary outcome) were 2.7% per 100 person-years among patients receiving irbesartan and 3.2% per 100 person-years among patients receiving placebo (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.98). Among patients who were in sinus rhythm at baseline, there was no benefit of irbesartan in preventing hospitalization for atrial fibrillation or atrial fibrillation recorded on 12-lead electrocardiography, nor was there a benefit in a subgroup that underwent transtelephonic monitoring. More patients in the irbesartan group than in the placebo group had symptomatic hypotension (127 vs. 64) and renal dysfunction (43 vs. 24). Conclusions Irbesartan did not reduce cardiovascular events in patients with atrial fibrillation. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Sanofi-Aventis; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00249795 .).

N Engl J Med: 10 Mar 2011; 364:928-38
ACTIVE I Investigators, Yusuf S, Healey JS, Pogue J, ... Pfeffer MA, Connolly SJ
N Engl J Med: 10 Mar 2011; 364:928-38 | PMID: 21388310
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Abstract

Cardiac Arrest during Long-Distance Running Races.

Kim JH, Malhotra R, Chiampas G, d\'Hemecourt P, ... Baggish AL, the Race Associated Cardiac Arrest Event Registry (RACER) Study Group
Background Approximately 2 million people participate in long-distance running races in the United States annually. Reports of race-related cardiac arrests have generated concern about the safety of this activity. Methods We assessed the incidence and outcomes of cardiac arrest associated with marathon and half-marathon races in the United States from January 1, 2000, to May 31, 2010. We determined the clinical characteristics of the arrests by interviewing survivors and the next of kin of nonsurvivors, reviewing medical records, and analyzing postmortem data. Results Of 10.9 million runners, 59 (mean [?SD] age, 42?13 years; 51 men) had cardiac arrest (incidence rate, 0.54 per 100,000 participants; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.70). Cardiovascular disease accounted for the majority of cardiac arrests. The incidence rate was significantly higher during marathons (1.01 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.38) than during half-marathons (0.27; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.43) and among men (0.90 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.18) than among women (0.16; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.31). Male marathon runners, the highest-risk group, had an increased incidence of cardiac arrest during the latter half of the study decade (2000?2004, 0.71 per 100,000 [95% CI, 0.31 to 1.40]; 2005?2010, 2.03 per 100,000 [95% CI, 1.33 to 2.98]; P=0.01). Of the 59 cases of cardiac arrest, 42 (71%) were fatal (incidence, 0.39 per 100,000; 95% CI, 0.28 to 0.52). Among the 31 cases with complete clinical data, initiation of bystander-administered cardiopulmonary resuscitation and an underlying diagnosis other than hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were the strongest predictors of survival. Conclusions Marathons and half-marathons are associated with a low overall risk of cardiac arrest and sudden death. Cardiac arrest, most commonly attributable to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or atherosclerotic coronary disease, occurs primarily among male marathon participants; the incidence rate in this group increased during the past decade.

N Engl J Med: 12 Jan 2012; 366:130-140
Kim JH, Malhotra R, Chiampas G, d'Hemecourt P, ... Baggish AL, the Race Associated Cardiac Arrest Event Registry (RACER) Study Group
N Engl J Med: 12 Jan 2012; 366:130-140 | PMID: 22236223
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Abstract

Andexanet Alfa for Acute Major Bleeding Associated with Factor Xa Inhibitors.

Connolly SJ, Milling TJ, Eikelboom JW, Gibson CM, ... Crowther M, ANNEXA-4 Investigators
Background Andexanet alfa (andexanet) is a recombinant modified human factor Xa decoy protein that has been shown to reverse the inhibition of factor Xa in healthy volunteers. Methods In this multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-group study, we evaluated 67 patients who had acute major bleeding within 18 hours after the administration of a factor Xa inhibitor. The patients all received a bolus of andexanet followed by a 2-hour infusion of the drug. Patients were evaluated for changes in measures of anti-factor Xa activity and were assessed for clinical hemostatic efficacy during a 12-hour period. All the patients were subsequently followed for 30 days. The efficacy population of 47 patients had a baseline value for anti-factor Xa activity of at least 75 ng per milliliter (or ≥0.5 IU per milliliter for those receiving enoxaparin) and had confirmed bleeding severity at adjudication. Results The mean age of the patients was 77 years; most of the patients had substantial cardiovascular disease. Bleeding was predominantly gastrointestinal or intracranial. The mean (±SD) time from emergency department presentation to the administration of the andexanet bolus was 4.8±1.8 hours. After the bolus administration, the median anti-factor Xa activity decreased by 89% (95% confidence interval [CI], 58 to 94) from baseline among patients receiving rivaroxaban and by 93% (95% CI, 87 to 94) among patients receiving apixaban. These levels remained similar during the 2-hour infusion. Four hours after the end of the infusion, there was a relative decrease from baseline of 39% in the measure of anti-factor Xa activity among patients receiving rivaroxaban and of 30% among those receiving apixaban. Twelve hours after the andexanet infusion, clinical hemostasis was adjudicated as excellent or good in 37 of 47 patients in the efficacy analysis (79%; 95% CI, 64 to 89). Thrombotic events occurred in 12 of 67 patients (18%) during the 30-day follow-up. Conclusions On the basis of a descriptive preliminary analysis, an initial bolus and subsequent 2-hour infusion of andexanet substantially reduced anti-factor Xa activity in patients with acute major bleeding associated with factor Xa inhibitors, with effective hemostasis occurring in 79%. (Funded by Portola Pharmaceuticals; ANNEXA-4 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02329327 .).

N Engl J Med: 29 Aug 2016; epub ahead of print
Connolly SJ, Milling TJ, Eikelboom JW, Gibson CM, ... Crowther M, ANNEXA-4 Investigators
N Engl J Med: 29 Aug 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27573206
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Abstract

Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure.

Køber L, Thune JJ, Nielsen JC, Haarbo J, ... Pehrson S, DANISH Investigators
Background The benefit of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure caused by coronary artery disease has been well documented. However, the evidence for a benefit of prophylactic ICDs in patients with systolic heart failure that is not due to coronary artery disease has been based primarily on subgroup analyses. The management of heart failure has improved since the landmark ICD trials, and many patients now receive cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). Methods In a randomized, controlled trial, 556 patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure (left ventricular ejection fraction, ≤35%) not caused by coronary artery disease were assigned to receive an ICD, and 560 patients were assigned to receive usual clinical care (control group). In both groups, 58% of the patients received CRT. The primary outcome of the trial was death from any cause. The secondary outcomes were sudden cardiac death and cardiovascular death. Results After a median follow-up period of 67.6 months, the primary outcome had occurred in 120 patients (21.6%) in the ICD group and in 131 patients (23.4%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.68 to 1.12; P=0.28). Sudden cardiac death occurred in 24 patients (4.3%) in the ICD group and in 46 patients (8.2%) in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.31 to 0.82; P=0.005). Device infection occurred in 27 patients (4.9%) in the ICD group and in 20 patients (3.6%) in the control group (P=0.29). Conclusions In this trial, prophylactic ICD implantation in patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure not caused by coronary artery disease was not associated with a significantly lower long-term rate of death from any cause than was usual clinical care. (Funded by Medtronic and others; DANISH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00542945 .).

N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2016; epub ahead of print
Køber L, Thune JJ, Nielsen JC, Haarbo J, ... Pehrson S, DANISH Investigators
N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27571011
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Abstract

Lixisenatide in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

Pfeffer MA, Claggett B, Diaz R, Dickstein K, ... Tardif JC, ELIXA Investigators
Background Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are higher among patients with type 2 diabetes, particularly those with concomitant cardiovascular diseases, than in most other populations. We assessed the effects of lixisenatide, a glucagon-like peptide 1-receptor agonist, on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a recent acute coronary event. Methods We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes who had had a myocardial infarction or who had been hospitalized for unstable angina within the previous 180 days to receive lixisenatide or placebo in addition to locally determined standards of care. The trial was designed with adequate statistical power to assess whether lixisenatide was noninferior as well as superior to placebo, as defined by an upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for the hazard ratio of less than 1.3 and 1.0, respectively, for the primary composite end point of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina. Results The 6068 patients who underwent randomization were followed for a median of 25 months. A primary end-point event occurred in 406 patients (13.4%) in the lixisenatide group and in 399 (13.2%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.17), which showed the noninferiority of lixisenatide to placebo (P<0.001) but did not show superiority (P=0.81). There were no significant between-group differences in the rate of hospitalization for heart failure (hazard ratio in the lixisenatide group, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.23) or the rate of death (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.13). Lixisenatide was not associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events or severe hypoglycemia, pancreatitis, pancreatic neoplasms, or allergic reactions than was placebo. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes and a recent acute coronary syndrome, the addition of lixisenatide to usual care did not significantly alter the rate of major cardiovascular events or other serious adverse events. (Funded by Sanofi; ELIXA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01147250 .).

N Engl J Med: 01 Dec 2015; 373:2247-2257
Pfeffer MA, Claggett B, Diaz R, Dickstein K, ... Tardif JC, ELIXA Investigators
N Engl J Med: 01 Dec 2015; 373:2247-2257 | PMID: 26630143
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Abstract

Long-term effects of intensive glucose lowering on cardiovascular outcomes.


Background Intensive glucose lowering has previously been shown to increase mortality among persons with advanced type 2 diabetes and a high risk of cardiovascular disease. This report describes the 5-year outcomes of a mean of 3.7 years of intensive glucose lowering on mortality and key cardiovascular events. Methods We randomly assigned participants with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease or additional cardiovascular risk factors to receive intensive therapy (targeting a glycated hemoglobin level below 6.0%) or standard therapy (targeting a level of 7 to 7.9%). After termination of the intensive therapy, due to higher mortality in the intensive-therapy group, the target glycated hemoglobin level was 7 to 7.9% for all participants, who were followed until the planned end of the trial. Results Before the intensive therapy was terminated, the intensive-therapy group did not differ significantly from the standard-therapy group in the rate of the primary outcome (a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes) (P=0.13) but had more deaths from any cause (primarily cardiovascular) (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.44) and fewer nonfatal myocardial infarctions (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.95). These trends persisted during the entire follow-up period (hazard ratio for death, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.38; and hazard ratio for nonfatal myocardial infarction, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.70 to 0.96). After the intensive intervention was terminated, the median glycated hemoglobin level in the intensive-therapy group rose from 6.4% to 7.2%, and the use of glucose-lowering medications and rates of severe hypoglycemia and other adverse events were similar in the two groups. Conclusions As compared with standard therapy, the use of intensive therapy for 3.7 years to target a glycated hemoglobin level below 6% reduced 5-year nonfatal myocardial infarctions but increased 5-year mortality. Such a strategy cannot be recommended for high-risk patients with advanced type 2 diabetes. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000620 .).

N Engl J Med: 03 Mar 2011; 364:818-28
N Engl J Med: 03 Mar 2011; 364:818-28 | PMID: 21366473
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Abstract

Comparison of Shunt Types in the Norwood Procedure for Single-Ventricle Lesions.

Ohye RG, Sleeper LA, Mahony L, Newburger JW, ... Gaynor JW, the Pediatric Heart Network Investigators
Background: The Norwood procedure with a modified Blalock-Taussig (MBT) shunt, the first palliative stage for single-ventricle lesions with systemic outflow obstruction, is associated with high mortality. The right ventricle-pulmonary artery (RVPA) shunt may improve coronary flow but requires a ventriculotomy. We compared the two shunts in infants with hypoplastic heart syndrome or related anomalies. Methods: Infants undergoing the Norwood procedure were randomly assigned to the MBT shunt (275 infants) or the RVPA shunt (274 infants) at 15 North American centers. The primary outcome was death or cardiac transplantation 12 months after randomization. Secondary outcomes included unintended cardiovascular interventions and right ventricular size and function at 14 months and transplantation-free survival until the last subject reached 14 months of age. Results: Transplantation-free survival 12 months after randomization was higher with the RVPA shunt than with the MBT shunt (74% vs. 64%, P=0.01). However, the RVPA shunt group had more unintended interventions (P=0.003) and complications (P=0.002). Right ventricular size and function at the age of 14 months and the rate of nonfatal serious adverse events at the age of 12 months were similar in the two groups. Data collected over a mean (+/-SD) follow-up period of 32+/-11 months showed a nonsignificant difference in transplantation-free survival between the two groups (P=0.06). On nonproportional-hazards analysis, the size of the treatment effect differed before and after 12 months (P=0.02). Conclusions: In children undergoing the Norwood procedure, transplantation-free survival at 12 months was better with the RVPA shunt than with the MBT shunt. After 12 months, available data showed no significant difference in transplantation-free survival between the two groups. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00115934.) Copyright 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 May 2010; 362:1980-1992
Ohye RG, Sleeper LA, Mahony L, Newburger JW, ... Gaynor JW, the Pediatric Heart Network Investigators
N Engl J Med: 27 May 2010; 362:1980-1992 | PMID: 20505177
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Abstract

Eplerenone in Patients with Systolic Heart Failure and Mild Symptoms.

Zannad F, McMurray JJ, Krum H, van Veldhuisen DJ, ... Pitt B, the EMPHASIS-HF Study Group
Background Mineralocorticoid antagonists improve survival among patients with chronic, severe systolic heart failure and heart failure after myocardial infarction. We evaluated the effects of eplerenone in patients with chronic systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. Methods In this randomized, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 2737 patients with New York Heart Association class II heart failure and an ejection fraction of no more than 35% to receive eplerenone (up to 50 mg daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure. Results The trial was stopped prematurely, according to prespecified rules, after a median follow-up period of 21 months. The primary outcome occurred in 18.3% of patients in the eplerenone group as compared with 25.9% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.54 to 0.74; P<0.001). A total of 12.5% of patients receiving eplerenone and 15.5% of those receiving placebo died (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.93; P=0.008); 10.8% and 13.5%, respectively, died of cardiovascular causes (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.61 to 0.94; P=0.01). Hospitalizations for heart failure and for any cause were also reduced with eplerenone. A serum potassium level exceeding 5.5 mmol per liter occurred in 11.8% of patients in the eplerenone group and 7.2% of those in the placebo group (P<0.001). Conclusions Eplerenone, as compared with placebo, reduced both the risk of death and the risk of hospitalization among patients with systolic heart failure and mild symptoms. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00232180.).

N Engl J Med: 15 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print
Zannad F, McMurray JJ, Krum H, van Veldhuisen DJ, ... Pitt B, the EMPHASIS-HF Study Group
N Engl J Med: 15 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21073363
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Abstract

Everolimus-Eluting Stents or Bypass Surgery for Multivessel Coronary Disease.

Bangalore S, Guo Y, Samadashvili Z, Blecker S, Xu J, Hannan EL
Background Results of trials and registry studies have shown lower long-term mortality after coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) than after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) among patients with multivessel disease. These previous analyses did not evaluate PCI with second-generation drug-eluting stents. Methods In an observational registry study, we compared the outcomes in patients with multivessel disease who underwent CABG with the outcomes in those who underwent PCI with the use of everolimus-eluting stents. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were the rates of myocardial infarction, stroke, and repeat revascularization. Propensity-score matching was used to assemble a cohort of patients with similar baseline characteristics. Results Among 34,819 eligible patients, 9223 patients who underwent PCI with everolimus-eluting stents and 9223 who underwent CABG had similar propensity scores and were included in the analyses. At a mean follow-up of 2.9 years, PCI with everolimus-eluting stents, as compared with CABG, was associated with a similar risk of death (3.1% per year and 2.9% per year, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.17; P=0.50), higher risks of myocardial infarction (1.9% per year vs. 1.1% per year; hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.29 to 1.77; P<0.001) and repeat revascularization (7.2% per year vs. 3.1% per year; hazard ratio, 2.35; 95% CI, 2.14 to 2.58; P<0.001), and a lower risk of stroke (0.7% per year vs. 1.0% per year; hazard ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.76; P<0.001). The higher risk of myocardial infarction with PCI than with CABG was not significant among patients with complete revascularization but was significant among those with incomplete revascularization (P=0.02 for interaction). Conclusions In a contemporary clinical-practice registry study, the risk of death associated with PCI with everolimus-eluting stents was similar to that associated with CABG. PCI was associated with a higher risk of myocardial infarction (among patients with incomplete revascularization) and repeat revascularization but a lower risk of stroke. (Funded by Abbott Vascular.).

