Journal: Lancet

Sorted by: date / impact
Abstract

Artificial intelligence-guided screening for atrial fibrillation using electrocardiogram during sinus rhythm: a prospective non-randomised interventional trial.

Noseworthy PA, Attia ZI, Behnken EM, Giblon RE, ... Friedman PA, Yao X
Background
Previous atrial fibrillation screening trials have highlighted the need for more targeted approaches. We did a pragmatic study to evaluate the effectiveness of an artificial intelligence (AI) algorithm-guided targeted screening approach for identifying previously unrecognised atrial fibrillation.
Methods
For this non-randomised interventional trial, we prospectively recruited patients with stroke risk factors but with no known atrial fibrillation who had an electrocardiogram (ECG) done in routine practice. Participants wore a continuous ambulatory heart rhythm monitor for up to 30 days, with the data transmitted in near real time through a cellular connection. The AI algorithm was applied to the ECGs to divide patients into high-risk or low-risk groups. The primary outcome was newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation. In a secondary analysis, trial participants were propensity-score matched (1:1) to individuals from the eligible but unenrolled population who served as real-world controls. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04208971.
Findings
1003 patients with a mean age of 74 years (SD 8·8) from 40 US states completed the study. Over a mean 22·3 days of continuous monitoring, atrial fibrillation was detected in six (1·6%) of 370 patients with low risk and 48 (7·6%) of 633 with high risk (odds ratio 4·98, 95% CI 2·11-11·75, p=0·0002). Compared with usual care, AI-guided screening was associated with increased detection of atrial fibrillation (high-risk group: 3·6% [95% CI 2·3-5·4] with usual care vs 10·6% [8·3-13·2] with AI-guided screening, p<0·0001; low-risk group: 0·9% vs 2·4%, p=0·12) over a median follow-up of 9·9 months (IQR 7·1-11·0).
Interpretation
An AI-guided targeted screening approach that leverages existing clinical data increased the yield for atrial fibrillation detection and could improve the effectiveness of atrial fibrillation screening.
Funding
Mayo Clinic Robert D and Patricia E Kern Center for the Science of Health Care Delivery.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 27 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Noseworthy PA, Attia ZI, Behnken EM, Giblon RE, ... Friedman PA, Yao X
Lancet: 27 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36179758
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Abstract

Current best practice for bladder cancer: a narrative review of diagnostics and treatments.

Compérat E, Amin MB, Cathomas R, Choudhury A, ... Thoeny HC, Witjes JA
This Seminar presents the current best practice for the diagnosis and management of bladder cancer. The scope of this Seminar ranges from current challenges in pathology, such as the evolving histological and molecular classification of disease, to advances in personalised medicine and novel imaging approaches. We discuss the current role of radiotherapy, surgical management of non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive disease, highlight the challenges of treatment of metastatic bladder cancer, and discuss the latest developments in systemic therapy. This Seminar is intended to provide physicians with knowledge of current issues in bladder cancer.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 26 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Compérat E, Amin MB, Cathomas R, Choudhury A, ... Thoeny HC, Witjes JA
Lancet: 26 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36174585
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Abstract

Socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence and access to health services among children and adolescents in China: a cross-sectional study.

Ni X, Li Z, Li X, Zhang X, ... Yang Z, Zhang J
Background
Despite the substantial burden caused by childhood cancer globally, childhood cancer incidence obtained in a nationwide childhood cancer registry and the accessibility of relevant health services are still unknown in China. We comprehensively assessed the most up-to-date cancer incidence in Chinese children and adolescents, nationally, regionally, and in specific population subgroups, and also examined the association between cancer incidence and socioeconomic inequality in access to health services.
Methods
In this national cross-sectional study, we used data from the National Center for Pediatric Cancer Surveillance, the nationwide Hospital Quality Monitoring System, and public databases to cover 31 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China. We estimated the incidence of cancer among children (aged 0-14 years) and adolescents (aged 15-19 years) in China through stratified proportional estimation. We classified regions by socioeconomic status using the human development index (HDI). Incidence rates of 12 main groups, 47 subgroups, and 81 subtypes of cancer were reported and compared by sex, age, and socioeconomic status, according to the third edition of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer. We also quantified the geographical and population density of paediatric oncologists, pathology workforce, diagnoses and treatment institutions of paediatric cancer, and paediatric beds. We used the Gini coefficient to assess equality in access to these four health service indicators. We also calculated the proportions of cross-regional patients among new cases in our surveillance system.
Findings
We estimated the incidence of cancer among children (aged 0-14 years) and adolescents (aged 15-19 years) in China from Jan 1, 2018, to Dec 31, 2020. An estimated 121 145 cancer cases were diagnosed among children and adolescents in China between 2018 and 2020, with world standard age-standardised incidence rates of 122·86 (95% CI 121·70-124·02) per million for children and 137·64 (136·08-139·20) per million for adolescents. Boys had a higher incidence rate of childhood cancer (133·18 for boys vs 111·21 for girls per million) but a lower incidence of adolescent cancer (133·92 for boys vs 141·79 for girls per million) than girls. Leukaemias (42·33 per million) were the most common cancer group in children, whereas malignant epithelial tumours and melanomas (30·39 per million) surpassed leukaemias (30·08 per million) in adolescents as the cancer with the highest incidence. The overall incidence rates ranged from 101·60 (100·67-102·51) per million in very low HDI regions to 138·21 (137·14-139·29) per million in high HDI regions, indicating a significant positive association between the incidence of childhood and adolescent cancer and regional socioeconomic status (p<0·0001). The incidence in girls showed larger variation (48·45% from the lowest to the highest) than boys (36·71% from lowest to highest) in different socioeconomic regions. The population and geographical densities of most health services also showed a significant positive correlation with HDI levels. In particular, the geographical density distribution (Gini coefficients of 0·32-0·47) had higher inequalities than population density distribution (Gini coefficients of 0·05-0·19). The overall proportion of cross-regional patients of childhood and adolescent cancer was 22·16%, and the highest proportion occurred in retinoblastoma (56·54%) and in low HDI regions (35·14%).
Interpretation
Our study showed that the burden of cancer in children and adolescents in China is much higher than previously nationally reported from 2000 to 2015. The distribution of the accessibility of health services, as a social determinant of health, might have a notable role in the socioeconomic inequalities in cancer incidence among Chinese children and adolescents. With regards to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals, policy approaches should prioritise increasing the accessibility of health services for early diagnosis to improve outcomes and subsequently reduce disease burdens, as well as narrowing the socioeconomic inequalities of childhood and adolescent cancer.
Funding
National Major Science and Technology Projects of China, National Natural Science Foundation of China, Chinese Academy of Engineering Consulting Research Project, Wu Jieping Medical Foundation, Beijing Municipal Administration of Hospitals Incubating Program.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 24 Sep 2022; 400:1020-1032
Ni X, Li Z, Li X, Zhang X, ... Yang Z, Zhang J
Lancet: 24 Sep 2022; 400:1020-1032 | PMID: 36154677
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Abstract

Linzagolix with and without hormonal add-back therapy for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids: two randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials.

Donnez J, Taylor HS, Stewart EA, Bradley L, ... Humberstone A, Garner E
Background
Uterine fibroids are common non-cancerous neoplasm that cause heavy menstrual bleeding and other signs. Linzagolix is an oral gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist taken once per day that dose-dependently suppresses gonadal steroids and might reduce uterine-fibroid-associated signs. Two phase 3 trials were conducted to confirm the efficacy and safety of linzagolix at full-suppression (200 mg) and partial-suppression (100 mg) doses with or without hormonal add-back therapy (1 mg oestradiol and 0·5 mg norethisterone acetate) compared with placebo for the treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids.
Methods
PRIMROSE 1 and PRIMROSE 2 were identical 52-week, randomised, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials conducted at clinics in the USA (PRIMROSE 1) and Europe and the USA (PRIMROSE 2). Eligible women with uterine fibroid-associated heavy menstrual bleeding (menstrual blood loss >80 mL per cycle) were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1:1:1 ratio to one of five masked treatments: (1) placebo, (2) 100 mg linzagolix per day alone, (3) 100 mg linzagolix per day with once-per-day hormonal add-back therapy (1 mg oestradiol and 0·5 mg norethisterone acetate), (4) 200 mg linzagolix per day alone, or (5) 200 mg linzagolix per day with once-per-day hormonal add-back therapy (1 mg oestradiol and 0·5 mg norethisterone acetate). The primary endpoint was a response (menstrual blood loss ≤80 mL and ≥50% reduction from baseline) at 24 weeks in women who received at least one dose of treatment and did not meet any exclusion criteria based on predosing assessments. These trials are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT03070899 and NCT03070951). The trials have been completed.
Findings
Between May, 2017, and October, 2020, in PRIMROSE 1, 574 women were enrolled, of which 48 discontinued and 15 were excluded; therefore, 511 women were included in the full analysis set; and in PRIMROSE 2, 535 women were enrolled, of which 24 did not receive the study drug and ten women were excluded from the study, resulting in 501 women being included in the full analysis set. In both trials, a significantly higher proportion of women had a reduction in heavy menstrual bleeding in all linzagolix (with or without add-back therapy) treatment groups compared with the placebo group (p≤0·003). In PRIMROSE 1, the response rates were 56·4% (95% CI 45·8-66·6%) in the 100 mg group, 66·4% (56·6-75·2%) in the 100 mg plus add-back therapy group, 71·4% (61·8-79·8%) in the 200 mg group, and 75·5% (66·0-83·5%) in the 200 mg plus add-back therapy group, compared with 35·0% (25·8-45·0%) in the placebo group. In PRIMROSE 2, the response rates were 56·7% (46·3-66·7%) in the 100 mg group, 77·2% (67·8-85·0%) in the 100 mg plus add-back therapy group, 77·7% (68·4-85·3%) in the 200 mg group, and 93·9% (87·1-97·7%) in the 200 mg plus add-back therapy group, compared with 29·4% (20·8-39·3%) with placebo. The most common adverse events up to 24 weeks were hot flushes (35% of participants in PRIMROSE 1 and 32% in PRIMROSE 2 with linzagolix [200 mg] alone and 3-14% in all other groups).
Interpretation
Linzagolix (100 mg or 200 mg) with or without add-back therapy significantly reduced heavy menstrual bleeding. Partial suppression with once-per-day linzagolix (100 mg) without add-back therapy potentially provides a unique option for the chronic treatment of symptomatic uterine fibroids in women who cannot or do not want to take concomitant hormonal add-back therapy.
Funding
ObsEva.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 17 Sep 2022; 400:896-907
Donnez J, Taylor HS, Stewart EA, Bradley L, ... Humberstone A, Garner E
Lancet: 17 Sep 2022; 400:896-907 | PMID: 36116480
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Abstract

Dupilumab in children aged 6 months to younger than 6 years with uncontrolled atopic dermatitis: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Paller AS, Simpson EL, Siegfried EC, Cork MJ, ... Bansal A, participating investigators
Background
Current systemic treatments for children younger than 6 years with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis that is uncontrolled with topical therapies might have suboptimal efficacy and safety. Dupilumab is approved for older children and adults with atopic dermatitis and for other type 2 inflammatory conditions. We aimed to evaluate efficacy and safety of dupilumab with concomitant low-potency topical corticosteroids in children aged 6 months to younger than 6 years with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis.
Methods
This randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 trial was conducted in 31 hospitals, clinics, and academic institutions in Europe and North America. Eligible patients were aged 6 months to younger than 6 years, with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (Investigator\'s Global Assessment [IGA] score 3-4) diagnosed according to consensus criteria of the American Academy of Dermatology, and an inadequate response to topical corticosteroids. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to subcutaneous placebo or dupilumab (bodyweight ≥5 kg to <15 kg: 200 mg; bodyweight ≥15 kg to <30 kg: 300 mg) every 4 weeks plus low-potency topical corticosteroids (hydrocortisone acetate 1% cream) for 16 weeks. Randomisation was stratified by age, baseline bodyweight, and region. Patient allocation was done via a central interactive web response system, and treatment allocation was masked. The primary endpoint at week 16 was the proportion of patients with IGA score 0-1 (clear or almost clear skin). The key secondary endpoint (coprimary endpoint for the EU and EU reference market) at week 16 was the proportion of patients with at least a 75% improvement from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index (EASI-75). Primary analyses were done in the full analysis set (ie, all randomly assigned patients, as randomly assigned) and safety analyses were done in all patients who received any study drug. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03346434.
Findings
Between June 30, 2020, and Feb 12, 2021, 197 patients were screened for eligibility, 162 of whom were randomly assigned to receive dupilumab (n=83) or placebo (n=79) plus topical corticosteroids. At week 16, significantly more patients in the dupilumab group than in the placebo group had IGA 0-1 (23 [28%] vs three [4%], difference 24% [95% CI 13-34]; p<0·0001) and EASI-75 (44 [53%] vs eight [11%], difference 42% [95% CI 29-55]; p<0·0001). Overall prevalence of adverse events was similar in the dupilumab group (53 [64%] of 83 patients) and placebo group (58 [74%] of 78 patients). Conjunctivitis incidence was higher in the dupilumab group (four [5%]) than the placebo group (none). No dupilumab-related adverse events were serious or led to treatment discontinuation.
Interpretation
Dupilumab significantly improved atopic dermatitis signs and symptoms versus placebo in children younger than 6 years. Dupilumab was well tolerated and showed an acceptable safety profile, similar to results in older children and adults.
Funding
Sanofi and Regeneron Pharmaceuticals.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 17 Sep 2022; 400:908-919
Paller AS, Simpson EL, Siegfried EC, Cork MJ, ... Bansal A, participating investigators
Lancet: 17 Sep 2022; 400:908-919 | PMID: 36116481
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Abstract

