Journal: N Engl J Med

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Abstract

Single-Dose Nirsevimab for Prevention of RSV in Preterm Infants.

Griffin MP, Yuan Y, Takas T, Domachowske JB, ... DeVincenzo JP,
Background
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants, and a need exists for prevention of RSV in healthy infants. Nirsevimab is a monoclonal antibody with an extended half-life that is being developed to protect infants for an entire RSV season with a single intramuscular dose.
Methods
In this trial conducted in both northern and southern hemispheres, we evaluated nirsevimab for the prevention of RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection in healthy infants who had been born preterm (29 weeks 0 days to 34 weeks 6 days of gestation). We randomly assigned the infants in a 2:1 ratio to receive nirsevimab, at a dose of 50 mg in a single intramuscular injection, or placebo at the start of an RSV season. The primary end point was medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection through 150 days after administration of the dose. The secondary efficacy end point was hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection through 150 days after administration of the dose.
Results
From November 2016 through November 2017, a total of 1453 infants were randomly assigned to receive nirsevimab (969 infants) or placebo (484 infants) at the start of the RSV season. The incidence of medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection was 70.1% lower (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.3 to 81.2) with nirsevimab prophylaxis than with placebo (2.6% [25 infants] vs. 9.5% [46 infants]; P<0.001) and the incidence of hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection was 78.4% lower (95% CI, 51.9 to 90.3) with nirsevimab than with placebo (0.8% [8 infants] vs. 4.1% [20 infants]; P<0.001). These differences were consistent throughout the 150-day period after the dose was administered and across geographic locations and RSV subtypes. Adverse events were similar in the two trial groups, with no notable hypersensitivity reactions.
Conclusions
A single injection of nirsevimab resulted in fewer medically attended RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infections and hospitalizations than placebo throughout the RSV season in healthy preterm infants. (Funded by AstraZeneca and Sanofi Pasteur; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02878330.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Jul 2020; 383:415-425
Griffin MP, Yuan Y, Takas T, Domachowske JB, ... DeVincenzo JP,
N Engl J Med: 29 Jul 2020; 383:415-425 | PMID: 32726528
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Abstract

Phase 1 Trial of a Therapeutic Anti-Yellow Fever Virus Human Antibody.

Low JG, Ng JHJ, Ong EZ, Kalimuddin S, ... Sasisekharan R, Ooi EE
Background
Insufficient vaccine doses and the lack of therapeutic agents for yellow fever put global health at risk, should this virus emerge from sub-Saharan Africa and South America.
Methods
In phase 1a of this clinical trial, we assessed the safety, side-effect profile, and pharmacokinetics of TY014, a fully human IgG1 anti-yellow fever virus monoclonal antibody. In a double-blind, phase 1b clinical trial, we assessed the efficacy of TY014, as compared with placebo, in abrogating viremia related to the administration of live yellow fever vaccine (YF17D-204; Stamaril). The primary safety outcomes were adverse events reported 1 hour after the infusion and throughout the trial. The primary efficacy outcome was the dose of TY014 at which 100% of the participants tested negative for viremia within 48 hours after infusion.
Results
A total of 27 healthy participants were enrolled in phase 1a, and 10 participants in phase 1b. During phase 1a, TY014 dose escalation to a maximum of 20 mg per kilogram of body weight occurred in 22 participants. During phases 1a and 1b, adverse events within 1 hour after infusion occurred in 1 of 27 participants who received TY014 and in none of the 10 participants who received placebo. At least one adverse event occurred during the trial in 22 participants who received TY014 and in 8 who received placebo. The mean half-life of TY014 was approximately 12.8 days. At 48 hours after the infusion, none of the 5 participants who received the starting dose of TY014 of 2 mg per kilogram had detectable YF17D-204 viremia; these participants remained aviremic throughout the trial. Viremia was observed at 48 hours after the infusion in 2 of 5 participants who received placebo and at 72 hours in 2 more placebo recipients. Symptoms associated with yellow fever vaccine were less frequent in the TY014 group than in the placebo group.
Conclusions
This phase 1 trial of TY014 did not identify worrisome safety signals and suggested potential clinical benefit, which requires further assessment in a phase 2 trial. (Funded by Tysana; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03776786.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Jul 2020; 383:452-459
Low JG, Ng JHJ, Ong EZ, Kalimuddin S, ... Sasisekharan R, Ooi EE
N Engl J Med: 29 Jul 2020; 383:452-459 | PMID: 32726531
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Abstract

Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccination during Pregnancy and Effects in Infants.

Madhi SA, Polack FP, Piedra PA, Munoz FM, ... Fries LF,
Background
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the dominant cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, with the most severe cases concentrated among younger infants.
Methods
Healthy pregnant women, at 28 weeks 0 days through 36 weeks 0 days of gestation, with an expected delivery date near the start of the RSV season, were randomly assigned in an overall ratio of approximately 2:1 to receive a single intramuscular dose of RSV fusion (F) protein nanoparticle vaccine or placebo. Infants were followed for 180 days to assess outcomes related to lower respiratory tract infection and for 364 days to assess safety. The primary end point was RSV-associated, medically significant lower respiratory tract infection up to 90 days of life, and the primary analysis of vaccine efficacy against the primary end point was performed in the per-protocol population of infants (prespecified criterion for success, lower bound of the 97.52% confidence interval [CI] of ≥30%).
Results
A total of 4636 women underwent randomization, and there were 4579 live births. During the first 90 days of life, the percentage of infants with RSV-associated, medically significant lower respiratory tract infection was 1.5% in the vaccine group and 2.4% in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy, 39.4%; 97.52% CI, -1.0 to 63.7; 95% CI, 5.3 to 61.2). The corresponding percentages for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection with severe hypoxemia were 0.5% and 1.0% (vaccine efficacy, 48.3%; 95% CI, -8.2 to 75.3), and the percentages for hospitalization for RSV-associated lower respiratory tract infection were 2.1% and 3.7% (vaccine efficacy, 44.4%; 95% CI, 19.6 to 61.5). Local injection-site reactions among the women were more common with vaccine than with placebo (40.7% vs. 9.9%), but the percentages of participants who had other adverse events were similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
RSV F protein nanoparticle vaccination in pregnant women did not meet the prespecified success criterion for efficacy against RSV-associated, medically significant lower respiratory tract infection in infants up to 90 days of life. The suggestion of a possible benefit with respect to other end-point events involving RSV-associated respiratory disease in infants warrants further study. (Funded by Novavax and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02624947.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Jul 2020; 383:426-439
Madhi SA, Polack FP, Piedra PA, Munoz FM, ... Fries LF,
N Engl J Med: 29 Jul 2020; 383:426-439 | PMID: 32726529
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Abstract

Uterine-Artery Embolization or Myomectomy for Uterine Fibroids.

Manyonda I, Belli AM, Lumsden MA, Moss J, ... McPherson K,
Background
Uterine fibroids, the most common type of tumor among women of reproductive age, are associated with heavy menstrual bleeding, abdominal discomfort, subfertility, and a reduced quality of life. For women who wish to preserve their uterus and who have not had a response to medical treatment, myomectomy and uterine-artery embolization are therapeutic options.
Methods
We conducted a multicenter, randomized, open-label trial to evaluate myomectomy, as compared with uterine-artery embolization, in women who had symptomatic uterine fibroids and did not want to undergo hysterectomy. Procedural options included open abdominal, laparoscopic, or hysteroscopic myomectomy. The primary outcome was fibroid-related quality of life, as assessed by the score on the health-related quality-of-life domain of the Uterine Fibroid Symptom and Quality of Life (UFS-QOL) questionnaire (scores range from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating a better quality of life) at 2 years; adjustment was made for the baseline score.
Results
A total of 254 women, recruited at 29 hospitals in the United Kingdom, were randomly assigned: 127 to the myomectomy group (of whom 105 underwent myomectomy) and 127 to the uterine-artery embolization group (of whom 98 underwent embolization). Data on the primary outcome were available for 206 women (81%). In the intention-to-treat analysis, the mean (±SD) score on the health-related quality-of-life domain of the UFS-QOL questionnaire at 2 years was 84.6±21.5 in the myomectomy group and 80.0±22.0 in the uterine-artery embolization group (mean adjusted difference with complete case analysis, 8.0 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8 to 14.1; P = 0.01; mean adjusted difference with missing responses imputed, 6.5 points; 95% CI, 1.1 to 11.9). Perioperative and postoperative complications from all initial procedures, irrespective of adherence to the assigned procedure, occurred in 29% of the women in the myomectomy group and in 24% of the women in the uterine-artery embolization group.
Conclusions
Among women with symptomatic uterine fibroids, those who underwent myomectomy had a better fibroid-related quality of life at 2 years than those who underwent uterine-artery embolization. (Funded by the National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment program; FEMME Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN70772394.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Jul 2020; 383:440-451
Manyonda I, Belli AM, Lumsden MA, Moss J, ... McPherson K,
N Engl J Med: 29 Jul 2020; 383:440-451 | PMID: 32726530
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Abstract

Causal Genetic Variants in Stillbirth.

Stanley KE, Giordano J, Thorsten V, Buchovecky C, ... Wapner RJ, Goldstein DB
Background
In the majority of cases, the cause of stillbirth remains unknown despite detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. Approximately 10 to 20% of stillbirths are attributed to chromosomal abnormalities. However, the causal nature of single-nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions in exomes has been understudied.
Methods
We generated exome sequencing data for 246 stillborn cases and followed established guidelines to identify causal variants in disease-associated genes. These genes included those that have been associated with stillbirth and strong candidate genes. We also evaluated the contribution of 18,653 genes in case-control analyses stratified according to the degree of depletion of functional variation (described here as \"intolerance\" to variation).
Results
We identified molecular diagnoses in 15 of 246 cases of stillbirth (6.1%) involving seven genes that have been implicated in stillbirth and in six disease genes that are good candidates for phenotypic expansion. Among the cases we evaluated, we also found an enrichment of loss-of-function variants in genes that are intolerant to such variation in the human population (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.46 to 3.06). Loss-of-function variants in intolerant genes were concentrated in genes that have not been associated with human disease (odds ratio, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.41 to 3.34), findings that differ from those in two postnatal clinical populations that were also evaluated in this study.
Conclusions
Our findings establish the diagnostic utility of clinical exome sequencing to evaluate the role of small genomic changes in stillbirth. The strength of the novel risk signal (as generated through the stratified analysis) was similar to that in known disease genes, which indicates that the genetic cause of stillbirth remains largely unknown. (Funded by the Institute for Genomic Medicine.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 11 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Stanley KE, Giordano J, Thorsten V, Buchovecky C, ... Wapner RJ, Goldstein DB
N Engl J Med: 11 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32786180
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Abstract

Atypical Femur Fracture Risk versus Fragility Fracture Prevention with Bisphosphonates.

Black DM, Geiger EJ, Eastell R, Vittinghoff E, ... Dell RM, Adams AL
Background
Bisphosphonates are effective in reducing hip and osteoporotic fractures. However, concerns about atypical femur fractures have contributed to substantially decreased bisphosphonate use, and the incidence of hip fractures may be increasing. Important uncertainties remain regarding the association between atypical femur fractures and bisphosphonates and other risk factors.
Methods
We studied women 50 years of age or older who were receiving bisphosphonates and who were enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health care system; women were followed from January 1, 2007, to November 30, 2017. The primary outcome was atypical femur fracture. Data on risk factors, including bisphosphonate use, were obtained from electronic health records. Fractures were radiographically adjudicated. Multivariable Cox models were used. The risk-benefit profile was modeled for 1 to 10 years of bisphosphonate use to compare associated atypical fractures with other fractures prevented.
Results
Among 196,129 women, 277 atypical femur fractures occurred. After multivariable adjustment, the risk of atypical fracture increased with longer duration of bisphosphonate use: the hazard ratio as compared with less than 3 months increased from 8.86 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.79 to 28.20) for 3 years to less than 5 years to 43.51 (95% CI, 13.70 to 138.15) for 8 years or more. Other risk factors included race (hazard ratio for Asians vs. Whites, 4.84; 95% CI, 3.57 to 6.56), height, weight, and glucocorticoid use. Bisphosphonate discontinuation was associated with a rapid decrease in the risk of atypical fracture. Decreases in the risk of osteoporotic and hip fractures during 1 to 10 years of bisphosphonate use far outweighed the increased risk of atypical fracture among Whites but less so among Asians. After 3 years, 149 hip fractures were prevented and 2 bisphosphonate-associated atypical fractures occurred in Whites, as compared with 91 and 8, respectively, in Asians.
Conclusions
The risk of atypical femur fracture increased with longer duration of bisphosphonate use and rapidly decreased after bisphosphonate discontinuation. Asians had a higher risk than Whites. The absolute risk of atypical femur fracture remained very low as compared with reductions in the risk of hip and other fractures with bisphosphonate treatment. (Funded by Kaiser Permanente and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 19 Aug 2020; 383:743-753
Black DM, Geiger EJ, Eastell R, Vittinghoff E, ... Dell RM, Adams AL
N Engl J Med: 19 Aug 2020; 383:743-753 | PMID: 32813950
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Abstract

Purifying Selection against Pathogenic Mitochondrial DNA in Human T Cells.