N Engl J Med: 15 Mar 2015; epub ahead of print
Bangalore S, Guo Y, Samadashvili Z, Blecker S, Xu J, Hannan EL
N Engl J Med: 15 Mar 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 25775087
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Abstract

One-Year Risk of Stroke after Transient Ischemic Attack or Minor Stroke.

Amarenco P, Lavallée PC, Labreuche J, Albers GW, ... Wong LK, TIAregistry.org Investigators
Background Previous studies conducted between 1997 and 2003 estimated that the risk of stroke or an acute coronary syndrome was 12 to 20% during the first 3 months after a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. The TIAregistry.org project was designed to describe the contemporary profile, etiologic factors, and outcomes in patients with a TIA or minor ischemic stroke who receive care in health systems that now offer urgent evaluation by stroke specialists. Methods We recruited patients who had had a TIA or minor stroke within the previous 7 days. Sites were selected if they had systems dedicated to urgent evaluation of patients with TIA. We estimated the 1-year risk of stroke and of the composite outcome of stroke, an acute coronary syndrome, or death from cardiovascular causes. We also examined the association of the ABCD(2) score for the risk of stroke (range, 0 [lowest risk] to 7 [highest risk]), findings on brain imaging, and cause of TIA or minor stroke with the risk of recurrent stroke over a period of 1 year. Results From 2009 through 2011, we enrolled 4789 patients at 61 sites in 21 countries. A total of 78.4% of the patients were evaluated by stroke specialists within 24 hours after symptom onset. A total of 33.4% of the patients had an acute brain infarction, 23.2% had at least one extracranial or intracranial stenosis of 50% or more, and 10.4% had atrial fibrillation. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the 1-year event rate of the composite cardiovascular outcome was 6.2% (95% confidence interval, 5.5 to 7.0). Kaplan-Meier estimates of the stroke rate at days 2, 7, 30, 90, and 365 were 1.5%, 2.1%, 2.8%, 3.7%, and 5.1%, respectively. In multivariable analyses, multiple infarctions on brain imaging, large-artery atherosclerosis, and an ABCD(2) score of 6 or 7 were each associated with more than a doubling of the risk of stroke. Conclusions We observed a lower risk of cardiovascular events after TIA than previously reported. The ABCD(2) score, findings on brain imaging, and status with respect to large-artery atherosclerosis helped stratify the risk of recurrent stroke within 1 year after a TIA or minor stroke. (Funded by Sanofi and Bristol-Myers Squibb.).

N Engl J Med: 19 Apr 2016; 374:1533-1542
Amarenco P, Lavallée PC, Labreuche J, Albers GW, ... Wong LK, TIAregistry.org Investigators
N Engl J Med: 19 Apr 2016; 374:1533-1542 | PMID: 27096581
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Abstract

Randomized Trial of Primary PCI with or without Routine Manual Thrombectomy.

Jolly SS, Cairns JA, Yusuf S, Meeks B, ... Džavík V, TOTAL Investigators
Background During primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), manual thrombectomy may reduce distal embolization and thus improve microvascular perfusion. Small trials have suggested that thrombectomy improves surrogate and clinical outcomes, but a larger trial has reported conflicting results. Methods We randomly assigned 10,732 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary PCI to a strategy of routine upfront manual thrombectomy versus PCI alone. The primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV heart failure within 180 days. The key safety outcome was stroke within 30 days. Results The primary outcome occurred in 347 of 5033 patients (6.9%) in the thrombectomy group versus 351 of 5030 patients (7.0%) in the PCI-alone group (hazard ratio in the thrombectomy group, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.15; P=0.86). The rates of cardiovascular death (3.1% with thrombectomy vs. 3.5% with PCI alone; hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.12; P=0.34) and the primary outcome plus stent thrombosis or target-vessel revascularization (9.9% vs. 9.8%; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.14; P=0.95) were also similar. Stroke within 30 days occurred in 33 patients (0.7%) in the thrombectomy group versus 16 patients (0.3%) in the PCI-alone group (hazard ratio, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.13 to 3.75; P=0.02). Conclusions In patients with STEMI who were undergoing primary PCI, routine manual thrombectomy, as compared with PCI alone, did not reduce the risk of cardiovascular death, recurrent myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or NYHA class IV heart failure within 180 days but was associated with an increased rate of stroke within 30 days. (Funded by Medtronic and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; TOTAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01149044 .).

N Engl J Med: 15 Mar 2015; epub ahead of print
Jolly SS, Cairns JA, Yusuf S, Meeks B, ... Džavík V, TOTAL Investigators
N Engl J Med: 15 Mar 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 25775387
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Abstract

Coronary-Artery Bypass Surgery in Patients with Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

Velazquez EJ, Lee KL, Deja MA, Jain A, ... Rouleau JL, the STICH Investigators
Background The role of coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) in the treatment of patients with coronary artery disease and heart failure has not been clearly established. Methods Between July 2002 and May 2007, a total of 1212 patients with an ejection fraction of 35% or less and coronary artery disease amenable to CABG were randomly assigned to medical therapy alone (602 patients) or medical therapy plus CABG (610 patients). The primary outcome was the rate of death from any cause. Major secondary outcomes included the rates of death from cardiovascular causes and of death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. Results The primary outcome occurred in 244 patients (41%) in the medical-therapy group and 218 (36%) in the CABG group (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 1.04; P=0.12). A total of 201 patients (33%) in the medical-therapy group and 168 (28%) in the CABG group died from an adjudicated cardiovascular cause (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.66 to 1.00; P=0.05). Death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes occurred in 411 patients (68%) in the medical-therapy group and 351 (58%) in the CABG group (hazard ratio with CABG, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.85; P<0.001). By the end of the follow-up period (median, 56 months), 100 patients in the medical-therapy group (17%) underwent CABG, and 555 patients in the CABG group (91%) underwent CABG. Conclusions In this randomized trial, there was no significant difference between medical therapy alone and medical therapy plus CABG with respect to the primary end point of death from any cause. Patients assigned to CABG, as compared with those assigned to medical therapy alone, had lower rates of death from cardiovascular causes and of death from any cause or hospitalization for cardiovascular causes. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and Abbott Laboratories; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595 .).

N Engl J Med: 05 Apr 2011; epub ahead of print
Velazquez EJ, Lee KL, Deja MA, Jain A, ... Rouleau JL, the STICH Investigators
N Engl J Med: 05 Apr 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21463150
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Abstract

Effect of home testing of international normalized ratio on clinical events.

Matchar DB, Jacobson A, Dolor R, Edson R, ... Lavori P, THINRS Executive Committee and Site Investigators
Background: Warfarin anticoagulation reduces thromboembolic complications in patients with atrial fibrillation or mechanical heart valves, but effective management is complex, and the international normalized ratio (INR) is often outside the target range. As compared with venous plasma testing, point-of-care INR measuring devices allow greater testing frequency and patient involvement and may improve clinical outcomes. Methods: We randomly assigned 2922 patients who were taking warfarin because of mechanical heart valves or atrial fibrillation and who were competent in the use of point-of-care INR devices to either weekly self-testing at home or monthly high-quality testing in a clinic. The primary end point was the time to a first major event (stroke, major bleeding episode, or death). Results: The patients were followed for 2.0 to 4.75 years, for a total of 8730 patient-years of follow-up. The time to the first primary event was not significantly longer in the self-testing group than in the clinic-testing group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.04; P=0.14). The two groups had similar rates of clinical outcomes except that the self-testing group reported more minor bleeding episodes. Over the entire follow-up period, the self-testing group had a small but significant improvement in the percentage of time during which the INR was within the target range (absolute difference between groups, 3.8 percentage points; P<0.001). At 2 years of follow-up, the self-testing group also had a small but significant improvement in patient satisfaction with anticoagulation therapy (P=0.002) and quality of life (P<0.001). Conclusions: As compared with monthly high-quality clinic testing, weekly self-testing did not delay the time to a first stroke, major bleeding episode, or death to the extent suggested by prior studies. These results do not support the superiority of self-testing over clinic testing in reducing the risk of stroke, major bleeding episode, and death among patients taking warfarin therapy. (Funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs Cooperative Studies Program; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00032591.).

N Engl J Med: 21 Oct 2010; 363:1608-20
Matchar DB, Jacobson A, Dolor R, Edson R, ... Lavori P, THINRS Executive Committee and Site Investigators
N Engl J Med: 21 Oct 2010; 363:1608-20 | PMID: 20961244
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Abstract

CPAP for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

McEvoy RD, Antic NA, Heeley E, Luo Y, ... Anderson CS, SAVE Investigators and Coordinators
Background Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events; whether treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) prevents major cardiovascular events is uncertain. Methods After a 1-week run-in period during which the participants used sham CPAP, we randomly assigned 2717 eligible adults between 45 and 75 years of age who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and coronary or cerebrovascular disease to receive CPAP treatment plus usual care (CPAP group) or usual care alone (usual-care group). The primary composite end point was death from cardiovascular causes, myocardial infarction, stroke, or hospitalization for unstable angina, heart failure, or transient ischemic attack. Secondary end points included other cardiovascular outcomes, health-related quality of life, snoring symptoms, daytime sleepiness, and mood. Results Most of the participants were men who had moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and minimal sleepiness. In the CPAP group, the mean duration of adherence to CPAP therapy was 3.3 hours per night, and the mean apnea-hypopnea index (the number of apnea or hypopnea events per hour of recording) decreased from 29.0 events per hour at baseline to 3.7 events per hour during follow-up. After a mean follow-up of 3.7 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 229 participants in the CPAP group (17.0%) and in 207 participants in the usual-care group (15.4%) (hazard ratio with CPAP, 1.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 1.32; P=0.34). No significant effect on any individual or other composite cardiovascular end point was observed. CPAP significantly reduced snoring and daytime sleepiness and improved health-related quality of life and mood. Conclusions Therapy with CPAP plus usual care, as compared with usual care alone, did not prevent cardiovascular events in patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea and established cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others; SAVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00738179 ; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12608000409370 .).

N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2016; epub ahead of print
McEvoy RD, Antic NA, Heeley E, Luo Y, ... Anderson CS, SAVE Investigators and Coordinators
N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27571048
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Abstract

Trial of Everolimus-Eluting Stents or Bypass Surgery for Coronary Disease.

Park SJ, Ahn JM, Kim YH, Park DW, ... Ong TK, BEST Trial Investigators
Background Most trials comparing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) have not made use of second-generation drug-eluting stents. Methods We conducted a randomized noninferiority trial at 27 centers in East Asia. We planned to randomly assign 1776 patients with multivessel coronary artery disease to PCI with everolimus-eluting stents or to CABG. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or target-vessel revascularization at 2 years after randomization. Event rates during longer-term follow-up were also compared between groups. Results After the enrollment of 880 patients (438 patients randomly assigned to the PCI group and 442 randomly assigned to the CABG group), the study was terminated early owing to slow enrollment. At 2 years, the primary end point had occurred in 11.0% of the patients in the PCI group and in 7.9% of those in the CABG group (absolute risk difference, 3.1 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.8 to 6.9; P=0.32 for noninferiority). At longer-term follow-up (median, 4.6 years), the primary end point had occurred in 15.3% of the patients in the PCI group and in 10.6% of those in the CABG group (hazard ratio, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01 to 2.13; P=0.04). No significant differences were seen between the two groups in the occurrence of a composite safety end point of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke. However, the rates of any repeat revascularization and spontaneous myocardial infarction were significantly higher after PCI than after CABG. Conclusions Among patients with multivessel coronary artery disease, the rate of major adverse cardiovascular events was higher among those who had undergone PCI with the use of everolimus-eluting stents than among those who had undergone CABG. (Funded by CardioVascular Research Foundation and others; BEST ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00997828 .).

N Engl J Med: 15 Mar 2015; epub ahead of print
Park SJ, Ahn JM, Kim YH, Park DW, ... Ong TK, BEST Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 15 Mar 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 25774645
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Abstract

NT5E Mutations and Arterial Calcifications.

St Hilaire C, Ziegler SG, Markello TC, Brusco A, ... Gahl WA, Boehm M
Background Arterial calcifications are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but the genetic basis of this association is unclear. Methods We performed clinical, radiographic, and genetic studies in three families with symptomatic arterial calcifications. Single-nucleotide-polymorphism analysis, targeted gene sequencing, quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction assays, Western blotting, enzyme measurements, transduction rescue experiments, and in vitro calcification assays were performed. Results We identified nine persons with calcifications of the lower-extremity arteries and hand and foot joint capsules: all five siblings in one family, three siblings in another, and one patient in a third family. Serum calcium, phosphate, and vitamin D levels were normal. Affected members of Family 1 shared a single 22.4-Mb region of homozygosity on chromosome 6 and had a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.662C→A, p.S221X) in NT5E, encoding CD73, which converts AMP to adenosine. Affected members of Family 2 had a homozygous missense mutation (c.1073G→A, p.C358Y) in NT5E. The proband of Family 3 was a compound heterozygote for c.662C→A and c.1609dupA (p.V537fsX7). All mutations found in the three families result in nonfunctional CD73. Cultured fibroblasts from affected members of Family 1 showed markedly reduced expression of NT5E messenger RNA, CD73 protein, and enzyme activity, as well as increased alkaline phosphatase levels and accumulated calcium phosphate crystals. Genetic rescue experiments normalized the CD73 and alkaline phosphatase activity in patients\' cells, and adenosine treatment reduced the levels of alkaline phosphatase and calcification. Conclusions We identified mutations in NT5E in members of three families with symptomatic arterial and joint calcifications. This gene encodes CD73, which converts AMP to adenosine, supporting a role for this metabolic pathway in inhibiting ectopic tissue calcification. (Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health.).

N Engl J Med: 03 Feb 2011; 364:432-442
St Hilaire C, Ziegler SG, Markello TC, Brusco A, ... Gahl WA, Boehm M
N Engl J Med: 03 Feb 2011; 364:432-442 | PMID: 21288095
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Abstract

In-Center Hemodialysis Six Times per Week versus Three Times per Week.


Background In this randomized clinical trial, we aimed to determine whether increasing the frequency of in-center hemodialysis would result in beneficial changes in left ventricular mass, self-reported physical health, and other intermediate outcomes among patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Methods Patients were randomly assigned to undergo hemodialysis six times per week (frequent hemodialysishemodialysis, 125 patients) or three times per week (conventional hemodialysis, 120 patients) for 12 months. The two coprimary composite outcomes were death or change (from baseline to 12 months) in left ventricular mass, as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and death or change in the physical-health composite score of the RAND 36-item health survey. Secondary outcomes included cognitive performance; self-reported depression; laboratory markers of nutrition, mineral metabolism, and anemia; blood pressure; and rates of hospitalization and of interventions related to vascular access. Results Patients in the frequent-hemodialysis group averaged 5.2 sessions per week; the weekly standard Kt/V(urea) (the product of the urea clearance and the duration of the dialysis session normalized to the volume of distribution of urea) was significantly higher in the frequent-hemodialysis group than in the conventional-hemodialysis group (3.54±0.56 vs. 2.49±0.27). Frequent hemodialysis was associated with significant benefits with respect to both coprimary composite outcomes (hazard ratio for death or increase in left ventricular mass, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46 to 0.82; hazard ratio for death or a decrease in the physical-health composite score, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.92). Patients randomly assigned to frequent hemodialysis were more likely to undergo interventions related to vascular access than were patients assigned to conventional hemodialysis (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.73). Frequent hemodialysis was associated with improved control of hypertension and hyperphosphatemia. There were no significant effects of frequent hemodialysis on cognitive performance, self-reported depression, serum albumin concentration, or use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. Conclusions Frequent hemodialysis, as compared with conventional hemodialysis, was associated with favorable results with respect to the composite outcomes of death or change in left ventricular mass and death or change in a physical-health composite score but prompted more frequent interventions related to vascular access. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00264758 .).

N Engl J Med: 24 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print
N Engl J Med: 24 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21091062
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Abstract

Glycogenin-1 deficiency and inactivated priming of glycogen synthesis.

