Journal: N Engl J Med

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Abstract

Multicenter, Randomized Trial of a Bionic Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes.

Bionic Pancreas Research Group, Russell SJ, Beck RW, Damiano ER, ... Meighan S, Dauber A
Background
Currently available semiautomated insulin-delivery systems require individualized insulin regimens for the initialization of therapy and meal doses based on carbohydrate counting for routine operation. In contrast, the bionic pancreas is initialized only on the basis of body weight, makes all dose decisions and delivers insulin autonomously, and uses meal announcements without carbohydrate counting.
Methods
In this 13-week, multicenter, randomized trial, we randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio persons at least 6 years of age with type 1 diabetes either to receive bionic pancreas treatment with insulin aspart or insulin lispro or to receive standard care (defined as any insulin-delivery method with unblinded, real-time continuous glucose monitoring). The primary outcome was the glycated hemoglobin level at 13 weeks. The key secondary outcome was the percentage of time that the glucose level as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring was below 54 mg per deciliter; the prespecified noninferiority limit for this outcome was 1 percentage point. Safety was also assessed.
Results
A total of 219 participants 6 to 79 years of age were assigned to the bionic-pancreas group, and 107 to the standard-care group. The glycated hemoglobin level decreased from 7.9% to 7.3% in the bionic-pancreas group and did not change (was at 7.7% at both time points) in the standard-care group (mean adjusted difference at 13 weeks, -0.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.6 to -0.3; P<0.001). The percentage of time that the glucose level as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring was below 54 mg per deciliter did not differ significantly between the two groups (13-week adjusted difference, 0.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.04; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The rate of severe hypoglycemia was 17.7 events per 100 participant-years in the bionic-pancreas group and 10.8 events per 100 participant-years in the standard-care group (P = 0.39). No episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in either group.
Conclusions
In this 13-week, randomized trial involving adults and children with type 1 diabetes, use of a bionic pancreas was associated with a greater reduction than standard care in the glycated hemoglobin level. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04200313.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Sep 2022; 387:1161-1172
Bionic Pancreas Research Group, Russell SJ, Beck RW, Damiano ER, ... Meighan S, Dauber A
N Engl J Med: 29 Sep 2022; 387:1161-1172 | PMID: 36170500
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Abstract

GPRC5D-Targeted CAR T Cells for Myeloma.

Mailankody S, Devlin SM, Landa J, Nath K, ... Brentjens RJ, Smith EL
Background
B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA)-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies have generated responses in patients with advanced myeloma, but relapses are common. G protein-coupled receptor, class C, group 5, member D (GPRC5D) has been identified as an immunotherapeutic target in multiple myeloma. Preclinical studies have shown the efficacy of GPRC5D-targeted CAR T cells, including activity in a BCMA antigen escape model.
Methods
In this phase 1 dose-escalation study, we administered a GPRC5D-targeted CAR T-cell therapy (MCARH109) at four dose levels to patients with heavily pretreated multiple myeloma, including patients with relapse after BCMA CAR T-cell therapy.
Results
A total of 17 patients were enrolled and received MCARH109 therapy. The maximum tolerated dose was identified at 150×106 CAR T cells. At the 450×106 CAR T-cell dose, 1 patient had grade 4 cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS), and 2 patients had a grade 3 cerebellar disorder of unclear cause. No cerebellar disorder, ICANS of any grade, or cytokine release syndrome of grade 3 or higher occurred in the 12 patients who received doses of 25×106 to 150×106 cells. A response was reported in 71% of the patients in the entire cohort and in 58% of those who received doses of 25×106 to 150×106 cells. The patients who had a response included those who had received previous BCMA therapies; responses were observed in 7 of 10 such patients in the entire cohort and in 3 of 6 such patients who received 25×106 to 150×106 cells.
Conclusions
The results of this study of a GPRC5D-targeted CAR T-cell therapy (MCARH109) confirm that GPRC5D is an active immunotherapeutic target in multiple myeloma. (Funded by Juno Therapeutics/Bristol Myers Squibb; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04555551.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Sep 2022; 387:1196-1206
Mailankody S, Devlin SM, Landa J, Nath K, ... Brentjens RJ, Smith EL
N Engl J Med: 29 Sep 2022; 387:1196-1206 | PMID: 36170501
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Abstract

Glycemia Reduction in Type 2 Diabetes - Glycemic Outcomes.

GRADE Study Research Group, Nathan DM, Lachin JM, Balasubramanyam A, ... Younes N, The GRADE Study Research Group
Background
The comparative effectiveness of glucose-lowering medications for use with metformin to maintain target glycated hemoglobin levels in persons with type 2 diabetes is uncertain.
Methods
In this trial involving participants with type 2 diabetes of less than 10 years\' duration who were receiving metformin and had glycated hemoglobin levels of 6.8 to 8.5%, we compared the effectiveness of four commonly used glucose-lowering medications. We randomly assigned participants to receive insulin glargine U-100 (hereafter, glargine), the sulfonylurea glimepiride, the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist liraglutide, or sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor. The primary metabolic outcome was a glycated hemoglobin level, measured quarterly, of 7.0% or higher that was subsequently confirmed, and the secondary metabolic outcome was a confirmed glycated hemoglobin level greater than 7.5%.
Results
A total of 5047 participants (19.8% Black and 18.6% Hispanic or Latinx) who had received metformin for type 2 diabetes were followed for a mean of 5.0 years. The cumulative incidence of a glycated hemoglobin level of 7.0% or higher (the primary metabolic outcome) differed significantly among the four groups (P<0.001 for a global test of differences across groups); the rates with glargine (26.5 per 100 participant-years) and liraglutide (26.1) were similar and lower than those with glimepiride (30.4) and sitagliptin (38.1). The differences among the groups with respect to a glycated hemoglobin level greater than 7.5% (the secondary outcome) paralleled those of the primary outcome. There were no material differences with respect to the primary outcome across prespecified subgroups defined according to sex, age, or race or ethnic group; however, among participants with higher baseline glycated hemoglobin levels there appeared to be an even greater benefit with glargine, liraglutide, and glimepiride than with sitagliptin. Severe hypoglycemia was rare but significantly more frequent with glimepiride (in 2.2% of the participants) than with glargine (1.3%), liraglutide (1.0%), or sitagliptin (0.7%). Participants who received liraglutide reported more frequent gastrointestinal side effects and lost more weight than those in the other treatment groups.
Conclusions
All four medications, when added to metformin, decreased glycated hemoglobin levels. However, glargine and liraglutide were significantly, albeit modestly, more effective in achieving and maintaining target glycated hemoglobin levels. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; GRADE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01794143.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 22 Sep 2022; 387:1063-1074
GRADE Study Research Group, Nathan DM, Lachin JM, Balasubramanyam A, ... Younes N, The GRADE Study Research Group
N Engl J Med: 22 Sep 2022; 387:1063-1074 | PMID: 36129996
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Abstract

Glycemia Reduction in Type 2 Diabetes - Microvascular and Cardiovascular Outcomes.

GRADE Study Research Group, Nathan DM, Lachin JM, Bebu I, ... Younes N, The GRADE Study Research Group
Background
Data are lacking on the comparative effectiveness of commonly used glucose-lowering medications, when added to metformin, with respect to microvascular and cardiovascular disease outcomes in persons with type 2 diabetes.
Methods
We assessed the comparative effectiveness of four commonly used glucose-lowering medications, added to metformin, in achieving and maintaining a glycated hemoglobin level of less than 7.0% in participants with type 2 diabetes. The randomly assigned therapies were insulin glargine U-100 (hereafter, glargine), glimepiride, liraglutide, and sitagliptin. Prespecified secondary outcomes with respect to microvascular and cardiovascular disease included hypertension and dyslipidemia, confirmed moderately or severely increased albuminuria or an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area, diabetic peripheral neuropathy assessed with the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument, cardiovascular events (major adverse cardiovascular events [MACE], hospitalization for heart failure, or an aggregate outcome of any cardiovascular event), and death. Hazard ratios are presented with 95% confidence limits that are not adjusted for multiple comparisons.
Results
During a mean 5.0 years of follow-up in 5047 participants, there were no material differences among the interventions with respect to the development of hypertension or dyslipidemia or with respect to microvascular outcomes; the mean overall rate (i.e., events per 100 participant-years) of moderately increased albuminuria levels was 2.6, of severely increased albuminuria levels 1.1, of renal impairment 2.9, and of diabetic peripheral neuropathy 16.7. The treatment groups did not differ with respect to MACE (overall rate, 1.0), hospitalization for heart failure (0.4), death from cardiovascular causes (0.3), or all deaths (0.6). There were small differences with respect to rates of any cardiovascular disease, with 1.9, 1.9, 1.4, and 2.0 in the glargine, glimepiride, liraglutide, and sitagliptin groups, respectively. When one treatment was compared with the combined results of the other three treatments, the hazard ratios for any cardiovascular disease were 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 1.3) in the glargine group, 1.1 (95% CI, 0.9 to 1.4) in the glimepiride group, 0.7 (95% CI, 0.6 to 0.9) in the liraglutide group, and 1.2 (95% CI, 1.0 to 1.5) in the sitagliptin group.
Conclusions
In participants with type 2 diabetes, the incidences of microvascular complications and death were not materially different among the four treatment groups. The findings indicated possible differences among the groups in the incidence of any cardiovascular disease. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; GRADE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01794143.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 22 Sep 2022; 387:1075-1088
GRADE Study Research Group, Nathan DM, Lachin JM, Bebu I, ... Younes N, The GRADE Study Research Group
N Engl J Med: 22 Sep 2022; 387:1075-1088 | PMID: 36129997
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Abstract

Trial of Antisense Oligonucleotide Tofersen for ALS.

Miller TM, Cudkowicz ME, Genge A, Shaw PJ, ... Fradette S, VALOR and OLE Working Group
Background
The intrathecally administered antisense oligonucleotide tofersen reduces synthesis of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) protein and is being studied in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) associated with mutations in SOD1 (SOD1 ALS).
Methods
In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned adults with SOD1 ALS in a 2:1 ratio to receive eight doses of tofersen (100 mg) or placebo over a period of 24 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline to week 28 in the total score on the ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R; range, 0 to 48, with higher scores indicating better function) among participants predicted to have faster-progressing disease. Secondary end points included changes in the total concentration of SOD1 protein in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), in the concentration of neurofilament light chains in plasma, in slow vital capacity, and in handheld dynamometry in 16 muscles. A combined analysis of the randomized component of the trial and its open-label extension at 52 weeks compared the results in participants who started tofersen at trial entry (early-start cohort) with those in participants who switched from placebo to the drug at week 28 (delayed-start cohort).
Results
A total of 72 participants received tofersen (39 predicted to have faster progression), and 36 received placebo (21 predicted to have faster progression). Tofersen led to greater reductions in concentrations of SOD1 in CSF and of neurofilament light chains in plasma than placebo. In the faster-progression subgroup (primary analysis), the change to week 28 in the ALSFRS-R score was -6.98 with tofersen and -8.14 with placebo (difference, 1.2 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.2 to 5.5; P = 0.97). Results for secondary clinical end points did not differ significantly between the two groups. A total of 95 participants (88%) entered the open-label extension. At 52 weeks, the change in the ALSFRS-R score was -6.0 in the early-start cohort and -9.5 in the delayed-start cohort (difference, 3.5 points; 95% CI, 0.4 to 6.7); non-multiplicity-adjusted differences favoring early-start tofersen were seen for other end points. Lumbar puncture-related adverse events were common. Neurologic serious adverse events occurred in 7% of tofersen recipients.
Conclusions
In persons with SOD1 ALS, tofersen reduced concentrations of SOD1 in CSF and of neurofilament light chains in plasma over 28 weeks but did not improve clinical end points and was associated with adverse events. The potential effects of earlier as compared with delayed initiation of tofersen are being further evaluated in the extension phase. (Funded by Biogen; VALOR and OLE ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT02623699 and NCT03070119; EudraCT numbers, 2015-004098-33 and 2016-003225-41.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 22 Sep 2022; 387:1099-1110
Miller TM, Cudkowicz ME, Genge A, Shaw PJ, ... Fradette S, VALOR and OLE Working Group
N Engl J Med: 22 Sep 2022; 387:1099-1110 | PMID: 36129998
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Abstract

Cerebral Embolic Protection during Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Replacement.

Kapadia SR, Makkar R, Leon M, Abdel-Wahab M, ... Linke A, PROTECTED TAVR Investigators
Background
Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) for the treatment of aortic stenosis can lead to embolization of debris. Capture of debris by devices that provide cerebral embolic protection (CEP) may reduce the risk of stroke.
Methods
We randomly assigned patients with aortic stenosis in a 1:1 ratio to undergo transfemoral TAVR with CEP (CEP group) or without CEP (control group). The primary end point was stroke within 72 hours after TAVR or before discharge (whichever came first) in the intention-to-treat population. Disabling stroke, death, transient ischemic attack, delirium, major or minor vascular complications at the CEP access site, and acute kidney injury were also assessed. A neurology professional examined all the patients at baseline and after TAVR.
Results
A total of 3000 patients across North America, Europe, and Australia underwent randomization; 1501 were assigned to the CEP group and 1499 to the control group. A CEP device was successfully deployed in 1406 of the 1489 patients (94.4%) in whom an attempt was made. The incidence of stroke within 72 hours after TAVR or before discharge did not differ significantly between the CEP group and the control group (2.3% vs. 2.9%; difference, -0.6 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -1.7 to 0.5; P = 0.30). Disabling stroke occurred in 0.5% of the patients in the CEP group and in 1.3% of those in the control group. There were no substantial differences between the CEP group and the control group in the percentage of patients who died (0.5% vs. 0.3%); had a stroke, a transient ischemic attack, or delirium (3.1% vs. 3.7%); or had acute kidney injury (0.5% vs. 0.5%). One patient (0.1%) had a vascular complication at the CEP access site.
Conclusions
Among patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transfemoral TAVR, the use of CEP did not have a significant effect on the incidence of periprocedural stroke, but on the basis of the 95% confidence interval around this outcome, the results may not rule out a benefit of CEP during TAVR. (Funded by Boston Scientific; PROTECTED TAVR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04149535.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 17 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Kapadia SR, Makkar R, Leon M, Abdel-Wahab M, ... Linke A, PROTECTED TAVR Investigators
N Engl J Med: 17 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36121045
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Abstract

A Bivalent Omicron-Containing Booster Vaccine against Covid-19.

