Journal: N Engl J Med

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Abstract

Racial Inequality in Prescription Opioid Receipt - Role of Individual Health Systems.

Morden NE, Chyn D, Wood A, Meara E
Background
Historically, the receipt of prescription opioids has differed among racial groups in the United States. Research has not sufficiently explored the contribution of individual health systems to these differences by examining within-system prescription opioid receipt according to race.
Methods
We used 2016 and 2017 Medicare claims data from a random 40% national sample of fee-for-service, Black and White beneficiaries 18 to 64 years of age who were attributed to health systems. We identified 310 racially diverse systems (defined as systems with ≥200 person-years each for Black and White patients). To test representativeness, we compared patient characteristics and opioid receipt among the patients in these 310 systems with those in the national sample. Within the 310 systems, regression models were used to explore the difference between Black and White patients in the following annual opioid measures: any prescription filled, short-term receipt of opioids, long-term receipt of opioids (one or more filled opioid prescriptions in all four calendar quarters of a year), and the opioid dose in morphine milligram equivalents (MME); models controlled for patient characteristics, state, and system.
Results
The national sample included 2,197,153 person-years, and the sample served by 310 racially diverse systems included 896,807 person-years (representing 47.4% of all patients and 56.1% of Black patients in the national sample). The national sample and 310-systems sample differed meaningfully only in the percent of person-years contributed by Black patients (21.3% vs. 25.9%). In the 310-systems sample, the crude annual prevalence of any opioid receipt differed slightly between Black and White patients (50.2% vs. 52.2%), whereas the mean annual dose was 36% lower among Black patients than among White patients (5190 MME vs. 8082 MME). Within systems, the adjusted race differences in measures paralleled the population trends: the annual prevalence of opioid receipt differed little, but the mean annual dose was higher among White patients than among Black patients in 91% of the systems, and at least 15% higher in 75% of the systems.
Conclusions
Within individual health systems, Black and White patients received markedly different opioid doses. These system-specific findings could facilitate exploration of the causes and consequences of these differences. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2021; 385:342-351
Morden NE, Chyn D, Wood A, Meara E
N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2021; 385:342-351 | PMID: 34289277
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Abstract

Dolutegravir or Darunavir in Combination with Zidovudine or Tenofovir to Treat HIV.

Paton NI, Musaazi J, Kityo C, Walimbwa S, ... Kambugu A, NADIA Trial Team
Background
The World Health Organization recommends dolutegravir with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for second-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Evidence is limited for the efficacy of this regimen when NRTIs are predicted to lack activity because of drug resistance, as well as for the recommended switch of an NRTI from tenofovir to zidovudine.
Methods
In a two-by-two factorial, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned patients for whom first-line therapy was failing (HIV-1 viral load, ≥1000 copies per milliliter) to receive dolutegravir or ritonavir-boosted darunavir and to receive tenofovir or zidovudine; all patients received lamivudine. The primary outcome was a week 48 viral load of less than 400 copies per milliliter, assessed with the Food and Drug Administration snapshot algorithm (noninferiority margin for the between-group difference in the percentage of patients with the primary outcome, 12 percentage points).
Results
We enrolled 464 patients at seven sub-Saharan African sites. A week 48 viral load of less than 400 copies per milliliter was observed in 90.2% of the patients in the dolutegravir group (212 of 235) and in 91.7% of those in the darunavir group (210 of 229) (difference, -1.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -6.7 to 3.7; P = 0.58; indicating noninferiority of dolutegravir, without superiority) and in 92.3% of the patients in the tenofovir group (215 of 233) and in 89.6% of those in the zidovudine group (207 of 231) (difference, 2.7 percentage points; 95% CI, -2.6 to 7.9; P = 0.32; indicating noninferiority of tenofovir, without superiority). In the subgroup of patients with no NRTIs that were predicted to have activity, a viral load of less than 400 copies per milliliter was observed in more than 90% of the patients in the dolutegravir group and the darunavir group. The incidence of adverse events did not differ substantially between the groups in either factorial comparison.
Conclusions
Dolutegravir in combination with NRTIs was effective in treating patients with HIV-1 infection, including those with extensive NRTI resistance in whom no NRTIs were predicted to have activity. Tenofovir was noninferior to zidovudine as second-line therapy. (Funded by Janssen; NADIA ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03988452.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2021; 385:330-341
Paton NI, Musaazi J, Kityo C, Walimbwa S, ... Kambugu A, NADIA Trial Team
N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2021; 385:330-341 | PMID: 34289276
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Abstract

Trial of Pimavanserin in Dementia-Related Psychosis.