Moslemi AR, Lindberg C, Nilsson J, Tajsharghi H, Andersson B, Oldfors A
Glycogen, which serves as a major energy reserve in cells, is a large, branched polymer of glucose molecules. We describe a patient who had muscle weakness, associated with the depletion of glycogen in skeletal muscle, and cardiac arrhythmia, associated with the accumulation of abnormal storage material in the heart. The skeletal muscle showed a marked predominance of slow-twitch, oxidative muscle fibers and mitochondrial proliferation. Western blotting showed the presence of unglucosylated glycogenin-1 in the muscle and heart. Sequencing of the glycogenin-1 gene, GYG1, revealed a nonsense mutation in one allele and a missense mutation, Thr83Met, in the other. The missense mutation resulted in inactivation of the autoglucosylation of glycogenin-1 that is necessary for the priming of glycogen synthesis in muscle. Copyright 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 01 Apr 2010; 362:1203-10
Moslemi AR, Lindberg C, Nilsson J, Tajsharghi H, Andersson B, Oldfors A
N Engl J Med: 01 Apr 2010; 362:1203-10 | PMID: 20357282
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Abstract

An Entirely Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

Bardy GH, Smith WM, Hood MA, Crozier IG, ... Cappato R, Grace AA
Background: Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden death from cardiac causes in selected patients but require the use of transvenous lead systems. To eliminate the need for venous access, we designed and tested an entirely subcutaneous ICD system. Methods: First, we conducted two short-term clinical trials to identify a suitable device configuration and assess energy requirements. We evaluated four subcutaneous ICD configurations in 78 patients who were candidates for ICD implantation and subsequently tested the best configuration in 49 additional patients to determine the subcutaneous defibrillation threshold in comparison with that of the standard transvenous ICD. Then we evaluated the long-term use of subcutaneous ICDs in a pilot study, involving 6 patients, which was followed by a trial involving 55 patients. Results: The best device configuration consisted of a parasternal electrode and a left lateral thoracic pulse generator. This configuration was as effective as a transvenous ICD for terminating induced ventricular fibrillation, albeit with a significantly higher mean (+/-SD) energy requirement (36.6+/-19.8 J vs. 11.1+/-8.5 J). Among patients who received a permanent subcutaneous ICD, ventricular fibrillation was successfully detected in 100% of 137 induced episodes. Induced ventricular fibrillation was converted twice in 58 of 59 patients (98%) with the delivery of 65-J shocks in two consecutive tests. Clinically significant adverse events included two pocket infections and four lead revisions. After a mean of 10+/-1 months, the device had successfully detected and treated all 12 episodes of spontaneous, sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Conclusions: In small, nonrandomized studies, an entirely subcutaneous ICD consistently detected and converted ventricular fibrillation induced during electrophysiological testing. The device also successfully detected and treated all 12 episodes of spontaneous, sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia. (ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00399217 and NCT00853645.) Copyright 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 13 May 2010; epub ahead of print
Bardy GH, Smith WM, Hood MA, Crozier IG, ... Cappato R, Grace AA
N Engl J Med: 13 May 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 20463331
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Abstract

CPAP for the Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

Sharma SK, Agrawal S, Damodaran D, Sreenivas V, ... Jagia P, Kumar A
Background Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with an increased prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its components. It is unclear whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) would modify these outcomes. Methods In our double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome to undergo 3 months of therapeutic CPAP followed by 3 months of sham CPAP, or vice versa, with a washout period of 1 month in between. Before and after each intervention, we obtained measurements of anthropometric variables, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose levels, insulin resistance (with the use of homeostasis model assessment), fasting blood lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin levels, carotid intima-media thickness, and visceral fat. The metabolic syndrome was defined according to National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, with Asian cutoff values for abdominal obesity. Results A total of 86 patients completed the study, 75 (87%) of whom had the metabolic syndrome. CPAP treatment (vs. sham CPAP) was associated with significant mean decreases in systolic blood pressure (3.9 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4 to 6.4; P=0.001), diastolic blood pressure (2.5 mm Hg; 95% CI, 0.9 to 4.1; P<0.001), serum total cholesterol (13.3 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, 5.3 to 21.3; P=0.005), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (13.3 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, 4.8 to 21.8; P=0.009), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (9.6 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, 2.5 to 16.7; P=0.008), triglycerides (18.7 mg per deciliter; 95% CI, 4.3 to 41.6; P=0.02), and glycated hemoglobin (0.2%; 95% CI, 0.1 to 0.4; P=0.003). The frequency of the metabolic syndrome was reduced after CPAP therapy (reversal found in 11 of 86 patients [13%] undergoing CPAP therapy vs. 1 of 86 [1%] undergoing sham CPAP). Accelerated hypertension developed 1 patient receiving CPAP therapy first, intolerance to CPAP developed in 2 others, and another patient declined to continue sham CPAP. Conclusions In patients with moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, 3 months of CPAP therapy lowers blood pressure and partially reverses metabolic abnormalities. (Funded by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00694616 .).

N Engl J Med: 15 Dec 2011; 365:2277-86
Sharma SK, Agrawal S, Damodaran D, Sreenivas V, ... Jagia P, Kumar A
N Engl J Med: 15 Dec 2011; 365:2277-86 | PMID: 22168642
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Abstract

Drug-Eluting versus Bare-Metal Stents in Large Coronary Arteries.

Kaiser C, Galatius S, Erne P, Eberli F, ... Pfisterer M, the BASKET–PROVE Study Group
Background Recent data have suggested that patients with coronary disease in large arteries are at increased risk for late cardiac events after percutaneous intervention with first-generation drug-eluting stents, as compared with bare-metal stents. We sought to confirm this observation and to assess whether this increase in risk was also seen with second-generation drug-eluting stents. Methods We randomly assigned 2314 patients needing stents that were 3.0 mm or more in diameter to receive sirolimus-eluting, everolimus-eluting, or bare-metal stents. The primary end point was the composite of death from cardiac causes or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 2 years. Late events (occurring during months 7 to 24) and target-vessel revascularization were the main secondary end points. Results The rates of the primary end point were 2.6% among patients receiving sirolimus-eluting stents, 3.2% among those receiving everolimus-eluting stents, and 4.8% among those receiving bare-metal stents, with no significant differences between patients receiving either drug-eluting stent and those receiving bare-metal stents. There were also no significant between-group differences in the rate of late events or in the rate of death, myocardial infarction, or stent thrombosis. Rates of target-vessel revascularization for reasons unrelated to myocardial infarction were 3.7% among patients receiving sirolimus-eluting stents, 3.1% among those receiving everolimus-eluting stents, and 8.9% among those receiving bare-metal stents. The rate of target-vessel revascularization was significantly reduced among patients receiving either drug-eluting stent, as compared with a bare-metal stent, with no significant difference between the two types of drug-eluting stents. Conclusions In patients requiring stenting of large coronary arteries, no significant differences were found among sirolimus-eluting, everolimus-eluting, and bare-metal stents with respect to the rate of death or myocardial infarction. With the two drug-eluting stents, similar reductions in rates of target-vessel revascularization were seen. (Funded by the Basel Cardiovascular Research Foundation and the Swiss National Foundation for Research; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN72444640.).

N Engl J Med: 17 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print
Kaiser C, Galatius S, Erne P, Eberli F, ... Pfisterer M, the BASKET–PROVE Study Group
N Engl J Med: 17 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21080780
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Abstract

Public reporting of discharge planning and rates of readmissions.

Jha AK, Orav EJ, Epstein AM
Background: A reduction in hospital readmissions may improve quality and reduce costs. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has initiated a national effort to measure and publicly report on the conduct of discharge planning. We know little about how U.S. hospitals perform on the current discharge metrics, the factors that underlie better performance, and whether better performance is related to lower readmission rates. Methods: We examined hospital performance on the basis of two measures of discharge planning: the adequacy of documentation in the chart that discharge instructions were provided to patients with congestive heart failure, and patient-reported experiences with discharge planning. We examined the association between performance on these measures and rates of readmission for congestive heart failure and pneumonia. Results: We found a weak correlation in performance between the two discharge measures (r=0.05, P<0.001). Although larger hospitals performed better on the chart-based measure, smaller hospitals and those with higher nurse-staffing levels performed better on the patient-reported measure. We found no association between performance on the chart-based measure and readmission rates among patients with congestive heart failure (readmission rates among hospitals performing in the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile, 23.7% vs. 23.5%; P=0.54) and only a very modest association between performance on the patient-reported measure and readmission rates for congestive heart failure (readmission rates among hospitals performing in the highest quartile vs. the lowest quartile, 22.4% vs. 24.7%; P<0.001) and pneumonia (17.5% vs. 19.5%, P<0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that current efforts to collect and publicly report data on discharge planning are unlikely to yield large reductions in unnecessary readmissions.

N Engl J Med: 31 Dec 2009; 361:2637-45
Jha AK, Orav EJ, Epstein AM
N Engl J Med: 31 Dec 2009; 361:2637-45 | PMID: 20042755
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Abstract

Everolimus-eluting versus paclitaxel-eluting stents in coronary artery disease.

Stone GW, Rizvi A, Newman W, Mastali K, ... Kereiakes DJ, SPIRIT IV Investigators
Background: Previous studies have established the superiority of coronary everolimus-eluting stents over paclitaxel-eluting stents with respect to angiographic findings. However, these trials were not powered for superiority in clinical end points. Methods: We randomly assigned 3687 patients at 66 U.S. sites to receive everolimus-eluting stents or paclitaxel-eluting stents without routine follow-up angiography. The primary end point was the 1-year composite rate of target-lesion failure (defined as cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization). Results: Everolimus-eluting stents were superior to paclitaxel-eluting stents with respect to the primary end point of target-lesion failure (4.2% vs. 6.8%; relative risk, 0.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 0.82; P=0.001). Everolimus-eluting stents were also superior with respect to the major secondary end point of the 1-year rate of ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization (P=0.001) and were noninferior with respect to the major secondary end point of the 1-year composite rate of cardiac death or target-vessel myocardial infarction (P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.09 for superiority). The 1-year rates of myocardial infarction and stent thrombosis were also lower with everolimus-eluting stents than with paclitaxel-eluting stents (1.9% vs. 3.1%, P=0.02 for myocardial infarction; 0.17% vs. 0.85%, P=0.004 for stent thrombosis). Target-lesion failure was consistently reduced with everolimus-eluting stents as compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents in 12 prespecified subgroups, except in the subgroup of patients with diabetes (6.4% vs. 6.9%, P=0.80). Conclusions: Everolimus-eluting stents, as compared with paclitaxel-eluting stents, resulted in reduced rates of target-lesion failure at 1 year, results that were consistent in all patients except those with diabetes, in whom the results were nonsignificantly different. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00307047.)

N Engl J Med: 06 May 2010; 362:1663-74
Stone GW, Rizvi A, Newman W, Mastali K, ... Kereiakes DJ, SPIRIT IV Investigators
N Engl J Med: 06 May 2010; 362:1663-74 | PMID: 20445180
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Abstract

Cardiac-Resynchronization Therapy for Mild-to-Moderate Heart Failure.

Tang AS, Wells GA, Talajic M, Arnold MO, ... Rouleau JL, the Resynchronization–Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial (RAFT) Investigators
Background Cardiac-resynchronization therapy (CRT) benefits patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and a wide QRS complex. Most of these patients are candidates for an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). We evaluated whether adding CRT to an ICD and optimal medical therapy might reduce mortality and morbidity among such patients. Methods We randomly assigned patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or III heart failure, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 30% or less, and an intrinsic QRS duration of 120 msec or more or a paced QRS duration of 200 msec or more to receive either an ICD alone or an ICD plus CRT. The primary outcome was death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure. Results We followed 1798 patients for a mean of 40 months. The primary outcome occurred in 297 of 894 patients (33.2%) in the ICD-CRT group and 364 of 904 patients (40.3%) in the ICD group (hazard ratio in the ICD-CRT group, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.87; P<0.001). In the ICD-CRT group, 186 patients died, as compared with 236 in the ICD group (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.62 to 0.91; P=0.003), and 174 patients were hospitalized for heart failure, as compared with 236 in the ICD group (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.83; P<0.001). However, at 30 days after device implantation, adverse events had occurred in 124 patients in the ICD-CRT group, as compared with 58 in the ICD group (P<0.001). Conclusions Among patients with NYHA class II or III heart failure, a wide QRS complex, and left ventricular systolic dysfunction, the addition of CRT to an ICD reduced rates of death and hospitalization for heart failure. This improvement was accompanied by more adverse events. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and Medtronic of Canada; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00251251.).

N Engl J Med: 15 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print
Tang AS, Wells GA, Talajic M, Arnold MO, ... Rouleau JL, the Resynchronization–Defibrillation for Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial (RAFT) Investigators
N Engl J Med: 15 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21073365
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Abstract

Mortality after Fluid Bolus in African Children with Severe Infection.

Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO, Engoru C, ... Gibb DM, the FEAST Trial Group
Background The role of fluid resuscitation in the treatment of children with shock and life-threatening infections who live in resource-limited settings is not established. Methods We randomly assigned children with severe febrile illness and impaired perfusion to receive boluses of 20 to 40 ml of 5% albumin solution (albumin-bolus group) or 0.9% saline solution (saline-bolus group) per kilogram of body weight or no bolus (control group) at the time of admission to a hospital in Uganda, Kenya, or Tanzania (stratum A); children with severe hypotension were randomly assigned to one of the bolus groups only (stratum B). Children with malnutrition or gastroenteritis were excluded. The primary end point was 48-hour mortality; secondary end points included pulmonary edema, increased intracranial pressure, and mortality or neurologic sequelae at 4 weeks. Results The data and safety monitoring committee recommended halting recruitment after 3141 of the projected 3600 children in stratum A were enrolled. Malaria status (57% overall) and clinical severity were similar across groups. The 48-hour mortality was 10.6% (111 of 1050 children), 10.5% (110 of 1047 children), and 7.3% (76 of 1044 children) in the albumin-bolus, saline-bolus, and control groups, respectively (relative risk for saline bolus vs. control, 1.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.90; P=0.01; relative risk for albumin bolus vs. saline bolus, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.29; P=0.96; and relative risk for any bolus vs. control, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.86; P=0.003). The 4-week mortality was 12.2%, 12.0%, and 8.7% in the three groups, respectively (P=0.004 for the comparison of bolus with control). Neurologic sequelae occurred in 2.2%, 1.9%, and 2.0% of the children in the respective groups (P=0.92), and pulmonary edema or increased intracranial pressure occurred in 2.6%, 2.2%, and 1.7% (P=0.17), respectively. In stratum B, 69% of the children (9 of 13) in the albumin-bolus group and 56% (9 of 16) in the saline-bolus group died (P=0.45). The results were consistent across centers and across subgroups according to the severity of shock and status with respect to malaria, coma, sepsis, acidosis, and severe anemia. Conclusions Fluid boluses significantly increased 48-hour mortality in critically ill children with impaired perfusion in these resource-limited settings in Africa. (Funded by the Medical Research Council, United Kingdom; FEAST Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN69856593 .).

N Engl J Med: 27 May 2011; epub ahead of print
Maitland K, Kiguli S, Opoka RO, Engoru C, ... Gibb DM, the FEAST Trial Group
N Engl J Med: 27 May 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21615299
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Abstract

Glycemic control in the ICU.


Glycemic Control in the ICU Clinical Practice, N Engl J Med 2010;363:2540-2546. In the Studies of Intensive Insulin Therapy subsection of Management (page 2541), the first sentence in the third paragraph should have cited reference 8, rather than 9, and the second sentence in the final paragraph (page 2543) should have cited references 6 and 8, rather than 7 and 9. In the Glucose Variability subsection of Areas of Uncertainty (page 2543), the second sentence in the first paragraph should have ended, ". . . as is hypoglycemia that develops spontaneously," rather than ". . . regardless of the glucose level." Finally, in the Hypoglycemia subsection of Areas of Uncertainty (page 2544), the second sentence of the first paragraph should have cited reference 27, rather than 30. The article is correct at NEJM.org.

N Engl J Med: 24 Mar 2011; 364:1182
N Engl J Med: 24 Mar 2011; 364:1182 | PMID: 21428789
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Abstract

A Randomized Trial of Intensive versus Standard Blood-Pressure Control.