Walker MA, Lareau CA, Ludwig LS, Karaa A, ... Regev A, Mootha VK

Many mitochondrial diseases are caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Patients\' cells contain a mixture of mutant and nonmutant mtDNA (a phenomenon called heteroplasmy). The proportion of mutant mtDNA varies across patients and among tissues within a patient. We simultaneously assayed single-cell heteroplasmy and cell state in thousands of blood cells obtained from three unrelated patients who had A3243G-associated mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes. We observed a broad range of heteroplasmy across all cell types but also found markedly reduced heteroplasmy in T cells, a finding consistent with purifying selection within this lineage. We observed this pattern in six additional patients who had heteroplasmic A3243G without strokelike episodes. (Funded by the Marriott Foundation and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 11 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Walker MA, Lareau CA, Ludwig LS, Karaa A, ... Regev A, Mootha VK
N Engl J Med: 11 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32786181
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Abstract

Evinacumab for Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Raal FJ, Rosenson RS, Reeskamp LF, Hovingh GK, ... Gaudet D,
Background
Homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is characterized by premature cardiovascular disease caused by markedly elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. This disorder is associated with genetic variants that result in virtually absent (null-null) or impaired (non-null) LDL-receptor activity. Loss-of-function variants in the gene encoding angiopoietin-like 3 () are associated with hypolipidemia and protection against atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Evinacumab, a monoclonal antibody against ANGPTL3, has shown potential benefit in patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia.
Methods
In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio 65 patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia who were receiving stable lipid-lowering therapy to receive an intravenous infusion of evinacumab (at a dose of 15 mg per kilogram of body weight) every 4 weeks or placebo. The primary outcome was the percent change from baseline in the LDL cholesterol level at week 24.
Results
The mean baseline LDL cholesterol level in the two groups was 255.1 mg per deciliter, despite the receipt of maximum doses of background lipid-lowering therapy. At week 24, patients in the evinacumab group had a relative reduction from baseline in the LDL cholesterol level of 47.1%, as compared with an increase of 1.9% in the placebo group, for a between-group least-squares mean difference of -49.0 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -65.0 to -33.1; P<0.001); the between-group least-squares mean absolute difference in the LDL cholesterol level was -132.1 mg per deciliter (95% CI, -175.3 to -88.9; P<0.001). The LDL cholesterol level was lower in the evinacumab group than in the placebo group in patients with null-null variants (-43.4% vs. +16.2%) and in those with non-null variants (-49.1% vs. -3.8%). Adverse events were similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
In patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia receiving maximum doses of lipid-lowering therapy, the reduction from baseline in the LDL cholesterol level in the evinacumab group, as compared with the small increase in the placebo group, resulted in a between-group difference of 49.0 percentage points at 24 weeks. (Funded by Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; ELIPSE HoFH ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03399786.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 19 Aug 2020; 383:711-720
Raal FJ, Rosenson RS, Reeskamp LF, Hovingh GK, ... Gaudet D,
N Engl J Med: 19 Aug 2020; 383:711-720 | PMID: 32813947
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Abstract

Effects of Diet versus Gastric Bypass on Metabolic Function in Diabetes.

Yoshino M, Kayser BD, Yoshino J, Stein RI, ... Patterson BW, Klein S
Background
Some studies have suggested that in people with type 2 diabetes, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass has therapeutic effects on metabolic function that are independent of weight loss.
Methods
We evaluated metabolic regulators of glucose homeostasis before and after matched (approximately 18%) weight loss induced by gastric bypass (surgery group) or diet alone (diet group) in 22 patients with obesity and diabetes. The primary outcome was the change in hepatic insulin sensitivity, assessed by infusion of insulin at low rates (stages 1 and 2 of a 3-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic pancreatic clamp). Secondary outcomes were changes in muscle insulin sensitivity, beta-cell function, and 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin profiles.
Results
Weight loss was associated with increases in mean suppression of glucose production from baseline, by 7.04 μmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.74 to 9.33) in the diet group and by 7.02 μmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute (95% CI, 3.21 to 10.84) in the surgery group during clamp stage 1, and by 5.39 (95% CI, 2.44 to 8.34) and 5.37 (95% CI, 2.41 to 8.33) μmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the two groups, respectively, during clamp stage 2; there were no significant differences between the groups. Weight loss was associated with increased insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, from 30.5±15.9 to 61.6±13.0 μmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the diet group and from 29.4±12.6 to 54.5±10.4 μmol per kilogram of fat-free mass per minute in the surgery group; there was no significant difference between the groups. Weight loss increased beta-cell function (insulin secretion relative to insulin sensitivity) by 1.83 units (95% CI, 1.22 to 2.44) in the diet group and by 1.11 units (95% CI, 0.08 to 2.15) in the surgery group, with no significant difference between the groups, and it decreased the areas under the curve for 24-hour plasma glucose and insulin levels in both groups, with no significant difference between the groups. No major complications occurred in either group.
Conclusions
In this study involving patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, the metabolic benefits of gastric bypass surgery and diet were similar and were apparently related to weight loss itself, with no evident clinically important effects independent of weight loss. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02207777.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 19 Aug 2020; 383:721-732
Yoshino M, Kayser BD, Yoshino J, Stein RI, ... Patterson BW, Klein S
N Engl J Med: 19 Aug 2020; 383:721-732 | PMID: 32813948
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Abstract

Drug-Coated Balloons for Dysfunctional Dialysis Arteriovenous Fistulas.

Lookstein RA, Haruguchi H, Ouriel K, Weinberg I, ... Holden A,
Background
Standard percutaneous transluminal angioplasty is the current recommended treatment for dysfunctional hemodialysis fistulas, yet long-term outcomes of this treatment are poor. Drug-coated balloons delivering the antirestenotic agent paclitaxel may improve outcomes.
Methods
In this prospective, single-blinded, 1:1 randomized trial, we enrolled 330 participants at 29 international sites. Patients with new or restenotic lesions in native upper-extremity arteriovenous fistulas were eligible for participation. After successful high-pressure percutaneous transluminal angioplasty, participants were randomly assigned to receive treatment with a drug-coated balloon or a standard balloon. The primary effectiveness end point was target-lesion primary patency, defined as freedom from clinically driven target-lesion revascularization or access-circuit thrombosis during the 6 months after the index procedure. The primary safety end point, serious adverse events involving the arteriovenous access circuit within 30 days, was assessed in a noninferiority analysis (margin of noninferiority, 7.5 percentage points). The primary analyses included all participants with available end-point data. Additional sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the effect of missing data.
Results
A total of 330 participants underwent randomization; 170 were assigned to receive treatment with a drug-coated balloon, and 160 were assigned to receive treatment with a standard balloon. During the 6 months after the index procedure, target-lesion primary patency was maintained more often in participants who had been treated with a drug-coated balloon than in those who had been treated with a standard balloon (82.2% [125 of 152] vs. 59.5% [88 of 148]; difference in risk, 22.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], 12.8 to 32.8; P<0.001). Drug-coated balloons were noninferior to standard balloons with respect to the primary safety end point (4.2% [7 of 166] and 4.4% [7 of 158], respectively; difference in risk, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI, -5.5 to 5.0; P = 0.002 for noninferiority). Sensitivity analyses confirmed the results of the primary analyses.
Conclusions
Drug-coated balloon angioplasty was superior to standard angioplasty for the treatment of stenotic lesions in dysfunctional hemodialysis arteriovenous fistulas during the 6 months after the procedure and was noninferior with respect to access circuit-related serious adverse events within 30 days. (Funded by Medtronic; IN.PACT AV Access Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03041467.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 19 Aug 2020; 383:733-742
Lookstein RA, Haruguchi H, Ouriel K, Weinberg I, ... Holden A,
N Engl J Med: 19 Aug 2020; 383:733-742 | PMID: 32813949
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Abstract

Early Rhythm-Control Therapy in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

Kirchhof P, Camm AJ, Goette A, Brandes A, ... Breithardt G,
Background
Despite improvements in the management of atrial fibrillation, patients with this condition remain at increased risk for cardiovascular complications. It is unclear whether early rhythm-control therapy can reduce this risk.
Methods
In this international, investigator-initiated, parallel-group, open, blinded-outcome-assessment trial, we randomly assigned patients who had early atrial fibrillation (diagnosed ≤1 year before enrollment) and cardiovascular conditions to receive either early rhythm control or usual care. Early rhythm control included treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs or atrial fibrillation ablation after randomization. Usual care limited rhythm control to the management of atrial fibrillation-related symptoms. The first primary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, stroke, or hospitalization with worsening of heart failure or acute coronary syndrome; the second primary outcome was the number of nights spent in the hospital per year. The primary safety outcome was a composite of death, stroke, or serious adverse events related to rhythm-control therapy. Secondary outcomes, including symptoms and left ventricular function, were also evaluated.
Results
In 135 centers, 2789 patients with early atrial fibrillation (median time since diagnosis, 36 days) underwent randomization. The trial was stopped for efficacy at the third interim analysis after a median of 5.1 years of follow-up per patient. A first-primary-outcome event occurred in 249 of the patients assigned to early rhythm control (3.9 per 100 person-years) and in 316 patients assigned to usual care (5.0 per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.79; 96% confidence interval, 0.66 to 0.94; P = 0.005). The mean (±SD) number of nights spent in the hospital did not differ significantly between the groups (5.8±21.9 and 5.1±15.5 days per year, respectively; P = 0.23). The percentage of patients with a primary safety outcome event did not differ significantly between the groups; serious adverse events related to rhythm-control therapy occurred in 4.9% of the patients assigned to early rhythm control and 1.4% of the patients assigned to usual care. Symptoms and left ventricular function at 2 years did not differ significantly between the groups.
Conclusions
Early rhythm-control therapy was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular outcomes than usual care among patients with early atrial fibrillation and cardiovascular conditions. (Funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research and others; EAST-AFNET 4 ISRCTN number, ISRCTN04708680; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01288352; EudraCT number, 2010-021258-20.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Kirchhof P, Camm AJ, Goette A, Brandes A, ... Breithardt G,
N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32865375
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Abstract

Low-Dose Edoxaban in Very Elderly Patients with Atrial Fibrillation.

Okumura K, Akao M, Yoshida T, Kawata M, ... Yamashita T,
Background
Implementation of appropriate oral anticoagulant treatment for the prevention of stroke in very elderly patients with atrial fibrillation is challenging because of concerns regarding bleeding.
Methods
We conducted a phase 3, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven trial to compare a once-daily 15-mg dose of edoxaban with placebo in elderly Japanese patients (≥80 years of age) with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were not considered to be appropriate candidates for oral anticoagulant therapy at doses approved for stroke prevention. The primary efficacy end point was the composite of stroke or systemic embolism, and the primary safety end point was major bleeding according to the definition of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.
Results
A total of 984 patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a daily dose of 15 mg of edoxaban (492 patients) or placebo (492 patients). A total of 681 patients completed the trial, and 303 discontinued (158 withdrew, 135 died, and 10 had other reasons); the numbers of patients who discontinued the trial were similar in the two groups. The annualized rate of stroke or systemic embolism was 2.3% in the edoxaban group and 6.7% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.61; P<0.001), and the annualized rate of major bleeding was 3.3% in the edoxaban group and 1.8% in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 1.87; 95% CI, 0.90 to 3.89; P = 0.09). There were substantially more events of gastrointestinal bleeding in the edoxaban group than in the placebo group. There was no substantial between-group difference in death from any cause (9.9% in the edoxaban group and 10.2% in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.69 to 1.36).
Conclusions
In very elderly Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who were not appropriate candidates for standard doses of oral anticoagulants, a once-daily 15-mg dose of edoxaban was superior to placebo in preventing stroke or systemic embolism and did not result in a significantly higher incidence of major bleeding than placebo. (Funded by Daiichi Sankyo; ELDERCARE-AF ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02801669.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Okumura K, Akao M, Yoshida T, Kawata M, ... Yamashita T,
N Engl J Med: 29 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32865374
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Abstract

Colchicine in Patients with Chronic Coronary Disease.

Nidorf SM, Fiolet ATL, Mosterd A, Eikelboom JW, ... Thompson PL,
Background
Evidence from a recent trial has shown that the antiinflammatory effects of colchicine reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with recent myocardial infarction, but evidence of such a risk reduction in patients with chronic coronary disease is limited.
Methods
In a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial, we assigned patients with chronic coronary disease to receive 0.5 mg of colchicine once daily or matching placebo. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous (nonprocedural) myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization. The key secondary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, spontaneous myocardial infarction, or ischemic stroke.
Results
A total of 5522 patients underwent randomization; 2762 were assigned to the colchicine group and 2760 to the placebo group. The median duration of follow-up was 28.6 months. A primary end-point event occurred in 187 patients (6.8%) in the colchicine group and in 264 patients (9.6%) in the placebo group (incidence, 2.5 vs. 3.6 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57 to 0.83; P<0.001). A key secondary end-point event occurred in 115 patients (4.2%) in the colchicine group and in 157 patients (5.7%) in the placebo group (incidence, 1.5 vs. 2.1 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.92; P = 0.007). The incidence rates of spontaneous myocardial infarction or ischemia-driven coronary revascularization (composite end point), cardiovascular death or spontaneous myocardial infarction (composite end point), ischemia-driven coronary revascularization, and spontaneous myocardial infarction were also significantly lower with colchicine than with placebo. The incidence of death from noncardiovascular causes was higher in the colchicine group than in the placebo group (incidence, 0.7 vs. 0.5 events per 100 person-years; hazard ratio, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.99 to 2.31).
Conclusions
In a randomized trial involving patients with chronic coronary disease, the risk of cardiovascular events was significantly lower among those who received 0.5 mg of colchicine once daily than among those who received placebo. (Funded by the National Health Medical Research Council of Australia and others; LoDoCo2 Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry number, ACTRN12614000093684.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 30 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Nidorf SM, Fiolet ATL, Mosterd A, Eikelboom JW, ... Thompson PL,
N Engl J Med: 30 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32865380
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Abstract