Tariot PN, Cummings JL, Soto-Martin ME, Ballard C, ... Stankovic S, Foff EP
Background
Patients with dementia due to neurodegenerative disease can have dementia-related psychosis. The effects of the oral 5-HT2A inverse agonist and antagonist pimavanserin on psychosis related to various causes of dementia are not clear.
Methods
We conducted a phase 3, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled discontinuation trial involving patients with psychosis related to Alzheimer\'s disease, Parkinson\'s disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia, or vascular dementia. Patients received open-label pimavanserin for 12 weeks. Those who had a reduction from baseline of at least 30% in the score on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms-Hallucinations and Delusions (SAPS-H+D, with higher scores indicating greater psychosis) and a Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) score of 1 (very much improved) or 2 (much improved) at weeks 8 and 12 were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to continue receiving pimavanserin or to receive placebo for up to 26 weeks. The primary end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was a relapse of psychosis as defined by any of the following: an increase of at least 30% in the SAPS-H+D score and a CGI-I score of 6 (much worse) or 7 (very much worse), hospitalization for dementia-related psychosis, stopping of the trial regimen or withdrawal from the trial for lack of efficacy, or use of antipsychotic agents for dementia-related psychosis.
Results
Of the 392 patients in the open-label phase, 41 were withdrawn for administrative reasons because the trial was stopped for efficacy; of the remaining 351 patients, 217 (61.8%) had a sustained response, of whom 105 were assigned to receive pimavanserin and 112 to receive placebo. A relapse occurred in 12 of 95 patients (13%) in the pimavanserin group and in 28 of 99 (28%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.35; 95% confidence interval, 0.17 to 0.73; P = 0.005). During the double-blind phase, adverse events occurred in 43 of 105 patients (41.0%) in the pimavanserin group and in 41 of 112 (36.6%) in the placebo group. Headache, constipation, urinary tract infection, and asymptomatic QT prolongation occurred with pimavanserin.
Conclusions
In a trial that was stopped early for efficacy, patients with dementia-related psychosis who had a response to pimavanserin had a lower risk of relapse with continuation of the drug than with discontinuation. Longer and larger trials are required to determine the effects of pimavanserin in dementia-related psychosis. (Funded by Acadia Pharmaceuticals; HARMONY ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03325556.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2021; 385:309-319
Tariot PN, Cummings JL, Soto-Martin ME, Ballard C, ... Stankovic S, Foff EP
N Engl J Med: 21 Jul 2021; 385:309-319 | PMID: 34289275
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Abstract

Effectiveness of Covid-19 Vaccines against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) Variant.

Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, Gallagher E, ... Chand M, Ramsay M
Background
The B.1.617.2 (delta) variant of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), has contributed to a surge in cases in India and has now been detected across the globe, including a notable increase in cases in the United Kingdom. The effectiveness of the BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccines against this variant has been unclear.
Methods
We used a test-negative case-control design to estimate the effectiveness of vaccination against symptomatic disease caused by the delta variant or the predominant strain (B.1.1.7, or alpha variant) over the period that the delta variant began circulating. Variants were identified with the use of sequencing and on the basis of the spike (S) gene status. Data on all symptomatic sequenced cases of Covid-19 in England were used to estimate the proportion of cases with either variant according to the patients\' vaccination status.
Results
Effectiveness after one dose of vaccine (BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) was notably lower among persons with the delta variant (30.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 25.2 to 35.7) than among those with the alpha variant (48.7%; 95% CI, 45.5 to 51.7); the results were similar for both vaccines. With the BNT162b2 vaccine, the effectiveness of two doses was 93.7% (95% CI, 91.6 to 95.3) among persons with the alpha variant and 88.0% (95% CI, 85.3 to 90.1) among those with the delta variant. With the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine, the effectiveness of two doses was 74.5% (95% CI, 68.4 to 79.4) among persons with the alpha variant and 67.0% (95% CI, 61.3 to 71.8) among those with the delta variant.
Conclusions
Only modest differences in vaccine effectiveness were noted with the delta variant as compared with the alpha variant after the receipt of two vaccine doses. Absolute differences in vaccine effectiveness were more marked after the receipt of the first dose. This finding would support efforts to maximize vaccine uptake with two doses among vulnerable populations. (Funded by Public Health England.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 20 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, Gallagher E, ... Chand M, Ramsay M
N Engl J Med: 20 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34289274
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Abstract

Ruxolitinib for Glucocorticoid-Refractory Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

Zeiser R, Polverelli N, Ram R, Hashmi SK, ... Locatelli F, REACH3 Investigators
Background
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a major complication of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation, becomes glucocorticoid-refractory or glucocorticoid-dependent in approximately 50% of patients. Robust data from phase 3 randomized studies evaluating second-line therapy for chronic GVHD are lacking. In retrospective surveys, ruxolitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK1-JAK2) inhibitor, showed potential efficacy in patients with glucocorticoid-refractory or -dependent chronic GVHD.
Methods
This phase 3 open-label, randomized trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of ruxolitinib at a dose of 10 mg twice daily, as compared with the investigator\'s choice of therapy from a list of 10 commonly used options considered best available care (control), in patients 12 years of age or older with moderate or severe glucocorticoid-refractory or -dependent chronic GVHD. The primary end point was overall response (complete or partial response) at week 24; key secondary end points were failure-free survival and improved score on the modified Lee Symptom Scale at week 24.
Results
A total of 329 patients underwent randomization; 165 patients were assigned to receive ruxolitinib and 164 patients to receive control therapy. Overall response at week 24 was greater in the ruxolitinib group than in the control group (49.7% vs. 25.6%; odds ratio, 2.99; P<0.001). Ruxolitinib led to longer median failure-free survival than control (>18.6 months vs. 5.7 months; hazard ratio, 0.37; P<0.001) and higher symptom response (24.2% vs. 11.0%; odds ratio, 2.62; P = 0.001). The most common (occurring in ≥10% patients) adverse events of grade 3 or higher up to week 24 were thrombocytopenia (15.2% in the ruxolitinib group and 10.1% in the control group) and anemia (12.7% and 7.6%, respectively). The incidence of cytomegalovirus infections and reactivations was similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
Among patients with glucocorticoid-refractory or -dependent chronic GVHD, ruxolitinib led to significantly greater overall response, failure-free survival, and symptom response. The incidence of thrombocytopenia and anemia was greater with ruxolitinib. (Funded by Novartis and Incyte; REACH3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03112603.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 14 Jul 2021; 385:228-238
Zeiser R, Polverelli N, Ram R, Hashmi SK, ... Locatelli F, REACH3 Investigators
N Engl J Med: 14 Jul 2021; 385:228-238 | PMID: 34260836
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Abstract

Neuroprosthesis for Decoding Speech in a Paralyzed Person with Anarthria.