The clinical effect of point-of-care HIV diagnosis in infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Luo R, Fong Y, Boeras D, Jani I, Vojnov L
Background
Timely diagnosis and treatment of HIV is crucial in HIV-exposed infants to prevent the high rates of mortality seen during the first 2 years of life if HIV is untreated. However, challenges with sample transportation, testing, and result delivery to caregivers have led to long delays in treatment initiation. We aimed to compare the clinical effect of point-of-care HIV testing versus laboratory-based testing (standard of care) in HIV-exposed infants.
Methods
We did a systematic review and meta-analysis and searched PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science, and WHO Global Index Medicus, from Jan 1, 2014, to Aug 31, 2020. Studies were included if they pertained to the use of point-of-care nucleic acid testing for infant HIV diagnosis, had a laboratory-based nucleic acid test as the comparator or standard of care against the index test (same-day point-of-care testing), evaluated clinical outcomes when point-of-care testing was used, and included HIV-exposed infants aged younger than 2 years. Studies were excluded if they did not use a laboratory-based comparator, a nucleic acid test that had been approved by a stringent regulatory authority, or diagnostic-accuracy or performance evaluations (eg, no clinical outcomes included). Reviews, non-research letters, commentaries, and editorials were also excluded. The risk of bias was evaluated using the ROBINS-I framework. Data were extracted from published reports. Data from all studies were analysed using frequency statistics to describe the overall populations evaluated and their results. Key outcomes were time to result delivery and antiretroviral therapy initiation, and proportion of HIV-positive infants initiated on antiretroviral therapy within 60 days after sample collection.
Findings
164 studies were identified by the search and seven were included in the analysis, comprising 37 377 infants in total across 15 countries, including 25 170 (67%) who had point-of-care HIV testing and 12 207 (33%) who had standard-of-care testing. The certainty of evidence was high. Same-day point-of-care testing led to a significantly shorter time between sample collection and result delivery to caregivers compared with standard-of-care testing (median 0 days [95% CI 0-0] vs 35 days [35-37]). Time from sample collection to antiretroviral therapy initiation in infants found to be HIV-positive was significantly lower with point-of-care testing compared with standard of care (median 0 days [95% CI 0-1] vs 40 days [36-44]). When each study\'s result was weighted equally, 90·3% (95% CI 76·7-96·5) of HIV-positive infants diagnosed using point-of-care testing had started antiretroviral therapy within 60 days of sample collection, compared with only 51·6% (27·1-75·7) who had standard-of-care testing (odds ratio 8·74 [95% CI 6·6-11·6]; p<0·0001).
Interpretation
Overall, the certainty of the evidence in this analysis was rated as high for the primary outcomes related to result delivery and treatment initiation, with no serious risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, or imprecision. In HIV-exposed infants, same-day point-of-care HIV testing was associated with significantly improved time to result delivery, time to antiretroviral therapy initiation, and proportion of HIV-positive infants starting antiretroviral therapy within 60 days compared with standard of care.
Funding
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Copyright © 2022 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 17 Sep 2022; 400:887-895
Luo R, Fong Y, Boeras D, Jani I, Vojnov L
Lancet: 17 Sep 2022; 400:887-895 | PMID: 36116479
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Abstract

Long-term outcomes after catheter-based renal artery denervation for resistant hypertension: final follow-up of the randomised SYMPLICITY HTN-3 Trial.

Bhatt DL, Vaduganathan M, Kandzari DE, Leon MB, ... Bakris GL, SYMPLICITY HTN-3 Steering Committee Investigators
Background
The SYMPLICITY HTN-3 (Renal Denervation in Patients With Uncontrolled Hypertension) trial showed the safety but not efficacy of the Symplicity system (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) at 6 months follow-up in patients with treatment-resistant hypertension. This final report presents the 36-month follow-up results.
Methods
SYMPLICITY HTN-3 was a single-blind, multicentre, sham-controlled, randomised clinical trial, done in 88 centres in the USA. Adults aged 18-80 years, with treatment-resistant hypertension on stable, maximally tolerated doses of three or more drugs including a diuretic, who had a seated office systolic blood pressure of 160 mm Hg or more and 24 h ambulatory systolic blood pressure of 135 mm Hg or more were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive renal artery denervation using the single electrode (Flex) catheter or a sham control. The original primary endpoint was the change in office systolic blood pressure from baseline to 6 months for the renal artery denervation group compared with the sham control group. Patients were unmasked after the primary endpoint assessment at 6 months, at which point eligible patients in the sham control group who met the inclusion criteria (office blood pressure ≥160 mm Hg, 24 h ambulatory systolic blood pressure ≥135 mm Hg, and still prescribed three or more antihypertensive medications) could cross over to receive renal artery denervation. Changes in blood pressure up to 36 months were analysed in patients in the original renal artery denervation group and sham control group, including those who underwent renal artery denervation after 6 months (crossover group) and those who did not (non-crossover group). For comparisons between the renal artery denervation and sham control groups, follow-up blood pressure values were imputed for patients in the crossover group using their most recent pre-crossover masked blood pressure value. We report long-term blood pressure changes in renal artery denervation and sham control groups, and investigate blood pressure control in both groups using time in therapeutic blood pressure range analysis. The primary safety endpoint was the incidence of all-cause mortality, end stage renal disease, significant embolic event, renal artery perforation or dissection requiring intervention, vascular complications, hospitalisation for hypertensive crisis unrelated to non-adherence to medications, or new renal artery stenosis of more than 70% within 6 months. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01418261.
Findings
From Sep 29, 2011, to May 6, 2013, 1442 patients were screened, of whom 535 (37%; 210 [39%] women and 325 [61%] men; mean age 57·9 years [SD 10·7]) were randomly assigned: 364 (68%) patients received renal artery denervation (mean age 57·9 years [10·4]) and 171 (32%) received the sham control (mean age 56·2 years [11·2]). 36-month follow-up data were available for 219 patients (original renal artery denervation group), 63 patients (crossover group), and 33 patients (non-crossover group). At 36 months, the change in office systolic blood pressure was -26·4 mm Hg (SD 25·9) in the renal artery denervation group and -5·7 mm Hg (24·4) in the sham control group (adjusted treatment difference -22·1 mm Hg [95% CI -27·2 to -17·0]; p≤0·0001). The change in 24 h ambulatory systolic blood pressure at 36 months was -15·6 mm Hg (SD 20·8) in the renal artery denervation group and -0·3 mm Hg (15·1) in the sham control group (adjusted treatment difference -16·5 mm Hg [95% CI -20·5 to -12·5]; p≤0·0001). Without imputation, the renal artery denervation group spent a significantly longer time in therapeutic blood pressure range (ie, better blood pressure control) than patients in the sham control group (18% [SD 25·0] for the renal artery denervation group vs 9% [SD 18·8] for the sham control group; p≤0·0001) despite a similar medication burden, with consistent and significant results with imputation. Rates of adverse events were similar across treatment groups, with no evidence of late-emerging complications from renal artery denervation. The rate of the composite safety endpoint to 48 months, including all-cause death, new-onset end-stage renal disease, significant embolic event resulting in end-organ damage, vascular complication, renal artery re-intervention, and hypertensive emergency was 15% (54 of 352 patients) for the renal artery denervation group, 14% (13 of 96 patients) for the crossover group, and 14% (10 of 69 patients) for the non-crossover group.
Interpretation
This final report of the SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial adds to the totality of evidence supporting the safety of renal artery denervation to 36 months after the procedure. From 12 months to 36 months after the procedure, patients who were originally randomly assigned to receive renal artery denervation had larger reductions in blood pressure and better blood pressure control compared with patients who received sham control.
Funding
Medtronic.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 16 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Bhatt DL, Vaduganathan M, Kandzari DE, Leon MB, ... Bakris GL, SYMPLICITY HTN-3 Steering Committee Investigators
Lancet: 16 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36130612
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Impact:
Abstract

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Feldman EL, Goutman SA, Petri S, Mazzini L, ... Shaw PJ, Sobue G
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal CNS neurodegenerative disease. Despite intensive research, current management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis remains suboptimal from diagnosis to prognosis. Recognition of the phenotypic heterogeneity of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, global CNS dysfunction, genetic architecture, and development of novel diagnostic criteria is clarifying the spectrum of clinical presentation and facilitating diagnosis. Insights into the pathophysiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, identification of disease biomarkers and modifiable risks, along with new predictive models, scales, and scoring systems, and a clinical trial pipeline of mechanism-based therapies, are changing the prognostic landscape. Although most recent advances have yet to translate into patient benefit, the idea of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as a complex syndrome is already having tangible effects in the clinic. This Seminar will outline these insights and discuss the status of the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis for the general neurologist, along with future prospects that could improve care and outcomes for patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 15 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Feldman EL, Goutman SA, Petri S, Mazzini L, ... Shaw PJ, Sobue G
Lancet: 15 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36116464
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Abstract

Understanding and approaching excessive daytime sleepiness.

Pérez-Carbonell L, Mignot E, Leschziner G, Dauvilliers Y
Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is a public health issue. However, it remains largely undervalued, scarcely diagnosed, and poorly supported. Variations in the definition of EDS and limitations in clinical assessment lead to difficulties in its epidemiological study, but the relevance of this symptom from a socioeconomic perspective is inarguable. EDS might be a consequence of several behavioural issues leading to insufficient or disrupted sleep, as well as a consequence of sleep disorders including sleep apnoea syndrome, circadian disorders, central hypersomnolence disorders (narcolepsy and idiopathic hypersomnia), other medical or psychiatric conditions, or medications. Furthermore, EDS can have implications for health as it is thought to act as a risk factor for other conditions, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Because of the heterogeneous causes of EDS and the complexity of its pathophysiology, management will largely depend on the cause, with the final aim of making treatment specific to the individual using precision medicine and personalised medicine.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 14 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Pérez-Carbonell L, Mignot E, Leschziner G, Dauvilliers Y
Lancet: 14 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36115367
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Impact:
Abstract

Circadian rhythms and disorders of the timing of sleep.

Meyer N, Harvey AG, Lockley SW, Dijk DJ
The daily alternation between sleep and wakefulness is one of the most dominant features of our lives and is a manifestation of the intrinsic 24 h rhythmicity underlying almost every aspect of our physiology. Circadian rhythms are generated by networks of molecular oscillators in the brain and peripheral tissues that interact with environmental and behavioural cycles to promote the occurrence of sleep during the environmental night. This alignment is often disturbed, however, by contemporary changes to our living environments, work or social schedules, patterns of light exposure, and biological factors, with consequences not only for sleep timing but also for our physical and mental health. Characterised by undesirable or irregular timing of sleep and wakefulness, in this Series paper we critically examine the existing categories of circadian rhythm sleep-wake disorders and the role of the circadian system in their development. We emphasise how not all disruption to daily rhythms is driven solely by an underlying circadian disturbance, and take a broader, dimensional approach to explore how circadian rhythms and sleep homoeostasis interact with behavioural and environmental factors. Very few high-quality epidemiological and intervention studies exist, and wider recognition and treatment of sleep timing disorders are currently hindered by a scarcity of accessible and objective tools for quantifying sleep and circadian physiology and environmental variables. We therefore assess emerging wearable technology, transcriptomics, and mathematical modelling approaches that promise to accelerate the integration of our knowledge in sleep and circadian science into improved human health.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 14 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Meyer N, Harvey AG, Lockley SW, Dijk DJ
Lancet: 14 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36115370
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Impact:
Abstract

Insomnia.

Perlis ML, Posner D, Riemann D, Bastien CH, Teel J, Thase M
Insomnia is highly prevalent in clinical practice, occurring in up to 50% of primary care patients. Insomnia can present independently or alongside other medical conditions or mental health disorders and is a risk factor for the development and exacerbation of these other disorders if not treated. In 2016, the American College of Physicians recommended that insomnia be specifically targeted for treatment. The recommended first-line treatment for insomnia, whether the underlying cause has been identified or not, is cognitive behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I). Currently, there is no global consensus regarding which pharmacological treatment has the best efficacy or risk-benefit ratio. Both CBT-I and pharmacological intervention are thought to have similar acute effects, but only CBT-I has shown durable long-term effects after treatment discontinuation. Administering a combined treatment of CBT-I and medication could decrease the latency to treatment response, but might diminish the durability of the positive treatment effects of CBT-I.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 14 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Perlis ML, Posner D, Riemann D, Bastien CH, Teel J, Thase M
Lancet: 14 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36115372
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Impact:
Abstract

Metabolic, behavioural, and psychosocial risk factors and cardiovascular disease in women compared with men in 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries: an analysis of the PURE study.

Walli-Attaei M, Rosengren A, Rangarajan S, Breet Y, ... Yusuf S, PURE investigators
Background
There is a paucity of data on the prevalence of risk factors and their associations with incident cardiovascular disease in women compared with men, especially from low-income and middle-income countries.
Methods
In the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study, we enrolled participants from the general population from 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries and followed them up for approximately 10 years. We recorded information on participants\' metabolic, behavioural, and psychosocial risk factors. For this analysis, we included participants aged 35-70 years at baseline without a history of cardiovascular disease, with at least one follow-up visit. The primary outcome was a composite of major cardiovascular events (cardiovascular disease deaths, myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure). We report the prevalence of each risk factor in women and men, their hazard ratios (HRs), and population-attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with major cardiovascular disease. The PURE study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03225586.
Findings
In this analysis, we included 155 724 participants enrolled and followed-up between Jan 5, 2005, and Sept 13, 2021, (90 934 [58·4%] women and 64 790 [41·6%] men), with a median follow-up of 10·1 years (IQR 8·5-12·0). At study entry, the mean age of women was 49·8 years (SD 9·7) compared with 50·8 years (9·8) in men. As of data cutoff (Sept 13, 2021), 4280 major cardiovascular disease events had occurred in women (age-standardised incidence rate of 5·0 events [95% CI 4·9-5·2] per 1000 person-years) and 4911 in men (8·2 [8·0-8·4] per 1000 person-years). Compared with men, women presented with a more favourable cardiovascular risk profile, especially at younger ages. The HRs for metabolic risk factors were similar in women and men, except for non-HDL cholesterol, for which high non-HDL cholesterol was associated with an HR for major cardiovascular disease of 1·11 (95% CI 1·01-1·21) in women and 1·28 (1·19-1·39) in men, with a consistent pattern for higher risk among men than among women with other lipid markers. Symptoms of depression had a HR of 1·09 (0·98-1·21) in women and 1·42 (1·25-1·60) in men. By contrast, consumption of a diet with a PURE score of 4 or lower (score ranges from 0 to 8), was more strongly associated with major cardiovascular disease in women (1·17 [1·08-1·26]) than in men (1·07 [0·99-1·15]). The total PAFs associated with behavioural and psychosocial risk factors were greater in men (15·7%) than in women (8·4%) predominantly due to the larger contribution of smoking to PAFs in men (ie, 1·3% [95% CI 0·5-2·1] in women vs 10·7% [8·8-12·6] in men).
Interpretation
Lipid markers and depression are more strongly associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease in men than in women, whereas diet is more strongly associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease in women than in men. The similar associations of other risk factors with cardiovascular disease in women and men emphasise the importance of a similar strategy for the prevention of cardiovascular disease in men and women.
Funding
Funding sources are listed at the end of the Article.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 10 Sep 2022; 400:811-821
Walli-Attaei M, Rosengren A, Rangarajan S, Breet Y, ... Yusuf S, PURE investigators
Lancet: 10 Sep 2022; 400:811-821 | PMID: 36088949
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Impact:
Abstract

Adjuvant atezolizumab versus placebo for patients with renal cell carcinoma at increased risk of recurrence following resection (IMmotion010): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial.