Chalkias S, Harper C, Vrbicky K, Walsh SR, ... Miller JM, Das R
Background
The safety and immunogenicity of the bivalent omicron-containing mRNA-1273.214 booster vaccine are not known.
Methods
In this ongoing, phase 2-3 study, we compared the 50-μg bivalent vaccine mRNA-1273.214 (25 μg each of ancestral Wuhan-Hu-1 and omicron B.1.1.529 [BA.1] spike messenger RNAs) with the previously authorized 50-μg mRNA-1273 booster. We administered mRNA-1273.214 or mRNA-1273 as a second booster in adults who had previously received a two-dose (100-μg) primary series and first booster (50-μg) dose of mRNA-1273 (≥3 months earlier). The primary objectives were to assess the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of mRNA-1273.214 at 28 days after the booster dose.
Results
Interim results are presented. Sequential groups of participants received 50 μg of mRNA-1273.214 (437 participants) or mRNA-1273 (377 participants) as a second booster dose. The median time between the first and second boosters was similar for mRNA-1273.214 (136 days) and mRNA-1273 (134 days). In participants with no previous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the geometric mean titers of neutralizing antibodies against the omicron BA.1 variant were 2372.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2070.6 to 2718.2) after receipt of the mRNA-1273.214 booster and 1473.5 (95% CI, 1270.8 to 1708.4) after receipt of the mRNA-1273 booster. In addition, 50-μg mRNA-1273.214 and 50-μg mRNA-1273 elicited geometric mean titers of 727.4 (95% CI, 632.8 to 836.1) and 492.1 (95% CI, 431.1 to 561.9), respectively, against omicron BA.4 and BA.5 (BA.4/5), and the mRNA-1273.214 booster also elicited higher binding antibody responses against multiple other variants (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta) than the mRNA-1273 booster. Safety and reactogenicity were similar with the two booster vaccines. Vaccine effectiveness was not assessed in this study; in an exploratory analysis, SARS-CoV-2 infection occurred in 11 participants after the mRNA-1273.214 booster and in 9 participants after the mRNA-1273 booster.
Conclusions
The bivalent omicron-containing vaccine mRNA-1273.214 elicited neutralizing antibody responses against omicron that were superior to those with mRNA-1273, without evident safety concerns. (Funded by Moderna; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04927065.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 16 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Chalkias S, Harper C, Vrbicky K, Walsh SR, ... Miller JM, Das R
N Engl J Med: 16 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36112399
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Abstract

Neoadjuvant Cemiplimab for Stage II to IV Cutaneous Squamous-Cell Carcinoma.

Gross ND, Miller DM, Khushalani NI, Divi V, ... Fury MG, Rischin D
Background
In a pilot study involving patients with cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma, a high percentage of patients had a pathological complete response with the use of two doses of neoadjuvant cemiplimab before surgery. Data from a phase 2 study are needed to confirm these findings.
Methods
We conducted a phase 2, confirmatory, multicenter, nonrandomized study to evaluate cemiplimab as neoadjuvant therapy in patients with resectable stage II, III, or IV (M0) cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma. Patients received cemiplimab, administered at a dose of 350 mg every 3 weeks for up to four doses, before undergoing surgery with curative intent. The primary end point was a pathological complete response (the absence of viable tumor cells in the surgical specimen) on independent review at a central laboratory, with a null hypothesis that a pathological complete response would be observed in 25% of patients. Key secondary end points included a pathological major response (the presence of viable tumor cells that constitute ≤10% of the surgical specimen) on independent review, a pathological complete response and a pathological major response on investigator assessment at a local laboratory, an objective response on imaging, and adverse events.
Results
A total of 79 patients were enrolled and received neoadjuvant cemiplimab. On independent review, a pathological complete response was observed in 40 patients (51%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 39 to 62) and a pathological major response in 10 patients (13%; 95% CI, 6 to 22). These results were consistent with the pathological responses determined on investigator assessment. An objective response on imaging was observed in 54 patients (68%; 95% CI, 57 to 78). Adverse events of any grade that occurred during the study period, regardless of whether they were attributed to the study treatment, were observed in 69 patients (87%). Grade 3 or higher adverse events that occurred during the study period were observed in 14 patients (18%).
Conclusions
Neoadjuvant therapy with cemiplimab was associated with a pathological complete response in a high percentage of patients with resectable cutaneous squamous-cell carcinoma. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals and Sanofi; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04154943.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 12 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Gross ND, Miller DM, Khushalani NI, Divi V, ... Fury MG, Rischin D
N Engl J Med: 12 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36094839
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Abstract

A Randomized Trial of Enteral Glutamine for Treatment of Burn Injuries.

Heyland DK, Wibbenmeyer L, Pollack JA, Friedman B, ... Day AG, RE-ENERGIZE Trial Team
Background
Glutamine is thought to have beneficial effects on the metabolic and stress response to severe injury. Clinical trials involving patients with burns and other critically ill patients have shown conflicting results regarding the benefits and risks of glutamine supplementation.
Methods
In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned patients with deep second- or third-degree burns (affecting ≥10% to ≥20% of total body-surface area, depending on age) within 72 hours after hospital admission to receive 0.5 g per kilogram of body weight per day of enterally delivered glutamine or placebo. Trial agents were given every 4 hours through a feeding tube or three or four times a day by mouth until 7 days after the last skin grafting procedure, discharge from the acute care unit, or 3 months after admission, whichever came first. The primary outcome was the time to discharge alive from the hospital, with data censored at 90 days. We calculated subdistribution hazard ratios for discharge alive, which took into account death as a competing risk.
Results
A total of 1209 patients with severe burns (mean burn size, 33% of total body-surface area) underwent randomization, and 1200 were included in the analysis (596 patients in the glutamine group and 604 in the placebo group). The median time to discharge alive from the hospital was 40 days (interquartile range, 24 to 87) in the glutamine group and 38 days (interquartile range, 22 to 75) in the placebo group (subdistribution hazard ratio for discharge alive, 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.80 to 1.04; P = 0.17). Mortality at 6 months was 17.2% in the glutamine group and 16.2% in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.41). No substantial between-group differences in serious adverse events were observed.
Conclusions
In patients with severe burns, supplemental glutamine did not reduce the time to discharge alive from the hospital. (Funded by the U.S. Department of Defense and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; RE-ENERGIZE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00985205.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Heyland DK, Wibbenmeyer L, Pollack JA, Friedman B, ... Day AG, RE-ENERGIZE Trial Team
N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36082909
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Abstract

Open-Source Automated Insulin Delivery in Type 1 Diabetes.

Burnside MJ, Lewis DM, Crocket HR, Meier RA, ... Wheeler BJ, de Bock MI
Background
Open-source automated insulin delivery (AID) systems are used by many patients with type 1 diabetes. Data are needed on the efficacy and safety of an open-source AID system.
Methods
In this multicenter, open-label, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned patients with type 1 diabetes in a 1:1 ratio to use an open-source AID system or a sensor-augmented insulin pump (control). The patients included both children (defined as 7 to 15 years of age) and adults (defined as 16 to 70 years of age). The AID system was a modified version of AndroidAPS 2.8 (with a standard OpenAPS 0.7.0 algorithm) paired with a preproduction DANA-i insulin pump and Dexcom G6 CGM, which has an Android smartphone application as the user interface. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in the target glucose range of 70 to 180 mg per deciliter (3.9 to 10.0 mmol per liter) between days 155 and 168 (the final 2 weeks of the trial).
Results
A total of 97 patients (48 children and 49 adults) underwent randomization (44 to open-source AID and 53 to the control group). At 24 weeks, the mean (±SD) time in the target range increased from 61.2±12.3% to 71.2±12.1% in the AID group and decreased from 57.7±14.3% to 54.5±16.0% in the control group (adjusted difference, 14 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, 9.2 to 18.8; P<0.001), with no treatment effect according to age (P = 0.56). Patients in the AID group spent 3 hours 21 minutes more in the target range per day than those in the control group. No severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in either group. Two patients in the AID group withdrew from the trial owing to connectivity issues.
Conclusions
In children and adults with type 1 diabetes, the use of an open-source AID system resulted in a significantly higher percentage of time in the target glucose range than the use of a sensor-augmented insulin pump at 24 weeks. (Supported by the Health Research Council of New Zealand; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12620000034932.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 08 Sep 2022; 387:869-881
Burnside MJ, Lewis DM, Crocket HR, Meier RA, ... Wheeler BJ, de Bock MI
N Engl J Med: 08 Sep 2022; 387:869-881 | PMID: 36069869
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Abstract

Closed-Loop Therapy and Preservation of C-Peptide Secretion in Type 1 Diabetes.

Boughton CK, Allen JM, Ware J, Wilinska ME, ... Hovorka R, CLOuD Consortium
Background
Whether improved glucose control with hybrid closed-loop therapy can preserve C-peptide secretion as compared with standard insulin therapy in persons with new-onset type 1 diabetes is unclear.
Methods
In a multicenter, open-label, parallel-group, randomized trial, we assigned youths 10.0 to 16.9 years of age within 21 days after a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes to receive hybrid closed-loop therapy or standard insulin therapy (control) for 24 months. The primary end point was the area under the curve (AUC) for the plasma C-peptide level (after a mixed-meal tolerance test) at 12 months after diagnosis. The analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis.
Results
A total of 97 participants (mean [±SD] age, 12±2 years) underwent randomization: 51 were assigned to receive closed-loop therapy and 46 to receive control therapy. The AUC for the C-peptide level at 12 months (primary end point) did not differ significantly between the two groups (geometric mean, 0.35 pmol per milliliter [interquartile range, 0.16 to 0.49] with closed-loop therapy and 0.46 pmol per milliliter [interquartile range, 0.22 to 0.69] with control therapy; mean adjusted difference, -0.06 pmol per milliliter [95% confidence interval {CI}, -0.14 to 0.03]). There was not a substantial between-group difference in the AUC for the C-peptide level at 24 months (geometric mean, 0.18 pmol per milliliter [interquartile range, 0.06 to 0.22] with closed-loop therapy and 0.24 pmol per milliliter [interquartile range, 0.05 to 0.30] with control therapy; mean adjusted difference, -0.04 pmol per milliliter [95% CI, -0.14 to 0.06]). The arithmetic mean glycated hemoglobin level was lower in the closed-loop group than in the control group by 4 mmol per mole (0.4 percentage points; 95% CI, 0 to 8 mmol per mole [0.0 to 0.7 percentage points]) at 12 months and by 11 mmol per mole (1.0 percentage points; 95% CI, 7 to 15 mmol per mole [0.5 to 1.5 percentage points]) at 24 months. Five cases of severe hypoglycemia occurred in the closed-loop group (in 3 participants), and one occurred in the control group; one case of diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in the closed-loop group.
Conclusions
In youths with new-onset type 1 diabetes, intensive glucose control for 24 months did not appear to prevent the decline in residual C-peptide secretion. (Funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research and others; CLOuD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02871089.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 08 Sep 2022; 387:882-893
Boughton CK, Allen JM, Ware J, Wilinska ME, ... Hovorka R, CLOuD Consortium
N Engl J Med: 08 Sep 2022; 387:882-893 | PMID: 36069870
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Abstract

Trial of Anti-BDCA2 Antibody Litifilimab for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Furie RA, van Vollenhoven RF, Kalunian K, Navarra S, ... Franchimont N, LILAC Trial Investigators
Background
Antibody-binding of blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (BDCA2), which is expressed exclusively on plasmacytoid dendritic cells, suppresses the production of type I interferon that is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous litifilimab, a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to BDCA2, in patients with SLE have not been extensively studied.
Methods
We conducted a phase 2 trial of litifilimab involving participants with SLE. The initial trial design called for randomly assigning participants to receive litifilimab (at a dose of 50, 150, or 450 mg) or placebo administered subcutaneously at weeks 0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20, with the primary end point of evaluating cutaneous lupus activity. The trial design was subsequently modified; adults with SLE, arthritis, and active skin disease were randomly assigned to receive either litifilimab at a dose of 450 mg or placebo. The revised primary end point was the change from baseline in the total number of active joints (defined as the sum of the swollen joints and the tender joints) at week 24. Secondary end points were changes in cutaneous and global disease activity. Safety was also assessed.
Results
A total of 334 adults were assessed for eligibility, and 132 underwent randomization (64 were assigned to receive 450-mg litifilimab, 6 to receive 150-mg litifilimab, 6 to receive 50-mg litifilimab, and 56 to receive placebo). The primary analysis was conducted in the 102 participants who had received 450-mg litifilimab or placebo and had at least four tender and at least four swollen joints. The mean (±SD) baseline number of active joints was 19.0±8.4 in the litifilimab group and 21.6±8.5 in the placebo group. The least-squares mean (±SE) change from baseline to week 24 in the total number of active joints was -15.0±1.2 with litifilimab and -11.6±1.3 with placebo (mean difference, -3.4; 95% confidence interval, -6.7 to -0.2; P = 0.04). Most of the secondary end points did not support the results of the analysis of the primary end point. Receipt of litifilimab was associated with adverse events, including two cases of herpes zoster and one case of herpes keratitis.
Conclusions
In a phase 2 trial involving participants with SLE, litifilimab was associated with a greater reduction from baseline in the number of swollen and tender joints than placebo over a period of 24 weeks. Longer and larger trials are required to determine the safety and efficacy of litifilimab for the treatment of SLE. (Funded by Biogen; LILAC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02847598.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 08 Sep 2022; 387:894-904
Furie RA, van Vollenhoven RF, Kalunian K, Navarra S, ... Franchimont N, LILAC Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 08 Sep 2022; 387:894-904 | PMID: 36069871
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Abstract

Bronchodilators in Tobacco-Exposed Persons with Symptoms and Preserved Lung Function.

