Topic: Journal Club Selection

Abstract

Five-Year Outcomes of Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic-Valve Replacement.

Makkar RR, Thourani VH, Mack MJ, Kodali SK, ... Leon MB,
Background
There are scant data on long-term clinical outcomes and bioprosthetic-valve function after transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) as compared with surgical aortic-valve replacement in patients with severe aortic stenosis and intermediate surgical risk.
Methods
We enrolled 2032 intermediate-risk patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis at 57 centers. Patients were stratified according to intended transfemoral or transthoracic access (76.3% and 23.7%, respectively) and were randomly assigned to undergo either TAVR or surgical replacement. Clinical, echocardiographic, and health-status outcomes were followed for 5 years. The primary end point was death from any cause or disabling stroke.
Results
At 5 years, there was no significant difference in the incidence of death from any cause or disabling stroke between the TAVR group and the surgery group (47.9% and 43.4%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95 to 1.25; P = 0.21). Results were similar for the transfemoral-access cohort (44.5% and 42.0%, respectively; hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.20), but the incidence of death or disabling stroke was higher after TAVR than after surgery in the transthoracic-access cohort (59.3% vs. 48.3%; hazard ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.71). At 5 years, more patients in the TAVR group than in the surgery group had at least mild paravalvular aortic regurgitation (33.3% vs. 6.3%). Repeat hospitalizations were more frequent after TAVR than after surgery (33.3% vs. 25.2%), as were aortic-valve reinterventions (3.2% vs. 0.8%). Improvement in health status at 5 years was similar for TAVR and surgery.
Conclusions
Among patients with aortic stenosis who were at intermediate surgical risk, there was no significant difference in the incidence of death or disabling stroke at 5 years after TAVR as compared with surgical aortic-valve replacement. (Funded by Edwards Lifesciences; PARTNER 2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01314313.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 26 Mar 2020; 382
Makkar RR, Thourani VH, Mack MJ, Kodali SK, ... Leon MB,
N Engl J Med: 26 Mar 2020; 382 | PMID: 31995682
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Abstract

Mobile Health Technology to Improve Care for Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

Guo Y, Lane DA, Wang L, Zhang H, ... Lip GYH,
Background
Current management of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is limited by low detection of AF, non-adherence to guidelines, and lack of consideration of patients\' preferences, thus highlighting the need for a more holistic and integrated approach to AF management.
Objective
The objective of this study was to determine whether a mobile health (mHealth) technology-supported AF integrated management strategy would reduce AF-related adverse events, compared with usual care.
Methods
This is a cluster randomized trial of patients with AF older than 18 years of age who were enrolled in 40 cities in China. Recruitment began on June 1, 2018 and follow-up ended on August 16, 2019. Patients with AF were randomized to receive usual care, or integrated care based on a mobile AF Application (mAFA) incorporating the ABC (Atrial Fibrillation Better Care) Pathway: A, Avoid stroke; B, Better symptom management; and C, Cardiovascular and other comorbidity risk reduction. The primary composite outcome was a composite of stroke/thromboembolism, all-cause death, and rehospitalization. Rehospitalization alone was a secondary outcome. Cardiovascular events were assessed using Cox proportional hazard modeling after adjusting for baseline risk.
Results
There were 1,646 patients allocated to mAFA intervention (mean age, 67.0 years; 38.0% female) with mean follow-up of 262 days, whereas 1,678 patients were allocated to usual care (mean age, 70.0 years; 38.0% female) with mean follow-up of 291 days. Rates of the composite outcome of \'ischemic stroke/systemic thromboembolism, death, and rehospitalization\' were lower with the mAFA intervention compared with usual care (1.9% vs. 6.0%; hazard ratio [HR]: 0.39; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.22 to 0.67; p < 0.001). Rates of rehospitalization were lower with the mAFA intervention (1.2% vs. 4.5%; HR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.60; p < 0.001). Subgroup analyses by sex, age, AF type, risk score, and comorbidities demonstrated consistently lower HRs for the composite outcome for patients receiving the mAFA intervention compared with usual care (all p < 0.05).
Conclusions
An integrated care approach to holistic AF care, supported by mHealth technology, reduces the risks of rehospitalization and clinical adverse events. (Mobile Health [mHealth] technology integrating atrial fibrillation screening and ABC management approach trial; ChiCTR-OOC-17014138).

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 06 Apr 2020; 75:1523-1534
Guo Y, Lane DA, Wang L, Zhang H, ... Lip GYH,
J Am Coll Cardiol: 06 Apr 2020; 75:1523-1534 | PMID: 32241367
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Abstract

Oral Anticoagulation and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation and End-Stage Renal Disease.