SPRINT Research Group
Background The most appropriate targets for systolic blood pressure to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality among persons without diabetes remain uncertain. Methods We randomly assigned 9361 persons with a systolic blood pressure of 130 mm Hg or higher and an increased cardiovascular risk, but without diabetes, to a systolic blood-pressure target of less than 120 mm Hg (intensive treatment) or a target of less than 140 mm Hg (standard treatment). The primary composite outcome was myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or death from cardiovascular causes. Results At 1 year, the mean systolic blood pressure was 121.4 mm Hg in the intensive-treatment group and 136.2 mm Hg in the standard-treatment group. The intervention was stopped early after a median follow-up of 3.26 years owing to a significantly lower rate of the primary composite outcome in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group (1.65% per year vs. 2.19% per year; hazard ratio with intensive treatment, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64 to 0.89; P<0.001). All-cause mortality was also significantly lower in the intensive-treatment group (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.60 to 0.90; P=0.003). Rates of serious adverse events of hypotension, syncope, electrolyte abnormalities, and acute kidney injury or failure, but not of injurious falls, were higher in the intensive-treatment group than in the standard-treatment group. Conclusions Among patients at high risk for cardiovascular events but without diabetes, targeting a systolic blood pressure of less than 120 mm Hg, as compared with less than 140 mm Hg, resulted in lower rates of fatal and nonfatal major cardiovascular events and death from any cause, although significantly higher rates of some adverse events were observed in the intensive-treatment group. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01206062 .).

N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print
SPRINT Research Group
N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26551272
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Abstract

Percutaneous Repair or Surgery for Mitral Regurgitation.

Feldman T, Foster E, Glower DG, Kar S, ... Mauri L, the EVEREST II Investigators
Background Mitral-valve repair can be accomplished with an investigational procedure that involves the percutaneous implantation of a clip that grasps and approximates the edges of the mitral leaflets at the origin of the regurgitant jet. Methods We randomly assigned 279 patients with moderately severe or severe (grade 3+ or 4+) mitral regurgitation in a 2:1 ratio to undergo either percutaneous repair or conventional surgery for repair or replacement of the mitral valve. The primary composite end point for efficacy was freedom from death, from surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, and from grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation at 12 months. The primary safety end point was a composite of major adverse events within 30 days. Results At 12 months, the rates of the primary end point for efficacy were 55% in the percutaneous-repair group and 73% in the surgery group (P=0.007). The respective rates of the components of the primary end point were as follows: death, 6% in each group; surgery for mitral-valve dysfunction, 20% versus 2%; and grade 3+ or 4+ mitral regurgitation, 21% versus 20%. Major adverse events occurred in 15% of patients in the percutaneous-repair group and 48% of patients in the surgery group at 30 days (P<0.001). At 12 months, both groups had improved left ventricular size, New York Heart Association functional class, and quality-of-life measures, as compared with baseline. Conclusions Although percutaneous repair was less effective at reducing mitral regurgitation than conventional surgery, the procedure was associated with superior safety and similar improvements in clinical outcomes. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; EVEREST II ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00209274 .).

N Engl J Med: 05 Apr 2011; epub ahead of print
Feldman T, Foster E, Glower DG, Kar S, ... Mauri L, the EVEREST II Investigators
N Engl J Med: 05 Apr 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21463154
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Abstract

Myocardial Viability and Survival in Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

Bonow RO, Maurer G, Lee KL, Holly TA, ... Panza AJ, the STICH Trial Investigators
Background The assessment of myocardial viability has been used to identify patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction in whom coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) will provide a survival benefit. However, the efficacy of this approach is uncertain. Methods In a substudy of patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction who were enrolled in a randomized trial of medical therapy with or without CABG, we used single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT), dobutamine echocardiography, or both to assess myocardial viability on the basis of prespecified thresholds. Results Among the 1212 patients enrolled in the randomized trial, 601 underwent assessment of myocardial viability. Of these patients, we randomly assigned 298 to receive medical therapy plus CABG and 303 to receive medical therapy alone. A total of 178 of 487 patients with viable myocardium (37%) and 58 of 114 patients without viable myocardium (51%) died (hazard ratio for death among patients with viable myocardium, 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48 to 0.86; P=0.003). However, after adjustment for other baseline variables, this association with mortality was not significant (P=0.21). There was no significant interaction between viability status and treatment assignment with respect to mortality (P=0.53). Conclusions The presence of viable myocardium was associated with a greater likelihood of survival in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction, but this relationship was not significant after adjustment for other baseline variables. The assessment of myocardial viability did not identify patients with a differential survival benefit from CABG, as compared with medical therapy alone. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; STICH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00023595 .).

N Engl J Med: 05 Apr 2011; epub ahead of print
Bonow RO, Maurer G, Lee KL, Holly TA, ... Panza AJ, the STICH Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 05 Apr 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21463153
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Abstract

A Leadless Intracardiac Transcatheter Pacing System.

Reynolds D, Duray GZ, Omar R, Soejima K, ... Ritter P, Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study Group
Background A leadless intracardiac transcatheter pacing system has been designed to avoid the need for a pacemaker pocket and transvenous lead. Methods In a prospective multicenter study without controls, a transcatheter pacemaker was implanted in patients who had guideline-based indications for ventricular pacing. The analysis of the primary end points began when 300 patients reached 6 months of follow-up. The primary safety end point was freedom from system-related or procedure-related major complications. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage of patients with low and stable pacing capture thresholds at 6 months (≤2.0 V at a pulse width of 0.24 msec and an increase of ≤1.5 V from the time of implantation). The safety and efficacy end points were evaluated against performance goals (based on historical data) of 83% and 80%, respectively. We also performed a post hoc analysis in which the rates of major complications were compared with those in a control cohort of 2667 patients with transvenous pacemakers from six previously published studies. Results The device was successfully implanted in 719 of 725 patients (99.2%). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the rate of the primary safety end point was 96.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 93.9 to 97.3; P<0.001 for the comparison with the safety performance goal of 83%); there were 28 major complications in 25 of 725 patients, and no dislodgements. The rate of the primary efficacy end point was 98.3% (95% CI, 96.1 to 99.5; P<0.001 for the comparison with the efficacy performance goal of 80%) among 292 of 297 patients with paired 6-month data. Although there were 28 major complications in 25 patients, patients with transcatheter pacemakers had significantly fewer major complications than did the control patients (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.75; P=0.001). Conclusions In this historical comparison study, the transcatheter pacemaker met the prespecified safety and efficacy goals; it had a safety profile similar to that of a transvenous system while providing low and stable pacing thresholds. (Funded by Medtronic; Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02004873 .).

N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print
Reynolds D, Duray GZ, Omar R, Soejima K, ... Ritter P, Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study Group
N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26551877
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Abstract

Apixaban in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

Connolly SJ, Eikelboom J, Joyner C, Diener HC, ... Yusuf S, the AVERROES Steering Committee and Investigators
Background Vitamin K antagonists have been shown to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, many patients are not suitable candidates for or are unwilling to receive vitamin K antagonist therapy, and these patients have a high risk of stroke. Apixaban, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, may be an alternative treatment for such patients. Methods In a double-blind study, we randomly assigned 5599 patients with atrial fibrillation who were at increased risk for stroke and for whom vitamin K antagonist therapy was unsuitable to receive apixaban (at a dose of 5 mg twice daily) or aspirin (81 to 324 mg per day), to determine whether apixaban was superior. The mean follow up period was 1.1 years. The primary outcome was the occurrence of stroke or systemic embolism. Results Before enrollment, 40% of the patients had used a vitamin K antagonist. The data and safety monitoring board recommended early termination of the study because of a clear benefit in favor of apixaban. There were 51 primary outcome events (1.6% per year) among patients assigned to apixaban and 113 (3.7% per year) among those assigned to aspirin (hazard ratio with apixaban, 0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.62; P<0.001). The rates of death were 3.5% per year in the apixaban group and 4.4% per year in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62 to 1.02; P=0.07). There were 44 cases of major bleeding (1.4% per year) in the apixaban group and 39 (1.2% per year) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio with apixaban, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.75; P=0.57); there were 11 cases of intracranial bleeding with apixaban and 13 with aspirin. The risk of a first hospitalization for cardiovascular causes was reduced with apixaban as compared with aspirin (12.6% per year vs. 15.9% per year, P<0.001). The treatment effects were consistent among important subgroups. Conclusions In patients with atrial fibrillation for whom vitamin K antagonist therapy was unsuitable, apixaban reduced the risk of stroke or systemic embolism without significantly increasing the risk of major bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00496769 .).

N Engl J Med: 11 Feb 2011; epub ahead of print
Connolly SJ, Eikelboom J, Joyner C, Diener HC, ... Yusuf S, the AVERROES Steering Committee and Investigators
N Engl J Med: 11 Feb 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21309657
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Abstract

Weight Loss and Health Status 3 Years after Bariatric Surgery in Adolescents.

Inge TH, Courcoulas AP, Jenkins TM, Michalsky MP, ... Buncher CR, Teen-LABS Consortium
Background Bariatric surgery is increasingly considered for the treatment of adolescents with severe obesity, but few prospective adolescent-specific studies examining the efficacy and safety of weight-loss surgery are available to support clinical decision making. Methods We prospectively enrolled 242 adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery at five U.S. centers. Patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (161 participants) or sleeve gastrectomy (67) were included in the analysis. Changes in body weight, coexisting conditions, cardiometabolic risk factors, and weight-related quality of life and postoperative complications were evaluated through 3 years after the procedure. Results The mean (±SD) baseline age of the participants was 17±1.6 years, and the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 53; 75% of the participants were female, and 72% were white. At 3 years after the procedure, the mean weight had decreased by 27% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25 to 29) in the total cohort, by 28% (95% CI, 25 to 30) among participants who underwent gastric bypass, and by 26% (95% CI, 22 to 30) among those who underwent sleeve gastrectomy. By 3 years after the procedure, remission of type 2 diabetes occurred in 95% (95% CI, 85 to 100) of participants who had had the condition at baseline, remission of abnormal kidney function occurred in 86% (95% CI, 72 to 100), remission of prediabetes in 76% (95% CI, 56 to 97), remission of elevated blood pressure in 74% (95% CI, 64 to 84), and remission of dyslipidemia in 66% (95% CI, 57 to 74). Weight-related quality of life also improved significantly. However, at 3 years after the bariatric procedure, hypoferritinemia was found in 57% (95% CI, 50 to 65) of the participants, and 13% (95% CI, 9 to 18) of the participants had undergone one or more additional intraabdominal procedures. Conclusions In this multicenter, prospective study of bariatric surgery in adolescents, we found significant improvements in weight, cardiometabolic health, and weight-related quality of life at 3 years after the procedure. Risks associated with surgery included specific micronutrient deficiencies and the need for additional abdominal procedures. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; Teen-LABS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00474318 .).

N Engl J Med: 05 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print
Inge TH, Courcoulas AP, Jenkins TM, Michalsky MP, ... Buncher CR, Teen-LABS Consortium
N Engl J Med: 05 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26544725
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Abstract

Randomized Trial of Stents versus Bypass Surgery for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease.

Park SJ, Kim YH, Park DW, Yun SC, ... Tahk SJ, Seung KB
Background Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is increasingly used to treat unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis, although coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) has been considered to be the treatment of choice. Methods We randomly assigned patients with unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis to undergo CABG (300 patients) or PCI with sirolimus-eluting stents (300 patients). Using a wide margin for noninferiority, we compared the groups with respect to the primary composite end point of major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events (death from any cause, myocardial infarction, stroke, or ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization) at 1 year. Event rates at 2 years were also compared between the two groups. Results The primary end point occurred in 26 patients assigned to PCI as compared with 20 patients assigned to CABG (cumulative event rate, 8.7% vs. 6.7%; absolute risk difference, 2.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.6 to 5.6; P=0.01 for noninferiority). By 2 years, the primary end point had occurred in 36 patients in the PCI group as compared with 24 in the CABG group (cumulative event rate, 12.2% vs. 8.1%; hazard ratio with PCI, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.90 to 2.52; P=0.12). The composite rate of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke at 2 years occurred in 13 and 14 patients in the two groups, respectively (cumulative event rate, 4.4% and 4.7%, respectively; hazard ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.43 to 1.96; P=0.83). Ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization occurred in 26 patients in the PCI group as compared with 12 patients in the CABG group (cumulative event rate, 9.0% vs. 4.2%; hazard ratio, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.10 to 4.32; P=0.02). Conclusions In this randomized trial involving patients with unprotected left main coronary artery stenosis, PCI with sirolimus-eluting stents was shown to be noninferior to CABG with respect to major adverse cardiac or cerebrovascular events. However, the noninferiority margin was wide, and the results cannot be considered clinically directive. (Funded by the Cardiovascular Research Foundation, Seoul, Korea, and others; PRECOMBAT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00422968 .).

N Engl J Med: 05 Apr 2011; epub ahead of print
Park SJ, Kim YH, Park DW, Yun SC, ... Tahk SJ, Seung KB
N Engl J Med: 05 Apr 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21463149
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Abstract

Two-Year Outcomes of Surgical Treatment of Severe Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation.

Goldstein D, Moskowitz AJ, Gelijns AC, Ailawadi G, ... Acker MA, CTSN
Background In a randomized trial comparing mitral-valve repair with mitral-valve replacement in patients with severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, we found no significant difference in the left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), survival, or adverse events at 1 year after surgery. However, patients in the repair group had significantly more recurrences of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation. We now report the 2-year outcomes of this trial. Methods We randomly assigned 251 patients to mitral-valve repair or replacement. Patients were followed for 2 years, and clinical and echocardiographic outcomes were assessed. Results Among surviving patients, the mean (±SD) 2-year LVESVI was 52.6±27.7 ml per square meter of body-surface area with mitral-valve repair and 60.6±39.0 ml per square meter with mitral-valve replacement (mean changes from baseline, -9.0 ml per square meter and -6.5 ml per square meter, respectively). Two-year mortality was 19.0% in the repair group and 23.2% in the replacement group (hazard ratio in the repair group, 0.79; 95% confidence interval, 0.46 to 1.35; P=0.39). The rank-based assessment of LVESVI at 2 years (incorporating deaths) showed no significant between-group difference (z score=-1.32, P=0.19). The rate of recurrence of moderate or severe mitral regurgitation over 2 years was higher in the repair group than in the replacement group (58.8% vs. 3.8%, P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in rates of serious adverse events and overall readmissions, but patients in the repair group had more serious adverse events related to heart failure (P=0.05) and cardiovascular readmissions (P=0.01). On the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire, there was a trend toward greater improvement in the replacement group (P=0.07). Conclusions In patients undergoing mitral-valve repair or replacement for severe ischemic mitral regurgitation, we observed no significant between-group difference in left ventricular reverse remodeling or survival at 2 years. Mitral regurgitation recurred more frequently in the repair group, resulting in more heart-failure-related adverse events and cardiovascular admissions. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and Canadian Institutes of Health Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00807040 .).

N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print
Goldstein D, Moskowitz AJ, Gelijns AC, Ailawadi G, ... Acker MA, CTSN
N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26550689
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Abstract

A sensitive cardiac troponin T assay in stable coronary artery disease.

Omland T, de Lemos JA, Sabatine MS, Christophi CA, ... Braunwald E,
Background: In most patients with stable coronary artery disease, plasma cardiac troponin T levels are below the limit of detection for the conventional assay. The distribution and determinants of very low circulating troponin T levels, as well as their association with cardiovascular events, in such patients are unknown. Methods: We used a new, high-sensitivity assay to determine the concentration of cardiac troponin T in plasma samples from 3679 patients with stable coronary artery disease and preserved left ventricular function. Results of the assay were analyzed in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular events during a median follow-up period of 5.2 years. Results: With the highly sensitive assay, concentrations of cardiac troponin T were at or above the limit of detection (0.001 microg per liter) in 3593 patients (97.7%) and at or above the 99th percentile for apparently healthy subjects (0.0133 microg per liter) in 407 patients (11.1%). After adjustment for other independent prognostic indicators, there was a strong and graded increase in the cumulative incidence of cardiovascular death (adjusted hazard ratio per unit increase in the natural logarithm of the troponin T level, 2.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 2.74; P<0.001) and of heart failure (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.66 to 2.90; P<0.001) in this study group. Increased risk associated with higher levels of troponin T was evident well below the limit of detection of conventional cardiac troponin T assays and below the 99th percentile of values in a healthy population. There was no association between troponin T levels as measured with the highly sensitive assay and the incidence of myocardial infarction (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.97 to 1.40; P=0.11). Conclusions: After adjustment for other independent prognostic indicators, cardiac troponin T concentrations as measured with a highly sensitive assay were significantly associated with the incidence of cardiovascular death and heart failure but not with myocardial infarction in patients with stable coronary artery disease.