Moses DA, Metzger SL, Liu JR, Anumanchipalli GK, ... Ganguly K, Chang EF
Background
Technology to restore the ability to communicate in paralyzed persons who cannot speak has the potential to improve autonomy and quality of life. An approach that decodes words and sentences directly from the cerebral cortical activity of such patients may represent an advancement over existing methods for assisted communication.
Methods
We implanted a subdural, high-density, multielectrode array over the area of the sensorimotor cortex that controls speech in a person with anarthria (the loss of the ability to articulate speech) and spastic quadriparesis caused by a brain-stem stroke. Over the course of 48 sessions, we recorded 22 hours of cortical activity while the participant attempted to say individual words from a vocabulary set of 50 words. We used deep-learning algorithms to create computational models for the detection and classification of words from patterns in the recorded cortical activity. We applied these computational models, as well as a natural-language model that yielded next-word probabilities given the preceding words in a sequence, to decode full sentences as the participant attempted to say them.
Results
We decoded sentences from the participant\'s cortical activity in real time at a median rate of 15.2 words per minute, with a median word error rate of 25.6%. In post hoc analyses, we detected 98% of the attempts by the participant to produce individual words, and we classified words with 47.1% accuracy using cortical signals that were stable throughout the 81-week study period.
Conclusions
In a person with anarthria and spastic quadriparesis caused by a brain-stem stroke, words and sentences were decoded directly from cortical activity during attempted speech with the use of deep-learning models and a natural-language model. (Funded by Facebook and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03698149.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 14 Jul 2021; 385:217-227
Moses DA, Metzger SL, Liu JR, Anumanchipalli GK, ... Ganguly K, Chang EF
N Engl J Med: 14 Jul 2021; 385:217-227 | PMID: 34260835
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Abstract

Bamlanivimab plus Etesevimab in Mild or Moderate Covid-19.

Dougan M, Nirula A, Azizad M, Mocherla B, ... Skovronsky DM, BLAZE-1 Investigators
Background
Patients with underlying medical conditions are at increased risk for severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Whereas vaccine-derived immunity develops over time, neutralizing monoclonal-antibody treatment provides immediate, passive immunity and may limit disease progression and complications.
Methods
In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, a cohort of ambulatory patients with mild or moderate Covid-19 who were at high risk for progression to severe disease to receive a single intravenous infusion of either a neutralizing monoclonal-antibody combination agent (2800 mg of bamlanivimab and 2800 mg of etesevimab, administered together) or placebo within 3 days after a laboratory diagnosis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The primary outcome was the overall clinical status of the patients, defined as Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause by day 29.
Results
A total of 1035 patients underwent randomization and received an infusion of bamlanivimab-etesevimab or placebo. The mean (±SD) age of the patients was 53.8±16.8 years, and 52.0% were adolescent girls or women. By day 29, a total of 11 of 518 patients (2.1%) in the bamlanivimab-etesevimab group had a Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause, as compared with 36 of 517 patients (7.0%) in the placebo group (absolute risk difference, -4.8 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -7.4 to -2.3; relative risk difference, 70%; P<0.001). No deaths occurred in the bamlanivimab-etesevimab group; in the placebo group, 10 deaths occurred, 9 of which were designated by the trial investigators as Covid-19-related. At day 7, a greater reduction from baseline in the log viral load was observed among patients who received bamlanivimab plus etesevimab than among those who received placebo (difference from placebo in the change from baseline, -1.20; 95% CI, -1.46 to -0.94; P<0.001).
Conclusions
Among high-risk ambulatory patients, bamlanivimab plus etesevimab led to a lower incidence of Covid-19-related hospitalization and death than did placebo and accelerated the decline in the SARS-CoV-2 viral load. (Funded by Eli Lilly; BLAZE-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04427501.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 13 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Dougan M, Nirula A, Azizad M, Mocherla B, ... Skovronsky DM, BLAZE-1 Investigators
N Engl J Med: 13 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34260849
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Abstract

MRI-Targeted or Standard Biopsy in Prostate Cancer Screening.