Han MK, Ye W, Wang D, White E, ... Woodruff PG, RETHINC Study Group
Background
Many persons with a history of smoking tobacco have clinically significant respiratory symptoms despite an absence of airflow obstruction as assessed by spirometry. They are often treated with medications for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but supporting evidence for this treatment is lacking.
Methods
We randomly assigned persons who had a tobacco-smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, respiratory symptoms as defined by a COPD Assessment Test score of at least 10 (scores range from 0 to 40, with higher scores indicating worse symptoms), and preserved lung function on spirometry (ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] to forced vital capacity [FVC] ≥0.70 and FVC ≥70% of the predicted value after bronchodilator use) to receive either indacaterol (27.5 μg) plus glycopyrrolate (15.6 μg) or placebo twice daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was at least a 4-point decrease (i.e., improvement) in the St. George\'s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (scores range from 1 to 100, with higher scores indicating worse health status) after 12 weeks without treatment failure (defined as an increase in lower respiratory symptoms treated with a long-acting inhaled bronchodilator, glucocorticoid, or antibiotic agent).
Results
A total of 535 participants underwent randomization. In the modified intention-to-treat population (471 participants), 128 of 227 participants (56.4%) in the treatment group and 144 of 244 (59.0%) in the placebo group had a 4-point decrease in the SGRQ score (difference, -2.6 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -11.6 to 6.3; adjusted odds ratio, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.60 to 1.37; P = 0.65). The mean change in the percent of predicted FEV1 was 2.48 percentage points (95% CI, 1.49 to 3.47) in the treatment group and -0.09 percentage points (95% CI, -1.06 to 0.89) in the placebo group, and the mean change in the inspiratory capacity was 0.12 liters (95% CI, 0.07 to 0.18) in the treatment group and 0.02 liters (95% CI, -0.03 to 0.08) in the placebo group. Four serious adverse events occurred in the treatment group, and 11 occurred in the placebo group; none were deemed potentially related to the treatment or placebo.
Conclusions
Inhaled dual bronchodilator therapy did not decrease respiratory symptoms in symptomatic, tobacco-exposed persons with preserved lung function as assessed by spirometry. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others; RETHINC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02867761.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 04 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Han MK, Ye W, Wang D, White E, ... Woodruff PG, RETHINC Study Group
N Engl J Med: 04 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36066078
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Abstract

Fractional Flow Reserve or Intravascular Ultrasonography to Guide PCI.

Koo BK, Hu X, Kang J, Zhang J, ... Wang J, FLAVOUR Investigators
Background
In patients with coronary artery disease who are being evaluated for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), procedures can be guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) or intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) for decision making regarding revascularization and stent implantation. However, the differences in clinical outcomes when only one method is used for both purposes are unclear.
Methods
We randomly assigned 1682 patients who were being evaluated for PCI for the treatment of intermediate stenosis (40 to 70% occlusion by visual estimation on coronary angiography) in a 1:1 ratio to undergo either an FFR-guided or IVUS-guided procedure. FFR or IVUS was to be used to determine whether to perform PCI and to assess PCI success. In the FFR group, PCI was to be performed if the FFR was 0.80 or less. In the IVUS group, the criteria for PCI were a minimal lumen area measuring either 3 mm2 or less or measuring 3 to 4 mm2 with a plaque burden of more than 70%. The primary outcome was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization at 24 months after randomization. We tested the noninferiority of the FFR group as compared with the IVUS group (noninferiority margin, 2.5 percentage points).
Results
The frequency of PCI was 44.4% among patients in the FFR group and 65.3% among those in the IVUS group. At 24 months, a primary-outcome event had occurred in 8.1% of the patients in the FFR group and in 8.5% of those in the IVUS group (absolute difference, -0.4 percentage points; upper boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval, 2.2 percentage points; P = 0.01 for noninferiority). Patient-reported outcomes as reported on the Seattle Angina Questionnaire were similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
In patients with intermediate stenosis who were being evaluated for PCI, FFR guidance was noninferior to IVUS guidance with respect to the composite primary outcome of death, myocardial infarction, or revascularization at 24 months. (Funded by Boston Scientific; FLAVOUR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02673424.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2022; 387:779-789
Koo BK, Hu X, Kang J, Zhang J, ... Wang J, FLAVOUR Investigators
N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2022; 387:779-789 | PMID: 36053504
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Abstract

Dolutegravir in Pregnancy as Compared with Current HIV Regimens in the United States.

Patel K, Huo Y, Jao J, Powis KM, ... Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort StudySwiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study, Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study
Background
Data on the effectiveness and safety of dolutegravir-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in pregnancy as compared with other ART regimens commonly used in the United States and Europe, particularly when initiated before conception, are limited.
Methods
We conducted a study involving pregnancies in persons with HIV-1 infection in the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study whose initial ART in pregnancy included dolutegravir, atazanavir-ritonavir, darunavir-ritonavir, oral rilpivirine, raltegravir, or elvitegravir-cobicistat. Viral suppression at delivery and the risks of infants being born preterm, having low birth weight, and being small for gestational age were compared between each non-dolutegravir-based ART regimen and dolutegravir-based ART. Supplementary analyses that included participants in the Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study were conducted to improve the precision of our results.
Results
Of the pregnancies in the study, 120 were in participants who received dolutegravir, 464 in those who received atazanavir-ritonavir, 185 in those who received darunavir-ritonavir, 243 in those who received rilpivirine, 86 in those who received raltegravir, and 159 in those who received elvitegravir-cobicistat. The median age at conception was 29 years; 51% of the pregnancies were in participants who started ART before conception. Viral suppression was present at delivery in 96.7% of the pregnancies in participants who received dolutegravir; corresponding percentages were 84.0% for atazanavir-ritonavir, 89.2% for raltegravir, and 89.8% for elvitegravir-cobicistat (adjusted risk differences vs. dolutegravir, -13.0 percentage points [95% confidence interval {CI}, -17.0 to -6.1], -17.0 percentage points [95% CI, -27.0 to -2.4], and -7.0 percentage points [95% CI, -13.3 to -0.0], respectively). The observed risks of preterm birth were 13.6 to 17.6%. Adjusted risks of infants being born preterm, having low birth weight, or being small for gestational age did not differ substantially between non-dolutegravir-based ART and dolutegravir. Results of supplementary analyses were similar.
Conclusions
Atazanavir-ritonavir and raltegravir were associated with less frequent viral suppression at delivery than dolutegravir. No clear differences in adverse birth outcomes were observed with dolutegravir-based ART as compared with non-dolutegravir-based ART, although samples were small. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and others.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2022; 387:799-809
Patel K, Huo Y, Jao J, Powis KM, ... Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort StudySwiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study, Swiss Mother and Child HIV Cohort Study
N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2022; 387:799-809 | PMID: 36053505
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Abstract

Bedaquiline-Pretomanid-Linezolid Regimens for Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis.

Conradie F, Bagdasaryan TR, Borisov S, Howell P, ... Spigelman M, ZeNix Trial Team
Background
The bedaquiline-pretomanid-linezolid regimen has been reported to have 90% efficacy against highly drug-resistant tuberculosis, but the incidence of adverse events with 1200 mg of linezolid daily has been high. The appropriate dose of linezolid and duration of treatment with this agent to minimize toxic effects while maintaining efficacy against highly drug-resistant tuberculosis are unclear.
Methods
We enrolled participants with extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis (i.e., resistant to rifampin, a fluoroquinolone, and an aminoglycoside), pre-XDR tuberculosis (i.e., resistant to rifampin and to either a fluoroquinolone or an aminoglycoside), or rifampin-resistant tuberculosis that was not responsive to treatment or for which a second-line regimen had been discontinued because of side effects. We randomly assigned the participants to receive bedaquiline for 26 weeks (200 mg daily for 8 weeks, then 100 mg daily for 18 weeks), pretomanid (200 mg daily for 26 weeks), and daily linezolid at a dose of 1200 mg for 26 weeks or 9 weeks or 600 mg for 26 weeks or 9 weeks. The primary end point in the modified intention-to-treat population was the incidence of an unfavorable outcome, defined as treatment failure or disease relapse (clinical or bacteriologic) at 26 weeks after completion of treatment. Safety was also evaluated.
Results
A total of 181 participants were enrolled, 88% of whom had XDR or pre-XDR tuberculosis. Among participants who received bedaquiline-pretomanid-linezolid with linezolid at a dose of 1200 mg for 26 weeks or 9 weeks or 600 mg for 26 weeks or 9 weeks, 93%, 89%, 91%, and 84%, respectively, had a favorable outcome; peripheral neuropathy occurred in 38%, 24%, 24%, and 13%, respectively; myelosuppression occurred in 22%, 15%, 2%, and 7%, respectively; and the linezolid dose was modified (i.e., interrupted, reduced, or discontinued) in 51%, 30%, 13%, and 13%, respectively. Optic neuropathy developed in 4 participants (9%) who had received linezolid at a dose of 1200 mg for 26 weeks; all the cases resolved. Six of the seven unfavorable microbiologic outcomes through 78 weeks of follow-up occurred in participants assigned to the 9-week linezolid groups.
Conclusions
A total of 84 to 93% of the participants across all four bedaquiline-pretomanid-linezolid treatment groups had a favorable outcome. The overall risk-benefit ratio favored the group that received the three-drug regimen with linezolid at a dose of 600 mg for 26 weeks, with a lower incidence of adverse events reported and fewer linezolid dose modifications. (Funded by the TB Alliance and others; ZeNix ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03086486.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2022; 387:810-823
Conradie F, Bagdasaryan TR, Borisov S, Howell P, ... Spigelman M, ZeNix Trial Team
N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2022; 387:810-823 | PMID: 36053506
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Abstract

Routine Functional Testing or Standard Care in High-Risk Patients after PCI.

Park DW, Kang DY, Ahn JM, Yun SC, ... Park SJ, POST-PCI Investigators
Background
There are limited data from randomized trials to guide a specific follow-up surveillance approach after myocardial revascularization. Whether a follow-up strategy that includes routine functional testing improves clinical outcomes among high-risk patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is uncertain.
Methods
We randomly assigned 1706 patients with high-risk anatomical or clinical characteristics who had undergone PCI to a follow-up strategy of routine functional testing (nuclear stress testing, exercise electrocardiography, or stress echocardiography) at 1 year after PCI or to standard care alone. The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause, myocardial infarction, or hospitalization for unstable angina at 2 years. Key secondary outcomes included invasive coronary angiography and repeat revascularization.
Results
The mean age of the patients was 64.7 years, 21.0% had left main disease, 43.5% had bifurcation disease, 69.8% had multivessel disease, 70.1% had diffuse long lesions, 38.7% had diabetes, and 96.4% had been treated with drug-eluting stents. At 2 years, a primary-outcome event had occurred in 46 of 849 patients (Kaplan-Meier estimate, 5.5%) in the functional-testing group and in 51 of 857 (Kaplan-Meier estimate, 6.0%) in the standard-care group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61 to 1.35; P = 0.62). There were no between-group differences with respect to the components of the primary outcome. At 2 years, 12.3% of the patients in the functional-testing group and 9.3% in the standard-care group had undergone invasive coronary angiography (difference, 2.99 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.01 to 5.99), and 8.1% and 5.8% of patients, respectively, had undergone repeat revascularization (difference, 2.23 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.22 to 4.68).
Conclusions
Among high-risk patients who had undergone PCI, a follow-up strategy of routine functional testing, as compared with standard care alone, did not improve clinical outcomes at 2 years. (Funded by the CardioVascular Research Foundation and Daewoong Pharmaceutical; POST-PCI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03217877.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Park DW, Kang DY, Ahn JM, Yun SC, ... Park SJ, POST-PCI Investigators
N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36036496
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Abstract

Efficacy and Safety of an Extravascular Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

Friedman P, Murgatroyd F, Boersma LVA, Manlucu J, ... Crozier I, Extravascular ICD Pivotal Study Investigators
Background
The extravascular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has a single lead implanted substernally to enable pause-prevention pacing, antitachycardia pacing, and defibrillation energy similar to that of transvenous ICDs. The safety and efficacy of extravascular ICDs are not yet known.
Methods
We conducted a prospective, single-group, nonrandomized, premarket global clinical study involving patients with a class I or IIa indication for an ICD, all of whom received an extravascular ICD system. The primary efficacy end point was successful defibrillation at implantation. The efficacy objective would be met if the lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the percentage of patients with successful defibrillation was greater than 88%. The primary safety end point was freedom from major system- or procedure-related complications at 6 months. The safety objective would be met if the lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval for the percentage of patients free from such complications was greater than 79%.
Results
A total of 356 patients were enrolled, 316 of whom had an implantation attempt. Among the 302 patients in whom ventricular arrhythmia could be induced and who completed the defibrillation testing protocol, the percentage of patients with successful defibrillation was 98.7% (lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 96.6%; P<0.001 for the comparison with the performance goal of 88%); 299 of 316 patients (94.6%) were discharged with a working ICD system. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the percentage of patients free from major system- or procedure-related complications at 6 months was 92.6% (lower boundary of the one-sided 97.5% CI, 89.0%; P<0.001 for the comparison with the performance goal of 79%). No major intraprocedural complications were reported. At 6 months, 25 major complications were observed, in 23 of 316 patients (7.3%). The success rate of antitachycardia pacing, as assessed with generalized estimating equations, was 50.8% (95% CI, 23.3 to 77.8). A total of 29 patients received 118 inappropriate shocks for 81 arrhythmic episodes. Eight systems were explanted without extravascular ICD replacement over the 10.6-month mean follow-up period.
Conclusions
In this prospective global study, we found that extravascular ICDs were implanted safely and were able to detect and terminate induced ventricular arrhythmias at the time of implantation. (Funded by Medtronic; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04060680.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Friedman P, Murgatroyd F, Boersma LVA, Manlucu J, ... Crozier I, Extravascular ICD Pivotal Study Investigators
N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36036522
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Abstract

Rivaroxaban in Rheumatic Heart Disease-Associated Atrial Fibrillation.