Capmatinib in Exon 14-Mutated or -Amplified Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Wolf J, Seto T, Han JY, Reguart N, ... Heist RS,
Background
Among patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC),exon 14 skipping mutations occur in 3 to 4% andamplifications occur in 1 to 6%. Capmatinib, a selective inhibitor of the MET receptor, has shown activity in cancer models with various types of MET activation.
Methods
We conducted a multiple-cohort, phase 2 study evaluating capmatinib in patients with -dysregulated advanced NSCLC. Patients were assigned to cohorts on the basis of previous lines of therapy andstatus ( exon 14 skipping mutation oramplification according to gene copy number in tumor tissue). Patients received capmatinib (400-mg tablet) twice daily. The primary end point was overall response (complete or partial response), and the key secondary end point was response duration; both end points were assessed by an independent review committee whose members were unaware of the cohort assignments.
Results
A total of 364 patients were assigned to the cohorts. Among patients with NSCLC with aexon 14 skipping mutation, overall response was observed in 41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29 to 53) of 69 patients who had received one or two lines of therapy previously and in 68% (95% CI, 48 to 84) of 28 patients who had not received treatment previously; the median duration of response was 9.7 months (95% CI, 5.6 to 13.0) and 12.6 months (95% CI, 5.6 to could not be estimated), respectively. Limited efficacy was observed in previously treated patients withamplification who had a gene copy number of less than 10 (overall response in 7 to 12% of patients). Among patients withamplification and a gene copy number of 10 or higher, overall response was observed in 29% (95% CI, 19 to 41) of previously treated patients and in 40% (95% CI, 16 to 68) of those who had not received treatment previously. The most frequently reported adverse events were peripheral edema (in 51%) and nausea (in 45%); these events were mostly of grade 1 or 2.
Conclusions
Capmatinib showed substantial antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC with aexon 14 skipping mutation, particularly in those not treated previously. The efficacy in -amplified advanced NSCLC was higher in tumors with a high gene copy number than in those with a low gene copy number. Low-grade peripheral edema and nausea were the main toxic effects. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals; GEOMETRY mono-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02414139.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 02 Sep 2020; 383:944-957
Wolf J, Seto T, Han JY, Reguart N, ... Heist RS,
N Engl J Med: 02 Sep 2020; 383:944-957 | PMID: 32877583
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Abstract

Trial of Sodium Phenylbutyrate-Taurursodiol for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Paganoni S, Macklin EA, Hendrix S, Berry JD, ... Schoenfeld D, Cudkowicz ME
Background
Sodium phenylbutyrate and taurursodiol have been found to reduce neuronal death in experimental models. The efficacy and safety of a combination of the two compounds in persons with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are not known.
Methods
In this multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial, we enrolled participants with definite ALS who had had an onset of symptoms within the previous 18 months. Participants were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol (3 g of sodium phenylbutyrate and 1 g of taurursodiol, administered once a day for 3 weeks and then twice a day) or placebo. The primary outcome was the rate of decline in the total score on the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R; range, 0 to 48, with higher scores indicating better function) through 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were the rates of decline in isometric muscle strength, plasma phosphorylated axonal neurofilament H subunit levels, and the slow vital capacity; the time to death, tracheostomy, or permanent ventilation; and the time to death, tracheostomy, permanent ventilation, or hospitalization.
Results
A total of 177 persons with ALS were screened for eligibility, and 137 were randomly assigned to receive sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol (89 participants) or placebo (48 participants). In a modified intention-to-treat analysis, the mean rate of change in the ALSFRS-R score was -1.24 points per month with the active drug and -1.66 points per month with placebo (difference, 0.42 points per month; 95% confidence interval, 0.03 to 0.81; P = 0.03). Secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between the two groups. Adverse events with the active drug were mainly gastrointestinal.
Conclusions
Sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol resulted in slower functional decline than placebo as measured by the ALSFRS-R score over a period of 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes were not significantly different between the two groups. Longer and larger trials are necessary to evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium phenylbutyrate-taurursodiol in persons with ALS. (Funded by Amylyx Pharmaceuticals and others; CENTAUR ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03127514.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 02 Sep 2020; 383:919-930
Paganoni S, Macklin EA, Hendrix S, Berry JD, ... Schoenfeld D, Cudkowicz ME
N Engl J Med: 02 Sep 2020; 383:919-930 | PMID: 32877582
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Abstract

Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes with Empagliflozin in Heart Failure.

Packer M, Anker SD, Butler J, Filippatos G, ... Zannad F,
Background
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. More evidence is needed regarding the effects of these drugs in patients across the broad spectrum of heart failure, including those with a markedly reduced ejection fraction.
Methods
In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 3730 patients with class II, III, or IV heart failure and an ejection fraction of 40% or less to receive empagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo, in addition to recommended therapy. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for worsening heart failure.
Results
During a median of 16 months, a primary outcome event occurred in 361 of 1863 patients (19.4%) in the empagliflozin group and in 462 of 1867 patients (24.7%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio for cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure, 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.65 to 0.86; P<0.001). The effect of empagliflozin on the primary outcome was consistent in patients regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. The total number of hospitalizations for heart failure was lower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.85; P<0.001). The annual rate of decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate was slower in the empagliflozin group than in the placebo group (-0.55 vs. -2.28 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area per year, P<0.001), and empagliflozin-treated patients had a lower risk of serious renal outcomes. Uncomplicated genital tract infection was reported more frequently with empagliflozin.
Conclusions
Among patients receiving recommended therapy for heart failure, those in the empagliflozin group had a lower risk of cardiovascular death or hospitalization for heart failure than those in the placebo group, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim and Eli Lilly; EMPEROR-Reduced ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03057977.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Packer M, Anker SD, Butler J, Filippatos G, ... Zannad F,
N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32865377
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Abstract

Weight Loss in Underserved Patients - A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

Katzmarzyk PT, Martin CK, Newton RL, Apolzan JW, ... Sarpong DF, Springgate B
Background
Evidence of the effectiveness of treatment for obesity delivered in primary care settings in underserved populations is lacking.
Methods
We conducted a cluster-randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a high-intensity, lifestyle-based program for obesity treatment delivered in primary care clinics in which a high percentage of the patients were from low-income populations. We randomly assigned 18 clinics to provide patients with either an intensive lifestyle intervention, which focused on reduced caloric intake and increased physical activity, or usual care. Patients in the intensive-lifestyle group participated in a high-intensity program delivered by health coaches embedded in the clinics. The program consisted of weekly sessions for the first 6 months, followed by monthly sessions for the remaining 18 months. Patients in the usual-care group received standard care from their primary care team. The primary outcome was the percent change from baseline in body weight at 24 months.
Results
All 18 clinics (9 assigned to the intensive program and 9 assigned to usual care) completed 24 months of participation; a median of 40.5 patients were enrolled at each clinic. A total of 803 adults with obesity were enrolled: 452 were assigned to the intensive-lifestyle group, and 351 were assigned to the usual-care group; 67.2% of the patients were Black, and 65.5% had an annual household income of less than $40,000. Of the enrolled patients, 83.4% completed the 24-month trial. The percent weight loss at 24 months was significantly greater in the intensive-lifestyle group (change in body weight, -4.99%; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.02 to -3.96) than in the usual-care group (-0.48%; 95% CI, -1.57 to 0.61), with a mean between-group difference of -4.51 percentage points (95% CI, -5.93 to -3.10) (P<0.001). There were no significant between-group differences in serious adverse events.
Conclusions
A high-intensity, lifestyle-based treatment program for obesity delivered in an underserved primary care population resulted in clinically significant weight loss at 24 months. (Funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute and others; PROPEL ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02561221.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 02 Sep 2020; 383:909-918
Katzmarzyk PT, Martin CK, Newton RL, Apolzan JW, ... Sarpong DF, Springgate B
N Engl J Med: 02 Sep 2020; 383:909-918 | PMID: 32877581
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Abstract

Aspirin with or without Clopidogrel after Transcatheter Aortic-Valve Implantation.

Brouwer J, Nijenhuis VJ, Delewi R, Hermanides RS, ... Baan J, Ten Berg JM
Background
The effect of single as compared with dual antiplatelet treatment on bleeding and thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) in patients who do not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation has not been well studied.
Methods
In a randomized, controlled trial, we assigned a subgroup of patients who were undergoing TAVI and did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding (including minor, major, and life-threatening or disabling bleeding) and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Most bleeding at the TAVI puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2) at 1 year, with both outcomes tested sequentially for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority.
Results
A total of 331 patients were assigned to receive aspirin alone and 334 were assigned to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel. A bleeding event occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) receiving aspirin alone and in 89 (26.6%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) and 83 patients (24.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83; P = 0.005). A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 76 patients (23.0%) receiving aspirin alone and in 104 (31.1%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (difference, -8.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -14.9 to -1.5; P<0.001; risk ratio, 0.74; 95% CI for superiority, 0.57 to 0.95; P = 0.04). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 32 patients (9.7%) and 33 patients (9.9%), respectively (difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -4.7 to 4.3; P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.98; 95% CI for superiority, 0.62 to 1.55; P = 0.93). A total of 44 patients (13.3%) and 32 (9.6%), respectively, received oral anticoagulation during the trial.
Conclusions
Among patients undergoing TAVI who did not have an indication for oral anticoagulation, the incidence of bleeding and the composite of bleeding or thromboembolic events at 1 year were significantly less frequent with aspirin than with aspirin plus clopidogrel administered for 3 months. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Brouwer J, Nijenhuis VJ, Delewi R, Hermanides RS, ... Baan J, Ten Berg JM
N Engl J Med: 29 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32865376
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Abstract

Five-Year Analysis of Adjuvant Dabrafenib plus Trametinib in Stage III Melanoma.

Dummer R, Hauschild A, Santinami M, Atkinson V, ... Long GV, Schadendorf D
Background
In the previously reported primary analysis of this phase 3 trial, 12 months of adjuvant dabrafenib plus trametinib resulted in significantly longer relapse-free survival than placebo in patients with resected stage III melanoma withV600E or V600K mutations. To confirm the stability of the relapse-free survival benefit, longer-term data were needed.
Methods
We randomly assigned 870 patients who had resected stage III melanoma withV600E or V600K mutations to receive 12 months of oral dabrafenib (at a dose of 150 mg twice daily) plus trametinib (2 mg once daily) or two matched placebos. The primary end point was relapse-free survival. Here, we report 5-year results for relapse-free survival and survival without distant metastasis as the site of the first relapse. Overall survival was not analyzed, since the required number of events to trigger the final overall survival analysis had not been reached.
Results
The minimum duration of follow-up was 59 months (median patient follow-up, 60 months for dabrafenib plus trametinib and 58 months for placebo). At 5 years, the percentage of patients who were alive without relapse was 52% (95% confidence interval [CI], 48 to 58) with dabrafenib plus trametinib and 36% (95% CI, 32 to 41) with placebo (hazard ratio for relapse or death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.61). The percentage of patients who were alive without distant metastasis was 65% (95% CI, 61 to 71) with dabrafenib plus trametinib and 54% (95% CI, 49 to 60) with placebo (hazard ratio for distant metastasis or death, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.70). No clinically meaningful between-group difference in the incidence or severity of serious adverse events was reported during the follow-up period.
Conclusions
In the 5-year follow-up of a phase 3 trial involving patients who had resected stage III melanoma withV600E or V600K mutations, 12 months of adjuvant therapy with dabrafenib plus trametinib resulted in a longer duration of survival without relapse or distant metastasis than placebo with no apparent long-term toxic effects. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline and Novartis; COMBI-AD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01682083; EudraCT number, 2012-001266-15.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Dummer R, Hauschild A, Santinami M, Atkinson V, ... Long GV, Schadendorf D
N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32877599
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Abstract

Antisense Inhibition of Prekallikrein to Control Hereditary Angioedema.

Cohn DM, Viney NJ, Fijen LM, Schneider E, ... Meijers JCM, Stroes ESG

Hereditary angioedema is characterized by recurrent and unpredictable episodes of subcutaneous and mucosal swelling that can be life threatening. IONIS-PKK-L is a ligand-conjugated antisense oligonucleotide designed for receptor-mediated delivery to hepatocytes. In a compassionate-use pilot study, two patients with severe bradykinin-mediated angioedema were initially administered weekly subcutaneous injections of the unconjugated parent drug, IONIS-PKK, for 12 to 16 weeks, after which they received IONIS-PKK-L at a dose of 80 mg every 3 to 4 weeks for 7 to 8 months. Treatment was accompanied by a reduction in the angioedema attack rate. (Funded by Amsterdam UMC.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Cohn DM, Viney NJ, Fijen LM, Schneider E, ... Meijers JCM, Stroes ESG
N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32877578
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Abstract

Humoral Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland.

Gudbjartsson DF, Norddahl GL, Melsted P, Gunnarsdottir K, ... Sulem P, Stefansson K
Background
Little is known about the nature and durability of the humoral immune response to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).
Methods
We measured antibodies in serum samples from 30,576 persons in Iceland, using six assays (including two pan-immunoglobulin [pan-Ig] assays), and we determined that the appropriate measure of seropositivity was a positive result with both pan-Ig assays. We tested 2102 samples collected from 1237 persons up to 4 months after diagnosis by a quantitative polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) assay. We measured antibodies in 4222 quarantined persons who had been exposed to SARS-CoV-2 and in 23,452 persons not known to have been exposed.
Results
Of the 1797 persons who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1107 of the 1215 who were tested (91.1%) were seropositive; antiviral antibody titers assayed by two pan-Ig assays increased during 2 months after diagnosis by qPCR and remained on a plateau for the remainder of the study. Of quarantined persons, 2.3% were seropositive; of those with unknown exposure, 0.3% were positive. We estimate that 0.9% of Icelanders were infected with SARS-CoV-2 and that the infection was fatal in 0.3%. We also estimate that 56% of all SARS-CoV-2 infections in Iceland had been diagnosed with qPCR, 14% had occurred in quarantined persons who had not been tested with qPCR (or who had not received a positive result, if tested), and 30% had occurred in persons outside quarantine and not tested with qPCR.
Conclusions
Our results indicate that antiviral antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 did not decline within 4 months after diagnosis. We estimate that the risk of death from infection was 0.3% and that 44% of persons infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland were not diagnosed by qPCR.

