Topic: Intervention

Abstract

Clinical outcomes of drug-coated balloon in coronary lesions: a real-world, all-comers study.

Pan L, Lu W, Han Z, Pan S, ... Huang Z, Qiu C
Backgrounds
Although drug-eluting stents are the most common interventional devices for patients with coronary disease, drug-coated balloons (DCBs) represent a novel therapeutic alternative in certain scenarios. This prospective, observational all-comers study explored the clinical outcomes of DCB use in patients with coronary lesions.
Methods and results
All patients treated with DCBs were enrolled in this study, including patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) or de novo lesions. The primary outcome was the target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate at one year. We enrolled 2306 patients with 2660 lesions and performed DCB angioplasty in 399 patients (17.3%) with ISR and 1907 patients (82.7%) with de novo lesions. During follow-up (366 ± 46 days), the TLR rate was lower in the de novo lesion group (1.31%) compared to the ISR group (7.02%) [odds ratio (OR) 0.176, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.101-0.305, p < 0.001]. Patients with de novo lesions had a lower yearly incidence of MACE compared to ISR patients (2.73 vs. 9.27%, respectively, OR 0.274, 95% CI 0.177-0.424, p < 0.001) and a lower incidence of any revascularization (5.09 vs. 13.03%, OR 0.358, 95% CI 0.251-0.510, p < 0.001). No significant differences between groups were observed in the rates of cardiac death (OR 0.783, 95% CI 0.258-2.371, p = 0.655) or MI (OR 0.696, 95% CI 0.191-2.540, p = 0.573).
Conclusions
DCB angioplasty in this all-comers, real-world, prospective study was safe and efficient with low TLR and MACE rates. Thus, DCB appears to be an attractive alternative for the stent-less treatment of de novo coronary lesions. ISR in-stent restenosis; OR odds ratio; CI confidence interval; TLR target lesion revascularization; MACE major adverse cardiovascular events; MI myocardial infraction. MACE defined as the composite outcome of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. Any revascularization includes any percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting.

© 2021. Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Clin Res Cardiol: 01 Jul 2022; 111:732-741
Pan L, Lu W, Han Z, Pan S, ... Huang Z, Qiu C
Clin Res Cardiol: 01 Jul 2022; 111:732-741 | PMID: 34313800
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Abstract

Human coronary microvascular contractile dysfunction associates with viable synthetic smooth muscle cells.

Dora KA, Borysova L, Ye X, Powell C, ... Smart N, Ascione R
Aims
Coronary microvascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) respond to luminal pressure by developing myogenic tone (MT), a process integral to the regulation of microvascular perfusion. The cellular mechanisms underlying poor myogenic reactivity in patients with heart valve disease are unknown and form the focus of this study.
Methods and results
Intramyocardial coronary micro-arteries (IMCAs) isolated from human and pig right atrial (RA) appendage and left ventricular (LV) biopsies were studied using pressure myography combined with confocal microscopy. All RA- and LV-IMCAs from organ donors and pigs developed circa 25% MT. In contrast, 44% of human RA-IMCAs from 88 patients with heart valve disease had poor (<10%) MT yet retained cell viability and an ability to raise cytoplasmic Ca2+ in response to vasoconstrictor agents. Comparing across human heart chambers and species, we found that based on patient medical history and six tests, the strongest predictor of poor MT in IMCAs was increased expression of the synthetic marker caldesmon relative to the contractile marker SM-myosin heavy chain. In addition, high resolution imaging revealed a distinct layer of longitudinally aligned SMCs between ECs and radial SMCs, and we show poor MT was associated with disruptions in these cellular alignments.
Conclusion
These data demonstrate the first use of atrial and ventricular biopsies from patients and pigs to reveal that impaired coronary MT reflects a switch of viable SMCs towards a synthetic phenotype, rather than a loss of SMC viability. These arteries represent a model for further studies of coronary microvascular contractile dysfunction.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Cardiovasc Res: 29 Jun 2022; 118:1978-1992
Dora KA, Borysova L, Ye X, Powell C, ... Smart N, Ascione R
Cardiovasc Res: 29 Jun 2022; 118:1978-1992 | PMID: 34173824
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Abstract

Vascular histopathology and connective tissue ultrastructure in spontaneous coronary artery dissection: pathophysiological and clinical implications.