Eklund M, Jäderling F, Discacciati A, Bergman M, ... Nordström T, STHLM3 consortium
Background
High rates of overdiagnosis are a critical barrier to organized prostate cancer screening. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with targeted biopsy has shown the potential to address this challenge, but the implications of its use in the context of organized prostate cancer screening are unknown.
Methods
We conducted a population-based noninferiority trial of prostate cancer screening in which men 50 to 74 years of age from the general population were invited by mail to participate; participants with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3 ng per milliliter or higher were randomly assigned, in a 2:3 ratio, to undergo a standard biopsy (standard biopsy group) or to undergo MRI, with targeted and standard biopsy if the MRI results suggested prostate cancer (experimental biopsy group). The primary outcome was the proportion of men in the intention-to-treat population in whom clinically significant cancer (Gleason score ≥7) was diagnosed. A key secondary outcome was the detection of clinically insignificant cancers (Gleason score 6).
Results
Of 12,750 men enrolled, 1532 had PSA levels of 3 ng per milliliter or higher and were randomly assigned to undergo biopsy: 603 were assigned to the standard biopsy group and 929 to the experimental biopsy group. In the intention-to-treat analysis, clinically significant cancer was diagnosed in 192 men (21%) in the experimental biopsy group, as compared with 106 men (18%) in the standard biopsy group (difference, 3 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -1 to 7; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The percentage of clinically insignificant cancers was lower in the experimental biopsy group than in the standard biopsy group (4% [41 participants] vs. 12% [73 participants]; difference, -8 percentage points; 95% CI, -11 to -5).
Conclusions
MRI with targeted and standard biopsy in men with MRI results suggestive of prostate cancer was noninferior to standard biopsy for detecting clinically significant prostate cancer in a population-based screening-by-invitation trial and resulted in less detection of clinically insignificant cancer. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; STHLM3-MRI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03377881.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 08 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Eklund M, Jäderling F, Discacciati A, Bergman M, ... Nordström T, STHLM3 consortium
N Engl J Med: 08 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34237810
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Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 Variants and Vaccines.

Krause PR, Fleming TR, Longini IM, Peto R, ... Ryan MJ, Henao-Restrepo AM
Viral variants of concern may emerge with dangerous resistance to the immunity generated by the current vaccines to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Moreover, if some variants of concern have increased transmissibility or virulence, the importance of efficient public health measures and vaccination programs will increase. The global response must be both timely and science based.

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 07 Jul 2021; 385:179-186
Krause PR, Fleming TR, Longini IM, Peto R, ... Ryan MJ, Henao-Restrepo AM
N Engl J Med: 07 Jul 2021; 385:179-186 | PMID: 34161052
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Abstract

Effectiveness of an Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine in Chile.

Jara A, Undurraga EA, González C, Paredes F, ... García-Escorza H, Araos R
Background
Mass vaccination campaigns to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) are occurring in many countries; estimates of vaccine effectiveness are urgently needed to support decision making. A countrywide mass vaccination campaign with the use of an inactivated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine (CoronaVac) was conducted in Chile starting on February 2, 2021.
Methods
We used a prospective national cohort, including participants 16 years of age or older who were affiliated with the public national health care system, to assess the effectiveness of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with regard to preventing Covid-19 and related hospitalization, admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), and death. We estimated hazard ratios using the extension of the Cox proportional-hazards model, accounting for time-varying vaccination status. We estimated the change in the hazard ratio associated with partial immunization (≥14 days after receipt of the first dose and before receipt of the second dose) and full immunization (≥14 days after receipt of the second dose). Vaccine effectiveness was estimated with adjustment for individual demographic and clinical characteristics.
Results
The study was conducted from February 2 through May 1, 2021, and the cohort included approximately 10.2 million persons. Among persons who were fully immunized, the adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 65.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 65.2 to 66.6) for the prevention of Covid-19 and 87.5% (95% CI, 86.7 to 88.2) for the prevention of hospitalization, 90.3% (95% CI, 89.1 to 91.4) for the prevention of ICU admission, and 86.3% (95% CI, 84.5 to 87.9) for the prevention of Covid-19-related death.
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine effectively prevented Covid-19, including severe disease and death, a finding that is consistent with results of phase 2 trials of the vaccine. (Funded by Agencia Nacional de Investigación y Desarrollo and others.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 06 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print
Jara A, Undurraga EA, González C, Paredes F, ... García-Escorza H, Araos R
N Engl J Med: 06 Jul 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34233097
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Abstract

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children - Initial Therapy and Outcomes.

Son MBF, Murray N, Friedman K, Young CC, ... Randolph AG, Overcoming COVID-19 Investigators
Background
The assessment of real-world effectiveness of immunomodulatory medications for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) may guide therapy.
Methods
We analyzed surveillance data on inpatients younger than 21 years of age who had MIS-C and were admitted to 1 of 58 U.S. hospitals between March 15 and October 31, 2020. The effectiveness of initial immunomodulatory therapy (day 0, indicating the first day any such therapy for MIS-C was given) with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus glucocorticoids, as compared with IVIG alone, was evaluated with propensity-score matching and inverse probability weighting, with adjustment for baseline MIS-C severity and demographic characteristics. The primary outcome was cardiovascular dysfunction (a composite of left ventricular dysfunction or shock resulting in the use of vasopressors) on or after day 2. Secondary outcomes included the components of the primary outcome, the receipt of adjunctive treatment (glucocorticoids in patients not already receiving glucocorticoids on day 0, a biologic, or a second dose of IVIG) on or after day 1, and persistent or recurrent fever on or after day 2.
Results
A total of 518 patients with MIS-C (median age, 8.7 years) received at least one immunomodulatory therapy; 75% had been previously healthy, and 9 died. In the propensity-score-matched analysis, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids (103 patients) was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular dysfunction on or after day 2 than IVIG alone (103 patients) (17% vs. 31%; risk ratio, 0.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34 to 0.94). The risks of the components of the composite outcome were also lower among those who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids: left ventricular dysfunction occurred in 8% and 17% of the patients, respectively (risk ratio, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.19 to 1.15), and shock resulting in vasopressor use in 13% and 24% (risk ratio, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.29 to 1.00). The use of adjunctive therapy was lower among patients who received IVIG plus glucocorticoids than among those who received IVIG alone (34% vs. 70%; risk ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.36 to 0.65), but the risk of fever was unaffected (31% and 40%, respectively; risk ratio, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.53 to 1.13). The inverse-probability-weighted analysis confirmed the results of the propensity-score-matched analysis.
Conclusions
Among children and adolescents with MIS-C, initial treatment with IVIG plus glucocorticoids was associated with a lower risk of new or persistent cardiovascular dysfunction than IVIG alone. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 30 Jun 2021; 385:23-34
Son MBF, Murray N, Friedman K, Young CC, ... Randolph AG, Overcoming COVID-19 Investigators
N Engl J Med: 30 Jun 2021; 385:23-34 | PMID: 34133855
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Abstract