Pal SK, Uzzo R, Karam JA, Master VA, ... Dubey S, Bex A
Background
The standard of care for locoregional renal cell carcinoma is surgery, but many patients experience recurrence. The objective of the current study was to determine if adjuvant atezolizumab (vs placebo) delayed recurrence in patients with an increased risk of recurrence after resection.
Methods
IMmotion010 is a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase 3 trial conducted in 215 centres in 28 countries. Eligible patients were patients aged 18 years or older with renal cell carcinoma with a clear cell or sarcomatoid component and increased risk of recurrence. After nephrectomy with or without metastasectomy, patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive atezolizumab (1200 mg) or placebo (both intravenous) once every 3 weeks for 16 cycles or 1 year. Randomisation was done with an interactive voice-web response system. Stratification factors were disease stage (T2 or T3a vs T3b-c or T4 or N+ vs M1 no evidence of disease), geographical region (north America [excluding Mexico] vs rest of the world), and PD-L1 status on tumour-infiltrating immune cells (<1% vs ≥1% expression). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed disease-free survival in the intention-to-treat population, defined as all patients who were randomised, regardless of whether study treatment was received. The safety-evaluable population included all patients randomly assigned to treatment who received any amount of study drug (ie, atezolizumab or placebo), regardless of whether a full or partial dose was received. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03024996, and is closed to further accrual.
Findings
Between Jan 3, 2017, and Feb 15, 2019, 778 patients were enrolled; 390 (50%) were assigned to the atezolizumab group and 388 (50%) to the placebo group. At data cutoff (May 3, 2022), the median follow-up duration was 44·7 months (IQR 39·1-51·0). Median investigator-assessed disease-free survival was 57·2 months (95% CI 44·6 to not evaluable) with atezolizumab and 49·5 months (47·4 to not evaluable) with placebo (hazard ratio 0·93, 95% CI 0·75-1·15, p=0·50). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were hypertension (seven [2%] patients who received atezolizumab vs 15 [4%] patients who received placebo), hyperglycaemia (ten [3%] vs six [2%]), and diarrhoea (two [1%] vs seven [2%]). 69 (18%) patients who received atezolizumab and 46 (12%) patients who received placebo had a serious adverse event. There were no treatment-related deaths.
Interpretation
Atezolizumab as adjuvant therapy after resection for patients with renal cell carcinoma with increased risk of recurrence showed no evidence of improved clinical outcomes versus placebo. These study results do not support adjuvant atezolizumab for treatment of renal cell carcinoma.
Funding
F Hoffmann-La Roche and Genentech, a member of the Roche group.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 09 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Pal SK, Uzzo R, Karam JA, Master VA, ... Dubey S, Bex A
Lancet: 09 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36099926
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Impact:
Abstract

Adjuvant nivolumab plus ipilimumab or nivolumab alone versus placebo in patients with resected stage IV melanoma with no evidence of disease (IMMUNED): final results of a randomised, double-blind, phase 2 trial.

Livingstone E, Zimmer L, Hassel JC, Fluck M, ... Schadendorf D, Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group
Background
The IMMUNED trial previously showed significant improvements in recurrence-free survival for adjuvant nivolumab plus ipilimumab as well as for adjuvant nivolumab alone in patients with stage IV melanoma with no evidence of disease after resection or radiotherapy. Here, we report the final analysis, including overall survival data.
Methods
IMMUNED was an investigator-sponsored, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-arm, phase 2 trial conducted in 20 academic medical centres in Germany. Eligible patients were aged 18-80 years with stage IV melanoma with no evidence of disease after surgery or radiotherapy. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to either nivolumab plus ipilimumab (nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for four doses followed by nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks), nivolumab monotherapy (nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks), or matching placebo, for up to 1 year. The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Secondary endpoints were time-to-recurrence, overall survival, progression-free survival or recurrence-free survival 2 (in patients in the placebo group who crossed over to nivolumab monotherapy after experiencing disease recurrence), and safety endpoints. This trial is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02523313), and is complete.
Findings
Between Sept 2, 2015, and Nov 20, 2018, 175 patients were enrolled in the study, and 167 were randomly assigned to receive either nivolumab plus ipilimumab (n=56), nivolumab plus ipilimumab-matching placebo (n=59), or double placebo control (n=52). At a median follow-up of 49·2 months (IQR 34·9-58·1), 4-year recurrence-free survival was 64·2% (95% CI 49·2-75·9) in the nivolumab plus ipilimumab group, 31·4% (19·7-43·8) in the nivolumab alone group, and 15·0% (6·7-26·6) in the placebo group. The hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence for the nivolumab plus ipilimumab group versus placebo was 0·25 (97·5% CI 0·13-0·48; p<0·0001), and for the nivolumab group versus placebo was 0·60 (0·36-1·00; p=0·024). Median overall survival was not reached in any treatment group. The HR for overall survival was significantly in favour of the nivolumab plus ipilimumab group versus placebo (HR 0·41; 95% CI 0·17-0·99; p=0·040), but not for the nivolumab group versus placebo (HR 0·75; 0·36-1·56; p=0·44). 4-year overall survival was 83·8% (95% CI 68·8-91·9) in the nivolumab plus ipilimumab group, 72·6% (57·4-83·2) in the nivolumab alone group, and 63·1% (46·9-75·6) in the placebo group. The median progression-free survival or recurrence-free survival 2 of patients in the placebo group who crossed over to nivolumab monotherapy after experiencing disease recurrence was not reached (95% CI 21·2 months to not reached). Rates of grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events remained largely unchanged compared with our previous report, occurring in 71% (95% CI 57-82) of the nivolumab plus ipilimumab group, and 29% (95% CI 17-42) of patients receiving nivolumab alone. There were no treatment-related deaths.
Interpretation
Both active regimens continued to show significantly improved recurrence-free survival compared with placebo in patients with stage IV melanoma with no evidence of disease who were at high risk of recurrence. Overall survival was significantly improved for patients receiving nivolumab plus ipilimumab compared with placebo. Use of subsequent anti-PD-1-based therapy was high in patients in the placebo group after recurrence and most likely impacted the overall survival comparison of nivolumab alone versus placebo. The recurrence-free and overall survival benefit of nivolumab plus ipilimumab over placebo reinforces the change of practice already initiated for the treatment of patients with stage IV melanoma with no evidence of disease.
Funding
Bristol-Myers Squibb.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 09 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Livingstone E, Zimmer L, Hassel JC, Fluck M, ... Schadendorf D, Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group
Lancet: 09 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36099927
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Impact:
Abstract

Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab with or without stereotactic body radiation therapy for advanced Merkel cell carcinoma: a randomised, open label, phase 2 trial.

Kim S, Wuthrick E, Blakaj D, Eroglu Z, ... Khushalani NI, Brohl AS
Background
Merkel cell carcinoma is among the most aggressive and lethal of primary skin cancers, with a high rate of distant metastasis. Anti-programmed death receptor 1 (anti-PD-1) and programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) monotherapy is currently standard of care for unresectable, recurrent, or metastatic Merkel cell carcinoma. We assessed treatment with combined nivolumab plus ipilimumab, with or without stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) in patients with advanced Merkel cell carcinoma as a first-line therapy or following previous treatment with anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 monotherapy.
Methods
In this randomised, open label, phase 2 trial, we randomly assigned adults from two cancer sites in the USA (one in Florida and one in Ohio) to group A (combined nivolumab and ipilimumab) or group B (combined nivolumab and ipilimumab plus SBRT) in a 1:1 ratio. Eligible patients were aged at least 18 years with histologically proven advanced stage (unresectable, recurrent, or stage IV) Merkel cell carcinoma, a minimum of two tumour lesions measureable by CT, MRI or clinical exam, and tumour tissue available for exploratory biomarker analysis. Patients were stratified by previous immune-checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) status to receive nivolumab 240 mg intravenously every 2 weeks plus ipilimumab 1 mg/kg intravenously every 6 weeks (group A) or the same schedule of combined nivolumab and ipilimumab with the addition of SBRT to at least one tumour site (24 Gy in three fractions at week 2; group B). Patients had to have at least two measurable sites of disease so one non-irradiated site could be followed for response. The primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) in all randomly assigned patients who received at least one dose of combined nivolumab and ipilimumab. ORR was defined as the proportion of patients with a complete response or partial response per immune-related Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours. Response was assessed every 12 weeks. Safety was assessed in all patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03071406.
Findings
50 patients (25 in both group A and group B) were enrolled between March 14, 2017, and Dec 21, 2021, including 24 ICI-naive patients (13 [52%] of 25 group A patients and 11 [44%] of 25 group B patients]) and 26 patients with previous ICI (12 [48%] of 25 group A patients and 14 [56%] of 25 group B patients]). One patient in group B did not receive SBRT due to concerns about excess toxicity. Median follow-up was 14·6 months (IQR 9·1-26·5). Two patients in group B were excluded from the analysis of the primary endpoint because the target lesions were irradiated and so the patients were deemed non-evaluable. Of the ICI-naive patients, 22 (100%) of 22 (95% CI 82-100) had an objective response, including nine (41% [95% CI 21-63]) with complete response. Of the patients who had previously had ICI exposure, eight (31%) of 26 patients (95% CI 15-52) had an objective response and four (15% [5-36]) had a complete response. No significant differences in ORR were observed between groups A (18 [72%] of 25 patients) and B (12 [52%] of 23 patients; p=0·26). Grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse events were observed in 10 (40%) of 25 patients in group A and 8 (32%) of 25 patients in group B.
Interpretation
First-line combined nivolumab and ipilimumab in patients with advanced Merkel cell carcinoma showed a high ORR with durable responses and an expected safety profile. Combined nivolumab and ipilimumab also showed clinical benefit in patients with previous anti-PD-1 and PD-L1 treatment. Addition of SBRT did not improve efficacy of combined nivolumab and ipilimumab. The combination of nivolumab and ipilimumab represents a new first-line and salvage therapeutic option for advanced Merkel cell carcinoma.
Funding
Bristol Myers Squibb Rare Population Malignancy Program.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 09 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Kim S, Wuthrick E, Blakaj D, Eroglu Z, ... Khushalani NI, Brohl AS
Lancet: 09 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36108657
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Impact:
Abstract

Hepatocellular carcinoma.

Vogel A, Meyer T, Sapisochin G, Salem R, Saborowski A
Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide and represents a major global health-care challenge. Although viral hepatitis and alcohol remain important risk factors, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is rapidly becoming a dominant cause of hepatocellular carcinoma. A broad range of treatment options are available for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, including liver transplantation, surgical resection, percutaneous ablation, and radiation, as well as transarterial and systemic therapies. As such, clinical decision making requires a multidisciplinary team that longitudinally adapts the individual treatment strategy according to the patient\'s tumour stage, liver function, and performance status. With the approval of new first-line agents and second-line agents, as well as the establishment of immune checkpoint inhibitor-based therapies as standard of care, the treatment landscape of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma is more diversified than ever. Consequently, the outlook for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma has improved. However, the optimal sequencing of drugs remains to be defined, and predictive biomarkers are urgently needed to inform treatment selection. In this Seminar, we present an update on the causes, diagnosis, molecular classification, and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 06 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Vogel A, Meyer T, Sapisochin G, Salem R, Saborowski A
Lancet: 06 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36084663
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Impact:
Abstract

Factor XIa inhibition with asundexian after acute non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke (PACIFIC-Stroke): an international, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b trial.

Shoamanesh A, Mundl H, Smith EE, Masjuan J, ... Hart RG, PACIFIC-Stroke Investigators
Background
Asundexian (Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany), an oral small molecule factor XIa (FXIa) inhibitor, might prevent thrombosis without increasing bleeding. Asundexian\'s effect for secondary prevention of recurrent stroke is unknown.
Methods
In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2b dose-finding trial (PACIFIC-Stroke), patients with acute (within 48 h) non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke were recruited from 196 hospitals in 23 countries. Patients were eligible if they were aged 45 years or older, to be treated with antiplatelet therapy, and able to have a baseline MRI (either before or within 72 h of randomisation). Eligible participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1), using an interactive web-based response system and stratified according to anticipated antiplatelet therapy (single vs dual), to once daily oral asundexian (BAY 2433334) 10 mg, 20 mg, or 50 mg, or placebo in addition to usual antiplatelet therapy, and were followed up during treatment for 26-52 weeks. Brain MRIs were obtained at study entry and at 26 weeks or as soon as possible after treatment discontinuation. The primary efficacy outcome was the dose-response effect on the composite of incident MRI-detected covert brain infarcts and recurrent symptomatic ischaemic stroke at or before 26 weeks after randomisation. The primary safety outcome was major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding as defined by International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. The efficacy outcome was assessed in all participants assigned to treatment, and the safety outcome was assessed in all participants who received at least one dose of study treatment. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04304508, and is now complete.
Findings
Between June 15, 2020, and July 22, 2021, 1880 patients were screened and 1808 participants were randomly assigned to asundexian 10 mg (n=455), 20 mg (n=450), or 50 mg (n=447), or placebo (n=456). Mean age was 67 years (SD 10) and 615 (34%) participants were women, 1193 (66%) were men, 1505 (83%) were White, and 268 (15%) were Asian. The mean time from index stroke to randomisation was 36 h (SD 10) and median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 2·0 (IQR 1·0-4·0). 783 (43%) participants received dual antiplatelet treatment for a mean duration of 70·1 days (SD 113·4) after randomisation. At 26 weeks, the primary efficacy outcome was observed in 87 (19%) of 456 participants in the placebo group versus 86 (19%) of 455 in the asundexian 10 mg group (crude incidence ratio 0·99 [90% CI 0·79-1·24]), 99 (22%) of 450 in the asundexian 20 mg group (1·15 [0·93-1·43]), and 90 (20%) of 447 in the asundexian 50 mg group (1·06 [0·85-1·32]; t statistic -0·68; p=0·80). The primary safety outcome was observed in 11 (2%) of 452 participants in the placebo group versus 19 (4%) of 445 in the asundexian 10 mg group, 14 (3%) of 446 in the asundexian 20 mg group, and 19 (4%) of 443 in the asundexian 50 mg group (all asundexian doses pooled vs placebo hazard ratio 1·57 [90% CI 0·91-2·71]).
Interpretation
In this phase 2b trial, FXIa inhibition with asundexian did not reduce the composite of covert brain infarction or ischaemic stroke and did not increase the composite of major or clinically relevant non-major bleeding compared with placebo in patients with acute, non-cardioembolic ischaemic stroke.
Funding
Bayer AG.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 02 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Shoamanesh A, Mundl H, Smith EE, Masjuan J, ... Hart RG, PACIFIC-Stroke Investigators
Lancet: 02 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36063821
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Impact:
Abstract

Acute respiratory distress syndrome: causes, pathophysiology, and phenotypes.