N Engl J Med: 24 Dec 2009; 361:2538-47
Omland T, de Lemos JA, Sabatine MS, Christophi CA, ... Braunwald E,
N Engl J Med: 24 Dec 2009; 361:2538-47 | PMID: 19940289
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Abstract

Liraglutide and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes.

Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, Kristensen P, ... Buse JB, LEADER Steering Committee on behalf of the LEADER Trial Investigators
Background The cardiovascular effect of liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide 1 analogue, when added to standard care in patients with type 2 diabetes, remains unknown. Methods In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardiovascular risk to receive liraglutide or placebo. The primary composite outcome in the time-to-event analysis was the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. The primary hypothesis was that liraglutide would be noninferior to placebo with regard to the primary outcome, with a margin of 1.30 for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the hazard ratio. No adjustments for multiplicity were performed for the prespecified exploratory outcomes. Results A total of 9340 patients underwent randomization. The median follow-up was 3.8 years. The primary outcome occurred in significantly fewer patients in the liraglutide group (608 of 4668 patients [13.0%]) than in the placebo group (694 of 4672 [14.9%]) (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.97; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P=0.01 for superiority). Fewer patients died from cardiovascular causes in the liraglutide group (219 patients [4.7%]) than in the placebo group (278 [6.0%]) (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66 to 0.93; P=0.007). The rate of death from any cause was lower in the liraglutide group (381 patients [8.2%]) than in the placebo group (447 [9.6%]) (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74 to 0.97; P=0.02). The rates of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, and hospitalization for heart failure were nonsignificantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group. The most common adverse events leading to the discontinuation of liraglutide were gastrointestinal events. The incidence of pancreatitis was nonsignificantly lower in the liraglutide group than in the placebo group. Conclusions In the time-to-event analysis, the rate of the first occurrence of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was lower with liraglutide than with placebo. (Funded by Novo Nordisk and the National Institutes of Health; LEADER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01179048 .).

N Engl J Med: 12 Jun 2016; epub ahead of print
Marso SP, Daniels GH, Brown-Frandsen K, Kristensen P, ... Buse JB, LEADER Steering Committee on behalf of the LEADER Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 12 Jun 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27295427
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Abstract

Trial of Continuous or Interrupted Chest Compressions during CPR.

Nichol G, Leroux B, Wang H, Callaway CW, ... Ornato JP, ROC Investigators
Background During cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the interruption of manual chest compressions for rescue breathing reduces blood flow and possibly survival. We assessed whether outcomes after continuous compressions with positive-pressure ventilation differed from those after compressions that were interrupted for ventilations at a ratio of 30 compressions to two ventilations. Methods This cluster-randomized trial with crossover included 114 emergency medical service (EMS) agencies. Adults with non-trauma-related cardiac arrest who were treated by EMS providers received continuous chest compressions (intervention group) or interrupted chest compressions (control group). The primary outcome was the rate of survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included the modified Rankin scale score (on a scale from 0 to 6, with a score of ≤3 indicating favorable neurologic function). CPR process was measured to assess compliance. Results Of 23,711 patients included in the primary analysis, 12,653 were assigned to the intervention group and 11,058 to the control group. A total of 1129 of 12,613 patients with available data (9.0%) in the intervention group and 1072 of 11,035 with available data (9.7%) in the control group survived until discharge (difference, -0.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.5 to 0.1; P=0.07); 7.0% of the patients in the intervention group and 7.7% of those in the control group survived with favorable neurologic function at discharge (difference, -0.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.4 to 0.1, P=0.09). Hospital-free survival was significantly shorter in the intervention group than in the control group (mean difference, -0.2 days; 95% CI, -0.3 to -0.1; P=0.004). Conclusions In patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, continuous chest compressions during CPR performed by EMS providers did not result in significantly higher rates of survival or favorable neurologic function than did interrupted chest compressions. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ROC CCC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01372748 .).

N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print
Nichol G, Leroux B, Wang H, Callaway CW, ... Ornato JP, ROC Investigators
N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26550795
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Abstract

Zika Virus Infection in Pregnant Women in Rio de Janeiro - Preliminary Report.

Brasil P, Pereira JP, Raja Gabaglia C, Damasceno L, ... Bispo de Filippis AM, Nielsen-Saines K
Background Zika virus (ZIKV) has been linked to neonatal microcephaly. To characterize the spectrum of ZIKV disease in pregnancy, we followed patients in Rio de Janeiro to describe clinical manifestations in mothers and repercussions of acute ZIKV infection in fetuses. Methods We enrolled pregnant women in whom a rash had developed within the previous 5 days and tested blood and urine specimens for ZIKV by reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction assays. We followed the women prospectively and collected clinical and ultrasonographic data. Results A total of 88 women were enrolled from September 2015 through February 2016; of these 88 women, 72 (82%) tested positive for ZIKV in blood, urine, or both. The timing of acute ZIKV infection ranged from 5 to 38 weeks of gestation. Predominant clinical features included pruritic descending macular or maculopapular rash, arthralgias, conjunctival injection, and headache; 28% had fever (short-term and low-grade). Women who were positive for ZIKV were more likely than those who were negative for the virus to have maculopapular rash (44% vs. 12%, P=0.02), conjunctival involvement (58% vs. 13%, P=0.002), and lymphadenopathy (40% vs. 7%, P=0.02). Fetal ultrasonography was performed in 42 ZIKV-positive women (58%) and in all ZIKV-negative women. Fetal abnormalities were detected by Doppler ultrasonography in 12 of the 42 ZIKV-positive women (29%) and in none of the 16 ZIKV-negative women. Adverse findings included fetal deaths at 36 and 38 weeks of gestation (2 fetuses), in utero growth restriction with or without microcephaly (5 fetuses), ventricular calcifications or other central nervous system (CNS) lesions (7 fetuses), and abnormal amniotic fluid volume or cerebral or umbilical artery flow (7 fetuses). To date, 8 of the 42 women in whom fetal ultrasonography was performed have delivered their babies, and the ultrasonographic findings have been confirmed. Conclusions Despite mild clinical symptoms, ZIKV infection during pregnancy appears to be associated with grave outcomes, including fetal death, placental insufficiency, fetal growth restriction, and CNS injury.

N Engl J Med: 03 Mar 2016; epub ahead of print
Brasil P, Pereira JP, Raja Gabaglia C, Damasceno L, ... Bispo de Filippis AM, Nielsen-Saines K
N Engl J Med: 03 Mar 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26943629
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Abstract

Isosorbide Mononitrate in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Redfield MM, Anstrom KJ, Levine JA, Koepp GA, ... Braunwald E, NHLBI Heart Failure Clinical Research Network
Background Nitrates are commonly prescribed to enhance activity tolerance in patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction. We compared the effect of isosorbide mononitrate or placebo on daily activity in such patients. Methods In this multicenter, double-blind, crossover study, 110 patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction were randomly assigned to a 6-week dose-escalation regimen of isosorbide mononitrate (from 30 mg to 60 mg to 120 mg once daily) or placebo, with subsequent crossover to the other group for 6 weeks. The primary end point was the daily activity level, quantified as the average daily accelerometer units during the 120-mg phase, as assessed by patient-worn accelerometers. Secondary end points included hours of activity per day during the 120-mg phase, daily accelerometer units during all three dose regimens, quality-of-life scores, 6-minute walk distance, and levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Results In the group receiving the 120-mg dose of isosorbide mononitrate, as compared with the placebo group, there was a nonsignificant trend toward lower daily activity (-381 accelerometer units; 95% confidence interval [CI], -780 to 17; P=0.06) and a significant decrease in hours of activity per day (-0.30 hours; 95% CI, -0.55 to -0.05; P=0.02). During all dose regimens, activity in the isosorbide mononitrate group was lower than that in the placebo group (-439 accelerometer units; 95% CI, -792 to -86; P=0.02). Activity levels decreased progressively and significantly with increased doses of isosorbide mononitrate (but not placebo). There were no significant between-group differences in the 6-minute walk distance, quality-of-life scores, or NT-proBNP levels. Conclusions Patients with heart failure and a preserved ejection fraction who received isosorbide mononitrate were less active and did not have better quality of life or submaximal exercise capacity than did patients who received placebo. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02053493 .).

N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print
Redfield MM, Anstrom KJ, Levine JA, Koepp GA, ... Braunwald E, NHLBI Heart Failure Clinical Research Network
N Engl J Med: 08 Nov 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26549714
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Abstract

Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Peptic Ulcer.

Laine L
Key Clinical Points Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding Gastrointestinal bleeding is the most common cause of hospitalization due to gastrointestinal disease in the United States. Peptic ulcers, primarily due to Helicobacter pylori infection and the use of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are the most common cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. In patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, tachycardia (heart rate, ≥100 beats per minute), hypotension (systolic blood pressure, ≤100 mm Hg), age older than 60 years, and major coexisting conditions are associated with increased risks of further bleeding and death. Patients with bleeding ulcers due to H. pylori infection should receive treatment for this infection and, after eradication is confirmed, discontinue antisecretory medications. Patients with bleeding ulcers due to NSAIDs other than low-dose aspirin should discontinue NSAIDs; if NSAIDs must be resumed, a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-selective NSAID plus a proton-pump inhibitor should be used. Patients with bleeding ulcers due to low-dose aspirin taken for secondary cardiovascular prevention should resume the use of aspirin within 1 to 7 days after bleeding stops.

N Engl J Med: 14 Jun 2016; 374:2367-2376
Laine L
N Engl J Med: 14 Jun 2016; 374:2367-2376 | PMID: 27305194
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Abstract

Comparative Effectiveness of Weight-Loss Interventions in Clinical Practice.

Appel LJ, Clark JM, Yeh HC, Wang NY, ... Louis TA, Brancati FL
Background Obesity and its cardiovascular complications are extremely common medical problems, but evidence on how to accomplish weight loss in clinical practice is sparse. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled trial to examine the effects of two behavioral weight-loss interventions in 415 obese patients with at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Participants were recruited from six primary care practices; 63.6% were women, 41.0% were black, and the mean age was 54.0 years. One intervention provided patients with weight-loss support remotely - through the telephone, a study-specific Web site, and e-mail. The other intervention provided in-person support during group and individual sessions, along with the three remote means of support. There was also a control group in which weight loss was self-directed. Outcomes were compared between each intervention group and the control group and between the two intervention groups. For both interventions, primary care providers reinforced participation at routinely scheduled visits. The trial duration was 24 months. Results At baseline, the mean body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) for all participants was 36.6, and the mean weight was 103.8 kg. At 24 months, the mean change in weight from baseline was -0.8 kg in the control group, -4.6 kg in the group receiving remote support only (P<0.001 for the comparison with the control group), and -5.1 kg in the group receiving in-person support (P<0.001 for the comparison with the control group). The percentage of participants who lost 5% or more of their initial weight was 18.8% in the control group, 38.2% in the group receiving remote support only, and 41.4% in the group receiving in-person support. The change in weight from baseline did not differ significantly between the two intervention groups. Conclusions In two behavioral interventions, one delivered with in-person support and the other delivered remotely, without face-to-face contact between participants and weight-loss coaches, obese patients achieved and sustained clinically significant weight loss over a period of 24 months. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00783315 .).

N Engl J Med: 16 Nov 2011; epub ahead of print
Appel LJ, Clark JM, Yeh HC, Wang NY, ... Louis TA, Brancati FL
N Engl J Med: 16 Nov 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22085317
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Abstract

Childhood Adiposity, Adult Adiposity, and Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

Juonala M, Magnussen CG, Berenson GS, Venn A, ... Dwyer T, Raitakari OT
Background Obesity in childhood is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. It is uncertain whether this risk is attenuated in persons who are overweight or obese as children but not obese as adults. Methods We analyzed data from four prospective cohort studies that measured childhood and adult body-mass index (BMI, the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters). The mean length of follow-up was 23 years. To define high adiposity status, international age-specific and sex-specific BMI cutoff points for overweight and obesity were used for children, and a BMI cutoff point of 30 was used for adults. Results Data were available for 6328 subjects. Subjects with consistently high adiposity status from childhood to adulthood, as compared with persons who had a normal BMI as children and were nonobese as adults, had an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (relative risk, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.4 to 8.5), hypertension (relative risk, 2.7; 95% CI, 2.2 to 3.3), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (relative risk, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.3), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (relative risk, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 2.5), elevated triglyceride levels (relative risk, 3.0; 95% CI, 2.4 to 3.8), and carotid-artery atherosclerosis (increased intima-media thickness of the carotid artery) (relative risk, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.4 to 2.2) (P≤0.002 for all comparisons). Persons who were overweight or obese during childhood but were nonobese as adults had risks of the outcomes that were similar to those of persons who had a normal BMI consistently from childhood to adulthood (P>0.20 for all comparisons). Conclusions Overweight or obese children who were obese as adults had increased risks of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and carotid-artery atherosclerosis. The risks of these outcomes among overweight or obese children who became nonobese by adulthood were similar to those among persons who were never obese. (Funded by the Academy of Finland and others.).

N Engl J Med: 17 Nov 2011; 365:1876-1885
Juonala M, Magnussen CG, Berenson GS, Venn A, ... Dwyer T, Raitakari OT
N Engl J Med: 17 Nov 2011; 365:1876-1885 | PMID: 22087679
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Abstract

Telemonitoring in Patients with Heart Failure.

Chaudhry SI, Mattera JA, Curtis JP, Spertus JA, ... Cooper LS, Krumholz HM
Background Small studies suggest that telemonitoring may improve heart-failure outcomes, but its effect in a large trial has not been established. Methods We randomly assigned 1653 patients who had recently been hospitalized for heart failure to undergo either telemonitoring (826 patients) or usual care (827 patients). Telemonitoring was accomplished by means of a telephone-based interactive voice-response system that collected daily information about symptoms and weight that was reviewed by the patients\' clinicians. The primary end point was readmission for any reason or death from any cause within 180 days after enrollment. Secondary end points included hospitalization for heart failure, number of days in the hospital, and number of hospitalizations. Results The median age of the patients was 61 years; 42.0% were female, and 39.0% were black. The telemonitoring group and the usual-care group did not differ significantly with respect to the primary end point, which occurred in 52.3% and 51.5% of patients, respectively (difference, 0.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -4.0 to 5.6; P=0.75 by the chi-square test). Readmission for any reason occurred in 49.3% of patients in the telemonitoring group and 47.4% of patients in the usual-care group (difference, 1.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -3.0 to 6.7; P=0.45 by the chi-square test). Death occurred in 11.1% of the telemonitoring group and 11.4% of the usual care group (difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -3.3 to 2.8; P=0.88 by the chi-square test). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the secondary end points or the time to the primary end point or its components. No adverse events were reported. Conclusions Among patients recently hospitalized for heart failure, telemonitoring did not improve outcomes. The results indicate the importance of a thorough, independent evaluation of disease-management strategies before their adoption. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00303212.).

N Engl J Med: 17 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print
Chaudhry SI, Mattera JA, Curtis JP, Spertus JA, ... Cooper LS, Krumholz HM
N Engl J Med: 17 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21080835
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Abstract

Long-term outcome associated with early repolarization on electrocardiography.

Tikkanen JT, Anttonen O, Junttila MJ, Aro AL, ... Reunanen A, Huikuri HV
Background: Early repolarization, which is characterized by an elevation of the QRS-ST junction (J point) in leads other than V(1) through V(3) on 12-lead electrocardiography, has been associated with vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation, but little is known about the prognostic significance of this pattern in the general population. Methods: We assessed the prevalence and prognostic significance of early repolarization on 12-lead electrocardiography in a community-based general population of 10,864 middle-aged subjects (mean [+/-SD] age, 44+/-8 years). The primary end point was death from cardiac causes, and secondary end points were death from any cause and death from arrhythmia during a mean follow-up of 30+/-11 years. Early repolarization was stratified according to the degree of J-point elevation (> or = 0.1 mV or > 0.2 mV) in either inferior or lateral leads. Results: The early-repolarization pattern of 0.1 mV or more was present in 630 subjects (5.8%): 384 (3.5%) in inferior leads and 262 (2.4%) in lateral leads, with elevations in both leads in 16 subjects (0.1%). J-point elevation of at least 0.1 mV in inferior leads was associated with an increased risk of death from cardiac causes (adjusted relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04 to 1.59; P=0.03); 36 subjects (0.3%) with J-point elevation of more than 0.2 mV in inferior leads had a markedly elevated risk of death from cardiac causes (adjusted relative risk, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.85 to 4.92; P<0.001) and from arrhythmia (adjusted relative risk, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.45 to 5.89; P=0.01). Other electrocardiographic risk markers, such as a prolonged QT interval corrected for heart rate (P=0.03) and left ventricular hypertrophy (P=0.004), were weaker predictors of the primary end point. Conclusions: An early-repolarization pattern in the inferior leads of a standard electrocardiogram is associated with an increased risk of death from cardiac causes in middle-aged subjects.