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 31 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Gudbjartsson DF, Norddahl GL, Melsted P, Gunnarsdottir K, ... Sulem P, Stefansson K
N Engl J Med: 31 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32871063
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Abstract

Phase 1-2 Trial of a SARS-CoV-2 Recombinant Spike Protein Nanoparticle Vaccine.

Keech C, Albert G, Cho I, Robertson A, ... Wilkinson B, Glenn GM
Background
NVX-CoV2373 is a recombinant severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (rSARS-CoV-2) nanoparticle vaccine composed of trimeric full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoproteins and Matrix-M1 adjuvant.
Methods
We initiated a randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1-2 trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of the rSARS-CoV-2 vaccine (in 5-μg and 25-μg doses, with or without Matrix-M1 adjuvant, and with observers unaware of trial-group assignments) in 131 healthy adults. In phase 1, vaccination comprised two intramuscular injections, 21 days apart. The primary outcomes were reactogenicity; laboratory values (serum chemistry and hematology), according to Food and Drug Administration toxicity scoring, to assess safety; and IgG anti-spike protein response (in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] units). Secondary outcomes included unsolicited adverse events, wild-type virus neutralization (microneutralization assay), and T-cell responses (cytokine staining). IgG and microneutralization assay results were compared with 32 (IgG) and 29 (neutralization) convalescent serum samples from patients with Covid-19, most of whom were symptomatic. We performed a primary analysis at day 35.
Results
After randomization, 83 participants were assigned to receive the vaccine with adjuvant and 25 without adjuvant, and 23 participants were assigned to receive placebo. No serious adverse events were noted. Reactogenicity was absent or mild in the majority of participants, more common with adjuvant, and of short duration (mean, ≤2 days). One participant had mild fever that lasted 1 day. Unsolicited adverse events were mild in most participants; there were no severe adverse events. The addition of adjuvant resulted in enhanced immune responses, was antigen dose-sparing, and induced a T helper 1 (Th1) response. The two-dose 5-μg adjuvanted regimen induced geometric mean anti-spike IgG (63,160 ELISA units) and neutralization (3906) responses that exceeded geometric mean responses in convalescent serum from mostly symptomatic Covid-19 patients (8344 and 983, respectively).
Conclusions
At 35 days, NVX-CoV2373 appeared to be safe, and it elicited immune responses that exceeded levels in Covid-19 convalescent serum. The Matrix-M1 adjuvant induced CD4+ T-cell responses that were biased toward a Th1 phenotype. (Funded by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368988).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Keech C, Albert G, Cho I, Robertson A, ... Wilkinson B, Glenn GM
N Engl J Med: 01 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32877576
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Abstract

Evolocumab in Pediatric Heterozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.

Santos RD, Ruzza A, Hovingh GK, Wiegman A, ... Gaudet D,
Background
Evolocumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9, is widely used in adult patients to lower low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Its effects in pediatric patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia are not known.
Methods
We conducted a 24-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of evolocumab in pediatric patients with heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia. Patients 10 to 17 years of age who had received stable lipid-lowering treatment for at least 4 weeks before screening and who had an LDL cholesterol level of 130 mg per deciliter (3.4 mmol per liter) or more and a triglyceride level of 400 mg per deciliter (4.5 mmol per liter) or less were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive monthly subcutaneous injections of evolocumab (420 mg) or placebo. The primary end point was the percent change in LDL cholesterol level from baseline to week 24; key secondary end points were the mean percent change in LDL cholesterol level from baseline to weeks 22 and 24 and the absolute change in LDL cholesterol level from baseline to week 24.
Results
A total of 157 patients underwent randomization and received evolocumab (104 patients) or placebo (53 patients). At week 24, the mean percent change from baseline in LDL cholesterol level was -44.5% in the evolocumab group and -6.2% in the placebo group, for a difference of -38.3 percentage points (P<0.001). The absolute change in the LDL cholesterol level was -77.5 mg per deciliter (-2.0 mmol per liter) in the evolocumab group and -9.0 mg per deciliter (-0.2 mmol per liter) in the placebo group, for a difference of -68.6 mg per deciliter (-1.8 mmol per liter) (P<0.001). Results for all secondary lipid variables were significantly better with evolocumab than with placebo. The incidence of adverse events that occurred during the treatment period was similar in the evolocumab and placebo groups.
Conclusions
In this trial involving pediatric patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, evolocumab reduced the LDL cholesterol level and other lipid variables. (Funded by Amgen; HAUSER-RCT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02392559.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print
Santos RD, Ruzza A, Hovingh GK, Wiegman A, ... Gaudet D,
N Engl J Med: 28 Aug 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32865373
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Abstract

Inhaled Molgramostim Therapy in Autoimmune Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.

Trapnell BC, Inoue Y, Bonella F, Morgan C, ... Jouhikainen T,
Background
Autoimmune pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (aPAP) is a rare disease characterized by progressive surfactant accumulation and hypoxemia. It is caused by disruption of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) signaling, which pulmonary alveolar macrophages require to clear surfactant. Recently, inhaled GM-CSF was shown to improve the partial pressure of arterial oxygen in patients with aPAP.
Methods
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-group trial, we randomly assigned patients with aPAP to receive the recombinant GM-CSF molgramostim (300 μg once daily by inhalation), either continuously or intermittently (every other week), or matching placebo. The 24-week intervention period was followed by an open-label treatment-extension period. The primary end point was the change from baseline in the alveolar-arterial difference in oxygen concentration (A-aDo) at week 24.
Results
In total, 138 patients underwent randomization; 46 were assigned to receive continuous molgramostim, 45 to receive intermittent molgramostim, and 47 to receive placebo. Invalid A-aDo data for 4 patients (1 in each molgramostim group and 2 in the placebo group) who received nasal oxygen therapy during arterial blood gas measurement were replaced by means of imputation. For the primary end point - the change from baseline in the A-aDo at week 24 - improvement was greater among patients receiving continuous molgramostim than among those receiving placebo (-12.8 mm Hg vs. -6.6 mm Hg; estimated treatment difference, -6.2 mm Hg; P = 0.03 by comparison of least-squares means). Patients receiving continuous molgramostim also had greater improvement than those receiving placebo for secondary end points, including the change from baseline in the St. George\'s Respiratory Questionnaire total score at week 24 (-12.4 points vs. -5.1 points; estimated treatment difference, -7.4 points; P = 0.01 by comparison of least-squares means). For multiple end points, improvement was greater with continuous molgramostim than with intermittent molgramostim. The percentages of patients with adverse events and serious adverse events were similar in the three groups, except for the percentage of patients with chest pain, which was higher in the continuous-molgramostim group.
Conclusions
In patients with aPAP, daily administration of inhaled molgramostim resulted in greater improvements in pulmonary gas transfer and functional health status than placebo, with similar rates of adverse events. (Funded by Savara Pharmaceuticals; IMPALA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02702180.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 06 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Trapnell BC, Inoue Y, Bonella F, Morgan C, ... Jouhikainen T,
N Engl J Med: 06 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32897035
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Impact:
Abstract

Nonmetastatic, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer and Survival with Darolutamide.

Fizazi K, Shore N, Tammela TL, Ulys A, ... Smith MR,
Background
Darolutamide is a structurally distinct androgen-receptor inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer. In the planned primary analysis of a phase 3 trial, the median metastasis-free survival was significantly longer with darolutamide (40.4 months) than with placebo (18.4 months). The data for the analysis of overall survival were immature at the time of the primary analysis.
Methods
In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 1509 men, in a 2:1 ratio, to receive darolutamide (955 patients) or placebo (554 patients) while they continued to receive androgen-deprivation therapy. After the results of the primary end-point analysis were found to be positive, unblinding of the treatment assignments occurred, and patients in the placebo group were permitted to cross over to receive open-label darolutamide treatment. At the time of this prespecified final analysis, which had been planned to be performed after approximately 240 deaths had occurred, overall survival and all other secondary end points were evaluated.
Results
The median follow-up time was 29.0 months. At the time of unblinding of the data, all 170 patients who were still receiving placebo crossed over to receive darolutamide; 137 patients who had discontinued placebo before unblinding had occurred received at least one other life-prolonging therapy. Overall survival at 3 years was 83% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80 to 86) in the darolutamide group and 77% (95% CI, 72 to 81) in the placebo group. The risk of death was significantly lower, by 31%, in the darolutamide group than in the placebo group (hazard ratio for death, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.88; P = 0.003). Darolutamide was also associated with a significant benefit with respect to all other secondary end points, including the time to first symptomatic skeletal event and the time to first use of cytotoxic chemotherapy. The incidence of adverse events after the start of treatment was similar in the two groups; no new safety signals were observed.
Conclusions
Among men with nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer, the percentage of patients who were alive at 3 years was significantly higher among those who received darolutamide than among those who received placebo. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups. (Funded by Bayer HealthCare and Orion Pharma; ARAMIS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02200614.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2020; 383:1040-1049
Fizazi K, Shore N, Tammela TL, Ulys A, ... Smith MR,
N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2020; 383:1040-1049 | PMID: 32905676
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Impact:
Abstract

Phase 2 Trial of the DPP-1 Inhibitor Brensocatib in Bronchiectasis.

Chalmers JD, Haworth CS, Metersky ML, Loebinger MR, ... Daley CL,
Background
Patients with bronchiectasis have frequent exacerbations that are thought to be related to neutrophilic inflammation. The activity and quantity of neutrophil serine proteases, including neutrophil elastase, are increased in the sputum of patients with bronchiectasis at baseline and increase further during exacerbations. Brensocatib (INS1007) is an oral reversible inhibitor of dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP-1), an enzyme responsible for the activation of neutrophil serine proteases.
Methods
In a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, patients with bronchiectasis who had had at least two exacerbations in the previous year to receive placebo, 10 mg of brensocatib, or 25 mg of brensocatib once daily for 24 weeks. The time to the first exacerbation (primary end point), the rate of exacerbations (secondary end point), sputum neutrophil elastase activity, and safety were assessed.
Results
Of 256 patients, 87 were assigned to receive placebo, 82 to receive 10 mg of brensocatib, and 87 to receive 25 mg of brensocatib. The 25th percentile of the time to the first exacerbation was 67 days in the placebo group, 134 days in the 10-mg brensocatib group, and 96 days in the 25-mg brensocatib group. Brensocatib treatment prolonged the time to the first exacerbation as compared with placebo (P = 0.03 for 10-mg brensocatib vs. placebo; P = 0.04 for 25-mg brensocatib vs. placebo). The adjusted hazard ratio for exacerbation in the comparison of brensocatib with placebo was 0.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.95) in the 10-mg group (P = 0.03) and 0.62 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.99) in the 25-mg group (P = 0.046). The incidence-rate ratio was 0.64 (95% CI, 0.42 to 0.98) in the 10-mg group, as compared with placebo (P = 0.04), and 0.75 (95% CI, 0.50 to 1.13) in the 25-mg group, as compared with placebo (P = 0.17). With both brensocatib doses, sputum neutrophil elastase activity was reduced from baseline over the 24-week treatment period. The incidence of dental and skin adverse events of special interest was higher with the 10-mg and 25-mg brensocatib doses, respectively, than with placebo.
Conclusions
In this 24-week trial, reduction of neutrophil serine protease activity with brensocatib in patients with bronchiectasis was associated with improvements in bronchiectasis clinical outcomes. (Funded by Insmed; WILLOW ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03218917.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 06 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Chalmers JD, Haworth CS, Metersky ML, Loebinger MR, ... Daley CL,
N Engl J Med: 06 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32897034
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Abstract

High-Flow Oxygen with Capping or Suctioning for Tracheostomy Decannulation.

Hernández Martínez G, Rodriguez ML, Vaquero MC, Ortiz R, ... Climent C, Cuena-Boy R
Background
When patients with a tracheostomy tube reach a stage in their care at which decannulation appears to be possible, it is common practice to cap the tracheostomy tube for 24 hours to see whether they can breathe on their own. Whether this approach to establishing patient readiness for decannulation leads to better outcomes than one based on the frequency of airway suctioning is unclear.
Methods
In five intensive care units (ICUs), we enrolled conscious, critically ill adults who had a tracheostomy tube; patients were eligible after weaning from mechanical ventilation. In this unblinded trial, patients were randomly assigned either to undergo a 24-hour capping trial plus intermittent high-flow oxygen therapy (control group) or to receive continuous high-flow oxygen therapy with frequency of suctioning being the indicator of readiness for decannulation (intervention group). The primary outcome was the time to decannulation, compared by means of the log-rank test. Secondary outcomes included decannulation failure, weaning failure, respiratory infections, sepsis, multiorgan failure, durations of stay in the ICU and hospital, and deaths in the ICU and hospital.
Results
The trial included 330 patients; the mean (±SD) age of the patients was 58.3±15.1 years, and 68.2% of the patients were men. A total of 161 patients were assigned to the control group and 169 to the intervention group. The time to decannulation was shorter in the intervention group than in the control group (median, 6 days [interquartile range, 5 to 7] vs. 13 days [interquartile range, 11 to 14]; absolute difference, 7 days [95% confidence interval, 5 to 9]). The incidence of pneumonia and tracheobronchitis was lower, and the duration of stay in the hospital shorter, in the intervention group than in the control group. Other secondary outcomes were similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
Basing the decision to decannulate on suctioning frequency plus continuous high-flow oxygen therapy rather than on 24-hour capping trials plus intermittent high-flow oxygen therapy reduced the time to decannulation, with no evidence of a between-group difference in the incidence of decannulation failure. (REDECAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02512744.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2020; 383:1009-1017
Hernández Martínez G, Rodriguez ML, Vaquero MC, Ortiz R, ... Climent C, Cuena-Boy R
N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2020; 383:1009-1017 | PMID: 32905673
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Abstract

Eflornithine plus Sulindac for Prevention of Progression in Familial Adenomatous Polyposis.