Bos LDJ, Ware LB
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common clinical syndrome of acute respiratory failure as a result of diffuse lung inflammation and oedema. ARDS can be precipitated by a variety of causes. The pathophysiology of ARDS is complex and involves the activation and dysregulation of multiple overlapping and interacting pathways of injury, inflammation, and coagulation, both in the lung and systemically. Mechanical ventilation can contribute to a cycle of lung injury and inflammation. Resolution of inflammation is a coordinated process that requires downregulation of proinflammatory pathways and upregulation of anti-inflammatory pathways. The heterogeneity of the clinical syndrome, along with its biology, physiology, and radiology, has increasingly been recognised and incorporated into identification of phenotypes. A precision-medicine approach that improves the identification of more homogeneous ARDS phenotypes should lead to an improved understanding of its pathophysiological mechanisms and how they differ from patient to patient.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 02 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Bos LDJ, Ware LB
Lancet: 02 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36070787
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Impact:
Abstract

Acute respiratory distress syndrome in adults: diagnosis, outcomes, long-term sequelae, and management.

Gorman EA, O\'Kane CM, McAuley DF
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterised by acute hypoxaemic respiratory failure with bilateral infiltrates on chest imaging, which is not fully explained by cardiac failure or fluid overload. ARDS is defined by the Berlin criteria. In this Series paper the diagnosis, management, outcomes, and long-term sequelae of ARDS are reviewed. Potential limitations of the ARDS definition and evidence that could inform future revisions are considered. Guideline recommendations, evidence, and uncertainties in relation to ARDS management are discussed. The future of ARDS strives towards a precision medicine approach, and the framework of treatable traits in ARDS diagnosis and management is explored.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 02 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print
Gorman EA, O'Kane CM, McAuley DF
Lancet: 02 Sep 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36070788
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Impact:
Abstract

A telemedicine model for abortion in South Africa: a randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial.

Endler M, Petro G, Gemzell Danielsson K, Grossman D, ... Weinryb M, Constant D
Background
Telemedicine for medical abortion increases access to safe abortion but its use has not been described in a controlled trial. We aimed to investigate the effectiveness, adherence, safety, and acceptability of a modified telemedicine protocol for abortion compared with standard care in a low-resource setting.
Methods
In this randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial we recruited women seeking medical abortion at or before 9 gestational weeks at four public health clinics in South Africa. Participants were randomly allocated (1:1) by computer-generated blocks of varying sizes to telemedicine or standard care. The telemedicine group received asynchronous online abortion consultation and instruction, self-assessed gestational duration, and had a uterine palpation as a safety measure. Participants in this group took 200 mg mifepristone and 800 μg misoprostol at home. The standard care group received in-person consultation and instruction together with an ultrasound, took 200 mg mifepristone in clinic and 800 μg misoprostol at home. Our primary outcome was complete abortion after initial treatment, assessed at a 6-week interview. Our non-inferiority margin was 4%. Group differences were assessed by modified intention-to-treat (mITT) analysis and per protocol. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04336358, and the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR202004661941593.
Findings
Between Feb 28, 2020, and Oct 5, 2021, we enrolled 900 women, 153 (17·0%) of whom were discontinued before the abortion and were not included in the analysis. By mITT analysis, 355 (95·4%) of 372 women in the telemedicine group had a complete abortion compared with 338 (96·6%) of 350 in the standard care group (odds ratio 0·74 [95% CI 0·35 to 1·57]). The risk difference was -1·1% (-4·0 to 1·7). Among women who completed treatment as allocated (per protocol), 327 (95·6%) of 342 women in telemedicine group had complete abortion, compared with 338 (96·6%) of 350 in the standard care group (0·77 [0·36 to 1·68]), with a risk difference of -1·0% (-3·8 to 1·9). One participant (in the telemedicine group) had a ruptured ectopic pregnancy, and a further four participants were admitted to hospital (two in each group), of whom two had blood transfusions (one in each group).
Interpretation
Asynchronous online consultation and instruction for medical abortion and home self-medication, with uterine palpation as the only in-person component, was non-inferior to standard care with respect to rates of complete abortion, and did not affect safety, adherence, or satisfaction.
Funding
Grand Challenges Canada and the Swedish Research Council.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 27 Aug 2022; 400:670-679
Endler M, Petro G, Gemzell Danielsson K, Grossman D, ... Weinryb M, Constant D
Lancet: 27 Aug 2022; 400:670-679 | PMID: 36030811
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Impact:
Abstract

Influenza.

Uyeki TM, Hui DS, Zambon M, Wentworth DE, Monto AS
Annual seasonal influenza epidemics of variable severity caused by influenza A and B virus infections result in substantial disease burden worldwide. Seasonal influenza virus circulation declined markedly in 2020-21 after SARS-CoV-2 emerged but increased in 2021-22. Most people with influenza have abrupt onset of respiratory symptoms and myalgia with or without fever and recover within 1 week, but some can experience severe or fatal complications. Prevention is primarily by annual influenza vaccination, with efforts underway to develop new vaccines with improved effectiveness. Sporadic zoonotic infections with novel influenza A viruses of avian or swine origin continue to pose pandemic threats. In this Seminar, we discuss updates of key influenza issues for clinicians, in particular epidemiology, virology, and pathogenesis, diagnostic testing including multiplex assays that detect influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2, complications, antiviral treatment, influenza vaccines, infection prevention, and non-pharmaceutical interventions, and highlight gaps in clinical management and priorities for clinical research.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 27 Aug 2022; 400:693-706
Uyeki TM, Hui DS, Zambon M, Wentworth DE, Monto AS
Lancet: 27 Aug 2022; 400:693-706 | PMID: 36030813
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Impact:
Abstract

SGLT-2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure: a comprehensive meta-analysis of five randomised controlled trials.

Vaduganathan M, Docherty KF, Claggett BL, Jhund PS, ... McMurray JJV, Solomon SD
Background
SGLT2 inhibitors are strongly recommended in guidelines to treat patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, but their clinical benefits at higher ejection fractions are less well established. Two large-scale trials, DELIVER and EMPEROR-Preserved, in heart failure with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction have been done, providing power to examine therapeutic effects on cardiovascular mortality and in patient subgroups when combined with the earlier trials in reduced ejection fraction.
Methods
We did a prespecified meta-analysis of DELIVER and EMPEROR-Preserved, and subsequently included trials that enrolled patients with reduced ejection fraction (DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced) and those admitted to hospital with worsening heart failure, irrespective of ejection fraction (SOLOIST-WHF). Using trial-level data with harmonised endpoint definitions, we did a fixed-effects meta-analysis to estimate the effect of SGLT2 inhibitors on various clinical endpoints in heart failure The primary endpoint for this meta-analysis was time from randomisation to the occurrence of the composite of cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure. We assessed heterogeneity in treatment effects for the primary endpoint across subgroups of interest. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42022327527.
Findings
Among 12 251 participants from DELIVER and EMPEROR-Preserved, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced composite cardiovascular death or first hospitalisation for heart failure (hazard ratio 0·80 [95% CI 0·73-0·87]) with consistent reductions in both components: cardiovascular death (0·88 [0·77-1·00]) and first hospitalisation for heart failure (0·74 [0·67-0·83]). In the broader context of the five trials of 21 947 participants, SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of composite cardiovascular death or hospitalisation for heart failure (0·77 [0·72-0·82]), cardiovascular death (0·87 [0·79-0·95]), first hospitalisation for heart failure (0·72 [0·67-0·78]), and all-cause mortality (0·92 [0·86-0·99]). These treatment effects for each of the studied endpoints were consistently observed in both the trials of heart failure with mildly reduced or preserved ejection fraction and across all five trials. Treatment effects on the primary endpoint were generally consistent across the 14 subgroups examined, including ejection fraction.
Interpretation
SGLT2 inhibitors reduced the risk of cardiovascular death and hospitalisations for heart failure in a broad range of patients with heart failure, supporting their role as a foundational therapy for heart failure, irrespective of ejection fraction or care setting.
Funding
None.

Copyright © 2022 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Vaduganathan M, Docherty KF, Claggett BL, Jhund PS, ... McMurray JJV, Solomon SD
Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36041474
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Impact:
Abstract

Autoimmune diseases and cardiovascular risk: a population-based study on 19 autoimmune diseases and 12 cardiovascular diseases in 22 million individuals in the UK.

Conrad N, Verbeke G, Molenberghs G, Goetschalckx L, ... McMurray JJV, Verbakel JY
Background
Some autoimmune diseases are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to determine whether or not this is true, and to what extent, for a broad range of autoimmune conditions.
Methods
In this population-based study, we used linked primary and secondary care records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), GOLD and Aurum datasets, to assemble a cohort of individuals across the UK who were newly diagnosed with any of 19 autoimmune diseases between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2017, younger than 80 years at diagnosis, and free of cardiovascular diseases up to 12 months after diagnosis. We also assembled a matched cohort with up to five individuals matched on age, sex, socioeconomic status, region, and calendar year, who were free of autoimmune disease and free of cardiovascular diseases up to 12 months after study entry. Both cohorts were followed up until June 30, 2019. We investigated the incidence of 12 cardiovascular outcomes and used Cox proportional hazards models to examine differences in patients with and without autoimmune diseases.
Findings
Of 22 009 375 individuals identified from the CPRD databases, we identified 446 449 eligible individuals with autoimmune diseases and 2 102 830 matched controls. In the autoimmune cohort, mean age at diagnosis was 46·2 years (SD 19·8), and 271 410 (60·8%) were women and 175 039 (39·2%) were men. 68 413 (15·3%) people with and 231 410 (11·0%) without autoimmune diseases developed incident cardiovascular disease during a median of 6·2 years (IQR 2·7-10·8) of follow-up. The incidence rate of cardiovascular disease was 23·3 events per 1000 patient-years among patients with autoimmune disease and 15·0 events per 1000 patient-years among those without an autoimmune disease (hazard ratio [HR] 1·56 [95% CI 1·52-1·59]). An increased risk of cardiovascular disease with autoimmune disease was seen for every individual cardiovascular disease and increased progressively with the number of autoimmune diseases present (one disease: HR 1·41 [95% CI 1·37-1·45]; two diseases: 2·63 [2·49-2·78]); three or more diseases: 3·79 [3·36-4·27]), and in younger age groups (age <45 years: 2·33 [2·16-2·51]; 55-64 years: 1·76 [1·67-1·85]; ≥75 years: 1·30 [1·24-1·36]). Among autoimmune diseases, systemic sclerosis (3·59 [2·81-4·59]), Addison\'s disease (2·83 [1·96-4·09]), systemic lupus erythematosus (2·82 [2·38-3·33]), and type 1 diabetes (2·36 [2·21-2·52]) had the highest overall cardiovascular risk.
Interpretation
These findings warrant targeted cardiovascular prevention measures, in particular in younger patients with autoimmune diseases, and further research into pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these complications.
Funding
Horizon 2020 Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions and European Society of Cardiology.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Conrad N, Verbeke G, Molenberghs G, Goetschalckx L, ... McMurray JJV, Verbakel JY
Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36041475
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Impact:
Abstract

Sex-specific evaluation and redevelopment of the GRACE score in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes in populations from the UK and Switzerland: a multinational analysis with external cohort validation.

Wenzl FA, Kraler S, Ambler G, Weston C, ... Deanfield J, Lüscher TF
Background
The Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) 2.0 score was developed and validated in predominantly male patient populations. We aimed to assess its sex-specific performance in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACS) and to develop an improved score (GRACE 3.0) that accounts for sex differences in disease characteristics.
Methods
We evaluated the GRACE 2.0 score in 420 781 consecutive patients with NSTE-ACS in contemporary nationwide cohorts from the UK and Switzerland. Machine learning models to predict in-hospital mortality were informed by the GRACE variables and developed in sex-disaggregated data from 386 591 patients from England, Wales, and Northern Ireland (split into a training cohort of 309 083 [80·0%] patients and a validation cohort of 77 508 [20·0%] patients). External validation of the GRACE 3.0 score was done in 20 727 patients from Switzerland.
Findings
Between Jan 1, 2005, and Aug 27, 2020, 400 054 patients with NSTE-ACS in the UK and 20 727 patients with NSTE-ACS in Switzerland were included in the study. Discrimination of in-hospital death by the GRACE 2.0 score was good in male patients (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0·86, 95% CI 0·86-0·86) and notably lower in female patients (0·82, 95% CI 0·81-0·82; p<0·0001). The GRACE 2.0 score underestimated in-hospital mortality risk in female patients, favouring their incorrect stratification to the low-to-intermediate risk group, for which the score does not indicate early invasive treatment. Accounting for sex differences, GRACE 3.0 showed superior discrimination and good calibration with an AUC of 0·91 (95% CI 0·89-0·92) in male patients and 0·87 (95% CI 0·84-0·89) in female patients in an external cohort validation. GRACE 3·0 led to a clinically relevant reclassification of female patients to the high-risk group.
Interpretation
The GRACE 2.0 score has limited discriminatory performance and underestimates in-hospital mortality in female patients with NSTE-ACS. The GRACE 3.0 score performs better in men and women and reduces sex inequalities in risk stratification.
Funding
Swiss National Science Foundation, Swiss Heart Foundation, Lindenhof Foundation, Foundation for Cardiovascular Research, and Theodor-Ida-Herzog-Egli Foundation.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Wenzl FA, Kraler S, Ambler G, Weston C, ... Deanfield J, Lüscher TF
Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36049493
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Impact:
Abstract

Angiotensin receptor blockers and β blockers in Marfan syndrome: an individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised trials.