Margaritis M, Saini F, Baranowska-Clarke AA, Parsons S, ... Sheppard MN, Adlam D
Aims 
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) is a cause of acute coronary syndromes and in rare cases sudden cardiac death (SCD). Connective tissue abnormalities, coronary inflammation, increased coronary vasa vasorum (VV) density, and coronary fibromuscular dysplasia have all been implicated in the pathophysiology of SCAD but have not previously been systematically assessed. We designed a study to investigate the coronary histological and dermal collagen ultrastructural findings in SCAD.
Methods and results
Thirty-six autopsy SCAD cases were compared with 359 SCAD survivors. Coronary and myocardial histology and immunohistochemistry were undertaken. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) components of n = 31 SCAD survivors and n = 16 healthy volunteers were compared. Autopsy cases were more likely male (19% vs. 5%; P = 0.0004) with greater proximal left coronary involvement (56% vs. 18%; P < 0.0001) compared to SCAD survivors. N = 24 (66%) of cases showed no myocardial infarction on macro- or microscopic examination consistent with arrhythmogenic death. There was significantly (P < 0.001) higher inflammation in cases with delayed-onset death vs. sudden death and significantly more inflammation surrounding the dissected vs. non-dissected vessel segments. N = 17 (47%) cases showed limited intimal fibro-elastic thickening but no features of fibromuscular dysplasia and no endothelial or internal elastic lamina abnormalities. There were no differences in VV density between SCAD and control cases. TEM revealed no general ultrastructural differences in ECM components or markers of fibroblast metabolic activity.
Conclusions 
Assessment of SCD requires careful exclusion of SCAD, particularly in cases without myocardial necrosis. Peri-coronary inflammation in SCAD is distinct from vasculitides and likely a reaction to, rather than a cause for SCAD. Coronary fibromuscular dysplasia or increased VV density does not appear pathophysiologically important. Dermal connective tissue changes are not common in SCAD survivors.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Cardiovasc Res: 22 Jun 2022; 118:1835-1848
Margaritis M, Saini F, Baranowska-Clarke AA, Parsons S, ... Sheppard MN, Adlam D
Cardiovasc Res: 22 Jun 2022; 118:1835-1848 | PMID: 34048532
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Abstract

Risk predicting for acute coronary syndrome based on machine learning model with kinetic plaque features from serial coronary computed tomography angiography.

Wang Y, Chen H, Sun T, Li A, ... Wang X, Cao F
Aims
More patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) as gatekeeper. However, the prospective relation of plaque features to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events has not been previously explored.
Methods and results
One hundred and one out of 452 patients with documented ACS event and received more than once CCTA during the past 12 years were recruited. Other 101 patients without ACS event were matched as case control. Baseline, follow-up, and changes of anatomical, compositional, and haemodynamic parameters [e.g. luminal stenosis, plaque volume, necrotic core, calcification, and CCTA-derived fractional flow reserve (CT-FFR)] were analysed by independent CCTA measurement core laboratories. Baseline anatomical, compositional, and haemodynamic parameters of lesions showed no significant difference between the two cohorts (P > 0.05). While the culprit lesions exhibited significant increase of luminal stenosis (10.18 ± 2.26% vs. 3.62 ± 1.41%, P = 0.018), remodelling index (0.15 ± 0.14 vs. 0.09 ± 0.01, P < 0.01), and necrotic core (4.79 ± 1.84% vs. 0.43 ± 1.09%, P = 0.019) while decrease of CT-FFR (-0.05 ± 0.005 vs. -0.01 ± 0.003, P < 0.01) and calcium ratio (-4.28 ± 2.48% vs. 4.48 ± 1.46%, P = 0.004) between follow-up CCTA and baseline scans in comparison to that of non-culprit lesion. The XGBoost model comprising the top five important plaque features revealed higher predictive ability (area under the curve 0.918, 95% confidence interval 0.861-0.968).
Conclusions
Dynamic changes of plaque features are highly relative with subsequent ACS events. The machine learning model of integrating these lesion characteristics (e.g. CT-FFR, necrotic core, remodelling index, plaque volume, and calcium) can improve the ability for predicting risks of ACS events.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Jun 2022; 23:800-810
Wang Y, Chen H, Sun T, Li A, ... Wang X, Cao F
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Jun 2022; 23:800-810 | PMID: 34151931
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Abstract

Aortic enlargement and coronary artery calcification in a general population cohort.

Ballegaard CR, Pham MHC, Sigvardsen PE, Kühl JT, ... Køber LV, Kofoed KF
Aims
The role of atherosclerosis in the pathogenesis of aortic enlargement is uncertain. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between the diameters of the ascending, descending and abdominal aorta, and coronary artery calcification.
Methods and results
Individuals in the Copenhagen General Population Study underwent thoracic and abdominal computed tomography. Maximal aortic diameters were measured in each aortic segment and coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) were calculated. Participants were stratified into five predefined groups according to CACSs and compared to aortic dimensions. The relation between aortic diameter and CACS was adjusted for risk factors for aortic dilatation in a multivariable model. A total of 2678 eligible individuals were included. In all segments of the aorta, aortic diameter was associated to CACSs, with mean increases in aortic diameters ranging from 0.7 to 3.5 mm in individuals with calcified coronary arteries compared to non-calcified subjects (P-value < 0.001). After correction for risk factors, individuals with CACS above 400 had larger ascending, descending and abdominal aortic diameter than the non-calcified reference group (P-value < 0.01).
Conclusion
Enlarged thoracic and abdominal aortic vascular segments are associated with co-existing coronary artery calcification in the general population.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Jun 2022; 23:855-862
Ballegaard CR, Pham MHC, Sigvardsen PE, Kühl JT, ... Køber LV, Kofoed KF
Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging: 01 Jun 2022; 23:855-862 | PMID: 34166489
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This program is still in alpha version.