N Engl J Med: 24 Dec 2009; 361:2529-37
Tikkanen JT, Anttonen O, Junttila MJ, Aro AL, ... Reunanen A, Huikuri HV
N Engl J Med: 24 Dec 2009; 361:2529-37 | PMID: 19917913
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Abstract

Perioperative Rosuvastatin in Cardiac Surgery.

Zheng Z, Jayaram R, Jiang L, Emberson J, ... Collins R, Casadei B
Background Complications after cardiac surgery are common and lead to substantial increases in morbidity and mortality. Meta-analyses of small randomized trials have suggested that perioperative statin therapy can prevent some of these complications. Methods We randomly assigned 1922 patients in sinus rhythm who were scheduled for elective cardiac surgery to receive perioperative rosuvastatin (at a dose of 20 mg daily) or placebo. The primary outcomes were postoperative atrial fibrillation within 5 days after surgery, as assessed by Holter electrocardiographic monitoring, and myocardial injury within 120 hours after surgery, as assessed by serial measurements of the cardiac troponin I concentration. Secondary outcomes included major in-hospital adverse events, duration of stay in the hospital and intensive care unit, left ventricular and renal function, and blood biomarkers. Results The concentrations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and C-reactive protein after surgery were lower in patients assigned to rosuvastatin than in those assigned to placebo (P<0.001). However, the rate of postoperative atrial fibrillation did not differ significantly between the rosuvastatin group and the placebo group (21.1% and 20.5%, respectively; odds ratio 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.30; P=0.72), nor did the area under the troponin I-release curve (102 ng×hour per milliliter and 100 ng×hour per milliliter, respectively; between-group difference, 1%; 95% CI, -9 to 13; P=0.80). Subgroup analyses did not indicate benefit in any category of patient. Rosuvastatin therapy did not result in beneficial effects on any of the secondary outcomes but was associated with a significant absolute (±SE) excess of 5.4±1.9 percentage points in the rate of postoperative acute kidney injury (P=0.005). Conclusions In this trial, perioperative statin therapy did not prevent postoperative atrial fibrillation or perioperative myocardial damage in patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Acute kidney injury was more common with rosuvastatin. (Funded by the British Heart Foundation and others; STICS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01573143 .).

N Engl J Med: 03 May 2016; 374:1744-1753
Zheng Z, Jayaram R, Jiang L, Emberson J, ... Collins R, Casadei B
N Engl J Med: 03 May 2016; 374:1744-1753 | PMID: 27144849
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Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation versus Escalation of Antiarrhythmic Drugs.

Sapp JL, Wells GA, Parkash R, Stevenson WG, ... Roux JF, Tang AS
Background Recurrent ventricular tachycardia among survivors of myocardial infarction with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is frequent despite antiarrhythmic drug therapy. The most effective approach to management of this problem is uncertain. Methods We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and an ICD who had ventricular tachycardia despite the use of antiarrhythmic drugs. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either catheter ablation (ablation group) with continuation of baseline antiarrhythmic medications or escalated antiarrhythmic drug therapy (escalated-therapy group). In the escalated-therapy group, amiodarone was initiated if another agent had been used previously. The dose of amiodarone was increased if it had been less than 300 mg per day or mexiletine was added if the dose was already at least 300 mg per day. The primary outcome was a composite of death, three or more documented episodes of ventricular tachycardia within 24 hours (ventricular tachycardia storm), or appropriate ICD shock. Results Of the 259 patients who were enrolled, 132 were assigned to the ablation group and 127 to the escalated-therapy group. During a mean (±SD) of 27.9±17.1 months of follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 59.1% of patients in the ablation group and 68.5% of those in the escalated-therapy group (hazard ratio in the ablation group, 0.72; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.98; P=0.04). There was no significant between-group difference in mortality. There were two cardiac perforations and three cases of major bleeding in the ablation group and two deaths from pulmonary toxic effects and one from hepatic dysfunction in the escalated-therapy group. Conclusions In patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and an ICD who had ventricular tachycardia despite antiarrhythmic drug therapy, there was a significantly lower rate of the composite primary outcome of death, ventricular tachycardia storm, or appropriate ICD shock among patients undergoing catheter ablation than among those receiving an escalation in antiarrhythmic drug therapy. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; VANISH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00905853 .).

N Engl J Med: 04 May 2016; epub ahead of print
Sapp JL, Wells GA, Parkash R, Stevenson WG, ... Roux JF, Tang AS
N Engl J Med: 04 May 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27149033
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Abstract

Body-Mass Index in 2.3 Million Adolescents and Cardiovascular Death in Adulthood.

Twig G, Yaniv G, Levine H, Leiba A, ... Haklai Z, Kark JD
Background In light of the worldwide increase in childhood obesity, we examined the association between body-mass index (BMI) in late adolescence and death from cardiovascular causes in adulthood. Methods We grouped data on BMI, as measured from 1967 through 2010 in 2.3 million Israeli adolescents (mean age, 17.3±0.4 years), according to age- and sex-specific percentiles from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Primary outcomes were the number of deaths attributed to coronary heart disease, stroke, sudden death from an unknown cause, or a combination of all three categories (total cardiovascular causes) by mid-2011. Cox proportional-hazards models were used. Results During 42,297,007 person-years of follow-up, 2918 of 32,127 deaths (9.1%) were from cardiovascular causes, including 1497 from coronary heart disease, 528 from stroke, and 893 from sudden death. On multivariable analysis, there was a graded increase in the risk of death from cardiovascular causes and all causes that started among participants in the group that was in the 50th to 74th percentiles of BMI (i.e., within the accepted normal range). Hazard ratios in the obese group (≥95th percentile for BMI), as compared with the reference group in the 5th to 24th percentiles, were 4.9 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.9 to 6.1) for death from coronary heart disease, 2.6 (95% CI, 1.7 to 4.1) for death from stroke, 2.1 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.9) for sudden death, and 3.5 (95% CI, 2.9 to 4.1) for death from total cardiovascular causes, after adjustment for sex, age, birth year, sociodemographic characteristics, and height. Hazard ratios for death from cardiovascular causes in the same percentile groups increased from 2.0 (95% CI, 1.1 to 3.9) during follow-up for 0 to 10 years to 4.1 (95% CI, 3.1 to 5.4) during follow-up for 30 to 40 years; during both periods, hazard ratios were consistently high for death from coronary heart disease. Findings persisted in extensive sensitivity analyses. Conclusions A BMI in the 50th to 74th percentiles, within the accepted normal range, during adolescence was associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality during 40 years of follow-up. Overweight and obesity were strongly associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in adulthood. (Funded by the Environment and Health Fund.).

N Engl J Med: 12 Apr 2016; epub ahead of print
Twig G, Yaniv G, Levine H, Leiba A, ... Haklai Z, Kark JD
N Engl J Med: 12 Apr 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27074389
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Abstract

Gestational Diabetes - Whom Do We Treat?


Gestational Diabetes - Whom Do We Treat? Editorial, N Engl J Med 2009;361:1396-1398. In the fifth paragraph (page 1397), beginning "Differences between the two studies . . . ," the third sentence should have read, "The median treatment group 2-hour result on the glucose-tolerance test in the ACHOIS trial was 155 mg per deciliter (8.6 mmol per liter) after a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test, whereas, in the current report, that mean glucose level was 174 mg per deciliter (9.7 mmol per liter) after a 100-g oral glucose-tolerance test. However, in . . . ," rather than "The median result on the glucose-tolerance test in the ACHOIS trial was 158 mg per deciliter (8.8 mmol per liter) after a 75-g oral glucose-tolerance test, whereas, in the current report, the mean glucose level was 147 mg per deciliter (8.2 mmol per liter) after a 100-g oral glucose-tolerance test. In . . . ." The article is correct at NEJM.org.

N Engl J Med: 27 Jan 2011; 364:389
N Engl J Med: 27 Jan 2011; 364:389 | PMID: 21268752
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Abstract

Empagliflozin and Progression of Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetes.

Wanner C, Inzucchi SE, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, ... Zinman B, EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators
Background Diabetes confers an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular and renal events. In the EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial, empagliflozin, a sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, reduced the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes at high risk for cardiovascular events. We wanted to determine the long-term renal effects of empagliflozin, an analysis that was a prespecified component of the secondary microvascular outcome of that trial. Methods We randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 30 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area to receive either empagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg or 25 mg) or placebo once daily. Prespecified renal outcomes included incident or worsening nephropathy (progression to macroalbuminuria, doubling of the serum creatinine level, initiation of renal-replacement therapy, or death from renal disease) and incident albuminuria. Results Incident or worsening nephropathy occurred in 525 of 4124 patients (12.7%) in the empagliflozin group and in 388 of 2061 (18.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the empagliflozin group, 0.61; 95% confidence interval, 0.53 to 0.70; P<0.001). Doubling of the serum creatinine level occurred in 70 of 4645 patients (1.5%) in the empagliflozin group and in 60 of 2323 (2.6%) in the placebo group, a significant relative risk reduction of 44%. Renal-replacement therapy was initiated in 13 of 4687 patients (0.3%) in the empagliflozin group and in 14 of 2333 patients (0.6%) in the placebo group, representing a 55% lower relative risk in the empagliflozin group. There was no significant between-group difference in the rate of incident albuminuria. The adverse-event profile of empagliflozin in patients with impaired kidney function at baseline was similar to that reported in the overall trial population. Conclusions In patients with type 2 diabetes at high cardiovascular risk, empagliflozin was associated with slower progression of kidney disease and lower rates of clinically relevant renal events than was placebo when added to standard care. (Funded by the Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly and Company Diabetes Alliance; EMPA-REG OUTCOME ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01131676 .).

N Engl J Med: 13 Jun 2016; epub ahead of print
Wanner C, Inzucchi SE, Lachin JM, Fitchett D, ... Zinman B, EMPA-REG OUTCOME Investigators
N Engl J Med: 13 Jun 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27299675
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Abstract

Peripheral Artery Disease.

Kullo IJ, Rooke TW
Key Clinical Points Peripheral Artery Disease Atherosclerotic peripheral artery disease affects more than 200 million persons worldwide, including at least 8.5 million persons in the United States, and is associated with high rates of cardiovascular events and death. Smoking and diabetes are the strongest risk factors. Noninvasive vascular testing provides information on the presence, severity, and location of peripheral artery disease. Exercise testing can uncover mild disease and quantify functional capacity. In the treatment of peripheral artery disease, the main goals are to reduce cardiovascular risk and improve functional capacity. Supervised exercise increases walking distance. Cilostazol can be used as an adjunct to an exercise program. Conventional angiography is typically performed when revascularization is being considered. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography can also be useful in planning for revascularization. Revascularization, endovascular or surgical, is indicated for symptoms that persist despite medical management or for limb salvage in the context of critical limb ischemia.

N Engl J Med: 09 Mar 2016; 374:861-871
Kullo IJ, Rooke TW
N Engl J Med: 09 Mar 2016; 374:861-871 | PMID: 26962905
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Abstract

Incidence of Dementia over Three Decades in the Framingham Heart Study.

Satizabal CL, Beiser AS, Chouraki V, Chêne G, Dufouil C, Seshadri S
Background The prevalence of dementia is expected to soar as the average life expectancy increases, but recent estimates suggest that the age-specific incidence of dementia is declining in high-income countries. Temporal trends are best derived through continuous monitoring of a population over a long period with the use of consistent diagnostic criteria. We describe temporal trends in the incidence of dementia over three decades among participants in the Framingham Heart Study. Methods Participants in the Framingham Heart Study have been under surveillance for incident dementia since 1975. In this analysis, which included 5205 persons 60 years of age or older, we used Cox proportional-hazards models adjusted for age and sex to determine the 5-year incidence of dementia during each of four epochs. We also explored the interactions between epoch and age, sex, apolipoprotein E ε4 status, and educational level, and we examined the effects of these interactions, as well as the effects of vascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease, on temporal trends. Results The 5-year age- and sex-adjusted cumulative hazard rates for dementia were 3.6 per 100 persons during the first epoch (late 1970s and early 1980s), 2.8 per 100 persons during the second epoch (late 1980s and early 1990s), 2.2 per 100 persons during the third epoch (late 1990s and early 2000s), and 2.0 per 100 persons during the fourth epoch (late 2000s and early 2010s). Relative to the incidence during the first epoch, the incidence declined by 22%, 38%, and 44% during the second, third, and fourth epochs, respectively. This risk reduction was observed only among persons who had at least a high school diploma (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.67 to 0.88). The prevalence of most vascular risk factors (except obesity and diabetes) and the risk of dementia associated with stroke, atrial fibrillation, or heart failure have decreased over time, but none of these trends completely explain the decrease in the incidence of dementia. Conclusions Among participants in the Framingham Heart Study, the incidence of dementia has declined over the course of three decades. The factors contributing to this decline have not been completely identified. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health.).

N Engl J Med: 09 Feb 2016; 374:523-532
Satizabal CL, Beiser AS, Chouraki V, Chêne G, Dufouil C, Seshadri S
N Engl J Med: 09 Feb 2016; 374:523-532 | PMID: 26863354
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Abstract

A Randomized Trial of Long-Term Oxygen for COPD with Moderate Desaturation.

Long-Term Oxygen Treatment Trial Research Group
Background Long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen has unknown efficacy in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and resting or exercise-induced moderate desaturation. Methods We originally designed the trial to test whether long-term treatment with supplemental oxygen would result in a longer time to death than no use of supplemental oxygen among patients who had stable COPD with moderate resting desaturation (oxyhemoglobin saturation as measured by pulse oximetry [Spo2], 89 to 93%). After 7 months and the randomization of 34 patients, the trial was redesigned to also include patients who had stable COPD with moderate exercise-induced desaturation (during the 6-minute walk test, Spo2 ≥80% for ≥5 minutes and <90% for ≥10 seconds) and to incorporate the time to the first hospitalization for any cause into the new composite primary outcome. Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive long-term supplemental oxygen (supplemental-oxygen group) or no long-term supplemental oxygen (no-supplemental-oxygen group). In the supplemental-oxygen group, patients with resting desaturation were prescribed 24-hour oxygen, and those with desaturation only during exercise were prescribed oxygen during exercise and sleep. The trial-group assignment was not masked. Results A total of 738 patients at 42 centers were followed for 1 to 6 years. In a time-to-event analysis, we found no significant difference between the supplemental-oxygen group and the no-supplemental-oxygen group in the time to death or first hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.79 to 1.12; P=0.52), nor in the rates of all hospitalizations (rate ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.13), COPD exacerbations (rate ratio, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98 to 1.19), and COPD-related hospitalizations (rate ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.17). We found no consistent between-group differences in measures of quality of life, lung function, and the distance walked in 6 minutes. Conclusions In patients with stable COPD and resting or exercise-induced moderate desaturation, the prescription of long-term supplemental oxygen did not result in a longer time to death or first hospitalization than no long-term supplemental oxygen, nor did it provide sustained benefit with regard to any of the other measured outcomes. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; LOTT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00692198 .).

N Engl J Med: 25 Oct 2016; 375:1617-1627
Long-Term Oxygen Treatment Trial Research Group
N Engl J Med: 25 Oct 2016; 375:1617-1627 | PMID: 27783918
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Abstract

Cold Urticaria, Immunodeficiency, and Autoimmunity Related to PLCG2 Deletions.