Connolly SJ, Karthikeyan G, Ntsekhe M, Haileamlak A, ... Yusuf S, INVICTUS Investigators
Background
Testing of factor Xa inhibitors for the prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with rheumatic heart disease-associated atrial fibrillation has been limited.
Methods
We enrolled patients with atrial fibrillation and echocardiographically documented rheumatic heart disease who had any of the following: a CHA2DS2VASc score of at least 2 (on a scale from 0 to 9, with higher scores indicating a higher risk of stroke), a mitral-valve area of no more than 2 cm2, left atrial spontaneous echo contrast, or left atrial thrombus. Patients were randomly assigned to receive standard doses of rivaroxaban or dose-adjusted vitamin K antagonist. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of stroke, systemic embolism, myocardial infarction, or death from vascular (cardiac or noncardiac) or unknown causes. We hypothesized that rivaroxaban therapy would be noninferior to vitamin K antagonist therapy. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding according to the International Society of Thrombosis and Hemostasis.
Results
Of 4565 enrolled patients, 4531 were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the patients was 50.5 years, and 72.3% were women. Permanent discontinuation of trial medication was more common with rivaroxaban than with vitamin K antagonist therapy at all visits. In the intention-to-treat analysis, 560 patients in the rivaroxaban group and 446 in the vitamin K antagonist group had a primary-outcome event. Survival curves were nonproportional. The restricted mean survival time was 1599 days in the rivaroxaban group and 1675 days in the vitamin K antagonist group (difference, -76 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], -121 to -31; P<0.001). A higher incidence of death occurred in the rivaroxaban group than in the vitamin K antagonist group (restricted mean survival time, 1608 days vs. 1680 days; difference, -72 days; 95% CI, -117 to -28). No significant between-group difference in the rate of major bleeding was noted.
Conclusions
Among patients with rheumatic heart disease-associated atrial fibrillation, vitamin K antagonist therapy led to a lower rate of a composite of cardiovascular events or death than rivaroxaban therapy, without a higher rate of bleeding. (Funded by Bayer; INVICTUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02832544.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Connolly SJ, Karthikeyan G, Ntsekhe M, Haileamlak A, ... Yusuf S, INVICTUS Investigators
N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36036525
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Abstract

Acetazolamide in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure with Volume Overload.

Mullens W, Dauw J, Martens P, Verbrugge FH, ... Dupont M, ADVOR Study Group
Background
Whether acetazolamide, a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that reduces proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, can improve the efficiency of loop diuretics, potentially leading to more and faster decongestion in patients with acute decompensated heart failure with volume overload, is unclear.
Methods
In this multicenter, parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned patients with acute decompensated heart failure, clinical signs of volume overload (i.e., edema, pleural effusion, or ascites), and an N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide level of more than 1000 pg per milliliter or a B-type natriuretic peptide level of more than 250 pg per milliliter to receive either intravenous acetazolamide (500 mg once daily) or placebo added to standardized intravenous loop diuretics (at a dose equivalent to twice the oral maintenance dose). Randomization was stratified according to the left ventricular ejection fraction (≤40% or >40%). The primary end point was successful decongestion, defined as the absence of signs of volume overload, within 3 days after randomization and without an indication for escalation of decongestive therapy. Secondary end points included a composite of death from any cause or rehospitalization for heart failure during 3 months of follow-up. Safety was also assessed.
Results
A total of 519 patients underwent randomization. Successful decongestion occurred in 108 of 256 patients (42.2%) in the acetazolamide group and in 79 of 259 (30.5%) in the placebo group (risk ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 to 1.82; P<0.001). Death from any cause or rehospitalization for heart failure occurred in 76 of 256 patients (29.7%) in the acetazolamide group and in 72 of 259 patients (27.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.78 to 1.48). Acetazolamide treatment was associated with higher cumulative urine output and natriuresis, findings consistent with better diuretic efficiency. The incidence of worsening kidney function, hypokalemia, hypotension, and adverse events was similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
The addition of acetazolamide to loop diuretic therapy in patients with acute decompensated heart failure resulted in a greater incidence of successful decongestion. (Funded by the Belgian Health Care Knowledge Center; ADVOR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03505788.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Mullens W, Dauw J, Martens P, Verbrugge FH, ... Dupont M, ADVOR Study Group
N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36027559
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Abstract

Five-Year Outcomes of the Danish Cardiovascular Screening (DANCAVAS) Trial.

Lindholt JS, Søgaard R, Rasmussen LM, Mejldal A, ... Busk M, Diederichsen ACP
Background
Limited data suggest a benefit of population-based screening for cardiovascular disease with respect to the risk of death.
Methods
We performed a population-based, parallel-group, randomized, controlled trial involving men 65 to 74 years of age living in 15 Danish municipalities. The participants were randomly assigned in a 1:2 ratio to undergo screening (the invited group) or not to undergo screening (the control group) for subclinical cardiovascular disease. Randomization was based on computer-generated random numbers and stratified according to municipality. Only the control group was unaware of the trial-group assignments. Screening included noncontrast electrocardiography-gated computed tomography to determine the coronary-artery calcium score and to detect aneurysms and atrial fibrillation, ankle-brachial blood-pressure measurements to detect peripheral artery disease and hypertension, and a blood sample to detect diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia. The primary outcome was death from any cause.
Results
A total of 46,611 participants underwent randomization. After exclusion of 85 men who had died or emigrated before being invited to undergo screening, there were 16,736 men in the invited group and 29,790 men in the control group; 10,471 of the men in the invited group underwent screening (62.6%). In intention-to-treat analyses, after a median follow-up of 5.6 years, 2106 men (12.6%) in the invited group and 3915 men (13.1%) in the control group had died (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90 to 1.00; P = 0.06). The hazard ratio for stroke in the invited group, as compared with the control group, was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.99); for myocardial infarction, 0.91 (95% CI, 0.81 to 1.03); for aortic dissection, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.49); and for aortic rupture, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.49 to 1.35). There were no significant between-group differences in safety outcomes.
Conclusions
After more than 5 years, the invitation to undergo comprehensive cardiovascular screening did not significantly reduce the incidence of death from any cause among men 65 to 74 years of age. (Funded by the Southern Region of Denmark and others; DANCAVAS ISRCTN Registry number, ISRCTN12157806.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Lindholt JS, Søgaard R, Rasmussen LM, Mejldal A, ... Busk M, Diederichsen ACP
N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36027560
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Abstract

Percutaneous Revascularization for Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

Perera D, Clayton T, O\'Kane PD, Greenwood JP, ... Petrie MC, REVIVED-BCIS2 Investigators
Background
Whether revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) can improve event-free survival and left ventricular function in patients with severe ischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction, as compared with optimal medical therapy (i.e., individually adjusted pharmacologic and device therapy for heart failure) alone, is unknown.
Methods
We randomly assigned patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less, extensive coronary artery disease amenable to PCI, and demonstrable myocardial viability to a strategy of either PCI plus optimal medical therapy (PCI group) or optimal medical therapy alone (optimal-medical-therapy group). The primary composite outcome was death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure. Major secondary outcomes were left ventricular ejection fraction at 6 and 12 months and quality-of-life scores.
Results
A total of 700 patients underwent randomization - 347 were assigned to the PCI group and 353 to the optimal-medical-therapy group. Over a median of 41 months, a primary-outcome event occurred in 129 patients (37.2%) in the PCI group and in 134 patients (38.0%) in the optimal-medical-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.27; P = 0.96). The left ventricular ejection fraction was similar in the two groups at 6 months (mean difference, -1.6 percentage points; 95% CI, -3.7 to 0.5) and at 12 months (mean difference, 0.9 percentage points; 95% CI, -1.7 to 3.4). Quality-of-life scores at 6 and 12 months appeared to favor the PCI group, but the difference had diminished at 24 months.
Conclusions
Among patients with severe ischemic left ventricular systolic dysfunction who received optimal medical therapy, revascularization by PCI did not result in a lower incidence of death from any cause or hospitalization for heart failure. (Funded by the National Institute for Health and Care Research Health Technology Assessment Program; REVIVED-BCIS2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01920048.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Perera D, Clayton T, O'Kane PD, Greenwood JP, ... Petrie MC, REVIVED-BCIS2 Investigators
N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36027563
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Impact:
Abstract

Blood-Pressure Targets in Comatose Survivors of Cardiac Arrest.

Kjaergaard J, Møller JE, Schmidt H, Grand J, ... Jørgensen VL, Hassager C
Background
Evidence to support the choice of blood-pressure targets for the treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest who are receiving intensive care is limited.
Methods
In a double-blind, randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we evaluated a mean arterial blood-pressure target of 63 mm Hg as compared with 77 mm Hg in comatose adults who had been resuscitated after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac cause; patients were also assigned to one of two oxygen targets (reported separately). The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause or hospital discharge with a Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) of 3 or 4 within 90 days (range, 0 to 5, with higher categories indicating more severe disability; a category of 3 or 4 indicates severe disability or coma). Secondary outcomes included neuron-specific enolase levels at 48 hours, death from any cause, scores on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (range, 0 to 30, with higher scores indicating better cognitive ability) and the modified Rankin scale (range, 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability) at 3 months, and the CPC at 3 months.
Results
A total of 789 patients were included in the analysis (393 in the high-target group and 396 in the low-target group). A primary-outcome event occurred in 133 patients (34%) in the high-target group and in 127 patients (32%) in the low-target group (hazard ratio, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84 to 1.37; P = 0.56). At 90 days, 122 patients (31%) in the high-target group and 114 patients (29%) in the low-target group had died (hazard ratio, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.46). The median CPC was 1 (interquartile range, 1 to 5) in both the high-target group and the low-target group; the corresponding median modified Rankin scale scores were 1 (interquartile range, 0 to 6) and 1 (interquartile range, 0 to 6), and the corresponding median Montreal Cognitive Assessment scores were 27 (interquartile range, 24 to 29) and 26 (interquartile range, 24 to 29). The median neuron-specific enolase level at 48 hours was also similar in the two groups. The percentages of patients with adverse events did not differ significantly between the groups.
Conclusions
Targeting a mean arterial blood pressure of 77 mm Hg or 63 mm Hg in patients who had been resuscitated from cardiac arrest did not result in significantly different percentages of patients dying or having severe disability or coma. (Funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation; BOX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03141099.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Kjaergaard J, Møller JE, Schmidt H, Grand J, ... Jørgensen VL, Hassager C
N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36027564
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Abstract

Oxygen Targets in Comatose Survivors of Cardiac Arrest.

Schmidt H, Kjaergaard J, Hassager C, Mølstrøm S, ... Lind Jørgensen V, Møller JE
Background
The appropriate oxygenation target for mechanical ventilation in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is unknown.
Methods
In this randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design, we randomly assigned comatose adults with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a 1:1 ratio to either a restrictive oxygen target of a partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao2) of 9 to 10 kPa (68 to 75 mm Hg) or a liberal oxygen target of a Pao2 of 13 to 14 kPa (98 to 105 mm Hg); patients were also assigned to one of two blood-pressure targets (reported separately). The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause or hospital discharge with severe disability or coma (Cerebral Performance Category [CPC] of 3 or 4; categories range from 1 to 5, with higher values indicating more severe disability), whichever occurred first within 90 days after randomization. Secondary outcomes were neuron-specific enolase levels at 48 hours, death from any cause, the score on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (ranging from 0 to 30, with higher scores indicating better cognitive ability), the score on the modified Rankin scale (ranging from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability), and the CPC at 90 days.
Results
A total of 789 patients underwent randomization. A primary-outcome event occurred in 126 of 394 patients (32.0%) in the restrictive-target group and in 134 of 395 patients (33.9%) in the liberal-target group (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.21; P = 0.69). At 90 days, death had occurred in 113 patients (28.7%) in the restrictive-target group and in 123 (31.1%) in the liberal-target group. On the CPC, the median category was 1 in the two groups; on the modified Rankin scale, the median score was 2 in the restrictive-target group and 1 in the liberal-target group; and on the Montreal Cognitive Assessment, the median score was 27 in the two groups. At 48 hours, the median neuron-specific enolase level was 17 μg per liter in the restrictive-target group and 18 μg per liter in the liberal-target group. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
Targeting of a restrictive or liberal oxygenation strategy in comatose patients after resuscitation for cardiac arrest resulted in a similar incidence of death or severe disability or coma. (Funded by the Novo Nordisk Foundation; BOX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03141099.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Schmidt H, Kjaergaard J, Hassager C, Mølstrøm S, ... Lind Jørgensen V, Møller JE
N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36027567
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Abstract

Dapagliflozin in Heart Failure with Mildly Reduced or Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Solomon SD, McMurray JJV, Claggett B, de Boer RA, ... Langkilde AM, DELIVER Trial Committees and Investigators
Background
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and cardiovascular death among patients with chronic heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 40% or less. Whether SGLT2 inhibitors are effective in patients with a higher left ventricular ejection fraction remains less certain.
Methods
We randomly assigned 6263 patients with heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction of more than 40% to receive dapagliflozin (at a dose of 10 mg once daily) or matching placebo, in addition to usual therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of worsening heart failure (which was defined as either an unplanned hospitalization for heart failure or an urgent visit for heart failure) or cardiovascular death, as assessed in a time-to-event analysis.
Results
Over a median of 2.3 years, the primary outcome occurred in 512 of 3131 patients (16.4%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 610 of 3132 patients (19.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73 to 0.92; P<0.001). Worsening heart failure occurred in 368 patients (11.8%) in the dapagliflozin group and in 455 patients (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.91); cardiovascular death occurred in 231 patients (7.4%) and 261 patients (8.3%), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74 to 1.05). Total events and symptom burden were lower in the dapagliflozin group than in the placebo group. Results were similar among patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 60% or more and those with a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 60%, and results were similar in prespecified subgroups, including patients with or without diabetes. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
Dapagliflozin reduced the combined risk of worsening heart failure or cardiovascular death among patients with heart failure and a mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DELIVER ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03619213.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Solomon SD, McMurray JJV, Claggett B, de Boer RA, ... Langkilde AM, DELIVER Trial Committees and Investigators
N Engl J Med: 27 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36027570
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Abstract

Polypill Strategy in Secondary Cardiovascular Prevention.