Prevention and Attenuation of Covid-19 with the BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 Vaccines.

Thompson MG, Burgess JL, Naleway AL, Tyner H, ... Fry AM, Gaglani M
Background
Information is limited regarding the effectiveness of the two-dose messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) in preventing infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and in attenuating coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) when administered in real-world conditions.
Methods
We conducted a prospective cohort study involving 3975 health care personnel, first responders, and other essential and frontline workers. From December 14, 2020, to April 10, 2021, the participants completed weekly SARS-CoV-2 testing by providing mid-turbinate nasal swabs for qualitative and quantitative reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The formula for calculating vaccine effectiveness was 100% × (1 - hazard ratio for SARS-CoV-2 infection in vaccinated vs. unvaccinated participants), with adjustments for the propensity to be vaccinated, study site, occupation, and local viral circulation.
Results
SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 204 participants (5%), of whom 5 were fully vaccinated (≥14 days after dose 2), 11 partially vaccinated (≥14 days after dose 1 and <14 days after dose 2), and 156 unvaccinated; the 32 participants with indeterminate vaccination status (<14 days after dose 1) were excluded. Adjusted vaccine effectiveness was 91% (95% confidence interval [CI], 76 to 97) with full vaccination and 81% (95% CI, 64 to 90) with partial vaccination. Among participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection, the mean viral RNA load was 40% lower (95% CI, 16 to 57) in partially or fully vaccinated participants than in unvaccinated participants. In addition, the risk of febrile symptoms was 58% lower (relative risk, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.18 to 0.98) and the duration of illness was shorter, with 2.3 fewer days spent sick in bed (95% CI, 0.8 to 3.7).
Conclusions
Authorized mRNA vaccines were highly effective among working-age adults in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection when administered in real-world conditions, and the vaccines attenuated the viral RNA load, risk of febrile symptoms, and duration of illness among those who had breakthrough infection despite vaccination. (Funded by the National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Thompson MG, Burgess JL, Naleway AL, Tyner H, ... Fry AM, Gaglani M
N Engl J Med: 29 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34192428
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Abstract

Safety and Efficacy of NVX-CoV2373 Covid-19 Vaccine.

Heath PT, Galiza EP, Baxter DN, Boffito M, ... Toback S, 2019nCoV-302 Study Group
Background
Early clinical data from studies of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (Novavax), a recombinant nanoparticle vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that contains the full-length spike glycoprotein of the prototype strain plus Matrix-M adjuvant, showed that the vaccine was safe and associated with a robust immune response in healthy adult participants. Additional data were needed regarding the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of this vaccine in a larger population.
Methods
In this phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 33 sites in the United Kingdom, we assigned adults between the ages of 18 and 84 years in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular 5-μg doses of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo administered 21 days apart. The primary efficacy end point was virologically confirmed mild, moderate, or severe SARS-CoV-2 infection with an onset at least 7 days after the second injection in participants who were serologically negative at baseline.
Results
A total of 15,187 participants underwent randomization, and 14,039 were included in the per-protocol efficacy population. Of the participants, 27.9% were 65 years of age or older, and 44.6% had coexisting illnesses. Infections were reported in 10 participants in the vaccine group and in 96 in the placebo group, with a symptom onset of at least 7 days after the second injection, for a vaccine efficacy of 89.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.2 to 94.6). No hospitalizations or deaths were reported among the 10 cases in the vaccine group. Five cases of severe infection were reported, all of which were in the placebo group. A post hoc analysis showed an efficacy of 86.3% (95% CI, 71.3 to 93.5) against the B.1.1.7 (or alpha) variant and 96.4% (95% CI, 73.8 to 99.5) against non-B.1.1.7 variants. Reactogenicity was generally mild and transient. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
A two-dose regimen of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine administered to adult participants conferred 89.7% protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and showed high efficacy against the B.1.1.7 variant. (Funded by Novavax; EudraCT number, 2020-004123-16.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 29 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Heath PT, Galiza EP, Baxter DN, Boffito M, ... Toback S, 2019nCoV-302 Study Group
N Engl J Med: 29 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34192426
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Abstract

Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes with Efpeglenatide in Type 2 Diabetes.