Ombrello MJ, Remmers EF, Sun G, Freeman AF, ... Hoffman HM, Milner JD
Background Mendelian analysis of disorders of immune regulation can provide insight into molecular pathways associated with host defense and immune tolerance. Methods We identified three families with a dominantly inherited complex of cold-induced urticaria, antibody deficiency, and susceptibility to infection and autoimmunity. Immunophenotyping methods included flow cytometry, analysis of serum immunoglobulins and autoantibodies, lymphocyte stimulation, and enzymatic assays. Genetic studies included linkage analysis, targeted Sanger sequencing, and next-generation whole-genome sequencing. Results Cold urticaria occurred in all affected subjects. Other, variable manifestations included atopy, granulomatous rash, autoimmune thyroiditis, the presence of antinuclear antibodies, sinopulmonary infections, and common variable immunodeficiency. Levels of serum IgM and IgA and circulating natural killer cells and class-switched memory B cells were reduced. Linkage analysis showed a 7-Mb candidate interval on chromosome 16q in one family, overlapping by 3.5 Mb a disease-associated haplotype in a smaller family. This interval includes PLCG2, encoding phospholipase C?(2) (PLC?(2)), a signaling molecule expressed in B cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells. Sequencing of complementary DNA revealed heterozygous transcripts lacking exon 19 in two families and lacking exons 20 through 22 in a third family. Genomic sequencing identified three distinct in-frame deletions that cosegregated with disease. These deletions, located within a region encoding an autoinhibitory domain, result in protein products with constitutive phospholipase activity. PLCG2-expressing cells had diminished cellular signaling at 37?C but enhanced signaling at subphysiologic temperatures. Conclusions Genomic deletions in PLCG2 cause gain of PLC?(2) function, leading to signaling abnormalities in multiple leukocyte subsets and a phenotype encompassing both excessive and deficient immune function. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health Intramural Research Programs and others.).

N Engl J Med: 12 Jan 2012; epub ahead of print
Ombrello MJ, Remmers EF, Sun G, Freeman AF, ... Hoffman HM, Milner JD
N Engl J Med: 12 Jan 2012; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22236196
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Abstract

Cryptogenic Stroke.

Saver JL
Key Clinical Points Cryptogenic Stroke One quarter of patients with ischemic stroke have no probable cause found after standard workup, including echocardiography, inpatient cardiac telemetry or 24-hour Holter monitoring, magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomographic (CT) imaging of topographic features of the infarct in the brain, and magnetic resonance or CT angiographic assessment of neck and brain arteries. Additional investigation identifies a likely mechanism in more than half these patients. Most cryptogenic ischemic strokes are embolic in origin, arising from proximal arterial sources, the heart, or venous sources (with right-to-left shunts). Investigation in patients with cryptogenic stroke typically includes evaluation for atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic arteriopathies, cardiac sources of embolism (structural and rhythm abnormalities), and disturbances of coagulation. Patent foramen ovale is found in up to half of young adults with cryptogenic stroke but is also found in one quarter of healthy persons. Occult, low-burden, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation is increasingly recognized as a source of cryptogenic stroke, especially in older patients.

N Engl J Med: 24 May 2016; 374:2065-2074
Saver JL
N Engl J Med: 24 May 2016; 374:2065-2074 | PMID: 27223148
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Abstract

Safety of Anacetrapib in Patients with or at High Risk for Coronary Heart Disease.

Cannon CP, Shah S, Dansky HM, Davidson M, ... Barter P, the DEFINE Investigators
Background Anacetrapib is a cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitor that raises high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and reduces low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety profile of anacetrapib in patients with coronary heart disease or at high risk for coronary heart disease. Eligible patients who were taking a statin and who had an LDL cholesterol level that was consistent with that recommended in guidelines were assigned to receive 100 mg of anacetrapib or placebo daily for 18 months. The primary end points were the percent change from baseline in LDL cholesterol at 24 weeks (HDL cholesterol level was a secondary end point) and the safety and side-effect profile of anacetrapib through 76 weeks. Cardiovascular events and deaths were prospectively adjudicated. Results A total of 1623 patients underwent randomization. By 24 weeks, the LDL cholesterol level had been reduced from 81 mg per deciliter (2.1 mmol per liter) to 45 mg per deciliter (1.2 mmol per liter) in the anacetrapib group, as compared with a reduction from 82 mg per deciliter (2.1 mmol per liter) to 77 mg per deciliter (2.0 mmol per liter) in the placebo group (P<0.001) - a 39.8% reduction with anacetrapib beyond that seen with placebo. In addition, the HDL cholesterol level increased from 41 mg per deciliter (1.0 mmol per liter) to 101 mg per deciliter (2.6 mmol per liter) in the anacetrapib group, as compared with an increase from 40 mg per deciliter (1.0 mmol per liter) to 46 mg per deciliter (1.2 mmol per liter) in the placebo group (P<0.001) - a 138.1% increase with anacetrapib beyond that seen with placebo. Through 76 weeks, no changes were noted in blood pressure or electrolyte or aldosterone levels with anacetrapib as compared with placebo. Prespecified adjudicated cardiovascular events occurred in 16 patients treated with anacetrapib (2.0%) and 21 patients receiving placebo (2.6%) (P=0.40). The prespecified Bayesian analysis indicated that this event distribution provided a predictive probability (confidence) of 94% that anacetrapib would not be associated with a 25% increase in cardiovascular events, as seen with torcetrapib. Conclusions Treatment with anacetrapib had robust effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol, had an acceptable side-effect profile, and, within the limits of the power of this study, did not result in the adverse cardiovascular effects observed with torcetrapib. (Funded by Merck Research Laboratories; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00685776.).

N Engl J Med: 18 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print
Cannon CP, Shah S, Dansky HM, Davidson M, ... Barter P, the DEFINE Investigators
N Engl J Med: 18 Nov 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 21082868
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Abstract

Exome Sequencing, ANGPTL3 Mutations, and Familial Combined Hypolipidemia.

Musunuru K, Pirruccello JP, Do R, Peloso GM, ... Yue P, Kathiresan S
We sequenced all protein-coding regions of the genome (the &#x201C;exome&#x201D;) in two family members with combined hypolipidemia, marked by extremely low plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglycerides. These two participants were compound heterozygotes for two distinct nonsense mutations in ANGPTL3 (encoding the angiopoietin-like 3 protein). ANGPTL3 has been reported to inhibit lipoprotein lipase and endothelial lipase, thereby increasing plasma triglyceride and HDL cholesterol levels in rodents. Our finding of ANGPTL3 mutations highlights a role for the gene in LDL cholesterol metabolism in humans and shows the usefulness of exome sequencing for identification of novel genetic causes of inherited disorders. (Funded by the National Human Genome Research Institute and others.).

N Engl J Med: 14 Oct 2010; epub ahead of print
Musunuru K, Pirruccello JP, Do R, Peloso GM, ... Yue P, Kathiresan S
N Engl J Med: 14 Oct 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 20942659
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Abstract

Rate Control versus Rhythm Control for Atrial Fibrillation after Cardiac Surgery.

Gillinov AM, Bagiella E, Moskowitz AJ, Raiten JM, ... Mack MJ, CTSN
Background Atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery is associated with increased rates of death, complications, and hospitalizations. In patients with postoperative atrial fibrillation who are in stable condition, the best initial treatment strategy - heart-rate control or rhythm control - remains controversial. Methods Patients with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation were randomly assigned to undergo either rate control or rhythm control. The primary end point was the total number of days of hospitalization within 60 days after randomization, as assessed by the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results Postoperative atrial fibrillation occurred in 695 of the 2109 patients (33.0%) who were enrolled preoperatively; of these patients, 523 underwent randomization. The total numbers of hospital days in the rate-control group and the rhythm-control group were similar (median, 5.1 days and 5.0 days, respectively; P=0.76). There were no significant between-group differences in the rates of death (P=0.64) or overall serious adverse events (24.8 per 100 patient-months in the rate-control group and 26.4 per 100 patient-months in the rhythm-control group, P=0.61), including thromboembolic and bleeding events. About 25% of the patients in each group deviated from the assigned therapy, mainly because of drug ineffectiveness (in the rate-control group) or amiodarone side effects or adverse drug reactions (in the rhythm-control group). At 60 days, 93.8% of the patients in the rate-control group and 97.9% of those in the rhythm-control group had had a stable heart rhythm without atrial fibrillation for the previous 30 days (P=0.02), and 84.2% and 86.9%, respectively, had been free from atrial fibrillation from discharge to 60 days (P=0.41). Conclusions Strategies for rate control and rhythm control to treat postoperative atrial fibrillation were associated with equal numbers of days of hospitalization, similar complication rates, and similarly low rates of persistent atrial fibrillation 60 days after onset. Neither treatment strategy showed a net clinical advantage over the other. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02132767 .).

N Engl J Med: 03 Apr 2016; epub ahead of print
Gillinov AM, Bagiella E, Moskowitz AJ, Raiten JM, ... Mack MJ, CTSN
N Engl J Med: 03 Apr 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27043047
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Abstract

Randomized Assessment of Rapid Endovascular Treatment of Ischemic Stroke.

Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, Eesa M, ... Hill MD, the ESCAPE Trial Investigators
Background Among patients with a proximal vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation, 60 to 80% of patients die within 90 days after stroke onset or do not regain functional independence despite alteplase treatment. We evaluated rapid endovascular treatment in addition to standard care in patients with acute ischemic stroke with a small infarct core, a proximal intracranial arterial occlusion, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation. Methods We randomly assigned participants to receive standard care (control group) or standard care plus endovascular treatment with the use of available thrombectomy devices (intervention group). Patients with a proximal intracranial occlusion in the anterior circulation were included up to 12 hours after symptom onset. Patients with a large infarct core or poor collateral circulation on computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography were excluded. Workflow times were measured against predetermined targets. The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 [no symptoms] to 6 [death]) at 90 days. A proportional odds model was used to calculate the common odds ratio as a measure of the likelihood that the intervention would lead to lower scores on the modified Rankin scale than would control care (shift analysis). Results The trial was stopped early because of efficacy. At 22 centers worldwide, 316 participants were enrolled, of whom 238 received intravenous alteplase (120 in the intervention group and 118 in the control group). In the intervention group, the median time from study CT of the head to first reperfusion was 84 minutes. The rate of functional independence (90-day modified Rankin score of 0 to 2) was increased with the intervention (53.0%, vs. 29.3% in the control group; P<0.001). The primary outcome favored the intervention (common odds ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.7 to 3.8; P<0.001), and the intervention was associated with reduced mortality (10.4%, vs. 19.0% in the control group; P=0.04). Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 3.6% of participants in intervention group and 2.7% of participants in control group (P=0.75). Conclusions Among patients with acute ischemic stroke with a proximal vessel occlusion, a small infarct core, and moderate-to-good collateral circulation, rapid endovascular treatment improved functional outcomes and reduced mortality. (Funded by Covidien and others; ESCAPE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01778335 .).

N Engl J Med: 10 Feb 2015; epub ahead of print
Goyal M, Demchuk AM, Menon BK, Eesa M, ... Hill MD, the ESCAPE Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 10 Feb 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 25671798
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Abstract

Effect of Valsartan on the Incidence of Diabetes and Cardiovascular Events.

The NAVIGATOR Study Group
Background: It is not known whether drugs that block the renin-angiotensin system reduce the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular events in patients with impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: In this double-blind, randomized clinical trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we assigned 9306 patients with impaired glucose tolerance and established cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors to receive valsartan (up to 160 mg daily) or placebo (and nateglinide or placebo) in addition to lifestyle modification. We then followed the patients for a median of 5.0 years for the development of diabetes (6.5 years for vital status). We studied the effects of valsartan on the occurrence of three coprimary outcomes: the development of diabetes; an extended composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, hospitalization for heart failure, arterial revascularization, or hospitalization for unstable angina; and a core composite outcome that excluded unstable angina and revascularization. Results: The cumulative incidence of diabetes was 33.1% in the valsartan group, as compared with 36.8% in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the valsartan group, 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 0.92; P<0.001). Valsartan, as compared with placebo, did not significantly reduce the incidence of either the extended cardiovascular outcome (14.5% vs. 14.8%; hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.07; P=0.43) or the core cardiovascular outcome (8.1% vs. 8.1%; hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.86 to 1.14; P=0.85). Conclusions: Among patients with impaired glucose tolerance and cardiovascular disease or risk factors, the use of valsartan for 5 years, along with lifestyle modification, led to a relative reduction of 14% in the incidence of diabetes but did not reduce the rate of cardiovascular events. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00097786.) Copyright 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 15 Mar 2010; epub ahead of print
The NAVIGATOR Study Group
N Engl J Med: 15 Mar 2010; epub ahead of print | PMID: 20228403
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Abstract

Collaborative care for patients with depression and chronic illnesses.

Katon WJ, Lin EH, Von Korff M, Ciechanowski P, ... McGregor M, McCulloch D
Background Patients with depression and poorly controlled diabetes, coronary heart disease, or both have an increased risk of adverse outcomes and high health care costs. We conducted a study to determine whether coordinated care management of multiple conditions improves disease control in these patients. Methods We conducted a single-blind, randomized, controlled trial in 14 primary care clinics in an integrated health care system in Washington State, involving 214 participants with poorly controlled diabetes, coronary heart disease, or both and coexisting depression. Patients were randomly assigned to the usual-care group or to the intervention group, in which a medically supervised nurse, working with each patient\'s primary care physician, provided guideline-based, collaborative care management, with the goal of controlling risk factors associated with multiple diseases. The primary outcome was based on simultaneous modeling of glycated hemoglobin, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and systolic blood-pressure levels and Symptom Checklist-20 (SCL-20) depression outcomes at 12 months; this modeling allowed estimation of a single overall treatment effect. Results As compared with controls, patients in the intervention group had greater overall 12-month improvement across glycated hemoglobin levels (difference, 0.58%), LDL cholesterol levels (difference, 6.9 mg per deciliter [0.2 mmol per liter]), systolic blood pressure (difference, 5.1 mm Hg), and SCL-20 depression scores (difference, 0.40 points) (P<0.001). Patients in the intervention group also were more likely to have one or more adjustments of insulin (P=0.006), antihypertensive medications (P<0.001), and antidepressant medications (P<0.001), and they had better quality of life (P<0.001) and greater satisfaction with care for diabetes, coronary heart disease, or both (P<0.001) and with care for depression (P<0.001). Conclusions As compared with usual care, an intervention involving nurses who provided guideline-based, patient-centered management of depression and chronic disease significantly improved control of medical disease and depression. (Funded by the National Institute of Mental Health; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00468676 .).

N Engl J Med: 30 Dec 2010; 363:2611-20
Katon WJ, Lin EH, Von Korff M, Ciechanowski P, ... McGregor M, McCulloch D
N Engl J Med: 30 Dec 2010; 363:2611-20 | PMID: 21190455
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Abstract

Adjunctive Dexamethasone in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis.

Beardsley J, Wolbers M, Kibengo FM, Ggayi AM, ... Day JN, CryptoDex Investigators
Background Cryptococcal meningitis associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes more than 600,000 deaths each year worldwide. Treatment has changed little in 20 years, and there are no imminent new anticryptococcal agents. The use of adjuvant glucocorticoids reduces mortality among patients with other forms of meningitis in some populations, but their use is untested in patients with cryptococcal meningitis. Methods In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we recruited adult patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis in Vietnam, Thailand, Indonesia, Laos, Uganda, and Malawi. All the patients received either dexamethasone or placebo for 6 weeks, along with combination antifungal therapy with amphotericin B and fluconazole. Results The trial was stopped for safety reasons after the enrollment of 451 patients. Mortality was 47% in the dexamethasone group and 41% in the placebo group by 10 weeks (hazard ratio in the dexamethasone group, 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.47; P=0.45) and 57% and 49%, respectively, by 6 months (hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.53; P=0.20). The percentage of patients with disability at 10 weeks was higher in the dexamethasone group than in the placebo group, with 13% versus 25% having a prespecified good outcome (odds ratio, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.69; P<0.001). Clinical adverse events were more common in the dexamethasone group than in the placebo group (667 vs. 494 events, P=0.01), with more patients in the dexamethasone group having grade 3 or 4 infection (48 vs. 25 patients, P=0.003), renal events (22 vs. 7, P=0.004), and cardiac events (8 vs. 0, P=0.004). Fungal clearance in cerebrospinal fluid was slower in the dexamethasone group. Results were consistent across Asian and African sites. Conclusions Dexamethasone did not reduce mortality among patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis and was associated with more adverse events and disability than was placebo. (Funded by the United Kingdom Department for International Development and others through the Joint Global Health Trials program; Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN59144167 .).

N Engl J Med: 09 Feb 2016; 374:542-554
Beardsley J, Wolbers M, Kibengo FM, Ggayi AM, ... Day JN, CryptoDex Investigators
N Engl J Med: 09 Feb 2016; 374:542-554 | PMID: 26863355
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Abstract

Inactivating Variants in ANGPTL4 and Risk of Coronary Artery Disease.