Pitcher A, Spata E, Emberson J, Davies K, ... Baigent C, Marfan Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration
Background
Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and β blockers are widely used in the treatment of Marfan syndrome to try to reduce the rate of progressive aortic root enlargement characteristic of this condition, but their separate and joint effects are uncertain. We aimed to determine these effects in a collaborative individual patient data meta-analysis of randomised trials of these treatments.
Methods
In this meta-analysis, we identified relevant trials of patients with Marfan syndrome by systematically searching MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL from database inception to Nov 2, 2021. Trials were eligible if they involved a randomised comparison of an ARB versus control or an ARB versus β blocker. We used individual patient data from patients with no prior aortic surgery to estimate the effects of: ARB versus control (placebo or open control); ARB versus β blocker; and indirectly, β blocker versus control. The primary endpoint was the annual rate of change of body surface area-adjusted aortic root dimension Z score, measured at the sinuses of Valsalva.
Findings
We identified ten potentially eligible trials including 1836 patients from our search, from which seven trials and 1442 patients were eligible for inclusion in our main analyses. Four trials involving 676 eligible participants compared ARB with control. During a median follow-up of 3 years, allocation to ARB approximately halved the annual rate of change in the aortic root Z score (mean annual increase 0·07 [SE 0·02] ARB vs 0·13 [SE 0·02] control; absolute difference -0·07 [95% CI -0·12 to -0·01]; p=0·012). Prespecified secondary subgroup analyses showed that the effects of ARB were particularly large in those with pathogenic variants in fibrillin-1, compared with those without such variants (heterogeneity p=0·0050), and there was no evidence to suggest that the effect of ARB varied with β-blocker use (heterogeneity p=0·54). Three trials involving 766 eligible participants compared ARBs with β blockers. During a median follow-up of 3 years, the annual change in the aortic root Z score was similar in the two groups (annual increase -0·08 [SE 0·03] in ARB groups vs -0·11 [SE 0·02] in β-blocker groups; absolute difference 0·03 [95% CI -0·05 to 0·10]; p=0·48). Thus, indirectly, the difference in the annual change in the aortic root Z score between β blockers and control was -0·09 (95% CI -0·18 to 0·00; p=0·042).
Interpretation
In people with Marfan syndrome and no previous aortic surgery, ARBs reduced the rate of increase of the aortic root Z score by about one half, including among those taking a β blocker. The effects of β blockers were similar to those of ARBs. Assuming additivity, combination therapy with both ARBs and β blockers from the time of diagnosis would provide even greater reductions in the rate of aortic enlargement than either treatment alone, which, if maintained over a number of years, would be expected to lead to a delay in the need for aortic surgery.
Funding
Marfan Foundation, the Oxford British Heart Foundation Centre for Research Excellence, and the UK Medical Research Council.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Pitcher A, Spata E, Emberson J, Davies K, ... Baigent C, Marfan Treatment Trialists’ Collaboration
Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36049495
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Impact:
Abstract

Effect of statin therapy on muscle symptoms: an individual participant data meta-analysis of large-scale, randomised, double-blind trials.

Cholesterol Treatment Trialists\' Collaboration
Background
Statin therapy is effective for the prevention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and is widely prescribed, but there are persisting concerns that statin therapy might frequently cause muscle pain or weakness. We aimed to address these through an individual participant data meta-analysis of all recorded adverse muscle events in large, long-term, randomised, double-blind trials of statin therapy.
Methods
Randomised trials of statin therapy were eligible if they aimed to recruit at least 1000 participants with a scheduled treatment duration of at least 2 years, and involved a double-blind comparison of statin versus placebo or of a more intensive versus a less intensive statin regimen. We analysed individual participant data from 19 double-blind trials of statin versus placebo (n=123 940) and four double-blind trials of a more intensive versus a less intensive statin regimen (n=30 724). Standard inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses of the effects on muscle outcomes were conducted according to a prespecified protocol.
Findings
Among 19 placebo-controlled trials (mean age 63 years [SD 8], with 34 533 [27·9%] women, 59 610 [48·1%] participants with previous vascular disease, and 22 925 [18·5%] participants with diabetes), during a weighted average median follow-up of 4·3 years, 16 835 (27·1%) allocated statin versus 16 446 (26·6%) allocated placebo reported muscle pain or weakness (rate ratio [RR] 1·03; 95% CI 1·01-1·06). During year 1, statin therapy produced a 7% relative increase in muscle pain or weakness (1·07; 1·04-1·10), corresponding to an absolute excess rate of 11 (6-16) events per 1000 person-years, which indicates that only one in 15 ([1·07-1·00]/1·07) of these muscle-related reports by participants allocated to statin therapy were actually due to the statin. After year 1, there was no significant excess in first reports of muscle pain or weakness (0·99; 0·96-1·02). For all years combined, more intensive statin regimens (ie, 40-80 mg atorvastatin or 20-40 mg rosuvastatin once per day) yielded a higher RR than less intensive or moderate-intensity regimens (1·08 [1·04-1·13] vs 1·03 [1·00-1·05]) compared with placebo, and a small excess was present (1·05 [0·99-1·12]) for more intensive regimens after year 1. There was no clear evidence that the RR differed for different statins, or in different clinical circumstances. Statin therapy yielded a small, clinically insignificant increase in median creatine kinase values of approximately 0·02 times the upper limit of normal.
Interpretation
Statin therapy caused a small excess of mostly mild muscle pain. Most (>90%) of all reports of muscle symptoms by participants allocated statin therapy were not due to the statin. The small risks of muscle symptoms are much lower than the known cardiovascular benefits. There is a need to review the clinical management of muscle symptoms in patients taking a statin.
Funding
British Heart Foundation, Medical Research Council, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Cholesterol Treatment Trialists' Collaboration
Lancet: 26 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36049498
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Impact:
Abstract

Comparison of amitriptyline supplemented with pregabalin, pregabalin supplemented with amitriptyline, and duloxetine supplemented with pregabalin for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (OPTION-DM): a multicentre, double-blind, randomised crossover trial.

Tesfaye S, Sloan G, Petrie J, White D, ... Selvarajah D, OPTION-DM trial group
Background
Diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP) is common and often distressing. Most guidelines recommend amitriptyline, duloxetine, pregabalin, or gabapentin as initial analgesic treatment for DPNP, but there is little comparative evidence on which one is best or whether they should be combined. We aimed to assess the efficacy and tolerability of different combinations of first-line drugs for treatment of DPNP.
Methods
OPTION-DM was a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, crossover trial in patients with DPNP with mean daily pain numerical rating scale (NRS) of 4 or higher (scale is 0-10) from 13 UK centres. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1), with a predetermined randomisation schedule stratified by site using permuted blocks of size six or 12, to receive one of six ordered sequences of the three treatment pathways: amitriptyline supplemented with pregabalin (A-P), pregabalin supplemented with amitriptyline (P-A), and duloxetine supplemented with pregabalin (D-P), each pathway lasting 16 weeks. Monotherapy was given for 6 weeks and was supplemented with the combination medication if there was suboptimal pain relief (NRS >3), reflecting current clinical practice. Both treatments were titrated towards maximum tolerated dose (75 mg per day for amitriptyline, 120 mg per day for duloxetine, and 600 mg per day for pregabalin). The primary outcome was the difference in 7-day average daily pain during the final week of each pathway. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN17545443.
Findings
Between Nov 14, 2017, and July 29, 2019, 252 patients were screened, 140 patients were randomly assigned, and 130 started a treatment pathway (with 84 completing at least two pathways) and were analysed for the primary outcome. The 7-day average NRS scores at week 16 decreased from a mean 6·6 (SD 1·5) at baseline to 3·3 (1·8) at week 16 in all three pathways. The mean difference was -0·1 (98·3% CI -0·5 to 0·3) for D-P versus A-P, -0·1 (-0·5 to 0·3) for P-A versus A-P, and 0·0 (-0·4 to 0·4) for P-A versus D-P, and thus not significant. Mean NRS reduction in patients on combination therapy was greater than in those who remained on monotherapy (1·0 [SD 1·3] vs 0·2 [1·5]). Adverse events were predictable for the monotherapies: we observed a significant increase in dizziness in the P-A pathway, nausea in the D-P pathway, and dry mouth in the A-P pathway.
Interpretation
To our knowledge, this was the largest and longest ever, head-to-head, crossover neuropathic pain trial. We showed that all three treatment pathways and monotherapies had similar analgesic efficacy. Combination treatment was well tolerated and led to improved pain relief in patients with suboptimal pain control with a monotherapy.
Funding
National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 22 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Tesfaye S, Sloan G, Petrie J, White D, ... Selvarajah D, OPTION-DM trial group
Lancet: 22 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36007534
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Impact:
Abstract

The global burden of cancer attributable to risk factors, 2010-19: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019.

GBD 2019 Cancer Risk Factors Collaborators
Background
Understanding the magnitude of cancer burden attributable to potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial for development of effective prevention and mitigation strategies. We analysed results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 to inform cancer control planning efforts globally.
Methods
The GBD 2019 comparative risk assessment framework was used to estimate cancer burden attributable to behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risk factors. A total of 82 risk-outcome pairs were included on the basis of the World Cancer Research Fund criteria. Estimated cancer deaths and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in 2019 and change in these measures between 2010 and 2019 are presented.
Findings
Globally, in 2019, the risk factors included in this analysis accounted for 4·45 million (95% uncertainty interval 4·01-4·94) deaths and 105 million (95·0-116) DALYs for both sexes combined, representing 44·4% (41·3-48·4) of all cancer deaths and 42·0% (39·1-45·6) of all DALYs. There were 2·88 million (2·60-3·18) risk-attributable cancer deaths in males (50·6% [47·8-54·1] of all male cancer deaths) and 1·58 million (1·36-1·84) risk-attributable cancer deaths in females (36·3% [32·5-41·3] of all female cancer deaths). The leading risk factors at the most detailed level globally for risk-attributable cancer deaths and DALYs in 2019 for both sexes combined were smoking, followed by alcohol use and high BMI. Risk-attributable cancer burden varied by world region and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), with smoking, unsafe sex, and alcohol use being the three leading risk factors for risk-attributable cancer DALYs in low SDI locations in 2019, whereas DALYs in high SDI locations mirrored the top three global risk factor rankings. From 2010 to 2019, global risk-attributable cancer deaths increased by 20·4% (12·6-28·4) and DALYs by 16·8% (8·8-25·0), with the greatest percentage increase in metabolic risks (34·7% [27·9-42·8] and 33·3% [25·8-42·0]).
Interpretation
The leading risk factors contributing to global cancer burden in 2019 were behavioural, whereas metabolic risk factors saw the largest increases between 2010 and 2019. Reducing exposure to these modifiable risk factors would decrease cancer mortality and DALY rates worldwide, and policies should be tailored appropriately to local cancer risk factor burden.
Funding
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 20 Aug 2022; 400:563-591
GBD 2019 Cancer Risk Factors Collaborators
Lancet: 20 Aug 2022; 400:563-591 | PMID: 35988567
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Impact:
Abstract

Neonatal outcomes for women at risk of preterm delivery given half dose versus full dose of antenatal betamethasone: a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial.

Schmitz T, Doret-Dion M, Sentilhes L, Parant O, ... BETADOSE trial study group, Groupe de Recherche en Obstétrique et Gynécologie
Background
Antenatal betamethasone is recommended before preterm delivery to accelerate fetal lung maturation. However, reports of growth and neurodevelopmental dose-related side-effects suggest that the current dose (12 mg plus 12 mg, 24 h apart) might be too high. We therefore investigated whether a half dose would be non-inferior to the current full dose for preventing respiratory distress syndrome.
Methods
We designed a randomised, multicentre, double-blind, placebo-controlled, non-inferiority trial in 37 level 3 referral perinatal centres in France. Eligible participants were pregnant women aged 18 years or older with a singleton fetus at risk of preterm delivery and already treated with the first injection of antenatal betamethasone (11·4 mg) before 32 weeks\' gestation. We used a computer-generated code producing permuted blocks of varying sizes to randomly assign (1:1) women to receive either a placebo (half-dose group) or a second 11·4 mg betamethasone injection (full-dose group) 24 h later. Randomisation was stratified by gestational age (before or after 28 weeks). Participants, clinicians, and study staff were masked to the treatment allocation. The primary outcome was the need for exogenous intratracheal surfactant within 48 h after birth. Non-inferiority would be shown if the higher limit of the 95% CI for the between-group difference between the half-dose and full-dose groups in the primary endpoint was less than 4 percentage points (corresponding to a maximum relative risk of 1·20). Four interim analyses monitoring the primary and the secondary safety outcomes were done during the study period, using a sequential data analysis method that provided futility and non-inferiority stopping rules and checked for type I and II errors. Interim analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02897076.
Findings
Between Jan 2, 2017, and Oct 9, 2019, 3244 women were randomly assigned to the half-dose (n=1620 [49·9%]) or the full-dose group (n=1624 [50·1%]); 48 women withdrew consent, 30 fetuses were stillborn, 16 neonates were lost to follow-up, and 9 neonates died before evaluation, so that 3141 neonates remained for analysis. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the primary outcome occurred in 313 (20·0%) of 1567 neonates in the half-dose group and 276 (17·5%) of 1574 neonates in the full-dose group (risk difference 2·4%, 95% CI -0·3 to 5·2); thus non-inferiority was not shown. The per-protocol analysis also did not show non-inferiority (risk difference 2·2%, 95% CI -0·6 to 5·1). No between-group differences appeared in the rates of neonatal death, grade 3-4 intraventricular haemorrhage, stage ≥2 necrotising enterocolitis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Interpretation
Because non-inferiority of the half-dose compared with the full-dose regimen was not shown, our results do not support practice changes towards antenatal betamethasone dose reduction.
Funding
French Ministry of Health.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 20 Aug 2022; 400:592-604
Schmitz T, Doret-Dion M, Sentilhes L, Parant O, ... BETADOSE trial study group, Groupe de Recherche en Obstétrique et Gynécologie
Lancet: 20 Aug 2022; 400:592-604 | PMID: 35988568
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Impact:
Abstract

Rehabilitation versus surgical reconstruction for non-acute anterior cruciate ligament injury (ACL SNNAP): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial.