Burke CA, Dekker E, Lynch P, Samadder NJ, ... Syngal S, Cohen A
Background
The efficacy and safety of combination therapy with eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in delaying disease progression in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis are unknown.
Methods
We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the combination of eflornithine and sulindac, as compared with either drug alone, in adults with familial adenomatous polyposis. The patients were stratified on the basis of anatomical site with the highest polyp burden and surgical status; the strata were precolectomy (shortest projected time to disease progression), rectal or ileal pouch polyposis after colectomy (longest projected time), and duodenal polyposis (intermediate projected time). The patients were then randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive 750 mg of eflornithine, 150 mg of sulindac, or both once daily for up to 48 months. The primary end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was disease progression, defined as a composite of major surgery, endoscopic excision of advanced adenomas, diagnosis of high-grade dysplasia in the rectum or pouch, or progression of duodenal disease.
Results
A total of 171 patients underwent randomization. Disease progression occurred in 18 of 56 patients (32%) in the eflornithine-sulindac group, 22 of 58 (38%) in the sulindac group, and 23 of 57 (40%) in the eflornithine group, with a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39 to 1.32) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with sulindac (P = 0.29) and 0.66 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.24) for eflornithine-sulindac as compared with eflornithine. Among 37 precolectomy patients, the corresponding values in the treatment groups were 2 of 12 patients (17%), 6 of 13 (46%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 0.30 [95% CI, 0.07 to 1.32] and 0.20 [95% CI, 0.03 to 1.32]); among 34 patients with rectal or ileal pouch polyposis, the values were 4 of 11 patients (36%), 2 of 11 (18%), and 5 of 12 (42%) (hazard ratios, 2.03 [95% CI, 0.43 to 9.62] and 0.84 [95% CI, 0.24 to 2.90]); and among 100 patients with duodenal polyposis, the values were 12 of 33 patients (36%), 14 of 34 (41%), and 13 of 33 (39%) (hazard ratios, 0.73 [95% CI, 0.34 to 1.52] and 0.76 [95% CI, 0.35 to 1.64]). Adverse and serious adverse events were similar across the treatment groups.
Conclusions
In this trial involving patients with familial adenomatous polyposis, the incidence of disease progression was not significantly lower with the combination of eflornithine and sulindac than with either drug alone. (Funded by Cancer Prevention Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01483144; EudraCT number, 2012-000427-41.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2020; 383:1028-1039
Burke CA, Dekker E, Lynch P, Samadder NJ, ... Syngal S, Cohen A
N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2020; 383:1028-1039 | PMID: 32905675
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Abstract

BIVV001 Fusion Protein as Factor VIII Replacement Therapy for Hemophilia A.

Konkle BA, Shapiro AD, Quon DV, Staber JM, ... Fruebis J, Benson CC
Background
Factor VIII replacement products have improved the care of patients with hemophilia A, but the short half-life of these products affects the patients\' quality of life. The half-life of recombinant factor VIII ranges from 15 to 19 hours because of the von Willebrand factor chaperone effect. BIVV001 (rFVIIIFc-VWF-XTEN) is a novel fusion protein designed to overcome this half-life ceiling and maintain high sustained factor VIII activity levels. Data are lacking on the safety and pharmacokinetics of single-dose BIVV001.
Methods
In this phase 1-2a open-label trial, we consecutively assigned 16 previously treated men (18 to 65 years of age) with severe hemophilia A (factor VIII activity, <1%) to receive a single intravenous injection of recombinant factor VIII at a dose of 25 IU per kilogram of body weight (lower-dose group) or 65 IU per kilogram (higher-dose group). This injection was followed by a washout period of at least 3 days. The patients then received a single intravenous injection of BIVV001 at the same corresponding dose of either 25 IU or 65 IU per kilogram. Adverse events and pharmacokinetic measurements were assessed.
Results
No inhibitors to factor VIII were detected and no hypersensitivity or anaphylaxis events were reported up to 28 days after the injection of single-dose BIVV001. The geometric mean half-life of BIVV001 was three to four times as long as that of recombinant factor VIII (37.6 hours vs. 9.1 hours in the lower-dose group and 42.5 vs. 13.2 hours in the higher-dose group); the area under the curve (AUC) for product exposure was six to seven times as great in the two dose groups (4470 hours vs. 638 hours × IU per deciliter in the lower-dose group and 12,800 hours vs. 1960 hours × IU per deciliter in the higher-dose group). After the injection of BIVV001 in the higher-dose group, the mean factor VIII level was in the normal range (≥51%) for 4 days and 17% at day 7, which suggested the possibility of a weekly interval between treatments.
Conclusions
In a small, early-phase study involving men with severe hemophilia A, a single intravenous injection of BIVV001 resulted in high sustained factor VIII activity levels, with a half-life that was up to four times the half-life associated with recombinant factor VIII, an increase that could signal a new class of factor VIII replacement therapy with a weekly treatment interval. No safety concerns were reported during the 28-day period after administration. (Funded by Sanofi and Sobi; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03205163.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2020; 383:1018-1027
Konkle BA, Shapiro AD, Quon DV, Staber JM, ... Fruebis J, Benson CC
N Engl J Med: 09 Sep 2020; 383:1018-1027 | PMID: 32905674
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Abstract

Randomized Trial of Nocturnal Oxygen in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

Lacasse Y, Sériès F, Corbeil F, Baltzan M, ... Maltais F,
Background
Long-term oxygen therapy improves survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic severe daytime hypoxemia. However, the efficacy of oxygen therapy for the management of isolated nocturnal hypoxemia is uncertain.
Methods
We designed this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial to determine, in patients with COPD who have nocturnal arterial oxygen desaturation without qualifying for long-term oxygen therapy, whether nocturnal oxygen provided for a period of 3 to 4 years would decrease mortality or the worsening of disease such that patients meet current specifications for long-term oxygen therapy. Patients with an oxygen saturation of less than 90% for at least 30% of the recording time on nocturnal oximetry were assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive either nocturnal oxygen or ambient air from a sham concentrator (placebo). The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause or a requirement for long-term oxygen therapy as defined by the Nocturnal Oxygen Therapy Trial (NOTT) criteria in the intention-to-treat population.
Results
Recruitment was stopped prematurely because of recruitment and retention difficulties after 243 patients, of a projected 600, had undergone randomization at 28 centers. At 3 years of follow-up, 39.0% of the patients assigned to nocturnal oxygen (48 of 123) and 42.0% of those assigned to placebo (50 of 119) met the NOTT-defined criteria for long-term oxygen therapy or had died (difference, -3.0 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -15.1 to 9.1).
Conclusions
Our underpowered trial provides no indication that nocturnal oxygen has a positive or negative effect on survival or progression to long-term oxygen therapy in patients with COPD. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research; INOX ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01044628.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 16 Sep 2020; 383:1129-1138
Lacasse Y, Sériès F, Corbeil F, Baltzan M, ... Maltais F,
N Engl J Med: 16 Sep 2020; 383:1129-1138 | PMID: 32937046
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Abstract

Targeting CD38 with Daratumumab in Refractory Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Ostendorf L, Burns M, Durek P, Heinz GA, ... Hiepe F, Alexander T

Daratumumab, a human monoclonal antibody that targets CD38, depletes plasma cells and is approved for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Long-lived plasma cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus because they secrete autoantibodies, but they are unresponsive to standard immunosuppression. We describe the use of daratumumab that induced substantial clinical responses in two patients with life-threatening lupus, with the clinical responses sustained by maintenance therapy with belimumab, an antibody to B-cell activating factor. Significant depletion of long-lived plasma cells, reduction of interferon type I activity, and down-regulation of T-cell transcripts associated with chronic inflammation were documented. (Supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 16 Sep 2020; 383:1149-1155
Ostendorf L, Burns M, Durek P, Heinz GA, ... Hiepe F, Alexander T
N Engl J Med: 16 Sep 2020; 383:1149-1155 | PMID: 32937047
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Abstract

Two-Year, Randomized, Controlled Trial of Belimumab in Lupus Nephritis.

Furie R, Rovin BH, Houssiau F, Malvar A, ... Barnett C, Roth DA
Background
In adults with active lupus nephritis, the efficacy and safety of intravenous belimumab as compared with placebo, when added to standard therapy (mycophenolate mofetil or cyclophosphamide-azathioprine), are unknown.
Methods
In a phase 3, multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 104-week trial conducted at 107 sites in 21 countries, we assigned adults with biopsy-proven, active lupus nephritis in a 1:1 ratio to receive intravenous belimumab (at a dose of 10 mg per kilogram of body weight) or matching placebo, in addition to standard therapy. The primary end point at week 104 was a primary efficacy renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of ≤0.7, an estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] that was no worse than 20% below the value before the renal flare (pre-flare value) or ≥60 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area, and no use of rescue therapy), and the major secondary end point was a complete renal response (a ratio of urinary protein to creatinine of <0.5, an eGFR that was no worse than 10% below the pre-flare value or ≥90 ml per minute per 1.73 m, and no use of rescue therapy). The time to a renal-related event or death was assessed.
Results
A total of 448 patients underwent randomization (224 to the belimumab group and 224 to the placebo group). At week 104, significantly more patients in the belimumab group than in the placebo group had a primary efficacy renal response (43% vs. 32%; odds ratio, 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 2.3; P = 0.03) and a complete renal response (30% vs. 20%; odds ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1 to 2.7; P = 0.02). The risk of a renal-related event or death was lower among patients who received belimumab than among those who received placebo (hazard ratio, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.77; P = 0.001). The safety profile of belimumab was consistent with that in previous trials.
Conclusions
In this trial involving patients with active lupus nephritis, more patients who received belimumab plus standard therapy had a primary efficacy renal response than those who received standard therapy alone. (Funded by GlaxoSmithKline; BLISS-LN ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01639339.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 16 Sep 2020; 383:1117-1128
Furie R, Rovin BH, Houssiau F, Malvar A, ... Barnett C, Roth DA
N Engl J Med: 16 Sep 2020; 383:1117-1128 | PMID: 32937045
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Abstract

Avelumab Maintenance Therapy for Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma.

Powles T, Park SH, Voog E, Caserta C, ... di Pietro A, Grivas P
Background
Platinum-based chemotherapy is standard-of-care first-line treatment for advanced urothelial carcinoma. However, progression-free survival and overall survival are limited by chemotherapy resistance.
Methods
In a phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic urothelial cancer who did not have disease progression with first-line chemotherapy (four to six cycles of gemcitabine plus cisplatin or carboplatin) to receive best supportive care with or without maintenance avelumab. The primary end point was overall survival, assessed among all patients who underwent randomization (overall population) and among those with tumors positive for programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1). Secondary end points included progression-free survival and safety.
Results
Among all 700 patients who underwent randomization, the addition of maintenance avelumab to best supportive care significantly prolonged overall survival as compared with best supportive care alone (control). Overall survival at 1 year was 71.3% in the avelumab group and 58.4% in the control group (median overall survival, 21.4 months vs. 14.3 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.86; P = 0.001). Avelumab also significantly prolonged overall survival in the PD-L1-positive population; overall survival at 1 year was 79.1% in the avelumab group and 60.4% in the control group (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.79; P<0.001). The median progression-free survival was 3.7 months in the avelumab group and 2.0 months in the control group in the overall population (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.75) and 5.7 months and 2.1 months, respectively, in the PD-L1-positive population (hazard ratio, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.73). The incidence of adverse events from any cause was 98.0% in the avelumab group and 77.7% in the control group; the incidence of adverse events of grade 3 or higher was 47.4% and 25.2%, respectively.
Conclusions
Maintenance avelumab plus best supportive care significantly prolonged overall survival, as compared with best supportive care alone, among patients with urothelial cancer who had disease that had not progressed with first-line chemotherapy. (Funded by Pfizer and Merck [Darmstadt, Germany]; JAVELIN Bladder 100 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02603432.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 17 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Powles T, Park SH, Voog E, Caserta C, ... di Pietro A, Grivas P
N Engl J Med: 17 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32945632
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Abstract

Cardiovascular Outcomes with Ertugliflozin in Type 2 Diabetes.