Gerstein HC, Sattar N, Rosenstock J, Ramasundarahettige C, ... Branch K, AMPLITUDE-O Trial Investigators
Background
Four glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists that are structurally similar to human GLP-1 have been shown to reduce the risk of adverse cardiovascular events among persons with type 2 diabetes. The effect of an exendin-based GLP-1 receptor agonist, efpeglenatide, on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes who are also at high risk for adverse cardiovascular events is uncertain.
Methods
In this randomized, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 344 sites across 28 countries, we evaluated efpeglenatide in participants with type 2 diabetes and either a history of cardiovascular disease or current kidney disease (defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 25.0 to 59.9 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area) plus at least one other cardiovascular risk factor. Participants were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive weekly subcutaneous injections of efpeglenatide at a dose of 4 or 6 mg or placebo. Randomization was stratified according to use of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors. The primary outcome was the first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE; a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular or undetermined causes).
Results
A total of 4076 participants were enrolled; 2717 were assigned to receive efpeglenatide and 1359 to receive placebo. During a median follow-up of 1.81 years, an incident MACE occurred in 189 participants (7.0%) assigned to receive efpeglenatide (3.9 events per 100 person-years) and 125 participants (9.2%) assigned to receive placebo (5.3 events per 100 person-years) (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.92; P<0.001 for noninferiority; P = 0.007 for superiority). A composite renal outcome event (a decrease in kidney function or macroalbuminuria) occurred in 353 participants (13.0%) assigned to receive efpeglenatide and in 250 participants (18.4%) assigned to receive placebo (hazard ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57 to 0.79; P<0.001). Diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, or bloating occurred more frequently with efpeglenatide than with placebo.
Conclusions
In this trial involving participants with type 2 diabetes who had either a history of cardiovascular disease or current kidney disease plus at least one other cardiovascular risk factor, the risk of cardiovascular events was lower among those who received weekly subcutaneous injections of efpeglenatide at a dose of 4 or 6 mg than among those who received placebo. (Funded by Sanofi; AMPLITUDE-O ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03496298.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Gerstein HC, Sattar N, Rosenstock J, Ramasundarahettige C, ... Branch K, AMPLITUDE-O Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 27 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34215025
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Abstract

CRISPR-Cas9 In Vivo Gene Editing for Transthyretin Amyloidosis.

Gillmore JD, Gane E, Taubel J, Kao J, ... Sepp-Lorenzino L, Lebwohl D
Background
Transthyretin amyloidosis, also called ATTR amyloidosis, is a life-threatening disease characterized by progressive accumulation of misfolded transthyretin (TTR) protein in tissues, predominantly the nerves and heart. NTLA-2001 is an in vivo gene-editing therapeutic agent that is designed to treat ATTR amyloidosis by reducing the concentration of TTR in serum. It is based on the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated Cas9 endonuclease (CRISPR-Cas9) system and comprises a lipid nanoparticle encapsulating messenger RNA for Cas9 protein and a single guide RNA targeting TTR.
Methods
After conducting preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, we evaluated the safety and pharmacodynamic effects of single escalating doses of NTLA-2001 in six patients with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, three in each of the two initial dose groups (0.1 mg per kilogram and 0.3 mg per kilogram), within an ongoing phase 1 clinical study.
Results
Preclinical studies showed durable knockout of TTR after a single dose. Serial assessments of safety during the first 28 days after infusion in patients revealed few adverse events, and those that did occur were mild in grade. Dose-dependent pharmacodynamic effects were observed. At day 28, the mean reduction from baseline in serum TTR protein concentration was 52% (range, 47 to 56) in the group that received a dose of 0.1 mg per kilogram and was 87% (range, 80 to 96) in the group that received a dose of 0.3 mg per kilogram.
Conclusions
In a small group of patients with hereditary ATTR amyloidosis with polyneuropathy, administration of NTLA-2001 was associated with only mild adverse events and led to decreases in serum TTR protein concentrations through targeted knockout of TTR. (Funded by Intellia Therapeutics and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04601051.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 25 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Gillmore JD, Gane E, Taubel J, Kao J, ... Sepp-Lorenzino L, Lebwohl D
N Engl J Med: 25 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34215024
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Abstract

Tirzepatide versus Semaglutide Once Weekly in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Frías JP, Davies MJ, Rosenstock J, Pérez Manghi FC, ... Brown K, SURPASS-2 Investigators
Background
Tirzepatide is a dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is under development for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The efficacy and safety of once-weekly tirzepatide as compared with semaglutide, a selective GLP-1 receptor agonist, are unknown.
Methods
In an open-label, 40-week, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 1879 patients, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio, to receive tirzepatide at a dose of 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg or semaglutide at a dose of 1 mg. At baseline, the mean glycated hemoglobin level was 8.28%, the mean age 56.6 years, and the mean weight 93.7 kg. The primary end point was the change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks.
Results
The estimated mean change from baseline in the glycated hemoglobin level was -2.01 percentage points, -2.24 percentage points, and -2.30 percentage points with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and -1.86 percentage points with semaglutide; the estimated differences between the 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide groups and the semaglutide group were -0.15 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.28 to -0.03; P = 0.02), -0.39 percentage points (95% CI, -0.51 to -0.26; P<0.001), and -0.45 percentage points (95% CI, -0.57 to -0.32; P<0.001), respectively. Tirzepatide at all doses was noninferior and superior to semaglutide. Reductions in body weight were greater with tirzepatide than with semaglutide (least-squares mean estimated treatment difference, -1.9 kg, -3.6 kg, and -5.5 kg, respectively; P<0.001 for all comparisons). The most common adverse events were gastrointestinal and were primarily mild to moderate in severity in the tirzepatide and semaglutide groups (nausea, 17 to 22% and 18%; diarrhea, 13 to 16% and 12%; and vomiting, 6 to 10% and 8%, respectively). Of the patients who received tirzepatide, hypoglycemia (blood glucose level, <54 mg per deciliter) was reported in 0.6% (5-mg group), 0.2% (10-mg group), and 1.7% (15-mg group); hypoglycemia was reported in 0.4% of those who received semaglutide. Serious adverse events were reported in 5 to 7% of the patients who received tirzepatide and in 3% of those who received semaglutide.
Conclusions
In patients with type 2 diabetes, tirzepatide was noninferior and superior to semaglutide with respect to the mean change in the glycated hemoglobin level from baseline to 40 weeks. (Funded by Eli Lilly; SURPASS-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03987919.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 24 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Frías JP, Davies MJ, Rosenstock J, Pérez Manghi FC, ... Brown K, SURPASS-2 Investigators
N Engl J Med: 24 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34170647
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Abstract