Castellano JM, Pocock SJ, Bhatt DL, Quesada AJ, ... Fuster V, SECURE Investigators
Background
A polypill that includes key medications associated with improved outcomes (aspirin, angiotensin-converting-enzyme [ACE] inhibitor, and statin) has been proposed as a simple approach to the secondary prevention of cardiovascular death and complications after myocardial infarction.
Methods
In this phase 3, randomized, controlled clinical trial, we assigned patients with myocardial infarction within the previous 6 months to a polypill-based strategy or usual care. The polypill treatment consisted of aspirin (100 mg), ramipril (2.5, 5, or 10 mg), and atorvastatin (20 or 40 mg). The primary composite outcome was cardiovascular death, nonfatal type 1 myocardial infarction, nonfatal ischemic stroke, or urgent revascularization. The key secondary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal type 1 myocardial infarction, or nonfatal ischemic stroke.
Results
A total of 2499 patients underwent randomization and were followed for a median of 36 months. A primary-outcome event occurred in 118 of 1237 patients (9.5%) in the polypill group and in 156 of 1229 (12.7%) in the usual-care group (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60 to 0.96; P = 0.02). A key secondary-outcome event occurred in 101 patients (8.2%) in the polypill group and in 144 (11.7%) in the usual-care group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.54 to 0.90; P = 0.005). The results were consistent across prespecified subgroups. Medication adherence as reported by the patients was higher in the polypill group than in the usual-care group. Adverse events were similar between groups.
Conclusions
Treatment with a polypill containing aspirin, ramipril, and atorvastatin within 6 months after myocardial infarction resulted in a significantly lower risk of major adverse cardiovascular events than usual care. (Funded by the European Union Horizon 2020; SECURE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02596126; EudraCT number, 2015-002868-17.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Castellano JM, Pocock SJ, Bhatt DL, Quesada AJ, ... Fuster V, SECURE Investigators
N Engl J Med: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36018037
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Abstract

Ublituximab versus Teriflunomide in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis.

Steinman L, Fox E, Hartung HP, Alvarez E, ... Cree BAC, ULTIMATE I and ULTIMATE II Investigators
Background
The monoclonal antibody ublituximab enhances antibody-dependent cellular cytolysis and produces B-cell depletion. Ublituximab is being evaluated for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis.
Methods
In two identical, phase 3, double-blind, double-dummy trials (ULTIMATE I and II), participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous ublituximab (150 mg on day 1, followed by 450 mg on day 15 and at weeks 24, 48, and 72) and oral placebo or oral teriflunomide (14 mg once daily) and intravenous placebo. The primary end point was the annualized relapse rate. Secondary end points included the number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by 96 weeks and worsening of disability.
Results
A total of 549 participants were enrolled in the ULTIMATE I trial, and 545 were enrolled in the ULTIMATE II trial; the median follow-up was 95 weeks. In the ULTIMATE I trial, the annualized relapse rate was 0.08 with ublituximab and 0.19 with teriflunomide (rate ratio, 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27 to 0.62; P<0.001); in the ULTIMATE II trial, the annualized relapse rate was 0.09 and 0.18, respectively (rate ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.33 to 0.78; P = 0.002). The mean number of gadolinium-enhancing lesions was 0.02 in the ublituximab group and 0.49 in the teriflunomide group (rate ratio, 0.03; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.06; P<0.001) in the ULTIMATE I trial and 0.01 and 0.25, respectively (rate ratio, 0.04; 95% CI, 0.02 to 0.06; P<0.001), in the ULTIMATE II trial. In the pooled analysis of the two trials, 5.2% of the participants in the ublituximab group and 5.9% in the teriflunomide group had worsening of disability at 12 weeks (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.50 to 1.41; P = 0.51). Infusion-related reactions occurred in 47.7% of the participants in the ublituximab group. Serious infections occurred in 5.0% in the ublituximab group and in 2.9% in the teriflunomide group.
Conclusions
Among participants with relapsing multiple sclerosis, ublituximab resulted in lower annualized relapse rates and fewer brain lesions on MRI than teriflunomide over a period of 96 weeks but did not result in a significantly lower risk of worsening of disability. Ublituximab was associated with infusion-related reactions. (Funded by TG Therapeutics; ULTIMATE I and II ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03277261 and NCT03277248.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 25 Aug 2022; 387:704-714
Steinman L, Fox E, Hartung HP, Alvarez E, ... Cree BAC, ULTIMATE I and ULTIMATE II Investigators
N Engl J Med: 25 Aug 2022; 387:704-714 | PMID: 36001711
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Abstract

Olokizumab versus Placebo or Adalimumab in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Smolen JS, Feist E, Fatenejad S, Grishin SA, ... CREDO2 Group, CREDOZ Group
Background
The cytokine interleukin-6 is involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Olokizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the interleukin-6 cytokine directly, is being tested for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Methods
In a 24-week, phase 3, multicenter, placebo- and active-controlled trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:2:2:1 ratio) patients with rheumatoid arthritis and an inadequate response to methotrexate to receive subcutaneous olokizumab at a dose of 64 mg every 2 or 4 weeks, adalimumab (40 mg every 2 weeks), or placebo; all patients continued methotrexate therapy. The primary end point was an American College of Rheumatology 20 (ACR20) response (≥20% fewer tender and swollen joints and ≥20% improvement in three of five other domains) at week 12, with each olokizumab dose tested for superiority to placebo. We also tested the noninferiority of each olokizumab dose to adalimumab with respect to the percentage of patients with an ACR20 response (noninferiority margin, -12 percentage points in the lower boundary of the 97.5% confidence interval for the difference between groups).
Results
A total of 464 patients were assigned to receive olokizumab every 2 weeks, 479 to receive olokizumab every 4 weeks, 462 to receive adalimumab, and 243 to receive placebo. An ACR20 response at week 12 occurred in 44.4% of the patients receiving placebo, in 70.3% receiving olokizumab every 2 weeks (difference vs. placebo, 25.9 percentage points; 97.5% confidence interval [CI], 17.1 to 34.1), in 71.4% receiving olokizumab every 4 weeks (difference vs. placebo, 27.0 percentage points; 97.5% CI, 18.3 to 35.2), and in 66.9% receiving adalimumab (difference vs. placebo, 22.5 percentage points; 95% CI, 14.8 to 29.8) (P<0.001 for the superiority of each olokizumab dose to placebo). Both olokizumab doses were noninferior to adalimumab with respect to the percentage of patients with an ACR20 response at week 12 (difference, 3.4 percentage points [97.5% CI, -3.5 to 10.2] with olokizumab every 2 weeks and 4.5 percentage points [97.5% CI, -2.2 to 11.2] with olokizumab every 4 weeks). Adverse events, most commonly infections, occurred in approximately 70% of the patients who received olokizumab. Antibodies against olokizumab were detected in 3.8% of the patients receiving the drug every 2 weeks and in 5.1% of those receiving it every 4 weeks.
Conclusions
In patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were receiving maintenance methotrexate, olokizumab was superior to placebo and noninferior to adalimumab in producing an ACR20 response at 12 weeks. Larger and longer trials are required to determine the efficacy and safety of olokizumab in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (Supported by R-Pharm; CREDO2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02760407.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 25 Aug 2022; 387:715-726
Smolen JS, Feist E, Fatenejad S, Grishin SA, ... CREDO2 Group, CREDOZ Group
N Engl J Med: 25 Aug 2022; 387:715-726 | PMID: 36001712
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Abstract

Nirmatrelvir Use and Severe Covid-19 Outcomes during the Omicron Surge.

Arbel R, Wolff Sagy Y, Hoshen M, Battat E, ... Hammerman A, Netzer D
Background
The oral protease inhibitor nirmatrelvir has shown substantial efficacy in high-risk, unvaccinated patients infected with the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Data regarding the effectiveness of nirmatrelvir in preventing severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) outcomes from the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant are limited.
Methods
We obtained data for all members of Clalit Health Services who were 40 years of age or older at the start of the study period and were assessed as being eligible to receive nirmatrelvir therapy during the omicron surge. A Cox proportional-hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates was used to estimate the association of nirmatrelvir treatment with hospitalization and death due to Covid-19, with adjustment for sociodemographic factors, coexisting conditions, and previous SARS-CoV-2 immunity status.
Results
A total of 109,254 patients met the eligibility criteria, of whom 3902 (4%) received nirmatrelvir during the study period. Among patients 65 years of age or older, the rate of hospitalization due to Covid-19 was 14.7 cases per 100,000 person-days among treated patients as compared with 58.9 cases per 100,000 person-days among untreated patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15 to 0.49). The adjusted hazard ratio for death due to Covid-19 was 0.21 (95% CI, 0.05 to 0.82). Among patients 40 to 64 years of age, the rate of hospitalization due to Covid-19 was 15.2 cases per 100,000 person-days among treated patients and 15.8 cases per 100,000 person-days among untreated patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.35 to 1.58). The adjusted hazard ratio for death due to Covid-19 was 1.32 (95% CI, 0.16 to 10.75).
Conclusions
Among patients 65 years of age or older, the rates of hospitalization and death due to Covid-19 were significantly lower among those who received nirmatrelvir than among those who did not. No evidence of benefit was found in younger adults.

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 24 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Arbel R, Wolff Sagy Y, Hoshen M, Battat E, ... Hammerman A, Netzer D
N Engl J Med: 24 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36001529
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Abstract

Lower versus Higher Glycemic Criteria for Diagnosis of Gestational Diabetes.

Crowther CA, Samuel D, McCowan LME, Edlin R, ... McKinlay CJ, GEMS Trial Group
Background
Treatment of gestational diabetes improves maternal and infant health, although diagnostic criteria remain unclear.
Methods
We randomly assigned women at 24 to 32 weeks\' gestation in a 1:1 ratio to be evaluated for gestational diabetes with the use of lower or higher glycemic criteria for diagnosis. The lower glycemic criterion was a fasting plasma glucose level of at least 92 mg per deciliter (≥5.1 mmol per liter), a 1-hour level of at least 180 mg per deciliter (≥10.0 mmol per liter), or a 2-hour level of at least 153 mg per deciliter (≥8.5 mmol per liter). The higher glycemic criterion was a fasting plasma glucose level of at least 99 mg per deciliter (≥5.5 mmol per liter) or a 2-hour level of at least 162 mg per deciliter (≥9.0 mmol per liter). The primary outcome was the birth of an infant who was large for gestational age (defined as a birth weight above the 90th percentile according to Fenton-World Health Organization standards). Secondary outcomes were maternal and infant health.
Results
A total of 4061 women underwent randomization. Gestational diabetes was diagnosed in 310 of 2022 women (15.3%) in the lower-glycemic-criteria group and in 124 of 2039 women (6.1%) in the higher-glycemic-criteria group. Among 2019 infants born to women in the lower-glycemic-criteria group, 178 (8.8%) were large for gestational age, and among 2031 infants born to women in the higher-glycemic-criteria group, 181 (8.9%) were large for gestational age (adjusted relative risk, 0.98; 95% confidence interval, 0.80 to 1.19; P = 0.82). Induction of labor, use of health services, use of pharmacologic agents, and neonatal hypoglycemia were more common in the lower-glycemic-criteria group than in the higher-glycemic-criteria group. The results for the other secondary outcomes were similar in the two trial groups, and there were no substantial between-group differences in adverse events. Among the women in both groups who had glucose test results that fell between the lower and higher glycemic criteria, those who were treated for gestational diabetes (195 women), as compared with those who were not (178 women), had maternal and infant health benefits, including fewer large-for-gestational-age infants.
Conclusions
The use of lower glycemic criteria for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes did not result in a lower risk of a large-for-gestational-age infant than the use of higher glycemic criteria. (Funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and others; GEMS Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12615000290594.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 18 Aug 2022; 387:587-598
Crowther CA, Samuel D, McCowan LME, Edlin R, ... McKinlay CJ, GEMS Trial Group
N Engl J Med: 18 Aug 2022; 387:587-598 | PMID: 36070709
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Abstract

Randomized Trial of Metformin, Ivermectin, and Fluvoxamine for Covid-19.