Beard DJ, Davies L, Cook JA, Stokes J, ... Price A, ACL SNNAP Study Group
Background
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is a common debilitating injury that can cause instability of the knee. We aimed to investigate the best management strategy between reconstructive surgery and non-surgical treatment for patients with a non-acute ACL injury and persistent symptoms of instability.
Methods
We did a pragmatic, multicentre, superiority, randomised controlled trial in 29 secondary care National Health Service orthopaedic units in the UK. Patients with symptomatic knee problems (instability) consistent with an ACL injury were eligible. We excluded patients with meniscal pathology with characteristics that indicate immediate surgery. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) by computer to either surgery (reconstruction) or rehabilitation (physiotherapy but with subsequent reconstruction permitted if instability persisted after treatment), stratified by site and baseline Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score-4 domain version (KOOS4). This management design represented normal practice. The primary outcome was KOOS4 at 18 months after randomisation. The principal analyses were intention-to-treat based, with KOOS4 results analysed using linear regression. This trial is registered with ISRCTN, ISRCTN10110685, and ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02980367.
Findings
Between Feb 1, 2017, and April 12, 2020, we recruited 316 patients. 156 (49%) participants were randomly assigned to the surgical reconstruction group and 160 (51%) to the rehabilitation group. Mean KOOS4 at 18 months was 73·0 (SD 18·3) in the surgical group and 64·6 (21·6) in the rehabilitation group. The adjusted mean difference was 7·9 (95% CI 2·5-13·2; p=0·0053) in favour of surgical management. 65 (41%) of 160 patients allocated to rehabilitation underwent subsequent surgery according to protocol within 18 months. 43 (28%) of 156 patients allocated to surgery did not receive their allocated treatment. We found no differences between groups in the proportion of intervention-related complications.
Interpretation
Surgical reconstruction as a management strategy for patients with non-acute ACL injury with persistent symptoms of instability was clinically superior and more cost-effective in comparison with rehabilitation management.
Funding
The UK National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment Programme.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 20 Aug 2022; 400:605-615
Beard DJ, Davies L, Cook JA, Stokes J, ... Price A, ACL SNNAP Study Group
Lancet: 20 Aug 2022; 400:605-615 | PMID: 35988569
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Impact:
Abstract

Spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage.

Claassen J, Park S
Subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is the third most common subtype of stroke. Incidence has decreased over past decades, possibly in part related to lifestyle changes such as smoking cessation and management of hypertension. Approximately a quarter of patients with SAH die before hospital admission; overall outcomes are improved in those admitted to hospital, but with elevated risk of long-term neuropsychiatric sequelae such as depression. The disease continues to have a major public health impact as the mean age of onset is in the mid-fifties, leading to many years of reduced quality of life. The clinical presentation varies, but severe, sudden onset of headache is the most common symptom, variably associated with meningismus, transient or prolonged unconsciousness, and focal neurological deficits including cranial nerve palsies and paresis. Diagnosis is made by CT scan of the head possibly followed by lumbar puncture. Aneurysms are commonly the underlying vascular cause of spontaneous SAH and are diagnosed by angiography. Emergent therapeutic interventions are focused on decreasing the risk of rebleeding (ie, preventing hypertension and correcting coagulopathies) and, most crucially, early aneurysm treatment using coil embolisation or clipping. Management of the disease is best delivered in specialised intensive care units and high-volume centres by a multidisciplinary team. Increasingly, early brain injury presenting as global cerebral oedema is recognised as a potential treatment target but, currently, disease management is largely focused on addressing secondary complications such as hydrocephalus, delayed cerebral ischaemia related to microvascular dysfunction and large vessel vasospasm, and medical complications such as stunned myocardium and hospital acquired infections.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 16 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Claassen J, Park S
Lancet: 16 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35985353
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Impact:
Abstract

Safety and efficacy of mitapivat, an oral pyruvate kinase activator, in adults with non-transfusion dependent α-thalassaemia or β-thalassaemia: an open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study.

Kuo KHM, Layton DM, Lal A, Al-Samkari H, ... Uhlig K, Vichinsky EP
Background
Patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassaemia (NTDT), although they do not require regular blood transfusions for survival, can still accrue a heavy burden of comorbidities. No approved disease-modifying therapies exist for these patients. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of mitapivat (Agios Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA, USA), a pyruvate kinase activator, in adults with non-transfusion-dependent (NTD) α-thalassaemia or NTD β-thalassaemia.
Methods
In this open-label, multicentre, phase 2 study, patients were recruited from four academic clinical study sites in Oakland, CA, and Boston, MA, USA; Toronto, ON, Canada; and London, UK. Patients were eligible if they were aged 18 years or older, with NTDT (including β-thalassaemia with or without α-globin gene mutations, haemoglobin E β-thalassaemia, or α-thalassaemia), and a baseline haemoglobin concentration of 10·0 g/dL or lower. During a 24-week core period, mitapivat was administered orally at 50 mg twice daily for the first 6 weeks followed by an escalation to 100 mg twice daily for 18 weeks thereafter. The primary endpoint was haemoglobin response (a ≥1·0 g/dL increase in haemoglobin concentration from baseline at one or more assessments between weeks 4 and 12). Efficacy and safety were assessed in the full analysis set (ie, all patients who received at least one dose of study drug). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03692052, and is closed to accrual.
Findings
Between Dec 28, 2018, and Feb 6, 2020, 27 patients were screened, of whom 20 were enrolled (15 [75%] with β-thalassaemia and five [25%] with α-thalassaemia) and received mitapivat. The median age of patients was 44 years (IQR 35-56), 15 (75%) of 20 patients were female, five (25%) were male, and ten (50%) identified as Asian. 16 (80% [90% CI 60-93]) of 20 patients had a haemoglobin response (p<0·0001), five (100%) of five with α-thalassaemia and 11 (73%) of 15 with β-thalassaemia. 17 (85%) patients had a treatment-emergent adverse event, and 13 had a treatment-emergent event that was considered to be treatment related. One serious treatment-emergent adverse event occurred (grade 3 renal impairment), which was considered unrelated to study drug, resulting in discontinuation of treatment. The most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse events were initial insomnia (ten [50%] patients), dizziness (six [30%]), and headache (five [25%]). No patients died during the 24-week core period.
Interpretation
These efficacy and safety results support the continued investigation of mitapivat for the treatment of both α-thalassaemia and β-thalassaemia.
Funding
Agios Pharmaceuticals.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 13 Aug 2022; 400:493-501
Kuo KHM, Layton DM, Lal A, Al-Samkari H, ... Uhlig K, Vichinsky EP
Lancet: 13 Aug 2022; 400:493-501 | PMID: 35964609
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Impact:
Abstract

Mepolizumab for urban children with exacerbation-prone eosinophilic asthma in the USA (MUPPITS-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial.

Jackson DJ, Bacharier LB, Gergen PJ, Gagalis L, ... Altman MC, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease\'s Inner City Asthma Consortium
Background
Black and Hispanic children living in urban environments in the USA have an excess burden of morbidity and mortality from asthma. Therapies directed at the eosinophilic phenotype reduce asthma exacerbations in adults, but few data are available in children and diverse populations. Furthermore, the molecular mechanisms that underlie exacerbations either being prevented by, or persisting despite, immune-based therapies are not well understood. We aimed to determine whether mepolizumab, added to guidelines-based care, reduced the number of asthma exacerbations during a 52-week period compared with guidelines-based care alone.
Methods
This is a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial done at nine urban medical centres in the USA. Children and adolescents aged 6-17 years, who lived in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods and had exacerbation-prone asthma (defined as ≥two exacerbations in the previous year) and blood eosinophils of at least 150 cells per μL were randomly assigned 1:1 to mepolizumab (6-11 years: 40 mg; 12-17 years: 100 mg) or placebo injections once every 4 weeks, plus guideline-based care, for 52 weeks. Randomisation was done using a validated automated system. Participants, investigators, and the research staff who collected outcome measures remained masked to group assignments. The primary outcome was the number of asthma exacerbations that were treated with systemic corticosteroids during 52 weeks in the intention-to-treat population. The mechanisms of treatment response were assessed by study investigators using nasal transcriptomic modular analysis. Safety was assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03292588.
Findings
Between Nov 1, 2017, and Mar 12, 2020, we recruited 585 children and adolescents. We screened 390 individuals, of whom 335 met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled. 290 met the randomisation criteria, were randomly assigned to mepolizumab (n=146) or placebo (n=144), and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. 248 completed the study. The mean number of asthma exacerbations within the 52-week study period was 0·96 (95% CI 0·78-1·17) with mepolizumab and 1·30 (1·08-1·57) with placebo (rate ratio 0·73; 0·56-0·96; p=0·027). Treatment-emergent adverse events occurred in 42 (29%) of 146 participants in the mepolizumab group versus 16 (11%) of 144 participants in the placebo group. No deaths were attributed to mepolizumab.
Interpretation
Phenotype-directed therapy with mepolizumab in urban children with exacerbation-prone eosinophilic asthma reduced the number of exacerbations.
Funding
US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and GlaxoSmithKline.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 13 Aug 2022; 400:502-511
Jackson DJ, Bacharier LB, Gergen PJ, Gagalis L, ... Altman MC, US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease's Inner City Asthma Consortium
Lancet: 13 Aug 2022; 400:502-511 | PMID: 35964610
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Impact:
Abstract

Early drug development in solid tumours: analysis of National Cancer Institute-sponsored phase 1 trials.

Chihara D, Lin R, Flowers CR, Finnigan SR, ... Doroshow JH, Takebe N
Background
The low expectation of clinical benefit from phase 1 cancer therapeutics trials might negatively affect patient and physician participation, study reimbursement, and slow the progress of oncology research. Advances in cancer drug development, meanwhile, might have favourably improved treatment responses; however, little comprehensive data exist describing the response and toxicity associated with phase 1 trials across solid tumours. The aim of the study is to evaluate the trend of toxicity and response in phase 1 trials for solid tumours over time.
Methods
We analysed patient-level data from the Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program of the National Cancer Institute-sponsored investigator-initiated phase 1 trials for solid tumours, from Jan 1, 2000, to May 31, 2019. We assessed risks of treatment-related death (grade 5 toxicity ratings possibly, probably, or definitely attributable to treatment), all on-treatment deaths (deaths during protocol treatment regardless of attribution), grade 3-4 toxicity, and proportion of overall response (complete response and partial response) and complete response rate in the study periods of 2000-05, 2006-12, and 2013-2019, and evaluated their trends over time. We also analysed cancer type-specific and investigational agent-specific response, and analysed the trend of response in each cancer type over time. Univariate associations of overall response rates with patients\' baseline characteristics (age, sex, performance status, BMI, albumin concentration, and haemoglobin concentration), enrolment period, investigational agents, and trial design were assessed using risk ratio based on the modified Poisson regression model.
Findings
We analysed 465 protocols that enrolled 13 847 patients using 261 agents. 144 (31%) trials used a monotherapy and 321 (69%) used combination therapies. The overall treatment-related death rate was 0·7% (95% CI 0·5-0·8) across all periods. Risks of treatment-related deaths did not change over time (p=0·52). All on-treatment death risk during the study period was 8·0% (95% CI 7·6-8·5). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were haematological; grade 3-4 neutropenia occurred in 2336 (16·9%) of 13 847 patients, lymphopenia in 1230 (8·9%), anaemia in 894 (6·5%), and thrombocytopenia in 979 (7·1%). The overall response rate for all trials during the study period was 12·2% (95% CI 11·5-12·8; 1133 of 9325 patients) and complete response rate was 2·7% (2·4-3·0; 249 of 9325). Overall response increased from 9·6% (95% CI 8·7-10·6) in 2000-05 to 18·0% (15·7-20·5) in 2013-19, and complete response rates from 2·5% (2·0-3·0) to 4·3% (3·2-5·7). Overall response rates for combination therapy were substantially higher than for monotherapy (15·8% [15·0-16·8] vs 3·5% [2·8-4·2]). The overall response by class of agents differed across diseases. Anti-angiogenesis agents were associated with higher overall response rate for bladder, colon, kidney and ovarian cancer. DNA repair inhibitors were associated with higher overall response rate in ovarian and pancreatic cancer. The rates of overall response over time differed markedly by disease; there were notable improvements in bladder, breast, and kidney cancer and melanoma, but no change in the low response of pancreatic and colon cancer.
Interpretation
During the past 20 years, the response rate in phase 1 trials nearly doubled without an increase in the treatment-related death rate. However, there is significant heterogeneity in overall response by various factors such as cancer type, investigational agent, and trial design. Therefore, informed decision making is crucial for patients before participating in phase 1 trials. This study provides updated encouraging outcomes of modern phase 1 trials in solid tumours.
Funding
National Cancer Institute.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 13 Aug 2022; 400:512-521
Chihara D, Lin R, Flowers CR, Finnigan SR, ... Doroshow JH, Takebe N
Lancet: 13 Aug 2022; 400:512-521 | PMID: 35964611
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Impact:
Abstract

Interstitial lung diseases.