Lutetium-177-PSMA-617 for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.

Sartor O, de Bono J, Chi KN, Fizazi K, ... Krause BJ, VISION Investigators
Background
Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer remains fatal despite recent advances. Prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is highly expressed in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Lutetium-177 (177Lu)-PSMA-617 is a radioligand therapy that delivers beta-particle radiation to PSMA-expressing cells and the surrounding microenvironment.
Methods
We conducted an international, open-label, phase 3 trial evaluating 177Lu-PSMA-617 in patients who had metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with at least one androgen-receptor-pathway inhibitor and one or two taxane regimens and who had PSMA-positive gallium-68 (68Ga)-labeled PSMA-11 positron-emission tomographic-computed tomographic scans. Patients were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either 177Lu-PSMA-617 (7.4 GBq every 6 weeks for four to six cycles) plus protocol-permitted standard care or standard care alone. Protocol-permitted standard care excluded chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radium-223 (223Ra), and investigational drugs. The alternate primary end points were imaging-based progression-free survival and overall survival, which were powered for hazard ratios of 0.67 and 0.73, respectively. Key secondary end points were objective response, disease control, and time to symptomatic skeletal events. Adverse events during treatment were those occurring no more than 30 days after the last dose and before subsequent anticancer treatment.
Results
From June 2018 to mid-October 2019, a total of 831 of 1179 screened patients underwent randomization. The baseline characteristics of the patients were balanced between the groups. The median follow-up was 20.9 months. 177Lu-PSMA-617 plus standard care significantly prolonged, as compared with standard care, both imaging-based progression-free survival (median, 8.7 vs. 3.4 months; hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.40; 99.2% confidence interval [CI], 0.29 to 0.57; P<0.001) and overall survival (median, 15.3 vs. 11.3 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.74; P<0.001). All the key secondary end points significantly favored 177Lu-PSMA-617. The incidence of adverse events of grade 3 or above was higher with 177Lu-PSMA-617 than without (52.7% vs. 38.0%), but quality of life was not adversely affected.
Conclusions
Radioligand therapy with 177Lu-PSMA-617 prolonged imaging-based progression-free survival and overall survival when added to standard care in patients with advanced PSMA-positive metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. (Funded by Endocyte, a Novartis company; VISION ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03511664.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 22 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Sartor O, de Bono J, Chi KN, Fizazi K, ... Krause BJ, VISION Investigators
N Engl J Med: 22 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34161051
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Abstract

Tofacitinib in Patients Hospitalized with Covid-19 Pneumonia.

Guimarães PO, Quirk D, Furtado RH, Maia LN, ... Berwanger O, STOP-COVID Trial Investigators
Background
The efficacy and safety of tofacitinib, a Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients who are hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pneumonia are unclear.
Methods
We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, hospitalized adults with Covid-19 pneumonia to receive either tofacitinib at a dose of 10 mg or placebo twice daily for up to 14 days or until hospital discharge. The primary outcome was the occurrence of death or respiratory failure through day 28 as assessed with the use of an eight-level ordinal scale (with scores ranging from 1 to 8 and higher scores indicating a worse condition). All-cause mortality and safety were also assessed.
Results
A total of 289 patients underwent randomization at 15 sites in Brazil. Overall, 89.3% of the patients received glucocorticoids during hospitalization. The cumulative incidence of death or respiratory failure through day 28 was 18.1% in the tofacitinib group and 29.0% in the placebo group (risk ratio, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.97; P = 0.04). Death from any cause through day 28 occurred in 2.8% of the patients in the tofacitinib group and in 5.5% of those in the placebo group (hazard ratio, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.63). The proportional odds of having a worse score on the eight-level ordinal scale with tofacitinib, as compared with placebo, was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.36 to 1.00) at day 14 and 0.54 (95% CI, 0.27 to 1.06) at day 28. Serious adverse events occurred in 20 patients (14.1%) in the tofacitinib group and in 17 (12.0%) in the placebo group.
Conclusions
Among patients hospitalized with Covid-19 pneumonia, tofacitinib led to a lower risk of death or respiratory failure through day 28 than placebo. (Funded by Pfizer; STOP-COVID ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04469114.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 15 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Guimarães PO, Quirk D, Furtado RH, Maia LN, ... Berwanger O, STOP-COVID Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 15 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34133856
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Abstract

Trends in Diabetes Treatment and Control in U.S. Adults, 1999-2018.