Bramante CT, Huling JD, Tignanelli CJ, Buse JB, ... Murray TA, COVID-OUT Trial Team
Background
Early treatment to prevent severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) is an important component of the comprehensive response to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic.
Methods
In this phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we used a 2-by-3 factorial design to test the effectiveness of three repurposed drugs - metformin, ivermectin, and fluvoxamine - in preventing serious SARS-CoV-2 infection in nonhospitalized adults who had been enrolled within 3 days after a confirmed diagnosis of infection and less than 7 days after the onset of symptoms. The patients were between the ages of 30 and 85 years, and all had either overweight or obesity. The primary composite end point was hypoxemia (≤93% oxygen saturation on home oximetry), emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death. All analyses used controls who had undergone concurrent randomization and were adjusted for SARS-CoV-2 vaccination and receipt of other trial medications.
Results
A total of 1431 patients underwent randomization; of these patients, 1323 were included in the primary analysis. The median age of the patients was 46 years; 56% were female (6% of whom were pregnant), and 52% had been vaccinated. The adjusted odds ratio for a primary event was 0.84 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.09; P = 0.19) with metformin, 1.05 (95% CI, 0.76 to 1.45; P = 0.78) with ivermectin, and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.36; P = 0.75) with fluvoxamine. In prespecified secondary analyses, the adjusted odds ratio for emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death was 0.58 (95% CI, 0.35 to 0.94) with metformin, 1.39 (95% CI, 0.72 to 2.69) with ivermectin, and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.57 to 2.40) with fluvoxamine. The adjusted odds ratio for hospitalization or death was 0.47 (95% CI, 0.20 to 1.11) with metformin, 0.73 (95% CI, 0.19 to 2.77) with ivermectin, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.33 to 3.76) with fluvoxamine.
Conclusions
None of the three medications that were evaluated prevented the occurrence of hypoxemia, an emergency department visit, hospitalization, or death associated with Covid-19. (Funded by the Parsemus Foundation and others; COVID-OUT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04510194.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 18 Aug 2022; 387:599-610
Bramante CT, Huling JD, Tignanelli CJ, Buse JB, ... Murray TA, COVID-OUT Trial Team
N Engl J Med: 18 Aug 2022; 387:599-610 | PMID: 36070710
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Abstract

Removal of Small, Asymptomatic Kidney Stones and Incidence of Relapse.

Sorensen MD, Harper JD, Borofsky MS, Hameed TA, ... Liu Z, Lingeman JE
Background
The benefits of removing small (≤6 mm), asymptomatic kidney stones endoscopically is unknown. Current guidelines leave such decisions to the urologist and the patient. A prospective study involving older, nonendoscopic technology and some retrospective studies favor observation. However, published data indicate that about half of small renal stones left in place at the time that larger stones were removed caused other symptomatic events within 5 years after surgery.
Methods
We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial in which, during the endoscopic removal of ureteral or contralateral kidney stones, remaining small, asymptomatic stones were removed in 38 patients (treatment group) and were not removed in 35 patients (control group). The primary outcome was relapse as measured by future emergency department visits, surgeries, or growth of secondary stones.
Results
After a mean follow-up of 4.2 years, the treatment group had a longer time to relapse than the control group (P<0.001 by log-rank test). The restricted mean (±SE) time to relapse was 75% longer in the treatment group than in the control group (1631.6±72.8 days vs. 934.2±121.8 days). The risk of relapse was 82% lower in the treatment group than the control group (hazard ratio, 0.18; 95% confidence interval, 0.07 to 0.44), with 16% of patients in the treatment group having a relapse as compared with 63% of those in the control group. Treatment added a median of 25.6 minutes (interquartile range, 18.5 to 35.2) to the surgery time. Five patients in the treatment group and four in the control group had emergency department visits within 2 weeks after surgery. Eight patients in the treatment group and 10 in the control group reported passing kidney stones.
Conclusions
The removal of small, asymptomatic kidney stones during surgery to remove ureteral or contralateral kidney stones resulted in a lower incidence of relapse than nonremoval and in a similar number of emergency department visits related to the surgery. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and the Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02210650.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 11 Aug 2022; 387:506-513
Sorensen MD, Harper JD, Borofsky MS, Hameed TA, ... Liu Z, Lingeman JE
N Engl J Med: 11 Aug 2022; 387:506-513 | PMID: 35947709
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Abstract

Low-Dose Subcutaneous or Intravenous Monoclonal Antibody to Prevent Malaria.

Wu RL, Idris AH, Berkowitz NM, Happe M, ... Seder RA, VRC 614 Study Team
Background
New approaches for the prevention and elimination of malaria, a leading cause of illness and death among infants and young children globally, are needed.
Methods
We conducted a phase 1 clinical trial to assess the safety and pharmacokinetics of L9LS, a next-generation antimalarial monoclonal antibody, and its protective efficacy against controlled human malaria infection in healthy adults who had never had malaria or received a vaccine for malaria. The participants received L9LS either intravenously or subcutaneously at a dose of 1 mg, 5 mg, or 20 mg per kilogram of body weight. Within 2 to 6 weeks after the administration of L9LS, both the participants who received L9LS and the control participants underwent controlled human malaria infection in which they were exposed to mosquitoes carrying Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain).
Results
No safety concerns were identified. L9LS had an estimated half-life of 56 days, and it had dose linearity, with the highest mean (±SD) maximum serum concentration (Cmax) of 914.2±146.5 μg per milliliter observed in participants who had received 20 mg per kilogram intravenously and the lowest mean Cmax of 41.5±4.7 μg per milliliter observed in those who had received 1 mg per kilogram intravenously; the mean Cmax was 164.8±31.1 in the participants who had received 5 mg per kilogram intravenously and 68.9±22.3 in those who had received 5 mg per kilogram subcutaneously. A total of 17 L9LS recipients and 6 control participants underwent controlled human malaria infection. Of the 17 participants who received a single dose of L9LS, 15 (88%) were protected after controlled human malaria infection. Parasitemia did not develop in any of the participants who received 5 or 20 mg per kilogram of intravenous L9LS. Parasitemia developed in 1 of 5 participants who received 1 mg per kilogram intravenously, 1 of 5 participants who received 5 mg per kilogram subcutaneously, and all 6 control participants through 21 days after the controlled human malaria infection. Protection conferred by L9LS was seen at serum concentrations as low as 9.2 μg per milliliter.
Conclusions
In this small trial, L9LS administered intravenously or subcutaneously protected recipients against malaria after controlled infection, without evident safety concerns. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; VRC 614 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT05019729.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 04 Aug 2022; 387:397-407
Wu RL, Idris AH, Berkowitz NM, Happe M, ... Seder RA, VRC 614 Study Team
N Engl J Med: 04 Aug 2022; 387:397-407 | PMID: 35921449
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Impact:
Abstract

Trial of Cinpanemab in Early Parkinson\'s Disease.

Lang AE, Siderowf AD, Macklin EA, Poewe W, ... Dam T, SPARK Investigators
Background
Aggregated α-synuclein plays an important role in Parkinson\'s disease pathogenesis. Cinpanemab, a human-derived monoclonal antibody that binds to α-synuclein, is being evaluated as a disease-modifying treatment for Parkinson\'s disease.
Methods
In a 52-week, multicenter, double-blind, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 2:1:2:2 ratio, participants with early Parkinson\'s disease to receive intravenous infusions of placebo (control) or cinpanemab at a dose of 250 mg, 1250 mg, or 3500 mg every 4 weeks, followed by an active-treatment dose-blinded extension period for up to 112 weeks. The primary end points were the changes from baseline in the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson\'s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS) total score (range, 0 to 236, with higher scores indicating worse performance) at weeks 52 and 72. Secondary end points included MDS-UPDRS subscale scores and striatal binding as assessed on dopamine transporter single-photon-emission computed tomography (DaT-SPECT).
Results
Of the 357 enrolled participants, 100 were assigned to the control group, 55 to the 250-mg cinpanemab group, 102 to the 1250-mg group, and 100 to the 3500-mg group. The trial was stopped after the week 72 interim analysis owing to lack of efficacy. The change to week 52 in the MDS-UPDRS score was 10.8 points in the control group, 10.5 points in the 250-mg group, 11.3 points in the 1250-mg group, and 10.9 points in the 3500-mg group (adjusted mean difference vs. control, -0.3 points [95% confidence interval {CI}, -4.9 to 4.3], P = 0.90; 0.5 points [95% CI, -3.3 to 4.3], P = 0.80; and 0.1 point [95% CI, -3.8 to 4.0], P = 0.97, respectively). The adjusted mean difference at 72 weeks between participants who received cinpanemab through 72 weeks and the pooled group of those who started cinpanemab at 52 weeks was -0.9 points (95% CI, -5.6 to 3.8) for the 250-mg dose, 0.6 points (95% CI, -3.3 to 4.4) for the 1250-mg dose, and -0.8 points (95% CI, -4.6 to 3.0) for the 3500-mg dose. Results for secondary end points were similar to those for the primary end points. DaT-SPECT imaging at week 52 showed no differences between the control group and any cinpanemab group. The most common adverse events with cinpanemab were headache, nasopharyngitis, and falls.
Conclusions
In participants with early Parkinson\'s disease, the effects of cinpanemab on clinical measures of disease progression and changes in DaT-SPECT imaging did not differ from those of placebo over a 52-week period. (Funded by Biogen; SPARK ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03318523.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 04 Aug 2022; 387:408-420
Lang AE, Siderowf AD, Macklin EA, Poewe W, ... Dam T, SPARK Investigators
N Engl J Med: 04 Aug 2022; 387:408-420 | PMID: 35921450
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Abstract

Trial of Prasinezumab in Early-Stage Parkinson\'s Disease.

Pagano G, Taylor KI, Anzures-Cabrera J, Marchesi M, ... Bonni A, PASADENA Investigators and Prasinezumab Study Group
Background
Aggregated α-synuclein plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson\'s disease. The monoclonal antibody prasinezumab, directed at aggregated α-synuclein, is being studied for its effect on Parkinson\'s disease.
Methods
In this phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned participants with early-stage Parkinson\'s disease in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive intravenous placebo or prasinezumab at a dose of 1500 mg or 4500 mg every 4 weeks for 52 weeks. The primary end point was the change from baseline to week 52 in the sum of scores on parts I, II, and III of the Movement Disorder Society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson\'s Disease Rating Scale (MDS-UPDRS; range, 0 to 236, with higher scores indicating greater impairment). Secondary end points included the dopamine transporter levels in the putamen of the hemisphere ipsilateral to the clinically more affected side of the body, as measured by 123I-ioflupane single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT).
Results
A total of 316 participants were enrolled; 105 were assigned to receive placebo, 105 to receive 1500 mg of prasinezumab, and 106 to receive 4500 mg of prasinezumab. The baseline mean MDS-UPDRS scores were 32.0 in the placebo group, 31.5 in the 1500-mg group, and 30.8 in the 4500-mg group, and mean (±SE) changes from baseline to 52 weeks were 9.4±1.2 in the placebo group, 7.4±1.2 in the 1500-mg group (difference vs. placebo, -2.0; 80% confidence interval [CI], -4.2 to 0.2; P = 0.24), and 8.8±1.2 in the 4500-mg group (difference vs. placebo, -0.6; 80% CI, -2.8 to 1.6; P = 0.72). There was no substantial difference between the active-treatment groups and the placebo group in dopamine transporter levels on SPECT. The results for most clinical secondary end points were similar in the active-treatment groups and the placebo group. Serious adverse events occurred in 6.7% of the participants in the 1500-mg group and in 7.5% of those in the 4500-mg group; infusion reactions occurred in 19.0% and 34.0%, respectively.
Conclusions
Prasinezumab therapy had no meaningful effect on global or imaging measures of Parkinson\'s disease progression as compared with placebo and was associated with infusion reactions. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche and Prothena Biosciences; PASADENA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03100149.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 04 Aug 2022; 387:421-432
Pagano G, Taylor KI, Anzures-Cabrera J, Marchesi M, ... Bonni A, PASADENA Investigators and Prasinezumab Study Group
N Engl J Med: 04 Aug 2022; 387:421-432 | PMID: 35921451
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Abstract

Supplemental Vitamin D and Incident Fractures in Midlife and Older Adults.

LeBoff MS, Chou SH, Ratliff KA, Cook NR, ... Buring JE, Manson JE
Background
Vitamin D supplements are widely recommended for bone health in the general population, but data on whether they prevent fractures have been inconsistent.
Methods
In an ancillary study of the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL), we tested whether supplemental vitamin D3 would result in a lower risk of fractures than placebo. VITAL was a two-by-two factorial, randomized, controlled trial that investigated whether supplemental vitamin D3 (2000 IU per day), n-3 fatty acids (1 g per day), or both would prevent cancer and cardiovascular disease in men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States. Participants were not recruited on the basis of vitamin D deficiency, low bone mass, or osteoporosis. Incident fractures were reported by participants on annual questionnaires and adjudicated by centralized medical-record review. The primary end points were incident total, nonvertebral, and hip fractures. Proportional-hazards models were used to estimate the treatment effect in intention-to-treat analyses.
Results
Among 25,871 participants (50.6% women [13,085 of 25,871] and 20.2% Black [5106 of 25,304]), we confirmed 1991 incident fractures in 1551 participants over a median follow-up of 5.3 years. Supplemental vitamin D3, as compared with placebo, did not have a significant effect on total fractures (which occurred in 769 of 12,927 participants in the vitamin D group and in 782 of 12,944 participants in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.98; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89 to 1.08; P = 0.70), nonvertebral fractures (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.07; P = 0.50), or hip fractures (hazard ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.70 to 1.47; P = 0.96). There was no modification of the treatment effect according to baseline characteristics, including age, sex, race or ethnic group, body-mass index, or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. There were no substantial between-group differences in adverse events as assessed in the parent trial.
Conclusions
Vitamin D3 supplementation did not result in a significantly lower risk of fractures than placebo among generally healthy midlife and older adults who were not selected for vitamin D deficiency, low bone mass, or osteoporosis. (Funded by the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases; VITAL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01704859.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Jul 2022; 387:299-309
LeBoff MS, Chou SH, Ratliff KA, Cook NR, ... Buring JE, Manson JE
N Engl J Med: 28 Jul 2022; 387:299-309 | PMID: 35939577
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Abstract

Trial of Anti-BDCA2 Antibody Litifilimab for Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus.