Dewey FE, Gusarova V, O\'Dushlaine C, Gottesman O, ... Gromada J, Shuldiner AR
Background Higher-than-normal levels of circulating triglycerides are a risk factor for ischemic cardiovascular disease. Activation of lipoprotein lipase, an enzyme that is inhibited by angiopoietin-like 4 (ANGPTL4), has been shown to reduce levels of circulating triglycerides. Methods We sequenced the exons of ANGPTL4 in samples obtain from 42,930 participants of predominantly European ancestry in the DiscovEHR human genetics study. We performed tests of association between lipid levels and the missense E40K variant (which has been associated with reduced plasma triglyceride levels) and other inactivating mutations. We then tested for associations between coronary artery disease and the E40K variant and other inactivating mutations in 10,552 participants with coronary artery disease and 29,223 controls. We also tested the effect of a human monoclonal antibody against ANGPTL4 on lipid levels in mice and monkeys. Results We identified 1661 heterozygotes and 17 homozygotes for the E40K variant and 75 participants who had 13 other monoallelic inactivating mutations in ANGPTL4. The levels of triglycerides were 13% lower and the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were 7% higher among carriers of the E40K variant than among noncarriers. Carriers of the E40K variant were also significantly less likely than noncarriers to have coronary artery disease (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.70 to 0.92; P=0.002). K40 homozygotes had markedly lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of HDL cholesterol than did heterozygotes. Carriers of other inactivating mutations also had lower triglyceride levels and higher HDL cholesterol levels and were less likely to have coronary artery disease than were noncarriers. Monoclonal antibody inhibition of Angptl4 in mice and monkeys reduced triglyceride levels. Conclusions Carriers of E40K and other inactivating mutations in ANGPTL4 had lower levels of triglycerides and a lower risk of coronary artery disease than did noncarriers. The inhibition of Angptl4 in mice and monkeys also resulted in corresponding reductions in these values. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.).

N Engl J Med: 01 Mar 2016; epub ahead of print
Dewey FE, Gusarova V, O'Dushlaine C, Gottesman O, ... Gromada J, Shuldiner AR
N Engl J Med: 01 Mar 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26933753
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Abstract

Trial of Amitriptyline, Topiramate, and Placebo for Pediatric Migraine.

Powers SW, Coffey CS, Chamberlin LA, Ecklund DJ, ... Hershey AD, CHAMP Investigators
Background Which, medication, if any, to use to prevent the headache of pediatric migraine has not been established. Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of amitriptyline (1 mg per kilogram of body weight per day), topiramate (2 mg per kilogram per day), and placebo in children and adolescents 8 to 17 years of age with migraine. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:2:1 ratio to receive one of the medications or placebo. The primary outcome was a relative reduction of 50% or more in the number of headache days in the comparison of the 28-day baseline period with the last 28 days of a 24-week trial. Secondary outcomes were headache-related disability, headache days, number of trial completers, and serious adverse events that emerged during treatment. Results A total of 361 patients underwent randomization, and 328 were included in the primary efficacy analysis (132 in the amitriptyline group, 130 in the topiramate group, and 66 in the placebo group). The trial was concluded early for futility after a planned interim analysis. There were no significant between-group differences in the primary outcome, which occurred in 52% of the patients in the amitriptyline group, 55% of those in the topiramate group, and 61% of those in the placebo group (amitriptyline vs. placebo, P=0.26; topiramate vs. placebo, P=0.48; amitriptyline vs. topiramate, P=0.49). There were also no significant between-group differences in headache-related disability, headache days, or the percentage of patients who completed the 24-week treatment period. Patients who received amitriptyline or topiramate had higher rates of several adverse events than those receiving placebo, including fatigue (30% vs. 14%) and dry mouth (25% vs. 12%) in the amitriptyline group and paresthesia (31% vs. 8%) and weight loss (8% vs. 0%) in the topiramate group. Three patients in the amitriptyline group had serious adverse events of altered mood, and one patient in the topiramate group had a suicide attempt. Conclusions There were no significant differences in reduction in headache frequency or headache-related disability in childhood and adolescent migraine with amitriptyline, topiramate, or placebo over a period of 24 weeks. The active drugs were associated with higher rates of adverse events. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; CHAMP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01581281 ).

N Engl J Med: 26 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print
Powers SW, Coffey CS, Chamberlin LA, Ecklund DJ, ... Hershey AD, CHAMP Investigators
N Engl J Med: 26 Oct 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 27788026
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Abstract

Advanced heart failure treated with continuous-flow left ventricular assist device.

Slaughter MS, Rogers JG, Milano CA, Russell SD, ... Frazier OH,
Background: Patients with advanced heart failure have improved survival rates and quality of life when treated with implanted pulsatile-flow left ventricular assist devices as compared with medical therapy. New continuous-flow devices are smaller and may be more durable than the pulsatile-flow devices. Methods: In this randomized trial, we enrolled patients with advanced heart failure who were ineligible for transplantation, in a 2:1 ratio, to undergo implantation of a continuous-flow device (134 patients) or the currently approved pulsatile-flow device (66 patients). The primary composite end point was, at 2 years, survival free from disabling stroke and reoperation to repair or replace the device. Secondary end points included survival, frequency of adverse events, the quality of life, and functional capacity. Results: Preoperative characteristics were similar in the two treatment groups, with a median age of 64 years (range, 26 to 81), a mean left ventricular ejection fraction of 17%, and nearly 80% of patients receiving intravenous inotropic agents. The primary composite end point was achieved in more patients with continuous-flow devices than with pulsatile-flow devices (62 of 134 [46%] vs. 7 of 66 [11%]; P<0.001; hazard ratio, 0.38; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.54; P<0.001), and patients with continuous-flow devices had superior actuarial survival rates at 2 years (58% vs. 24%, P=0.008). Adverse events and device replacements were less frequent in patients with the continuous-flow device. The quality of life and functional capacity improved significantly in both groups. Conclusions: Treatment with a continuous-flow left ventricular assist device in patients with advanced heart failure significantly improved the probability of survival free from stroke and device failure at 2 years as compared with a pulsatile device. Both devices significantly improved the quality of life and functional capacity. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00121485.)

N Engl J Med: 03 Dec 2009; 361:2241-51
Slaughter MS, Rogers JG, Milano CA, Russell SD, ... Frazier OH,
N Engl J Med: 03 Dec 2009; 361:2241-51 | PMID: 19920051
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Abstract

Safety of Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine in Postmarketing Surveillance in China.


Safety of Influenza A (H1N1) Vaccine in Postmarketing Surveillance in China Original Article, N Engl J Med 2011;364:638-647. In the No. of Doses Administered column of Table 1 (page 641), the number listed for age 10-19 yr should have been 38,144,994, rather than 38,144,944. In the Types of Events subsection of Results (page 643), the third sentence of the first paragraph should have begun, "A total of 1050 of the vaccinees with more serious reactions (13.0% of vaccinees with adverse events; rate per 1 million doses, 11.7) had allergic reactions, including 838 with urticaria . . . ," rather than, ". . . had allergic reactions, including 838 with anaphylactic rash. . . ." Finally, in the stub column of Table 3 (page 644), under "Rare, more serious vaccine reaction," "Peripheral neuropathy" should have been "Polyneuritis." We regret the errors. The article is correct at NEJM.org.

N Engl J Med: 14 Apr 2011; 364:1481
N Engl J Med: 14 Apr 2011; 364:1481 | PMID: 21488795
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Abstract

Coding Variation in ANGPTL4, LPL, and SVEP1 and the Risk of Coronary Disease.

Myocardial Infarction Genetics and CARDIoGRAM Exome Consortia Investigators
Background The discovery of low-frequency coding variants affecting the risk of coronary artery disease has facilitated the identification of therapeutic targets. Methods Through DNA genotyping, we tested 54,003 coding-sequence variants covering 13,715 human genes in up to 72,868 patients with coronary artery disease and 120,770 controls who did not have coronary artery disease. Through DNA sequencing, we studied the effects of loss-of-function mutations in selected genes. Results We confirmed previously observed significant associations between coronary artery disease and low-frequency missense variants in the genes LPA and PCSK9. We also found significant associations between coronary artery disease and low-frequency missense variants in the genes SVEP1 (p.D2702G; minor-allele frequency, 3.60%; odds ratio for disease, 1.14; P=4.2×10(-10)) and ANGPTL4 (p.E40K; minor-allele frequency, 2.01%; odds ratio, 0.86; P=4.0×10(-8)), which encodes angiopoietin-like 4. Through sequencing of ANGPTL4, we identified 9 carriers of loss-of-function mutations among 6924 patients with myocardial infarction, as compared with 19 carriers among 6834 controls (odds ratio, 0.47; P=0.04); carriers of ANGPTL4 loss-of-function alleles had triglyceride levels that were 35% lower than the levels among persons who did not carry a loss-of-function allele (P=0.003). ANGPTL4 inhibits lipoprotein lipase; we therefore searched for mutations in LPL and identified a loss-of-function variant that was associated with an increased risk of coronary artery disease (p.D36N; minor-allele frequency, 1.9%; odds ratio, 1.13; P=2.0×10(-4)) and a gain-of-function variant that was associated with protection from coronary artery disease (p.S447*; minor-allele frequency, 9.9%; odds ratio, 0.94; P=2.5×10(-7)). Conclusions We found that carriers of loss-of-function mutations in ANGPTL4 had triglyceride levels that were lower than those among noncarriers; these mutations were also associated with protection from coronary artery disease. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

N Engl J Med: 01 Mar 2016; epub ahead of print
Myocardial Infarction Genetics and CARDIoGRAM Exome Consortia Investigators
N Engl J Med: 01 Mar 2016; epub ahead of print | PMID: 26934567
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Abstract

Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke with Perfusion-Imaging Selection.

Campbell BC, Mitchell PJ, Kleinig TJ, Dewey HM, ... Davis SM, the EXTEND-IA Investigators
Background Trials of endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke have produced variable results. We conducted this study to test whether more advanced imaging selection, recently developed devices, and earlier intervention improve outcomes. Methods We randomly assigned patients with ischemic stroke who were receiving 0.9 mg of alteplase per kilogram of body weight less than 4.5 hours after the onset of ischemic stroke either to undergo endovascular thrombectomy with the Solitaire FR (Flow Restoration) stent retriever or to continue receiving alteplase alone. All the patients had occlusion of the internal carotid or middle cerebral artery and evidence of salvageable brain tissue and ischemic core of less than 70 ml on computed tomographic (CT) perfusion imaging. The coprimary outcomes were reperfusion at 24 hours and early neurologic improvement (≥8-point reduction on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale or a score of 0 or 1 at day 3). Secondary outcomes included the functional score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. Results The trial was stopped early because of efficacy after 70 patients had undergone randomization (35 patients in each group). The percentage of ischemic territory that had undergone reperfusion at 24 hours was greater in the endovascular-therapy group than in the alteplase-only group (median, 100% vs. 37%; P<0.001). Endovascular therapy, initiated at a median of 210 minutes after the onset of stroke, increased early neurologic improvement at 3 days (80% vs. 37%, P=0.002) and improved the functional outcome at 90 days, with more patients achieving functional independence (score of 0 to 2 on the modified Rankin scale, 71% vs. 40%; P=0.01). There were no significant differences in rates of death or symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage. Conclusions In patients with ischemic stroke with a proximal cerebral arterial occlusion and salvageable tissue on CT perfusion imaging, early thrombectomy with the Solitaire FR stent retriever, as compared with alteplase alone, improved reperfusion, early neurologic recovery, and functional outcome. (Funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and others; EXTEND-IA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01492725 , and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12611000969965 .).

N Engl J Med: 10 Feb 2015; epub ahead of print
Campbell BC, Mitchell PJ, Kleinig TJ, Dewey HM, ... Davis SM, the EXTEND-IA Investigators
N Engl J Med: 10 Feb 2015; epub ahead of print | PMID: 25671797
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Abstract

A Prospective Study of Sudden Cardiac Death among Children and Young Adults.

Bagnall RD, Weintraub RG, Ingles J, Duflou J, ... Skinner JR, Semsarian C
Background Sudden cardiac death among children and young adults is a devastating event. We performed a prospective, population-based, clinical and genetic study of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults. Methods We prospectively collected clinical, demographic, and autopsy information on all cases of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults 1 to 35 years of age in Australia and New Zealand from 2010 through 2012. In cases that had no cause identified after a comprehensive autopsy that included toxicologic and histologic studies (unexplained sudden cardiac death), at least 59 cardiac genes were analyzed for a clinically relevant cardiac gene mutation. Results A total of 490 cases of sudden cardiac death were identified. The annual incidence was 1.3 cases per 100,000 persons 1 to 35 years of age; 72% of the cases involved boys or young men. Persons 31 to 35 years of age had the highest incidence of sudden cardiac death (3.2 cases per 100,000 persons per year), and persons 16 to 20 years of age had the highest incidence of unexplained sudden cardiac death (0.8 cases per 100,000 persons per year). The most common explained causes of sudden cardiac death were coronary artery disease (24% of cases) and inherited cardiomyopathies (16% of cases). Unexplained sudden cardiac death (40% of cases) was the predominant finding among persons in all age groups, except for those 31 to 35 years of age, for whom coronary artery disease was the most common finding. Younger age and death at night were independently associated with unexplained sudden cardiac death as compared with explained sudden cardiac death. A clinically relevant cardiac gene mutation was identified in 31 of 113 cases (27%) of unexplained sudden cardiac death in which genetic testing was performed. During follow-up, a clinical diagnosis of an inherited cardiovascular disease was identified in 13% of the families in which an unexplained sudden cardiac death occurred. Conclusions The addition of genetic testing to autopsy investigation substantially increased the identification of a possible cause of sudden cardiac death among children and young adults. (Funded by the National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia and others.).

N Engl J Med: 21 Jun 2016; 374:2441-2452
Bagnall RD, Weintraub RG, Ingles J, Duflou J, ... Skinner JR, Semsarian C
N Engl J Med: 21 Jun 2016; 374:2441-2452 | PMID: 27332903
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Abstract

Apixaban versus Enoxaparin for Thromboprophylaxis in Medically Ill Patients.

Goldhaber SZ, Leizorovicz A, Kakkar AK, Haas SK, ... Weitz JI, the ADOPT Trial Investigators
Background The efficacy and safety of prolonging prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism in medically ill patients beyond hospital discharge remain uncertain. We hypothesized that extended prophylaxis with apixaban would be safe and more effective than short-term prophylaxis with enoxaparin. Methods In this double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned acutely ill patients who had congestive heart failure or respiratory failure or other medical disorders and at least one additional risk factor for venous thromboembolism and who were hospitalized with an expected stay of at least 3 days to receive apixaban, administered orally at a dose of 2.5 mg twice daily for 30 days, or enoxaparin, administered subcutaneously at a dose of 40 mg once daily for 6 to 14 days. The primary efficacy outcome was the 30-day composite of death related to venous thromboembolism, pulmonary embolism, symptomatic deep-vein thrombosis, or asymptomatic proximal-leg deep-vein thrombosis, as detected with the use of systematic bilateral compression ultrasonography on day 30. The primary safety outcome was bleeding. All efficacy and safety outcomes were independently adjudicated. Results A total of 6528 subjects underwent randomization, 4495 of whom could be evaluated for the primary efficacy outcome - 2211 in the apixaban group and 2284 in the enoxaparin group. Among the patients who could be evaluated, 2.71% in the apixaban group (60 patients) and 3.06% in the enoxaparin group (70 patients) met the criteria for the primary efficacy outcome (relative risk with apixaban, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62 to 1.23; P=0.44). By day 30, major bleeding had occurred in 0.47% of the patients in the apixaban group (15 of 3184 patients) and in 0.19% of the patients in the enoxaparin group (6 of 3217 patients) (relative risk, 2.58; 95% CI, 1.02 to 7.24; P=0.04). Conclusions In medically ill patients, an extended course of thromboprophylaxis with apixaban was not superior to a shorter course with enoxaparin. Apixaban was associated with significantly more major bleeding events than was enoxaparin. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00457002 .).

N Engl J Med: 14 Nov 2011; epub ahead of print
Goldhaber SZ, Leizorovicz A, Kakkar AK, Haas SK, ... Weitz JI, the ADOPT Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 14 Nov 2011; epub ahead of print | PMID: 22077144
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This program is still in alpha version.