Cannon CP, Pratley R, Dagogo-Jack S, Mancuso J, ... McGuire DK,
Background
The cardiovascular effects of ertugliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, have not been established.
Methods
In a multicenter, double-blind trial, we randomly assigned patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease to receive 5 mg or 15 mg of ertugliflozin or placebo once daily. With the data from the two ertugliflozin dose groups pooled for analysis, the primary objective was to show the noninferiority of ertugliflozin to placebo with respect to the primary outcome, major adverse cardiovascular events (a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke). The noninferiority margin was 1.3 (upper boundary of a 95.6% confidence interval for the hazard ratio [ertugliflozin vs. placebo] for major adverse cardiovascular events). The first key secondary outcome was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure.
Results
A total of 8246 patients underwent randomization and were followed for a mean of 3.5 years. Among 8238 patients who received at least one dose of ertugliflozin or placebo, a major adverse cardiovascular event occurred in 653 of 5493 patients (11.9%) in the ertugliflozin group and in 327 of 2745 patients (11.9%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.97; 95.6% confidence interval [CI], 0.85 to 1.11; P<0.001 for noninferiority). Death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure occurred in 444 of 5499 patients (8.1%) in the ertugliflozin group and in 250 of 2747 patients (9.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95.8% CI, 0.75 to 1.03; P = 0.11 for superiority). The hazard ratio for death from cardiovascular causes was 0.92 (95.8% CI, 0.77 to 1.11), and the hazard ratio for death from renal causes, renal replacement therapy, or doubling of the serum creatinine level was 0.81 (95.8% CI, 0.63 to 1.04). Amputations were performed in 54 patients (2.0%) who received the 5-mg dose of ertugliflozin and in 57 patients (2.1%) who received the 15-mg dose, as compared with 45 patients (1.6%) who received placebo.
Conclusions
Among patients with type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, ertugliflozin was noninferior to placebo with respect to major adverse cardiovascular events. (Funded by Merck Sharp & Dohme and Pfizer; VERTIS CV ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01986881.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 22 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Cannon CP, Pratley R, Dagogo-Jack S, Mancuso J, ... McGuire DK,
N Engl J Med: 22 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32966714
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Impact:
Abstract

Dapagliflozin in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease.

Heerspink HJL, Stefánsson BV, Correa-Rotter R, Chertow GM, ... Wheeler DC,
Background
Patients with chronic kidney disease have a high risk of adverse kidney and cardiovascular outcomes. The effect of dapagliflozin in patients with chronic kidney disease, with or without type 2 diabetes, is not known.
Methods
We randomly assigned 4304 participants with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 to 75 ml per minute per 1.73 m of body-surface area and a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (with albumin measured in milligrams and creatinine measured in grams) of 200 to 5000 to receive dapagliflozin (10 mg once daily) or placebo. The primary outcome was a composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes.
Results
The independent data monitoring committee recommended stopping the trial because of efficacy. Over a median of 2.4 years, a primary outcome event occurred in 197 of 2152 participants (9.2%) in the dapagliflozin group and 312 of 2152 participants (14.5%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.51 to 0.72; P<0.001; number needed to treat to prevent one primary outcome event, 19 [95% CI, 15 to 27]). The hazard ratio for the composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal causes was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.45 to 0.68; P<0.001), and the hazard ratio for the composite of death from cardiovascular causes or hospitalization for heart failure was 0.71 (95% CI, 0.55 to 0.92; P = 0.009). Death occurred in 101 participants (4.7%) in the dapagliflozin group and 146 participants (6.8%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.88; P = 0.004). The effects of dapagliflozin were similar in participants with type 2 diabetes and in those without type 2 diabetes. The known safety profile of dapagliflozin was confirmed.
Conclusions
Among patients with chronic kidney disease, regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes, the risk of a composite of a sustained decline in the estimated GFR of at least 50%, end-stage kidney disease, or death from renal or cardiovascular causes was significantly lower with dapagliflozin than with placebo. (Funded by AstraZeneca; DAPA-CKD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03036150.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 23 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Heerspink HJL, Stefánsson BV, Correa-Rotter R, Chertow GM, ... Wheeler DC,
N Engl J Med: 23 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32970396
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Impact:
Abstract

Osimertinib in Resected -Mutated Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer.

Wu YL, Tsuboi M, He J, John T, ... Herbst RS,
Background
Osimertinib is standard-of-care therapy for previously untreated epidermal growth factor receptor () mutation-positive advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The efficacy and safety of osimertinib as adjuvant therapy are unknown.
Methods
In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients with completely resectedmutation-positive NSCLC in a 1:1 ratio to receive either osimertinib (80 mg once daily) or placebo for 3 years. The primary end point was disease-free survival among patients with stage II to IIIA disease (according to investigator assessment). The secondary end points included disease-free survival in the overall population of patients with stage IB to IIIA disease, overall survival, and safety.
Results
A total of 682 patients underwent randomization (339 to the osimertinib group and 343 to the placebo group). At 24 months, 90% of the patients with stage II to IIIA disease in the osimertinib group (95% confidence interval [CI], 84 to 93) and 44% of those in the placebo group (95% CI, 37 to 51) were alive and disease-free (overall hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death, 0.17; 99.06% CI, 0.11 to 0.26; P<0.001). In the overall population, 89% of the patients in the osimertinib group (95% CI, 85 to 92) and 52% of those in the placebo group (95% CI, 46 to 58) were alive and disease-free at 24 months (overall hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death, 0.20; 99.12% CI, 0.14 to 0.30; P<0.001). At 24 months, 98% of the patients in the osimertinib group (95% CI, 95 to 99) and 85% of those in the placebo group (95% CI, 80 to 89) were alive and did not have central nervous system disease (overall hazard ratio for disease recurrence or death, 0.18; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.33). Overall survival data were immature; 29 patients died (9 in the osimertinib group and 20 in the placebo group). No new safety concerns were noted.
Conclusions
In patients with stage IB to IIIAmutation-positive NSCLC, disease-free survival was significantly longer among those who received osimertinib than among those who received placebo. (Funded by AstraZeneca; ADAURA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02511106.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 18 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Wu YL, Tsuboi M, He J, John T, ... Herbst RS,
N Engl J Med: 18 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32955177
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Impact:
Abstract

Survival with Olaparib in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

Hussain M, Mateo J, Fizazi K, Saad F, ... de Bono J,
Background
We previously reported that olaparib led to significantly longer imaging-based progression-free survival than the physician\'s choice of enzalutamide or abiraterone among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had qualifying alterations in homologous recombination repair genes and whose disease had progressed during previous treatment with a next-generation hormonal agent. The results of the final analysis of overall survival have not yet been reported.
Methods
In an open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned patients in a 2:1 ratio to receive olaparib (256 patients) or the physician\'s choice of enzalutamide or abiraterone plus prednisone as the control therapy (131 patients). Cohort A included 245 patients with at least one alteration in , , or , and cohort B included 142 patients with at least one alteration in any of the other 12 prespecified genes. Crossover to olaparib was allowed after imaging-based disease progression for patients who met certain criteria. Overall survival in cohort A, a key secondary end point, was analyzed with the use of an alpha-controlled, stratified log-rank test at a data maturity of approximately 60%. The primary and other key secondary end points were reported previously.
Results
The median duration of overall survival in cohort A was 19.1 months with olaparib and 14.7 months with control therapy (hazard ratio for death, 0.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.50 to 0.97; P = 0.02). In cohort B, the median duration of overall survival was 14.1 months with olaparib and 11.5 months with control therapy. In the overall population (cohorts A and B), the corresponding durations were 17.3 months and 14.0 months. Overall, 86 of 131 patients (66%) in the control group crossed over to receive olaparib (56 of 83 patients [67%] in cohort A). A sensitivity analysis that adjusted for crossover to olaparib showed hazard ratios for death of 0.42 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.91) in cohort A, 0.83 (95% CI, 0.11 to 5.98) in cohort B, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.29 to 1.06) in the overall population.
Conclusions
Among men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had tumors with at least one alteration in , , orand whose disease had progressed during previous treatment with a next-generation hormonal agent, those who were initially assigned to receive olaparib had a significantly longer duration of overall survival than those who were assigned to receive enzalutamide or abiraterone plus prednisone as the control therapy, despite substantial crossover from control therapy to olaparib. (Funded by AstraZeneca and Merck Sharp & Dohme; PROfound ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02987543.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 19 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Hussain M, Mateo J, Fizazi K, Saad F, ... de Bono J,
N Engl J Med: 19 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32955174
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Abstract

KRAS Inhibition with Sotorasib in Advanced Solid Tumors.

Hong DS, Fakih MG, Strickler JH, Desai J, ... Govindan R, Li BT
Background
No therapies for targetingmutations in cancer have been approved. Thep.G12C mutation occurs in 13% of non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) and in 1 to 3% of colorectal cancers and other cancers. Sotorasib is a small molecule that selectively and irreversibly targets KRAS.
Methods
We conducted a phase 1 trial of sotorasib in patients with advanced solid tumors harboring thep.G12C mutation. Patients received sotorasib orally once daily. The primary end point was safety. Key secondary end points were pharmacokinetics and objective response, as assessed according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST), version 1.1.
Results
A total of 129 patients (59 with NSCLC, 42 with colorectal cancer, and 28 with other tumors) were included in dose escalation and expansion cohorts. Patients had received a median of 3 (range, 0 to 11) previous lines of anticancer therapies for metastatic disease. No dose-limiting toxic effects or treatment-related deaths were observed. A total of 73 patients (56.6%) had treatment-related adverse events; 15 patients (11.6%) had grade 3 or 4 events. In the subgroup with NSCLC, 32.2% (19 patients) had a confirmed objective response (complete or partial response) and 88.1% (52 patients) had disease control (objective response or stable disease); the median progression-free survival was 6.3 months (range, 0.0+ to 14.9 [with + indicating that the value includes patient data that were censored at data cutoff]). In the subgroup with colorectal cancer, 7.1% (3 patients) had a confirmed response, and 73.8% (31 patients) had disease control; the median progression-free survival was 4.0 months (range, 0.0+ to 11.1+). Responses were also observed in patients with pancreatic, endometrial, and appendiceal cancers and melanoma.
Conclusions
Sotorasib showed encouraging anticancer activity in patients with heavily pretreated advanced solid tumors harboring thep.G12C mutation. Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxic effects occurred in 11.6% of the patients. (Funded by Amgen and others; CodeBreaK100 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03600883.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 19 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Hong DS, Fakih MG, Strickler JH, Desai J, ... Govindan R, Li BT
N Engl J Med: 19 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32955176
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Abstract

Physician Work Hours and the Gender Pay Gap - Evidence from Primary Care.

Ganguli I, Sheridan B, Gray J, Chernew M, Rosenthal MB, Neprash H
Background
The gender gap in physician pay is often attributed in part to women working fewer hours than men, but evidence to date is limited by self-report and a lack of detail regarding clinical revenue and gender differences in practice style.
Methods
Using national all-payer claims and data from electronic health records, we conducted a cross-sectional analysis of 24.4 million primary care office visits in 2017 and performed comparisons between female and male physicians in the same practices. Our primary independent variable was physician gender; outcomes included visit revenue, visit counts, days worked, and observed visit time (interval between the initiation and the termination of a visit). We created multivariable regression models at the year, day, and visit level after adjustment for characteristics of the primary care physicians (PCPs), patients, and types of visit and for practice fixed effects.
Results
In 2017, female PCPs generated 10.9% less revenue from office visits than their male counterparts (-$39,143.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], -53,523.0 to -24,763.4) and conducted 10.8% fewer visits (-330.5 visits; 95% CI, -406.6 to -254.3) over 2.6% fewer clinical days (-5.3 days; 95% CI, -7.7 to -3.0), after adjustment for age, academic degree, specialty, and number of sessions worked per week, yet spent 2.6% more observed time in visits that year than their male counterparts (1201.3 minutes; 95% CI, 184.7 to 2218.0). Per visit, after adjustment for PCP, patient, and visit characteristics, female PCPs generated equal revenue but spent 15.7% more time with a patient (2.4 minutes; 95% CI, 2.1 to 2.6). These results were consistent in subgroup analyses according to the gender and health status of the patients and the type and complexity of the visits.
Conclusions
Female PCPs generated less visit revenue than male colleagues in the same practices owing to a lower volume of visits, yet spent more time in direct patient care per visit, per day, and per year. (Funded in part by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 30 Sep 2020; 383:1349-1357
Ganguli I, Sheridan B, Gray J, Chernew M, Rosenthal MB, Neprash H
N Engl J Med: 30 Sep 2020; 383:1349-1357 | PMID: 32997909
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Abstract

HPV Vaccination and the Risk of Invasive Cervical Cancer.

Lei J, Ploner A, Elfström KM, Wang J, ... Dillner J, Sparén P
Background
The efficacy and effectiveness of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine in preventing high-grade cervical lesions have been shown. However, data to inform the relationship between quadrivalent HPV vaccination and the subsequent risk of invasive cervical cancer are lacking.
Methods
We used nationwide Swedish demographic and health registers to follow an open population of 1,672,983 girls and women who were 10 to 30 years of age from 2006 through 2017. We assessed the association between HPV vaccination and the risk of invasive cervical cancer, controlling for age at follow-up, calendar year, county of residence, and parental characteristics, including education, household income, mother\'s country of birth, and maternal disease history.
Results
During the study period, we evaluated girls and women for cervical cancer until their 31st birthday. Cervical cancer was diagnosed in 19 women who had received the quadrivalent HPV vaccine and in 538 women who had not received the vaccine. The cumulative incidence of cervical cancer was 47 cases per 100,000 persons among women who had been vaccinated and 94 cases per 100,000 persons among those who had not been vaccinated. After adjustment for age at follow-up, the incidence rate ratio for the comparison of the vaccinated population with the unvaccinated population was 0.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.32 to 0.82). After additional adjustment for other covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.21 to 0.57). After adjustment for all covariates, the incidence rate ratio was 0.12 (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.34) among women who had been vaccinated before the age of 17 years and 0.47 (95% CI, 0.27 to 0.75) among women who had been vaccinated at the age of 17 to 30 years.
Conclusions
Among Swedish girls and women 10 to 30 years old, quadrivalent HPV vaccination was associated with a substantially reduced risk of invasive cervical cancer at the population level. (Funded by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 30 Sep 2020; 383:1340-1348
Lei J, Ploner A, Elfström KM, Wang J, ... Dillner J, Sparén P
N Engl J Med: 30 Sep 2020; 383:1340-1348 | PMID: 32997908
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Abstract

Once-Weekly Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes without Previous Insulin Treatment.