Werth VP, Furie RA, Romero-Diaz J, Navarra S, ... LILAC Trial Investigators, Werth Trial Investigators
Background
Blood dendritic cell antigen 2 (BDCA2) is a receptor that is exclusively expressed on plasmacytoid dendritic cells, which are implicated in the pathogenesis of lupus erythematosus. Whether treatment with litifilimab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against BDCA2, would be efficacious in reducing disease activity in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus has not been extensively studied.
Methods
In this phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned adults with histologically confirmed cutaneous lupus erythematosus with or without systemic manifestations in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive subcutaneous litifilimab (at a dose of 50, 150, or 450 mg) or placebo at weeks 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12. We used a dose-response model to assess whether there was a response across the four groups on the basis of the primary end point, which was the percent change from baseline to 16 weeks in the Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index-Activity score (CLASI-A; scores range from 0 to 70, with higher scores indicating more widespread or severe skin involvement). Safety was also assessed.
Results
A total of 132 participants were enrolled; 26 were assigned to the 50-mg litifilimab group, 25 to the 150-mg litifilimab group, 48 to the 450-mg litifilimab group, and 33 to the placebo group. Mean CLASI-A scores for the groups at baseline were 15.2, 18.4, 16.5, and 16.5, respectively. The difference from placebo in the change from baseline in CLASI-A score at week 16 was -24.3 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI] -43.7 to -4.9) in the 50-mg litifilimab group, -33.4 percentage points (95% CI, -52.7 to -14.1) in the 150-mg group, and -28.0 percentage points (95% CI, -44.6 to -11.4) in the 450-mg group. The least squares mean changes were used in the primary analysis of a best-fitting dose-response model across the three drug-dose levels and placebo, which showed a significant effect. Most of the secondary end points did not support the results of the primary analysis. Litifilimab was associated with three cases each of hypersensitivity and oral herpes infection and one case of herpes zoster infection. One case of herpes zoster meningitis occurred 4 months after the participant received the last dose of litifilimab.
Conclusions
In a phase 2 trial involving participants with cutaneous lupus erythematosus, treatment with litifilimab was superior to placebo with regard to a measure of skin disease activity over a period of 16 weeks. Larger and longer trials are needed to determine the effect and safety of litifilimab for the treatment of cutaneous lupus erythematosus. (Funded by Biogen; LILAC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02847598.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Jul 2022; 387:321-331
Werth VP, Furie RA, Romero-Diaz J, Navarra S, ... LILAC Trial Investigators, Werth Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 28 Jul 2022; 387:321-331 | PMID: 35939578
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Abstract

Germline Mutations in and Protection against Liver Disease.

Verweij N, Haas ME, Nielsen JB, Sosina OA, ... Baras A, Lotta LA
Background
Exome sequencing in hundreds of thousands of persons may enable the identification of rare protein-coding genetic variants associated with protection from human diseases like liver cirrhosis, providing a strategy for the discovery of new therapeutic targets.
Methods
We performed a multistage exome sequencing and genetic association analysis to identify genes in which rare protein-coding variants were associated with liver phenotypes. We conducted in vitro experiments to further characterize associations.
Results
The multistage analysis involved 542,904 persons with available data on liver aminotransferase levels, 24,944 patients with various types of liver disease, and 490,636 controls without liver disease. We found that rare coding variants in APOB, ABCB4, SLC30A10, and TM6SF2 were associated with increased aminotransferase levels and an increased risk of liver disease. We also found that variants in CIDEB, which encodes a structural protein found in hepatic lipid droplets, had a protective effect. The burden of rare predicted loss-of-function variants plus missense variants in CIDEB (combined carrier frequency, 0.7%) was associated with decreased alanine aminotransferase levels (beta per allele, -1.24 U per liter; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.66 to -0.83; P = 4.8×10-9) and with 33% lower odds of liver disease of any cause (odds ratio per allele, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.79; P = 9.9×10-7). Rare coding variants in CIDEB were associated with a decreased risk of liver disease across different underlying causes and different degrees of severity, including cirrhosis of any cause (odds ratio per allele, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.70). Among 3599 patients who had undergone bariatric surgery, rare coding variants in CIDEB were associated with a decreased nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (beta per allele in score units, -0.98; 95% CI, -1.54 to -0.41 [scores range from 0 to 8, with higher scores indicating more severe disease]). In human hepatoma cell lines challenged with oleate, CIDEB small interfering RNA knockdown prevented the buildup of large lipid droplets.
Conclusions
Rare germline mutations in CIDEB conferred substantial protection from liver disease. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Jul 2022; 387:332-344
Verweij N, Haas ME, Nielsen JB, Sosina OA, ... Baras A, Lotta LA
N Engl J Med: 28 Jul 2022; 387:332-344 | PMID: 35939579
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Abstract

Monkeypox Virus Infection in Humans across 16 Countries - April-June 2022.

Thornhill JP, Barkati S, Walmsley S, Rockstroh J, ... Orkin CM, SHARE-net Clinical Group
Background
Before April 2022, monkeypox virus infection in humans was seldom reported outside African regions where it is endemic. Currently, cases are occurring worldwide. Transmission, risk factors, clinical presentation, and outcomes of infection are poorly defined.
Methods
We formed an international collaborative group of clinicians who contributed to an international case series to describe the presentation, clinical course, and outcomes of polymerase-chain-reaction-confirmed monkeypox virus infections.
Results
We report 528 infections diagnosed between April 27 and June 24, 2022, at 43 sites in 16 countries. Overall, 98% of the persons with infection were gay or bisexual men, 75% were White, and 41% had human immunodeficiency virus infection; the median age was 38 years. Transmission was suspected to have occurred through sexual activity in 95% of the persons with infection. In this case series, 95% of the persons presented with a rash (with 64% having <10 lesions), 73% had anogenital lesions, and 41% had mucosal lesions (with 54 having a single genital lesion). Common systemic features preceding the rash included fever (62%), lethargy (41%), myalgia (31%), and headache (27%); lymphadenopathy was also common (reported in 56%). Concomitant sexually transmitted infections were reported in 109 of 377 persons (29%) who were tested. Among the 23 persons with a clear exposure history, the median incubation period was 7 days (range, 3 to 20). Monkeypox virus DNA was detected in 29 of the 32 persons in whom seminal fluid was analyzed. Antiviral treatment was given to 5% of the persons overall, and 70 (13%) were hospitalized; the reasons for hospitalization were pain management, mostly for severe anorectal pain (21 persons); soft-tissue superinfection (18); pharyngitis limiting oral intake (5); eye lesions (2); acute kidney injury (2); myocarditis (2); and infection-control purposes (13). No deaths were reported.
Conclusions
In this case series, monkeypox manifested with a variety of dermatologic and systemic clinical findings. The simultaneous identification of cases outside areas where monkeypox has traditionally been endemic highlights the need for rapid identification and diagnosis of cases to contain further community spread.

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Thornhill JP, Barkati S, Walmsley S, Rockstroh J, ... Orkin CM, SHARE-net Clinical Group
N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35866746
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Abstract

Pembrolizumab plus Chemotherapy in Advanced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Cortes J, Rugo HS, Cescon DW, Im SA, ... Schmid P, KEYNOTE-355 Investigators
Background
In an interim analysis of this phase 3 trial, the addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone among patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer whose tumors expressed programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) with a combined positive score (CPS; the number of PD-L1-staining tumor cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages, divided by the total number of viable tumor cells, multiplied by 100) of 10 or more. The results of the final analysis of overall survival have not been reported.
Methods
We randomly assigned patients with previously untreated locally recurrent inoperable or metastatic triple-negative breast cancer in a 2:1 ratio to receive pembrolizumab (200 mg) every 3 weeks plus the investigator\'s choice of chemotherapy (nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel, paclitaxel, or gemcitabine-carboplatin) or placebo plus chemotherapy. The primary end points were progression-free survival (reported previously) and overall survival among patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 with a CPS of 10 or more (the CPS-10 subgroup), among patients whose tumors expressed PD-L1 with a CPS of 1 or more (the CPS-1 subgroup), and in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was also assessed.
Results
A total of 847 patients underwent randomization: 566 were assigned to the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group, and 281 to the placebo-chemotherapy group. The median follow-up was 44.1 months. In the CPS-10 subgroup, the median overall survival was 23.0 months in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and 16.1 months in the placebo-chemotherapy group (hazard ratio for death, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.55 to 0.95; two-sided P = 0.0185 [criterion for significance met]); in the CPS-1 subgroup, the median overall survival was 17.6 and 16.0 months in the two groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.04; two-sided P = 0.1125 [not significant]); and in the intention-to-treat population, the median overall survival was 17.2 and 15.5 months, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.05 [significance not tested]). Adverse events of grade 3, 4, or 5 that were related to the trial regimen occurred in 68.1% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and in 66.9% in the placebo-chemotherapy group, including death in 0.4% of the patients in the pembrolizumab-chemotherapy group and in no patients in the placebo-chemotherapy group.
Conclusions
Among patients with advanced triple-negative breast cancer whose tumors expressed PD-L1 with a CPS of 10 or more, the addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly longer overall survival than chemotherapy alone. (Funded by Merck Sharp and Dohme; KEYNOTE-355 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02819518.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2022; 387:217-226
Cortes J, Rugo HS, Cescon DW, Im SA, ... Schmid P, KEYNOTE-355 Investigators
N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2022; 387:217-226 | PMID: 35857659
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Abstract

Phase 1-2 Trial of AAVS3 Gene Therapy in Patients with Hemophilia B.

Chowdary P, Shapiro S, Makris M, Evans G, ... Long A, Nathwani A
Background
FLT180a (verbrinacogene setparvovec) is a liver-directed adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene therapy that uses a synthetic capsid and a gain-of-function protein to normalize factor IX levels in patients with hemophilia B.
Methods
In this multicenter, open-label, phase 1-2 trial, we assessed the safety and efficacy of varying doses of FLT180a in patients with severe or moderately severe hemophilia B (factor IX level, ≤2% of normal value). All the patients received glucocorticoids with or without tacrolimus for immunosuppression to decrease the risk of vector-related immune responses. After 26 weeks, patients were enrolled in a long-term follow-up study. The primary end points were safety and efficacy, as assessed by factor IX levels at week 26.
Results
Ten patients received one of four FLT180a doses of vector genomes (vg) per kilogram of body weight: 3.84×1011 vg, 6.40×1011 vg, 8.32×1011 vg, or 1.28×1012 vg. After receiving the infusion, all the patients had dose-dependent increases in factor IX levels. At a median follow-up of 27.2 months (range, 19.1 to 42.4), sustained factor IX activity was observed in all the patients except one, who resumed factor IX prophylaxis. As of the data-cutoff date (September 20, 2021), five patients had normal factor IX levels (range, 51 to 78%), three patients had levels from 23 to 43%, and one had a level of 260%. Of the reported adverse events, approximately 10% were related to FLT180a and 24% to immunosuppression. Increases in liver aminotransferase levels were the most common FLT180a-related adverse events. Late increases in aminotransferase levels occurred in patients who had received prolonged tacrolimus beyond the glucocorticoid taper. A serious adverse event of arteriovenous fistula thrombosis occurred in the patient with high factor IX levels.
Conclusions
Sustained factor IX levels in the normal range were observed with low doses of FLT180a but necessitated immunosuppression with glucocorticoids with or without tacrolimus. (Funded by Freeline Therapeutics; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03369444 and NCT03641703; EudraCT numbers, 2017-000852-24 and 2017-005080-40.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2022; 387:237-247
Chowdary P, Shapiro S, Makris M, Evans G, ... Long A, Nathwani A
N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2022; 387:237-247 | PMID: 35857660
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Abstract

Effectiveness of BNT162b2 Vaccine against Omicron in Children 5 to 11 Years of Age.

Tan SHX, Cook AR, Heng D, Ong B, Lye DC, Tan KB
Background
Since it was first identified in early November 2021, the B.1.1.529 (omicron) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread quickly and replaced the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant as the dominant variant in many countries. Data on the real-world effectiveness of vaccines against the omicron variant in children are lacking.
Methods
In a study conducted from January 21, 2022, through April 8, 2022, when the omicron variant was spreading rapidly, we analyzed data on children in Singapore who were 5 to 11 years of age. We assessed the incidences of all reported SARS-CoV-2 infections (confirmed on polymerase-chain-reaction [PCR] assay, rapid antigen testing, or both), SARS-CoV-2 infections confirmed on PCR assay, and coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19)-related hospitalizations among unvaccinated, partially vaccinated (≥1 day after the first dose of vaccine and up to 6 days after the second dose), and fully vaccinated children (≥7 days after the second dose). Poisson regression was used to estimate vaccine effectiveness from the incidence rate ratio of outcomes.
Results
A total of 255,936 children were included in the analysis. Among unvaccinated children, the crude incidence rates of all reported SARS-CoV-2 infections, PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections, and Covid-19-related hospitalizations were 3303.5, 473.8, and 30.0 per 1 million person-days, respectively. Among partially vaccinated children, vaccine effectiveness was 13.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 11.7 to 15.5) against all SARS-CoV-2 infections, 24.3% (95% CI, 19.5 to 28.9) against PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 42.3% (95% CI, 24.9 to 55.7) against Covid-19-related hospitalization; in fully vaccinated children, vaccine effectiveness was 36.8% (95% CI, 35.3 to 38.2), 65.3% (95% CI, 62.0 to 68.3), and 82.7% (95% CI, 74.8 to 88.2), respectively.
Conclusions
During a period when the omicron variant was predominant, BNT162b2 vaccination reduced the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection and Covid-19-related hospitalization among children 5 to 11 years of age.