Wijsenbeek M, Suzuki A, Maher TM
Over 200 interstitial lung diseases, from ultra rare to relatively common, are recognised. Most interstitial lung diseases are characterised by inflammation or fibrosis within the interstitial space, the primary consequence of which is impaired gas exchange, resulting in breathlessness, diminished exercise tolerance, and decreased quality of life. Outcomes vary considerably for each of the different interstitial lung diseases. In some conditions, spontaneous reversibility or stabilisation can occur, but unfortunately in many people with interstitial lung disease, especially in those manifesting progressive pulmonary fibrosis, respiratory failure and death are a sad reality. Over the past 3 years, the field of interstitial lung disease has had important advances, with the approval of drugs to treat systemic sclerosis-associated interstitial lung disease, interstitial lung disease-associated pulmonary hypertension, and different forms of progressive pulmonary fibrosis. This Seminar provides an update on epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, diagnosis, disease course, and management of the interstitial lung diseases that are most frequently encountered in clinical practice. Furthermore, we describe how developments have led to a shift in the classification and treatment of interstitial lung diseases that exhibit progressive pulmonary fibrosis and summarise the latest practice-changing guidelines. We conclude with an outline of controversies, uncertainties, and future directions.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 11 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Wijsenbeek M, Suzuki A, Maher TM
Lancet: 11 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35964592
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Impact:
Abstract

Clinical presentation and virological assessment of confirmed human monkeypox virus cases in Spain: a prospective observational cohort study.

Tarín-Vicente EJ, Alemany A, Agud-Dios M, Ubals M, ... Ortiz-Romero PL, Mitjà O
Background
In May, 2022, several European countries reported autochthonous cases of monkeypox, which rapidly spread globally. Early reports suggest atypical presentations. We aimed to investigate clinical and virological characteristics of cases of human monkeypox in Spain.
Methods
This multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study was done in three sexual health clinics in Madrid and Barcelona, Spain. We enrolled all consecutive patients with laboratory-confirmed monkeypox from May 11 to June 29, 2022. Participants were offered lesion, anal, and oropharynx swabs for PCR testing. Participant data were collected by means of interviews conducted by dermatologists or specialists in sexually transmitted infections and were recorded using a standard case report form. Outcomes assessed in all participants with a confirmed diagnosis were demographics, smallpox vaccination, HIV status, exposure to someone with monkeypox, travel, mass gathering attendance, risk factors for sexually transmitted infections, sexual behaviour, signs and symptoms on first presentation, virological results at multiple body sites, co-infection with other sexually transmitted pathogens, and clinical outcomes 14 days after the initial presentation. Clinical outcomes were followed up until July 13, 2022.
Findings
181 patients had a confirmed monkeypox diagnosis and were enrolled in the study. 166 (92%) identified as gay men, bisexual men, or other men who have sex with men (MSM) and 15 (8%) identified as heterosexual men or heterosexual women. Median age was 37·0 years (IQR 31·0-42·0). 32 (18%) patients reported previous smallpox vaccination, 72 (40%) were HIV-positive, eight (11%) had a CD4 cell count less than 500 cells per μL, and 31 (17%) were diagnosed with a concurrent sexually transmitted infection. Median incubation was 7·0 days (IQR 5·0-10·0). All participants presented with skin lesions; 141 (78%) participants had lesions in the anogenital region, and 78 (43%) in the oral and perioral region. 70 (39%) participants had complications requiring treatment: 45 (25%) had a proctitis, 19 (10%) had tonsillitis, 15 (8%) had penile oedema, six (3%) an abscess, and eight (4%) had an exanthem. Three (2%) patients required hospital admission. 178 (99%) of 180 swabs from skin lesions collected tested positive, as did 82 (70%) of 117 throat swabs. Viral load was higher in lesion swabs than in pharyngeal specimens (mean cycle threshold value 23 [SD 4] vs 32 [6], absolute difference 9 [95% CI 8-10]; p<0·0001). 108 (65%) of 166 MSM reported anal-receptive sex. MSM who engaged in anal-receptive sex presented with proctitis (41 [38%] of 108 vs four [7%] of 58, absolute difference 31% [95% CI 19-44]; p<0·0001) and systemic symptoms before the rash (67 [62%] vs 16 [28%], absolute difference 34% [28-62]; p<0·0001) more frequently than MSM who did not engage in anal-receptive sex. 18 (95%) of 19 participants with tonsillitis reported practising oral-receptive sex. The median time from onset of lesions to formation of a dry crust was 10 days (IQR 7-13).
Interpretation
In our cohort, monkeypox caused genital, perianal, and oral lesions and complications including proctitis and tonsillitis. Because of the variability of presentations, clinicians should have a low threshold for suspicion of monkeypox. Lesion swabs showed the highest viral loads, which, combined with the history of sexual exposure and the distribution of lesions, suggests close contact is probably the dominant transmission route in the current outbreak.
Funding
None.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 08 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Tarín-Vicente EJ, Alemany A, Agud-Dios M, Ubals M, ... Ortiz-Romero PL, Mitjà O
Lancet: 08 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35952705
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Impact:
Abstract

Depression in young people.

Thapar A, Eyre O, Patel V, Brent D
Depression rates in young people have risen sharply in the past decade, especially in females, which is of concern because adolescence is a period of rapid social, emotional, and cognitive development and key life transitions. Adverse outcomes associated with depression in young people include depression recurrence; the onset of other psychiatric disorders; and wider, protracted impairments in interpersonal, social, educational, and occupational functioning. Thus, prevention and early intervention for depression in young people are priorities. Preventive and early intervention strategies typically target predisposing factors, antecedents, and symptoms of depression. Young people who have a family history of depression, exposure to social stressors (eg, bullying, discordant relationships, or stressful life events), and belong to certain subgroups (eg, having a chronic physical health problem or being a sexual minority) are at especially high risk of depression. Clinical antecedents include depressive symptoms, anxiety, and irritability. Evidence favours indicated prevention and targeted prevention to universal prevention. Emerging school-based and community-based social interventions show some promise. Depression is highly heterogeneous; therefore, a stepwise treatment approach is recommended, starting with brief psychosocial interventions, then a specific psychological therapy, and then an antidepressant medication.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 05 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print
Thapar A, Eyre O, Patel V, Brent D
Lancet: 05 Aug 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35940184
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Impact:
Abstract

Baricitinib in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial and updated meta-analysis.

RECOVERY Collaborative Group
Background
We aimed to evaluate the use of baricitinib, a Janus kinase (JAK) 1-2 inhibitor, for the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19.
Methods
This randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial (Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy [RECOVERY]), is assessing multiple possible treatments in patients hospitalised with COVID-19 in the UK. Eligible and consenting patients were randomly allocated (1:1) to either usual standard of care alone (usual care group) or usual care plus baricitinib 4 mg once daily by mouth for 10 days or until discharge if sooner (baricitinib group). The primary outcome was 28-day mortality assessed in the intention-to-treat population. A meta-analysis was done, which included the results from the RECOVERY trial and all previous randomised controlled trials of baricitinib or other JAK inhibitor in patients hospitalised with COVID-19. The RECOVERY trial is registered with ISRCTN (50189673) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04381936) and is ongoing.
Findings
Between Feb 2 and Dec 29, 2021, from 10 852 enrolled, 8156 patients were randomly allocated to receive usual care plus baricitinib versus usual care alone. At randomisation, 95% of patients were receiving corticosteroids and 23% were receiving tocilizumab (with planned use within the next 24 h recorded for a further 9%). Overall, 514 (12%) of 4148 patients allocated to baricitinib versus 546 (14%) of 4008 patients allocated to usual care died within 28 days (age-adjusted rate ratio 0·87; 95% CI 0·77-0·99; p=0·028). This 13% proportional reduction in mortality was somewhat smaller than that seen in a meta-analysis of eight previous trials of a JAK inhibitor (involving 3732 patients and 425 deaths), in which allocation to a JAK inhibitor was associated with a 43% proportional reduction in mortality (rate ratio 0·57; 95% CI 0·45-0·72). Including the results from RECOVERY in an updated meta-analysis of all nine completed trials (involving 11 888 randomly assigned patients and 1485 deaths) allocation to baricitinib or another JAK inhibitor was associated with a 20% proportional reduction in mortality (rate ratio 0·80; 95% CI 0·72-0·89; p<0·0001). In RECOVERY, there was no significant excess in death or infection due to non-COVID-19 causes and no significant excess of thrombosis, or other safety outcomes.
Interpretation
In patients hospitalised with COVID-19, baricitinib significantly reduced the risk of death but the size of benefit was somewhat smaller than that suggested by previous trials. The total randomised evidence to date suggests that JAK inhibitors (chiefly baricitinib) reduce mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 by about one-fifth.
Funding
UK Research and Innovation (Medical Research Council) and National Institute of Health Research.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 30 Jul 2022; 400:359-368
RECOVERY Collaborative Group
Lancet: 30 Jul 2022; 400:359-368 | PMID: 35908569
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Impact:
Abstract

Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty for treatment of class 1 and 2 obesity (MERIT): a prospective, multicentre, randomised trial.

Abu Dayyeh BK, Bazerbachi F, Vargas EJ, Sharaiha RZ, ... Zundel N, Wilson EB
Background
Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is an endolumenal, organ-sparing therapy for obesity, with wide global adoption. We aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of ESG with lifestyle modifications compared with lifestyle modifications alone.
Methods
We conducted a randomised clinical trial at nine US centres, enrolling individuals aged 21-65 years with class 1 or class 2 obesity and who agreed to comply with lifelong dietary restrictions. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1·5; with stratified permuted blocks) to ESG with lifestyle modifications (ESG group) or lifestyle modifications alone (control group), with potential retightening or crossover to ESG, respectively, at 52 weeks. Lifestyle modifications included a low-calorie diet and physical activity. Participants in the primary ESG group were followed up for 104 weeks. The primary endpoint at 52 weeks was the percentage of excess weight loss (EWL), with excess weight being that over the ideal weight for a BMI of 25 kg/m2. Secondary endpoints included change in metabolic comorbidities between the groups. We used multiple imputed intention-to-treat analyses with mixed-effects models. Our analyses were done on a per-protocol basis and a modified intention-to-treat basis. The safety population was defined as all participants who underwent ESG (both primary and crossover ESG) up to 52 weeks.
Findings
Between Dec 20, 2017, and June 14, 2019, 209 participants were randomly assigned to ESG (n=85) or to control (n=124). At 52 weeks, the primary endpoint of mean percentage of EWL was 49·2% (SD 32·0) for the ESG group and 3·2% (18·6) for the control group (p<0·0001). Mean percentage of total bodyweight loss was 13·6% (8·0) for the ESG group and 0·8% (5·0) for the control group (p<0·0001), and 59 (77%) of 77 participants in the ESG group reached 25% or more of EWL at 52 weeks compared with 13 (12%) of 110 in the control group (p<0·0001). At 52 weeks, 41 (80%) of 51 participants in the ESG group had an improvement in one or more metabolic comorbidities, whereas six (12%) worsened, compared with the control group in which 28 (45%) of 62 participants had similar improvement, whereas 31 (50%) worsened. At 104 weeks, 41 (68%) of 60 participants in the ESG group maintained 25% or more of EWL. ESG-related serious adverse events occurred in three (2%) of 131 participants, without mortality or need for intensive care or surgery.
Interpretation
ESG is a safe intervention that resulted in significant weight loss, maintained at 104 weeks, with important improvements in metabolic comorbidities. ESG should be considered as a synergistic weight loss intervention for patients with class 1 or class 2 obesity. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03406975.
Funding
Apollo Endosurgery, Mayo Clinic.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 28 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Abu Dayyeh BK, Bazerbachi F, Vargas EJ, Sharaiha RZ, ... Zundel N, Wilson EB
Lancet: 28 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35908555
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Impact:
Abstract

The multispeciality approach to the management of localised kidney cancer.

Stewart GD, Klatte T, Cosmai L, Bex A, ... Porta C, Gallieni M
Historically, kidney cancer was approached in a siloed single-speciality way, with urological surgeons managing the localised stages of the disease and medical oncologists caring for patients if metastases developed. However, improvements in the management of localised kidney cancer have occurred rapidly over the past two decades with greater understanding of the disease biology, diagnostic options, and innovations in curative treatments. These developments are favourable for patients but provide a substantially more complex landscape for patients and clinicians to navigate, with associated challenging decisions about who to treat, how, and when. As such, the skill sets needed to manage the various aspects of the disease and guide patients appropriately outstrips the capabilities of one particular specialist, and the evolution of a multispeciality approach to the management of kidney cancer is now essential. In this Review, we summarise the current best multispeciality practice for the management of localised kidney cancer and the areas in need of further research and development.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 19 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Stewart GD, Klatte T, Cosmai L, Bex A, ... Porta C, Gallieni M
Lancet: 19 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35868329
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Impact:
Abstract

Long-term efficacy and safety of moderate-intensity statin with ezetimibe combination therapy versus high-intensity statin monotherapy in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (RACING): a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial.

Kim BK, Hong SJ, Lee YJ, Hong SJ, ... Hong MK, RACING investigators
Background
Drug combinations rather than increasing doses of one drug can achieve greater efficacy and lower risks. Thus, as an alternative to high-intensity statin monotherapy, moderate-intensity statin with ezetimibe combination therapy can lower LDL cholesterol concentrations effectively while reducing adverse effects. However, evidence from randomised trials to compare long-term clinical outcomes is needed.
Methods
In this randomised, open-label, non-inferiority trial, patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) at 26 clinical centres in South Korea were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either moderate-intensity statin with ezetimibe combination therapy (rosuvastatin 10 mg with ezetimibe 10 mg) or high-intensity statin monotherapy (rosuvastatin 20 mg). The primary endpoint was the 3-year composite of cardiovascular death, major cardiovascular events, or non-fatal stroke, in the intention-to-treat population with a non-inferiority margin of 2·0%. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03044665 and is complete.
Findings
Between Feb 14, 2017, and Dec 18, 2018, 3780 patients were enrolled: 1894 patients to the combination therapy group and 1886 to the high-intensity statin monotherapy group. The primary endpoint occurred in 172 patients (9·1%) in the combination therapy group and 186 patients (9·9%) in the high-intensity statin monotherapy group (absolute difference -0·78%; 90% CI -2·39 to 0·83). LDL cholesterol concentrations of less than 70 mg/dL at 1, 2, and 3 years were observed in 73%, 75%, and 72% of patients in the combination therapy group, and 55%, 60%, and 58% of patients in the high-intensity statin monotherapy group (all p<0·0001). Discontinuation or dose reduction of the study drug by intolerance was observed in 88 patients (4·8%) and 150 patients (8·2%), respectively (p<0·0001).
Interpretation
Among patients with ASCVD, moderate-intensity statin with ezetimibe combination therapy was non-inferior to high-intensity statin monotherapy for the 3-year composite outcomes with a higher proportion of patients with LDL cholesterol concentrations of less than 70 mg/dL and lower intolerance-related drug discontinuation or dose reduction.
Funding
Hanmi Pharmaceutical.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 18 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Kim BK, Hong SJ, Lee YJ, Hong SJ, ... Hong MK, RACING investigators
Lancet: 18 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35863366
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Impact:
Abstract

Comparative effects of pharmacological interventions for the acute and long-term management of insomnia disorder in adults: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.