Rosenstock J, Bajaj HS, Janež A, Silver R, ... Goldenberg R,
Background
It is thought that a reduction in the frequency of basal insulin injections might facilitate treatment acceptance and adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes. Insulin icodec is a basal insulin analogue designed for once-weekly administration that is in development for the treatment of diabetes.
Methods
We conducted a 26-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, phase 2 trial to investigate the efficacy and safety of once-weekly insulin icodec as compared with once-daily insulin glargine U100 in patients who had not previously received long-term insulin treatment and whose type 2 diabetes was inadequately controlled (glycated hemoglobin level, 7.0 to 9.5%) while taking metformin with or without a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor. The primary end point was the change in glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to week 26. Safety end points, including episodes of hypoglycemia and insulin-related adverse events, were also evaluated.
Results
A total of 247 participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive icodec or glargine. Baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups; the mean baseline glycated hemoglobin level was 8.09% in the icodec group and 7.96% in the glargine group. The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -1.33 percentage points in the icodec group and -1.15 percentage points in the glargine group, to estimated means of 6.69% and 6.87%, respectively, at week 26; the estimated between-group difference in the change from baseline was -0.18 percentage points (95% CI, -0.38 to 0.02, P = 0.08). The observed rates of hypoglycemia with severity of level 2 (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) or level 3 (severe cognitive impairment) were low (icodec group, 0.53 events per patient-year; glargine group, 0.46 events per patient-year; estimated rate ratio, 1.09; 95% CI, 0.45 to 2.65). There was no between-group difference in insulin-related key adverse events, and rates of hypersensitivity and injection-site reactions were low. Most adverse events were mild, and no serious events were deemed to be related to the trial medications.
Conclusions
Once-weekly treatment with insulin icodec had glucose-lowering efficacy and a safety profile similar to those of once-daily insulin glargine U100 in patients with type 2 diabetes. (Funded by Novo Nordisk; NN1436-4383 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03751657.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Rosenstock J, Bajaj HS, Janež A, Silver R, ... Goldenberg R,
N Engl J Med: 21 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32960514
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Abstract

Lower-Dose Zinc for Childhood Diarrhea - A Randomized, Multicenter Trial.

Dhingra U, Kisenge R, Sudfeld CR, Dhingra P, ... Sazawal S, Manji K
Background
The World Health Organization recommends 20 mg of zinc per day for 10 to 14 days for children with acute diarrhea; in previous trials, this dosage decreased diarrhea but increased vomiting.
Methods
We randomly assigned 4500 children in India and Tanzania who were 6 to 59 months of age and had acute diarrhea to receive 5 mg, 10 mg, or 20 mg of zinc sulfate for 14 days. The three primary outcomes were a diarrhea duration of more than 5 days and the number of stools (assessed in a noninferiority analysis) and the occurrence of vomiting (assessed in a superiority analysis) within 30 minutes after zinc administration.
Results
The percentage of children with diarrhea for more than 5 days was 6.5% in the 20-mg group, 7.7% in the 10-mg group, and 7.2% in the 5-mg group. The difference between the 20-mg and 10-mg groups was 1.2 percentage points (upper boundary of the 98.75% confidence interval [CI], 3.3), and that between the 20-mg and 5-mg groups was 0.7 percentage points (upper boundary of the 98.75% CI, 2.8), both of which were below the noninferiority margin of 4 percentage points. The mean number of diarrheal stools was 10.7 in the 20-mg group, 10.9 in the 10-mg group, and 10.8 in 5-mg group. The difference between the 20-mg and 10-mg groups was 0.3 stools (upper boundary of the 98.75% CI, 1.0), and that between the 20-mg and 5-mg groups was 0.1 stools (upper boundary of the 98.75% CI, 0.8), both of which were below the noninferiority margin (2 stools). Vomiting within 30 minutes after administration occurred in 19.3%, 15.6%, and 13.7% of the patients in the 20-mg, 10-mg, and 5-mg groups, respectively; the risk was significantly lower in the 10-mg group than in the 20-mg group (relative risk, 0.81; 97.5% CI, 0.67 to 0.96) and in the 5-mg group than in the 20-mg group (relative risk, 0.71; 97.5% CI, 0.59 to 0.86). Lower doses were also associated with less vomiting beyond 30 minutes after administration.
Conclusions
Lower doses of zinc had noninferior efficacy for the treatment of diarrhea in children and were associated with less vomiting than the standard 20-mg dose. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ZTDT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03078842.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 23 Sep 2020; 383:1231-1241
Dhingra U, Kisenge R, Sudfeld CR, Dhingra P, ... Sazawal S, Manji K
N Engl J Med: 23 Sep 2020; 383:1231-1241 | PMID: 32966722
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Abstract

Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19.

, Horby P, Mafham M, Linsell L, ... Haynes R, Landray MJ
Background
Hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been proposed as treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) on the basis of in vitro activity and data from uncontrolled studies and small, randomized trials.
Methods
In this randomized, controlled, open-label platform trial comparing a range of possible treatments with usual care in patients hospitalized with Covid-19, we randomly assigned 1561 patients to receive hydroxychloroquine and 3155 to receive usual care. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality.
Results
The enrollment of patients in the hydroxychloroquine group was closed on June 5, 2020, after an interim analysis determined that there was a lack of efficacy. Death within 28 days occurred in 421 patients (27.0%) in the hydroxychloroquine group and in 790 (25.0%) in the usual-care group (rate ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97 to 1.23; P = 0.15). Consistent results were seen in all prespecified subgroups of patients. The results suggest that patients in the hydroxychloroquine group were less likely to be discharged from the hospital alive within 28 days than those in the usual-care group (59.6% vs. 62.9%; rate ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.83 to 0.98). Among the patients who were not undergoing mechanical ventilation at baseline, those in the hydroxychloroquine group had a higher frequency of invasive mechanical ventilation or death (30.7% vs. 26.9%; risk ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.27). There was a small numerical excess of cardiac deaths (0.4 percentage points) but no difference in the incidence of new major cardiac arrhythmia among the patients who received hydroxychloroquine.
Conclusions
Among patients hospitalized with Covid-19, those who received hydroxychloroquine did not have a lower incidence of death at 28 days than those who received usual care. (Funded by UK Research and Innovation and National Institute for Health Research and others; RECOVERY ISRCTN number, ISRCTN50189673; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04381936.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 07 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
, Horby P, Mafham M, Linsell L, ... Haynes R, Landray MJ
N Engl J Med: 07 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33031652
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Abstract

Safety and Immunogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA-1273 Vaccine in Older Adults.

Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, Widge AT, Jackson LA, ... Beigel JH,
Background
Testing of vaccine candidates to prevent infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in an older population is important, since increased incidences of illness and death from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) have been associated with an older age.
Methods
We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of a messenger RNA vaccine, mRNA-1273, which encodes the stabilized prefusion SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S-2P) in healthy adults. The trial was expanded to include 40 older adults, who were stratified according to age (56 to 70 years or ≥71 years). All the participants were assigned sequentially to receive two doses of either 25 μg or 100 μg of vaccine administered 28 days apart.
Results
Solicited adverse events were predominantly mild or moderate in severity and most frequently included fatigue, chills, headache, myalgia, and pain at the injection site. Such adverse events were dose-dependent and were more common after the second immunization. Binding-antibody responses increased rapidly after the first immunization. By day 57, among the participants who received the 25-μg dose, the anti-S-2P geometric mean titer (GMT) was 323,945 among those between the ages of 56 and 70 years and 1,128,391 among those who were 71 years of age or older; among the participants who received the 100-μg dose, the GMT in the two age subgroups was 1,183,066 and 3,638,522, respectively. After the second immunization, serum neutralizing activity was detected in all the participants by multiple methods. Binding- and neutralizing-antibody responses appeared to be similar to those previously reported among vaccine recipients between the ages of 18 and 55 years and were above the median of a panel of controls who had donated convalescent serum. The vaccine elicited a strong CD4 cytokine response involving type 1 helper T cells.
Conclusions
In this small study involving older adults, adverse events associated with the mRNA-1273 vaccine were mainly mild or moderate. The 100-μg dose induced higher binding- and neutralizing-antibody titers than the 25-μg dose, which supports the use of the 100-μg dose in a phase 3 vaccine trial. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and others; mRNA-1273 Study ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04283461.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 28 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print
Anderson EJ, Rouphael NG, Widge AT, Jackson LA, ... Beigel JH,
N Engl J Med: 28 Sep 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32991794
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Abstract

Atezolizumab for First-Line Treatment of PD-L1-Selected Patients with NSCLC.

Herbst RS, Giaccone G, de Marinis F, Reinmuth N, ... Jassem J, Spigel DR
Background
The efficacy and safety of the anti-programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibody atezolizumab, as compared with those of platinum-based chemotherapy, as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with PD-L1 expression are not known.
Methods
We conducted a randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial involving patients with metastatic nonsquamous or squamous NSCLC who had not previously received chemotherapy and who had PD-L1 expression on at least 1% of tumor cells or at least 1% of tumor-infiltrating immune cells as assessed by the SP142 immunohistochemical assay. Patients were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive atezolizumab or chemotherapy. Overall survival (primary end point) was tested hierarchically according to PD-L1 expression status among patients in the intention-to-treat population whose tumors were wild-type with respect tomutations ortranslocations. Within the population withandwild-type tumors, overall survival and progression-free survival were also prospectively assessed in subgroups defined according to findings on two PD-L1 assays as well as by blood-based tumor mutational burden.
Results
Overall, 572 patients were enrolled. In the subgroup of patients withandwild-type tumors who had the highest expression of PD-L1 (205 patients), the median overall survival was longer by 7.1 months in the atezolizumab group than in the chemotherapy group (20.2 months vs. 13.1 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.59; P = 0.01). Among all the patients who could be evaluated for safety, adverse events occurred in 90.2% of the patients in the atezolizumab group and in 94.7% of those in the chemotherapy group; grade 3 or 4 adverse events occurred in 30.1% and 52.5% of the patients in the respective groups. Overall and progression-free survival favored atezolizumab in the subgroups with a high blood-based tumor mutational burden.
Conclusions
Atezolizumab treatment resulted in significantly longer overall survival than platinum-based chemotherapy among patients with NSCLC with high PD-L1 expression, regardless of histologic type. (Funded by F. Hoffmann-La Roche/Genentech; IMpower110 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02409342.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 30 Sep 2020; 383:1328-1339
Herbst RS, Giaccone G, de Marinis F, Reinmuth N, ... Jassem J, Spigel DR
N Engl J Med: 30 Sep 2020; 383:1328-1339 | PMID: 32997907
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Abstract

A Randomized Trial Comparing Antibiotics with Appendectomy for Appendicitis.

, Flum DR, Davidson GH, Monsell SE, ... Kessler LG, Talan DA
Background
Antibiotic therapy has been proposed as an alternative to surgery for the treatment of appendicitis.
Methods
We conducted a pragmatic, nonblinded, noninferiority, randomized trial comparing antibiotic therapy (10-day course) with appendectomy in patients with appendicitis at 25 U.S. centers. The primary outcome was 30-day health status, as assessed with the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) questionnaire (scores range from 0 to 1, with higher scores indicating better health status; noninferiority margin, 0.05 points). Secondary outcomes included appendectomy in the antibiotics group and complications through 90 days; analyses were prespecified in subgroups defined according to the presence or absence of an appendicolith.
Results
In total, 1552 adults (414 with an appendicolith) underwent randomization; 776 were assigned to receive antibiotics (47% of whom were not hospitalized for the index treatment) and 776 to undergo appendectomy (96% of whom underwent a laparoscopic procedure). Antibiotics were noninferior to appendectomy on the basis of 30-day EQ-5D scores (mean difference, 0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.001 to 0.03). In the antibiotics group, 29% had undergone appendectomy by 90 days, including 41% of those with an appendicolith and 25% of those without an appendicolith. Complications were more common in the antibiotics group than in the appendectomy group (8.1 vs. 3.5 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.30 to 3.98); the higher rate in the antibiotics group could be attributed to those with an appendicolith (20.2 vs. 3.6 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 5.69; 95% CI, 2.11 to 15.38) and not to those without an appendicolith (3.7 vs. 3.5 per 100 participants; rate ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.45 to 2.43). The rate of serious adverse events was 4.0 per 100 participants in the antibiotics group and 3.0 per 100 participants in the appendectomy group (rate ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.50).
Conclusions
For the treatment of appendicitis, antibiotics were noninferior to appendectomy on the basis of results of a standard health-status measure. In the antibiotics group, nearly 3 in 10 participants had undergone appendectomy by 90 days. Participants with an appendicolith were at a higher risk for appendectomy and for complications than those without an appendicolith. (Funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute; CODA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02800785.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 04 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
, Flum DR, Davidson GH, Monsell SE, ... Kessler LG, Talan DA
N Engl J Med: 04 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33017106
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Impact:
Abstract

Exome Sequencing for Prenatal Diagnosis in Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis.