Fang M, Wang D, Coresh J, Selvin E
Background
Documenting current trends in diabetes treatment and risk-factor control may inform public health policy and planning.
Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from adults with diabetes in the United States participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess national trends in diabetes treatment and risk-factor control from 1999 through 2018.
Results
Diabetes control improved from 1999 to the early 2010s among the participants but subsequently stalled and declined. Between the 2007-2010 period and the 2015-2018 period, the percentage of adult NHANES participants with diabetes in whom glycemic control (glycated hemoglobin level, <7%) was achieved declined from 57.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52.9 to 61.8) to 50.5% (95% CI, 45.8 to 55.3). After major improvements in lipid control (non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, <130 mg per deciliter) in the early 2000s, minimal improvement was seen from 2007-2010 (52.3%; 95% CI, 49.2 to 55.3) to 2015-2018 (55.7%; 95% CI, 50.8 to 60.5). From 2011-2014 to 2015-2018, the percentage of participants in whom blood-pressure control (<140/90 mm Hg) was achieved decreased from 74.2% (95% CI, 70.7 to 77.4) to 70.4% (95% CI, 66.7 to 73.8). The percentage of participants in whom all three targets were simultaneously achieved plateaued after 2010 and was 22.2% (95% CI, 17.9 to 27.3) in 2015-2018. The percentages of participants who used any glucose-lowering medication or any blood-pressure-lowering medication were unchanged after 2010, and the percentage who used statins plateaued after 2014. After 2010, the use of combination therapy declined in participants with uncontrolled blood pressure and plateaued for those with poor glycemic control.
Conclusions
After more than a decade of progress from 1999 to the early 2010s, glycemic and blood-pressure control declined in adult NHANES participants with diabetes, while lipid control leveled off. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 09 Jun 2021; 384:2219-2228
Fang M, Wang D, Coresh J, Selvin E
N Engl J Med: 09 Jun 2021; 384:2219-2228 | PMID: 34107181
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Abstract

Adjunct Immune Globulin for Vaccine-Induced Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia.

Bourguignon A, Arnold DM, Warkentin TE, Smith JW, ... Kelton JG, Nazy I
The use of high-dose intravenous immune globulin (IVIG) plus anticoagulation is recommended for the treatment of vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT), a rare side effect of adenoviral vector vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). We describe the response to IVIG therapy in three of the first patients in whom VITT was identified in Canada after the receipt of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine. The patients were between the ages of 63 and 72 years; one was female. At the time of this report, Canada had restricted the use of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine to persons who were 55 years of age or older on the basis of reports that VITT had occurred primarily in younger persons. Two of the patients in our study presented with limb-artery thrombosis; the third had cerebral venous and arterial thrombosis. Variable patterns of serum-induced platelet activation were observed in response to heparin and platelet factor 4 (PF4), indicating the heterogeneity of the manifestations of VITT in serum. After the initiation of IVIG, reduced antibody-induced platelet activation in serum was seen in all three patients. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 08 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print
Bourguignon A, Arnold DM, Warkentin TE, Smith JW, ... Kelton JG, Nazy I
N Engl J Med: 08 Jun 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34107198
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Abstract

Multivessel PCI Guided by FFR or Angiography for Myocardial Infarction.

Puymirat E, Cayla G, Simon T, Steg PG, ... Danchin N, FLOWER-MI Study Investigators
Background
In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) who have multivessel disease, percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for nonculprit lesions (complete revascularization) is superior to treatment of the culprit lesion alone. However, whether complete revascularization that is guided by fractional flow reserve (FFR) is superior to an angiography-guided procedure is unclear.
Methods
In this multicenter trial, we randomly assigned patients with STEMI and multivessel disease who had undergone successful PCI of the infarct-related artery to receive complete revascularization guided by either FFR or angiography. The primary outcome was a composite of death from any cause, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned hospitalization leading to urgent revascularization at 1 year.
Results
The mean (±SD) number of stents that were placed per patient for nonculprit lesions was 1.01±0.99 in the FFR-guided group and 1.50±0.86 in the angiography-guided group. During follow-up, a primary outcome event occurred in 32 of 586 patients (5.5%) in the FFR-guided group and in 24 of 577 patients (4.2%) in the angiography-guided group (hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.78 to 2.23; P = 0.31). Death occurred in 9 patients (1.5%) in the FFR-guided group and in 10 (1.7%) in the angiography-guided group; nonfatal myocardial infarction in 18 (3.1%) and 10 (1.7%), respectively; and unplanned hospitalization leading to urgent revascularization in 15 (2.6%) and 11 (1.9%), respectively.
Conclusions
In patients with STEMI undergoing complete revascularization, an FFR-guided strategy did not have a significant benefit over an angiography-guided strategy with respect to the risk of death, myocardial infarction, or urgent revascularization at 1 year. However, given the wide confidence intervals for the estimate of effect, the findings do not allow for a conclusive interpretation. (Funded by the French Ministry of Health and Abbott; FLOWER-MI ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02943954.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 15 May 2021; epub ahead of print
Puymirat E, Cayla G, Simon T, Steg PG, ... Danchin N, FLOWER-MI Study Investigators
N Engl J Med: 15 May 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33999545
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Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.