De Crescenzo F, D\'Alò GL, Ostinelli EG, Ciabattini M, ... Efthimiou O, Cipriani A
Background
Behavioural, cognitive, and pharmacological interventions can all be effective for insomnia. However, because of inadequate resources, medications are more frequently used worldwide. We aimed to estimate the comparative effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for the acute and long-term treatment of adults with insomnia disorder.
Methods
In this systematic review and network meta-analysis, we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and websites of regulatory agencies from database inception to Nov 25, 2021, to identify published and unpublished randomised controlled trials. We included studies comparing pharmacological treatments or placebo as monotherapy for the treatment of adults (≥18 year) with insomnia disorder. We assessed the certainty of evidence using the confidence in network meta-analysis (CINeMA) framework. Primary outcomes were efficacy (ie, quality of sleep measured by any self-rated scale), treatment discontinuation for any reason and due to side-effects specifically, and safety (ie, number of patients with at least one adverse event) both for acute and long-term treatment. We estimated summary standardised mean differences (SMDs) and odds ratios (ORs) using pairwise and network meta-analysis with random effects. This study is registered with Open Science Framework, https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/PU4QJ.
Findings
We included 170 trials (36 interventions and 47 950 participants) in the systematic review and 154 double-blind, randomised controlled trials (30 interventions and 44 089 participants) were eligible for the network meta-analysis. In terms of acute treatment, benzodiazepines, doxylamine, eszopiclone, lemborexant, seltorexant, zolpidem, and zopiclone were more efficacious than placebo (SMD range: 0·36-0·83 [CINeMA estimates of certainty: high to moderate]). Benzodiazepines, eszopiclone, zolpidem, and zopiclone were more efficacious than melatonin, ramelteon, and zaleplon (SMD 0·27-0·71 [moderate to very low]). Intermediate-acting benzodiazepines, long-acting benzodiazepines, and eszopiclone had fewer discontinuations due to any cause than ramelteon (OR 0·72 [95% CI 0·52-0·99; moderate], 0·70 [0·51-0·95; moderate] and 0·71 [0·52-0·98; moderate], respectively). Zopiclone and zolpidem caused more dropouts due to adverse events than did placebo (zopiclone: OR 2·00 [95% CI 1·28-3·13; very low]; zolpidem: 1·79 [1·25-2·50; moderate]); and zopiclone caused more dropouts than did eszopiclone (OR 1·82 [95% CI 1·01-3·33; low]), daridorexant (3·45 [1·41-8·33; low), and suvorexant (3·13 [1·47-6·67; low]). For the number of individuals with side-effects at study endpoint, benzodiazepines, eszopiclone, zolpidem, and zopiclone were worse than placebo, doxepin, seltorexant, and zaleplon (OR range 1·27-2·78 [high to very low]). For long-term treatment, eszopiclone and lemborexant were more effective than placebo (eszopiclone: SMD 0·63 [95% CI 0·36-0·90; very low]; lemborexant: 0·41 [0·04-0·78; very low]) and eszopiclone was more effective than ramelteon (0.63 [0·16-1·10; very low]) and zolpidem (0·60 [0·00-1·20; very low]). Compared with ramelteon, eszopiclone and zolpidem had a lower rate of all-cause discontinuations (eszopiclone: OR 0·43 [95% CI 0·20-0·93; very low]; zolpidem: 0·43 [0·19-0·95; very low]); however, zolpidem was associated with a higher number of dropouts due to side-effects than placebo (OR 2·00 [95% CI 1·11-3·70; very low]).
Interpretation
Overall, eszopiclone and lemborexant had a favorable profile, but eszopiclone might cause substantial adverse events and safety data on lemborexant were inconclusive. Doxepin, seltorexant, and zaleplon were well tolerated, but data on efficacy and other important outcomes were scarce and do not allow firm conclusions. Many licensed drugs (including benzodiazepines, daridorexant, suvorexant, and trazodone) can be effective in the acute treatment of insomnia but are associated with poor tolerability, or information about long-term effects is not available. Melatonin, ramelteon, and non-licensed drugs did not show overall material benefits. These results should serve evidence-based clinical practice.
Funding
UK National Institute for Health Research Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 16 Jul 2022; 400:170-184
De Crescenzo F, D'Alò GL, Ostinelli EG, Ciabattini M, ... Efthimiou O, Cipriani A
Lancet: 16 Jul 2022; 400:170-184 | PMID: 35843245
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Impact:
Abstract

Population-level risks of alcohol consumption by amount, geography, age, sex, and year: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2020.

GBD 2020 Alcohol Collaborators
Background
The health risks associated with moderate alcohol consumption continue to be debated. Small amounts of alcohol might lower the risk of some health outcomes but increase the risk of others, suggesting that the overall risk depends, in part, on background disease rates, which vary by region, age, sex, and year.
Methods
For this analysis, we constructed burden-weighted dose-response relative risk curves across 22 health outcomes to estimate the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL) and non-drinker equivalence (NDE), the consumption level at which the health risk is equivalent to that of a non-drinker, using disease rates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2020 for 21 regions, including 204 countries and territories, by 5-year age group, sex, and year for individuals aged 15-95 years and older from 1990 to 2020. Based on the NDE, we quantified the population consuming harmful amounts of alcohol.
Findings
The burden-weighted relative risk curves for alcohol use varied by region and age. Among individuals aged 15-39 years in 2020, the TMREL varied between 0 (95% uncertainty interval 0-0) and 0·603 (0·400-1·00) standard drinks per day, and the NDE varied between 0·002 (0-0) and 1·75 (0·698-4·30) standard drinks per day. Among individuals aged 40 years and older, the burden-weighted relative risk curve was J-shaped for all regions, with a 2020 TMREL that ranged from 0·114 (0-0·403) to 1·87 (0·500-3·30) standard drinks per day and an NDE that ranged between 0·193 (0-0·900) and 6·94 (3·40-8·30) standard drinks per day. Among individuals consuming harmful amounts of alcohol in 2020, 59·1% (54·3-65·4) were aged 15-39 years and 76·9% (73·0-81·3) were male.
Interpretation
There is strong evidence to support recommendations on alcohol consumption varying by age and location. Stronger interventions, particularly those tailored towards younger individuals, are needed to reduce the substantial global health loss attributable to alcohol.
Funding
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 16 Jul 2022; 400:185-235
GBD 2020 Alcohol Collaborators
Lancet: 16 Jul 2022; 400:185-235 | PMID: 35843246
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Impact:
Abstract

Thrombectomy alone versus intravenous alteplase plus thrombectomy in patients with stroke: an open-label, blinded-outcome, randomised non-inferiority trial.

Fischer U, Kaesmacher J, Strbian D, Eker O, ... Gralla J, SWIFT DIRECT Collaborators
Background
Whether thrombectomy alone is equally as effective as intravenous alteplase plus thrombectomy remains controversial. We aimed to determine whether thrombectomy alone would be non-inferior to intravenous alteplase plus thrombectomy in patients presenting with acute ischaemic stroke.
Methods
In this multicentre, randomised, open-label, blinded-outcome trial in Europe and Canada, we recruited patients with stroke due to large vessel occlusion confirmed with CT or magnetic resonance angiography admitted to endovascular centres. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a centralised web server using a deterministic minimisation method to receive stent-retriever thrombectomy alone or intravenous alteplase plus stent-retriever thrombectomy. In both groups, thrombectomy was initiated as fast as possible with any commercially available Solitaire stent-retriever revascularisation device (Medtronic, Irvine, CA, USA). In the combined treatment group, intravenous alteplase (0·9 mg/kg bodyweight, maximum dose 90 mg per patient) was administered as early as possible after randomisation for 60 min with 10% of the calculated dose given as an initial bolus. Personnel assessing the primary outcome were masked to group allocation; patients and treating physicians were not. The primary binary outcome was a score of 2 or less on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. We assessed the non-inferiority of thrombectomy alone versus intravenous alteplase plus thrombectomy in all randomly assigned and consenting patients using the one-sided lower 95% confidence limit of the Mantel-Haenszel risk difference, with a prespecified non-inferiority margin of 12%. The main safety endpoint was symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage assessed in all randomly assigned and consenting participants. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03192332, and is closed to new participants.
Findings
Between Nov 29, 2017, and May 7, 2021, 5215 patients were screened and 423 were randomly assigned, of whom 408 (201 thrombectomy alone, 207 intravenous alteplase plus thrombectomy) were included in the primary efficacy analysis. A modified Rankin scale score of 0-2 at 90 days was reached by 114 (57%) of 201 patients assigned to thrombectomy alone and 135 (65%) of 207 patients assigned to intravenous alteplase plus thrombectomy (adjusted risk difference -7·3%, 95% CI -16·6 to 2·1, lower limit of one-sided 95% CI -15·1%, crossing the non-inferiority margin of -12%). Symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage occurred in five (2%) of 201 patients undergoing thrombectomy alone and seven (3%) of 202 patients receiving intravenous alteplase plus thrombectomy (risk difference -1·0%, 95% CI -4·8 to 2·7). Successful reperfusion was less common in patients assigned to thrombectomy alone (182 [91%] of 201 vs 199 [96%] of 207, risk difference -5·1%, 95% CI -10·2 to 0·0, p=0·047).
Interpretation
Thrombectomy alone was not shown to be non-inferior to intravenous alteplase plus thrombectomy and resulted in decreased reperfusion rates. These results do not support omitting intravenous alteplase before thrombectomy in eligible patients.
Funding
Medtronic and University Hospital Bern.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 09 Jul 2022; 400:104-115
Fischer U, Kaesmacher J, Strbian D, Eker O, ... Gralla J, SWIFT DIRECT Collaborators
Lancet: 09 Jul 2022; 400:104-115 | PMID: 35810756
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Impact:
Abstract

Endovascular thrombectomy versus standard bridging thrombolytic with endovascular thrombectomy within 4·5 h of stroke onset: an open-label, blinded-endpoint, randomised non-inferiority trial.

Mitchell PJ, Yan B, Churilov L, Dowling RJ, ... Davis SM, DIRECT-SAFE Investigators
Background
The benefit of combined treatment with intravenous thrombolysis before endovascular thrombectomy in patients with acute ischaemic stroke caused by large vessel occlusion remains unclear. We hypothesised that the clinical outcomes of patients with stroke with large vessel occlusion treated with direct endovascular thrombectomy within 4·5 h would be non-inferior compared with the outcomes of those treated with standard bridging therapy (intravenous thrombolysis before endovascular thrombectomy).
Methods
DIRECT-SAFE was an international, multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. Adult patients with stroke and large vessel occlusion in the intracranial internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery (M1 or M2), or basilar artery, confirmed by non-contrast CT and vascular imaging, and who presented within 4·5 h of stroke onset were recruited from 25 acute-care hospitals in Australia, New Zealand, China, and Vietnam. Eligible patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via a web-based, computer-generated randomisation procedure stratified by site of baseline arterial occlusion and by geographic region to direct endovascular thrombectomy or bridging therapy. Patients assigned to bridging therapy received intravenous thrombolytic (alteplase or tenecteplase) as per standard care at each site; endovascular thrombectomy was also per standard of care, using the Trevo device (Stryker Neurovascular, Fremont, CA, USA) as first-line intervention. Personnel assessing outcomes were masked to group allocation; patients and treating physicians were not. The primary efficacy endpoint was functional independence defined as modified Rankin Scale score 0-2 or return to baseline at 90 days, with a non-inferiority margin of -0·1, analysed by intention to treat (including all randomly assigned and consenting patients) and per protocol. The intention-to-treat population was included in the safety analyses. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03494920, and is closed to new participants.
Findings
Between June 2, 2018, and July 8, 2021, 295 patients were randomly assigned to direct endovascular thrombectomy (n=148) or bridging therapy (n=147). Functional independence occurred in 80 (55%) of 146 patients in the direct thrombectomy group and 89 (61%) of 147 patients in the bridging therapy group (intention-to-treat risk difference -0·051, two-sided 95% CI -0·160 to 0·059; per-protocol risk difference -0·062, two-sided 95% CI -0·173 to 0·049). Safety outcomes were similar between groups, with symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage occurring in two (1%) of 146 patients in the direct group and one (1%) of 147 patients in the bridging group (adjusted odds ratio 1·70, 95% CI 0·22-13·04) and death in 22 (15%) of 146 patients in the direct group and 24 (16%) of 147 patients in the bridging group (adjusted odds ratio 0·92, 95% CI 0·46-1·84).
Interpretation
We did not show non-inferiority of direct endovascular thrombectomy compared with bridging therapy. The additional information from our study should inform guidelines to recommend bridging therapy as standard treatment.
Funding
Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and Stryker USA.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 09 Jul 2022; 400:116-125
Mitchell PJ, Yan B, Churilov L, Dowling RJ, ... Davis SM, DIRECT-SAFE Investigators
Lancet: 09 Jul 2022; 400:116-125 | PMID: 35810757
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Impact:
Abstract

International law reform for One Health notifications.

Carlson CJ, Phelan AL
Epidemic risk assessment and response relies on rapid information sharing. Using examples from the past decade, we discuss the limitations of the present system for outbreak notifications, which suffers from ambiguous obligations, fragile incentives, and an overly narrow focus on human outbreaks. We examine existing international legal frameworks, and provide clarity on what a successful One Health approach to proposed international law reforms-including a pandemic treaty and amendments to the International Health Regulations-would require. In particular, we focus on how a treaty would provide opportunities to simultaneously expand reporting obligations, accelerate the sharing of scientific discoveries, and strengthen existing legal frameworks, all while addressing the most complex issues that global health governance currently faces.

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 07 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print
Carlson CJ, Phelan AL
Lancet: 07 Jul 2022; epub ahead of print | PMID: 35810748
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Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.