Sparks TN, Lianoglou BR, Adami RR, Pluym ID, ... Norton ME,
Background
The cause of most fetal anomalies is not determined prenatally. Exome sequencing has transformed genetic diagnosis after birth, but its usefulness for prenatal diagnosis is still emerging. Nonimmune hydrops fetalis (NIHF), a fetal abnormality that is often lethal, has numerous genetic causes; the extent to which exome sequencing can aid in its diagnosis is unclear.
Methods
We evaluated a series of 127 consecutive unexplained cases of NIHF that were defined by the presence of fetal ascites, pleural or pericardial effusions, skin edema, cystic hygroma, increased nuchal translucency, or a combination of these conditions. The primary outcome was the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing for detecting genetic variants that were classified as either pathogenic or likely pathogenic according to the criteria of the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics. Secondary outcomes were the percentage of cases associated with specific genetic disorders and the proportion of variants that were inherited.
Results
In 37 of the 127 cases (29%), we identified diagnostic genetic variants, including those for disorders affecting the RAS-MAPK cell-signaling pathway (known as RASopathies) (30% of the genetic diagnoses); inborn errors of metabolism and musculoskeletal disorders (11% each); lymphatic, neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular, and hematologic disorders (8% each); and others. Prognoses ranged from a relatively mild outcome to death during the perinatal period. Overall, 68% of the cases (25 of 37) with diagnostic variants were autosomal dominant (of which 12% were inherited and 88% were de novo), 27% (10 of 37) were autosomal recessive (of which 95% were inherited and 5% were de novo), 1 was inherited X-linked recessive, and 1 was of uncertain inheritance. We identified potentially diagnostic variants in an additional 12 cases.
Conclusions
In this large case series of 127 fetuses with unexplained NIHF, we identified a diagnostic genetic variant in approximately one third of the cases. (Funded by the UCSF Center for Maternal-Fetal Precision Medicine and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03412760.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 06 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Sparks TN, Lianoglou BR, Adami RR, Pluym ID, ... Norton ME,
N Engl J Med: 06 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33027564
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Impact:
Abstract

Interferon Beta-1b and Lopinavir-Ritonavir for Middle East Respiratory Syndrome.

Arabi YM, Asiri AY, Assiri AM, Balkhy HH, ... Alothman A,
Background
Whether combined treatment with recombinant interferon beta-1b and lopinavir-ritonavir reduces mortality among patients hospitalized with Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is unclear.
Methods
We conducted a randomized, adaptive, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that enrolled patients at nine sites in Saudi Arabia. Hospitalized adults with laboratory-confirmed MERS were randomly assigned to receive recombinant interferon beta-1b plus lopinavir-ritonavir (intervention) or placebo for 14 days. The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause mortality, with a one-sided P-value threshold of 0.025. Prespecified subgroup analyses and safety analyses were conducted. Because of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019, the data and safety monitoring board requested an unplanned interim analysis and subsequently recommended the termination of enrollment and the reporting of the results.
Results
A total of 95 patients were enrolled; 43 patients were assigned to the intervention group and 52 to the placebo group. A total of 12 patients (28%) in the intervention group and 23 (44%) in the placebo group died by day 90. The analysis of the primary outcome, with accounting for the adaptive design, yielded a risk difference of -19 percentage points (upper boundary of the 97.5% confidence interval [CI], -3; one-sided P = 0.024). In a prespecified subgroup analysis, treatment within 7 days after symptom onset led to lower 90-day mortality than use of placebo (relative risk, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.05 to 0.75), whereas later treatment did not. Serious adverse events occurred in 4 patients (9%) in the intervention group and in 10 (19%) in the placebo group.
Conclusions
A combination of recombinant interferon beta-1b and lopinavir-ritonavir led to lower mortality than placebo among patients who had been hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed MERS. The effect was greatest when treatment was started within 7 days after symptom onset. (Funded by the King Abdullah International Medical Research Center; MIRACLE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02845843.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 06 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Arabi YM, Asiri AY, Assiri AM, Balkhy HH, ... Alothman A,
N Engl J Med: 06 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33026741
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Impact:
Abstract

Evaluation of the mRNA-1273 Vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 in Nonhuman Primates.

Corbett KS, Flynn B, Foulds KE, Francica JR, ... Seder RA, Graham BS
Background
Vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are urgently needed. The effect of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines on viral replication in both upper and lower airways is important to evaluate in nonhuman primates.
Methods
Nonhuman primates received 10 or 100 μg of mRNA-1273, a vaccine encoding the prefusion-stabilized spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, or no vaccine. Antibody and T-cell responses were assessed before upper- and lower-airway challenge with SARS-CoV-2. Active viral replication and viral genomes in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) fluid and nasal swab specimens were assessed by polymerase chain reaction, and histopathological analysis and viral quantification were performed on lung-tissue specimens.
Results
The mRNA-1273 vaccine candidate induced antibody levels exceeding those in human convalescent-phase serum, with live-virus reciprocal 50% inhibitory dilution (ID) geometric mean titers of 501 in the 10-μg dose group and 3481 in the 100-μg dose group. Vaccination induced type 1 helper T-cell (Th1)-biased CD4 T-cell responses and low or undetectable Th2 or CD8 T-cell responses. Viral replication was not detectable in BAL fluid by day 2 after challenge in seven of eight animals in both vaccinated groups. No viral replication was detectable in the nose of any of the eight animals in the 100-μg dose group by day 2 after challenge, and limited inflammation or detectable viral genome or antigen was noted in lungs of animals in either vaccine group.
Conclusions
Vaccination of nonhuman primates with mRNA-1273 induced robust SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing activity, rapid protection in the upper and lower airways, and no pathologic changes in the lung. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 14 Oct 2020; 383:1544-1555
Corbett KS, Flynn B, Foulds KE, Francica JR, ... Seder RA, Graham BS
N Engl J Med: 14 Oct 2020; 383:1544-1555 | PMID: 32722908
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Abstract

Safety and Immunogenicity of Two RNA-Based Covid-19 Vaccine Candidates.

Walsh EE, Frenck RW, Falsey AR, Kitchin N, ... Şahin U, Gruber WC
Background
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections and the resulting disease, coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), have spread to millions of persons worldwide. Multiple vaccine candidates are under development, but no vaccine is currently available. Interim safety and immunogenicity data about the vaccine candidate BNT162b1 in younger adults have been reported previously from trials in Germany and the United States.
Methods
In an ongoing, placebo-controlled, observer-blinded, dose-escalation, phase 1 trial conducted in the United States, we randomly assigned healthy adults 18 to 55 years of age and those 65 to 85 years of age to receive either placebo or one of two lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified RNA vaccine candidates: BNT162b1, which encodes a secreted trimerized SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain; or BNT162b2, which encodes a membrane-anchored SARS-CoV-2 full-length spike, stabilized in the prefusion conformation. The primary outcome was safety (e.g., local and systemic reactions and adverse events); immunogenicity was a secondary outcome. Trial groups were defined according to vaccine candidate, age of the participants, and vaccine dose level (10 μg, 20 μg, 30 μg, and 100 μg). In all groups but one, participants received two doses, with a 21-day interval between doses; in one group (100 μg of BNT162b1), participants received one dose.
Results
A total of 195 participants underwent randomization. In each of 13 groups of 15 participants, 12 participants received vaccine and 3 received placebo. BNT162b2 was associated with a lower incidence and severity of systemic reactions than BNT162b1, particularly in older adults. In both younger and older adults, the two vaccine candidates elicited similar dose-dependent SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing geometric mean titers, which were similar to or higher than the geometric mean titer of a panel of SARS-CoV-2 convalescent serum samples.
Conclusions
The safety and immunogenicity data from this U.S. phase 1 trial of two vaccine candidates in younger and older adults, added to earlier interim safety and immunogenicity data regarding BNT162b1 in younger adults from trials in Germany and the United States, support the selection of BNT162b2 for advancement to a pivotal phase 2-3 safety and efficacy evaluation. (Funded by BioNTech and Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04368728.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 13 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Walsh EE, Frenck RW, Falsey AR, Kitchin N, ... Şahin U, Gruber WC
N Engl J Med: 13 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33053279
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Abstract

Anti-Siglec-8 Antibody for Eosinophilic Gastritis and Duodenitis.

Dellon ES, Peterson KA, Murray JA, Falk GW, ... Rothenberg ME, Hirano I
Background
Eosinophilic gastritis and duodenitis are characterized by gastrointestinal mucosal eosinophilia, chronic symptoms, impaired quality of life, and a lack of adequate treatments. Mast-cell activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of the conditions. AK002 (lirentelimab) is an anti-Siglec-8 antibody that depletes eosinophils and inhibits mast cells and that has shown potential in animal models as a treatment for eosinophilic gastritis and duodenitis.
Methods
In this phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned adults who had symptomatic eosinophilic gastritis, eosinophilic duodenitis, or both conditions in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive four monthly infusions of low-dose AK002, high-dose AK002, or placebo. The primary end point was the change in gastrointestinal eosinophil count from baseline to 2 weeks after the final dose; to maximize statistical power, we evaluated this end point in the placebo group as compared with the combined AK002 group. Secondary end points were treatment response (>30% reduction in total symptom score and >75% reduction in gastrointestinal eosinophil count) and the change in total symptom score.
Results
Of the 65 patients who underwent randomization, 43 were assigned to receive AK002 and 22 were assigned to receive placebo. The mean percentage change in gastrointestinal eosinophil count was -86% in the combined AK002 group, as compared with 9% in the placebo group (least-squares mean difference, -98 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -121 to -76; P<0.001). Treatment response occurred in 63% of the patients who received AK002 and in 5% of the patients who received placebo (difference, 58 percentage points; 95% CI, 36 to 74; P<0.001). The mean change in total symptom score was -48% with AK002 and -22% with placebo (least-squares mean difference, -26 percentage points; 95% CI, -44 to -9; P = 0.004). Adverse events associated with AK002 were similar to those with placebo, with the exception of higher percentages of patients having mild-to-moderate infusion-related reactions with AK002 (60% in the combined AK002 group and 23% in the placebo group).
Conclusions
In patients with eosinophilic gastritis or duodenitis, AK002 reduced gastrointestinal eosinophils and symptoms. Infusion-related reactions were more common with AK002 than with placebo. (Funded by Allakos; ENIGMA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03496571.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Oct 2020; 383:1624-1634
Dellon ES, Peterson KA, Murray JA, Falk GW, ... Rothenberg ME, Hirano I
N Engl J Med: 21 Oct 2020; 383:1624-1634 | PMID: 33085861
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Abstract

Dasatinib-Blinatumomab for Ph-Positive Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Adults.

Foà R, Bassan R, Vitale A, Elia L, ... Chiaretti S,
Background
Outcomes in patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved with the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Molecular remission is a primary goal of treatment.
Methods
We conducted a phase 2 single-group trial of first-line therapy in adults with newly diagnosed Ph-positive ALL (with no upper age limit). Dasatinib plus glucocorticoids were administered, followed by two cycles of blinatumomab. The primary end point was a sustained molecular response in the bone marrow after this treatment.
Results
Of the 63 patients (median age, 54 years; range, 24 to 82) who were enrolled, a complete remission was observed in 98%. At the end of dasatinib induction therapy (day 85), 29% of the patients had a molecular response, and this percentage increased to 60% after two cycles of blinatumomab; the percentage of patients with a molecular response increased further after additional blinatumomab cycles. At a median follow-up of 18 months, overall survival was 95% and disease-free survival was 88%; disease-free survival was lower among patients who had andeletion plus additional genetic aberrations ( or , , or both [i.e., ]).mutations were detected in 6 patients who had increased minimal residual disease during induction therapy, and all these mutations were cleared by blinatumomab. Six relapses occurred. Overall, 21 adverse events of grade 3 or higher were recorded. A total of 24 patients received a stem-cell allograft, and 1 death was related to transplantation (4%).
Conclusions
A chemotherapy-free induction and consolidation first-line treatment with dasatinib and blinatumomab that was based on a targeted and immunotherapeutic strategy was associated with high incidences of molecular response and survival and few toxic effects of grade 3 or higher in adults with Ph-positive ALL. (Funded by Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro and others; GIMEMA LAL2116 D-ALBA EudraCT number, 2016-001083-11; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02744768.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Oct 2020; 383:1613-1623
Foà R, Bassan R, Vitale A, Elia L, ... Chiaretti S,
N Engl J Med: 21 Oct 2020; 383:1613-1623 | PMID: 33085860
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Abstract

Efficacy of Tocilizumab in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19.

Stone JH, Frigault MJ, Serling-Boyd NJ, Fernandes AD, ... Mansour MK,
Background
The efficacy of interleukin-6 receptor blockade in hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) who are not receiving mechanical ventilation is unclear.
Methods
We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, hyperinflammatory states, and at least two of the following signs: fever (body temperature >38°C), pulmonary infiltrates, or the need for supplemental oxygen in order to maintain an oxygen saturation greater than 92%. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive standard care plus a single dose of either tocilizumab (8 mg per kilogram of body weight) or placebo. The primary outcome was intubation or death, assessed in a time-to-event analysis. The secondary efficacy outcomes were clinical worsening and discontinuation of supplemental oxygen among patients who had been receiving it at baseline, both assessed in time-to-event analyses.
Results
We enrolled 243 patients; 141 (58%) were men, and 102 (42%) were women. The median age was 59.8 years (range, 21.7 to 85.4), and 45% of the patients were Hispanic or Latino. The hazard ratio for intubation or death in the tocilizumab group as compared with the placebo group was 0.83 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38 to 1.81; P = 0.64), and the hazard ratio for disease worsening was 1.11 (95% CI, 0.59 to 2.10; P = 0.73). At 14 days, 18.0% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 14.9% of the patients in the placebo group had had worsening of disease. The median time to discontinuation of supplemental oxygen was 5.0 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.6) in the tocilizumab group and 4.9 days (95% CI, 3.8 to 7.8) in the placebo group (P = 0.69). At 14 days, 24.6% of the patients in the tocilizumab group and 21.2% of the patients in the placebo group were still receiving supplemental oxygen. Patients who received tocilizumab had fewer serious infections than patients who received placebo.
Conclusions
Tocilizumab was not effective for preventing intubation or death in moderately ill hospitalized patients with Covid-19. Some benefit or harm cannot be ruled out, however, because the confidence intervals for efficacy comparisons were wide. (Funded by Genentech; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04356937.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 20 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print
Stone JH, Frigault MJ, Serling-Boyd NJ, Fernandes AD, ... Mansour MK,
N Engl J Med: 20 Oct 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33085857
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This program is still in alpha version.