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 20 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Tan SHX, Cook AR, Heng D, Ong B, Lye DC, Tan KB
N Engl J Med: 20 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35857701
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Abstract

Trial of Erythropoietin for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns.

Wu YW, Comstock BA, Gonzalez FF, Mayock DE, ... Juul SE, HEAL Consortium
Background
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is an important cause of death as well as long-term disability in survivors. Erythropoietin has been hypothesized to have neuroprotective effects in infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but its effects on neurodevelopmental outcomes when given in conjunction with therapeutic hypothermia are unknown.
Methods
In a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we assigned 501 infants born at 36 weeks or more of gestation with moderate or severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to receive erythropoietin or placebo, in conjunction with standard therapeutic hypothermia. Erythropoietin (1000 U per kilogram of body weight) or saline placebo was administered intravenously within 26 hours after birth, as well as at 2, 3, 4, and 7 days of age. The primary outcome was death or neurodevelopmental impairment at 22 to 36 months of age. Neurodevelopmental impairment was defined as cerebral palsy, a Gross Motor Function Classification System level of at least 1 (on a scale of 0 [normal] to 5 [most impaired]), or a cognitive score of less than 90 (which corresponds to 0.67 SD below the mean, with higher scores indicating better performance) on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, third edition.
Results
Of 500 infants in the modified intention-to-treat analysis, 257 received erythropoietin and 243 received placebo. The incidence of death or neurodevelopmental impairment was 52.5% in the erythropoietin group and 49.5% in the placebo group (relative risk, 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.24; P = 0.74). The mean number of serious adverse events per child was higher in the erythropoietin group than in the placebo group (0.86 vs. 0.67; relative risk, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.57).
Conclusions
The administration of erythropoietin to newborns undergoing therapeutic hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy did not result in a lower risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment than placebo and was associated with a higher rate of serious adverse events. (Funded by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02811263.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 14 Jul 2022; 387:148-159
Wu YW, Comstock BA, Gonzalez FF, Mayock DE, ... Juul SE, HEAL Consortium
N Engl J Med: 14 Jul 2022; 387:148-159 | PMID: 35830641
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Abstract

Aflibercept Monotherapy or Bevacizumab First for Diabetic Macular Edema.

Jhaveri CD, Glassman AR, Ferris FL, Liu D, ... Sun JK, DRCR Retina Network
Background
In eyes with diabetic macular edema, the relative efficacy of administering aflibercept monotherapy as compared with bevacizumab first with a switch to aflibercept if the eye condition does not improve sufficiently (a form of step therapy) is unclear.
Methods
At 54 clinical sites, we randomly assigned eyes in adults who had diabetic macular edema involving the macular center and a visual-acuity letter score of 24 to 69 (on a scale from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better visual acuity; Snellen equivalent, 20/320 to 20/50) to receive either 2.0 mg of intravitreous aflibercept or 1.25 mg of intravitreous bevacizumab. The drug was administered at randomization and thereafter according to the prespecified retreatment protocol. Beginning at 12 weeks, eyes in the bevacizumab-first group were switched to aflibercept therapy if protocol-specified criteria were met. The primary outcome was the mean change in visual acuity over the 2-year trial period. Retinal central subfield thickness and visual acuity at 2 years and safety were also assessed.
Results
A total of 312 eyes (in 270 adults) underwent randomization; 158 eyes were assigned to receive aflibercept monotherapy and 154 to receive bevacizumab first. Over the 2-year period, 70% of the eyes in the bevacizumab-first group were switched to aflibercept therapy. The mean improvement in visual acuity was 15.0 letters in the aflibercept-monotherapy group and 14.0 letters in the bevacizumab-first group (adjusted difference, 0.8 letters; 95% confidence interval, -0.9 to 2.5; P = 0.37). At 2 years, the mean changes in visual acuity and retinal central subfield thickness were similar in the two groups. Serious adverse events (in 52% of the patients in the aflibercept-monotherapy group and in 36% of those in the bevacizumab-first group) and hospitalizations for adverse events (in 48% and 32%, respectively) were more common in the aflibercept-monotherapy group.
Conclusions
In this trial of treatment of moderate vision loss due to diabetic macular edema involving the center of the macula, we found no evidence of a significant difference in visual outcomes over a 2-year period between aflibercept monotherapy and treatment with bevacizumab first with a switch to aflibercept in the case of suboptimal response. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health; Protocol AC ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03321513.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 14 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Jhaveri CD, Glassman AR, Ferris FL, Liu D, ... Sun JK, DRCR Retina Network
N Engl J Med: 14 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35833805
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Abstract

Clinical Spectrum of Children with Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Cause.

Kelgeri C, Couper M, Gupte GL, Brant A, ... Sharif K, Hartley J
Background
Since January 2022, there has been an increase in reports of cases of acute hepatitis of unknown cause in children. Although cases have been reported across multiple continents, most have been reported in the United Kingdom. Investigations are ongoing to identify the causative agent or agents.
Methods
We conducted a retrospective study involving children referred to a single pediatric liver-transplantation center in the United Kingdom between January 1 and April 11, 2022. These children were 10 years of age or younger and had hepatitis that met the case definition of the U.K. Health Security Agency for confirmed acute hepatitis that was not hepatitis A through E and did not have a metabolic, inherited or genetic, congenital, or mechanical cause, in the context of a serum aminotransferase level greater than 500 IU per liter. We reviewed medical records and documented demographic characteristics, clinical features, and results of liver biochemical, serologic, and molecular tests for hepatotropic and other viruses, as well as radiologic and clinical outcomes. The outcomes were classified as an improving condition, liver transplantation, or death.
Results
A total of 44 children had hepatitis that met the confirmed case definition, and most were previously healthy. The median age was 4 years (range, 1 to 7). Common presenting features were jaundice (in 93% of the children), vomiting (in 54%), and diarrhea (in 32%). Among the 30 patients who underwent molecular testing for human adenovirus, 27 (90%) were positive. Fulminant liver failure developed in 6 patients (14%), all of whom received a liver transplant. None of the patients died. All the children, including the 6 who received liver transplants, were discharged home.
Conclusions
In this series involving 44 young children with acute hepatitis of uncertain cause, human adenovirus was isolated in most of the children, but its role in the pathogenesis of this illness has not been established.

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 13 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Kelgeri C, Couper M, Gupte GL, Brant A, ... Sharif K, Hartley J
N Engl J Med: 13 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35830627
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Abstract

Overall Survival with Brentuximab Vedotin in Stage III or IV Hodgkin\'s Lymphoma.

Ansell SM, Radford J, Connors JM, Długosz-Danecka M, ... Straus DJ, ECHELON-1 Study Group
Background
Five-year follow-up in a trial involving patients with previously untreated stage III or IV classic Hodgkin\'s lymphoma showed long-term progression-free survival benefits with first-line therapy with brentuximab vedotin, a CD30-directed antibody-drug conjugate, plus doxorubicin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (A+AVD), as compared with doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD). A planned interim analysis indicated a potential benefit with regard to overall survival; data from a median of 6 years of follow-up are now available.
Methods
We randomly assigned patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive up to six cycles of A+AVD or ABVD. The primary end point, modified progression-free survival, has been reported previously. The key secondary end point was overall survival in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was also assessed.
Results
A total of 664 patients were assigned to receive A+AVD and 670 to receive ABVD. At a median follow-up of 73.0 months, 39 patients in the A+AVD group and 64 in the ABVD group had died (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.88; P = 0.009). The 6-year overall survival estimates were 93.9% (95% CI, 91.6 to 95.5) in the A+AVD group and 89.4% (95% CI, 86.6 to 91.7) in the ABVD group. Progression-free survival was longer with A+AVD than with ABVD (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.86). Fewer patients in the A+AVD group than in the ABVD group received subsequent therapy, including transplantation, and fewer second cancers were reported with A+AVD (in 23 vs. 32 patients). Primary prophylaxis with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor was recommended after an increased incidence of febrile neutropenia was observed with A+AVD. More patients had peripheral neuropathy with A+AVD than with ABVD, but most patients in the two groups had resolution or amelioration of the event by the last follow-up.
Conclusions
Patients who received A+AVD for the treatment of stage III or IV Hodgkin\'s lymphoma had a survival advantage over those who received ABVD. (Funded by Takeda Development Center Americas and Seagen; ECHELON-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01712490; EudraCT number, 2011-005450-60.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 13 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Ansell SM, Radford J, Connors JM, Długosz-Danecka M, ... Straus DJ, ECHELON-1 Study Group
N Engl J Med: 13 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35830649
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Abstract

A Case Series of Children with Acute Hepatitis and Human Adenovirus Infection.

Gutierrez Sanchez LH, Shiau H, Baker JM, Saaybi S, ... Tate JE, Kirking HL
Background
Human adenoviruses typically cause self-limited respiratory, gastrointestinal, and conjunctival infections in healthy children. In late 2021 and early 2022, several previously healthy children were identified with acute hepatitis and human adenovirus viremia.
Methods
We used International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes to identify all children (<18 years of age) with hepatitis who were admitted to Children\'s of Alabama hospital between October 1, 2021, and February 28, 2022; those with acute hepatitis who also tested positive for human adenovirus by whole-blood quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were included in our case series. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and treatment data were obtained from medical records. Residual blood specimens were sent for diagnostic confirmation and human adenovirus typing.
Results
A total of 15 children were identified with acute hepatitis - 6 (40%) who had hepatitis with an identified cause and 9 (60%) who had hepatitis without a known cause. Eight (89%) of the patients with hepatitis of unknown cause tested positive for human adenovirus. These 8 patients plus 1 additional patient referred to this facility for follow-up were included in this case series (median age, 2 years 11 months; age range, 1 year 1 month to 6 years 5 months). Liver biopsies indicated mild-to-moderate active hepatitis in 6 children, some with and some without cholestasis, but did not show evidence of human adenovirus on immunohistochemical examination or electron microscopy. PCR testing of liver tissue for human adenovirus was positive in 3 children (50%). Sequencing of specimens from 5 children showed three distinct human adenovirus type 41 hexon variants. Two children underwent liver transplantation; all the others recovered with supportive care.
Conclusions
Human adenovirus viremia was present in the majority of children with acute hepatitis of unknown cause admitted to Children\'s of Alabama from October 1, 2021, to February 28, 2022, but whether human adenovirus was causative remains unclear. Sequencing results suggest that if human adenovirus was causative, this was not an outbreak driven by a single strain. (Funded in part by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 13 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Gutierrez Sanchez LH, Shiau H, Baker JM, Saaybi S, ... Tate JE, Kirking HL
N Engl J Med: 13 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35830653
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Abstract

Oncolytic DNX-2401 Virus for Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Glioma.

Gállego Pérez-Larraya J, Garcia-Moure M, Labiano S, Patiño-García A, ... Tejada S, Alonso MM
Background
Pediatric patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) have a poor prognosis, with a median survival of less than 1 year. Oncolytic viral therapy has been evaluated in patients with pediatric gliomas elsewhere in the brain, but data regarding oncolytic viral therapy in patients with DIPG are lacking.
Methods
We conducted a single-center, dose-escalation study of DNX-2401, an oncolytic adenovirus that selectively replicates in tumor cells, in patients with newly diagnosed DIPG. The patients received a single virus infusion through a catheter placed in the cerebellar peduncle, followed by radiotherapy. The primary objective was to assess the safety and adverse-event profile of DNX-2401. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effect of DNX-2401 on overall survival and quality of life, to determine the percentage of patients who have an objective response, and to collect tumor-biopsy and peripheral-blood samples for correlative studies of the molecular features of DIPG and antitumor immune responses.
Results
A total of 12 patients, 3 to 18 years of age, with newly diagnosed DIPG received 1×1010 (the first 4 patients) or 5×1010 (the subsequent 8 patients) viral particles of DNX-2401, and 11 received subsequent radiotherapy. Adverse events among the patients included headache, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. Hemiparesis and tetraparesis developed in 1 patient each. Over a median follow-up of 17.8 months (range, 5.9 to 33.5), a reduction in tumor size, as assessed on magnetic resonance imaging, was reported in 9 patients, a partial response in 3 patients, and stable disease in 8 patients. The median survival was 17.8 months. Two patients were alive at the time of preparation of the current report, 1 of whom was free of tumor progression at 38 months. Examination of a tumor sample obtained during autopsy from 1 patient and peripheral-blood studies revealed alteration of the tumor microenvironment and T-cell repertoire.
Conclusions
Intratumoral infusion of oncolytic virus DNX-2401 followed by radiotherapy in pediatric patients with DIPG resulted in changes in T-cell activity and a reduction in or stabilization of tumor size in some patients but was associated with adverse events. (Funded by the European Research Council under the European Union\'s Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Program and others; EudraCT number, 2016-001577-33; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03178032.).

Copyright © 2022 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 30 Jun 2022; 386:2471-2481
Gállego Pérez-Larraya J, Garcia-Moure M, Labiano S, Patiño-García A, ... Tejada S, Alonso MM
N Engl J Med: 30 Jun 2022; 386:2471-2481 | PMID: 35767439
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This program is still in alpha version.