Pokorney SD, Black-Maier E, Hellkamp AS, Friedman DJ, ... Peterson ED, Piccini JP
Background
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is common in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The impact of oral anticoagulation (OAC) in ESRD patients is uncertain.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to describe patterns of OAC use in ESRD patients with AF and their associations with cardiovascular outcomes.
Methods
Using Medicare fee-for-service 5% claims data from 2007 to 2013, we analyzed treatment and outcomes in a cohort of patients with ESRD and AF. Prescription drug benefit information was used to determine the timing of OAC therapy. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to compare outcomes including death, all-cause stroke, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and bleeding hospitalizations in ESRD patients treated with or without OAC.
Results
The cohort included 8,410 patients with AF and ESRD. A total of 3,043 (36.2%) patients were treated with OAC at some time during the study period. Propensity scores used to match 1,519 patients with AF and ESRD on OAC with 3,018 ESRD patients without OAC. Treatment with OAC was not associated with hospitalization for stroke (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.23 to 1.35; p = 0.97) or death (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.10; p = 0.62). OAC was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization for bleeding (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09 to 1.46; p = 0.0017) and intracranial hemorrhage (HR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.07 to 1.59; p = 0.0094).
Conclusions
OAC utilization was low in patients with AF and ESRD. We found no association between OAC use and reduced risk of stroke or death. OAC use was associated with increased risks of hospitalization for bleeding or intracranial hemorrhage. Alternative stroke prevention strategies are needed in patients with ESRD and AF.

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 23 Mar 2020; 75:1299-1308
Pokorney SD, Black-Maier E, Hellkamp AS, Friedman DJ, ... Peterson ED, Piccini JP
J Am Coll Cardiol: 23 Mar 2020; 75:1299-1308 | PMID: 32192656
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Abstract

Yoga-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Trial.

Prabhakaran D, Chandrasekaran AM, Singh K, Mohan B, ... Kinra S,
Background
Given the shortage of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs in India and poor uptake worldwide, there is an urgent need to find alternative models of CR that are inexpensive and may offer choice to subgroups with poor uptake (e.g., women and elderly).
Objectives
This study sought to evaluate the effects of yoga-based CR (Yoga-CaRe) on major cardiovascular events and self-rated health in a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
Methods
The trial was conducted in 24 medical centers across India. This study recruited 3,959 patients with acute myocardial infarction with a median and minimum follow-up of 22 and 6 months. Patients were individually randomized to receive either a Yoga-CaRe program (n = 1,970) or enhanced standard care involving educational advice (n = 1,989). The co-primary outcomes were: 1) first occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) (composite of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, stroke, or emergency cardiovascular hospitalization); and 2) self-rated health on the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions-5 Level visual analogue scale at 12 weeks.
Results
MACE occurred in 131 (6.7%) patients in the Yoga-CaRe group and 146 (7.4%) patients in the enhanced standard care group (hazard ratio with Yoga-CaRe: 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.71 to 1.15; p = 0.41). Self-rated health was 77 in Yoga-CaRe and 75.7 in the enhanced standard care group (baseline-adjusted mean difference in favor of Yoga-CaRe: 1.5; 95% CI: 0.5 to 2.5; p = 0.002). The Yoga-CaRe group had greater return to pre-infarct activities, but there was no difference in tobacco cessation or medication adherence between the treatment groups (secondary outcomes).
Conclusions
Yoga-CaRe improved self-rated health and return to pre-infarct activities after acute myocardial infarction, but the trial lacked statistical power to show a difference in MACE. Yoga-CaRe may be an option when conventional CR is unavailable or unacceptable to individuals. (A study on effectiveness of YOGA based cardiac rehabilitation programme in India and United Kingdom; CTRI/2012/02/002408).

Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 06 Apr 2020; 75:1551-1561
Prabhakaran D, Chandrasekaran AM, Singh K, Mohan B, ... Kinra S,
J Am Coll Cardiol: 06 Apr 2020; 75:1551-1561 | PMID: 32241371
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Abstract

Atrial Fibrillation: JACC Council Perspectives.

Chung MK, Refaat M, Shen WK, Kutyifa V, ... Lakkireddy DR,

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly prevalent arrhythmia; its pathophysiology and progression are well studied. Stroke and bleeding risk models have been created and validated. Decision tools for stroke prophylaxis are evolving, with better options at hand. Utilization of various diagnostic tools offer insight into AF burden and thromboembolic risk. Rate control, rhythm control, and stroke prophylaxis are the cornerstones of AF therapy. Although antiarrhythmic drugs are useful, AF ablation has become a primary therapeutic strategy. Pulmonary vein isolation is the cornerstone of AF ablation, and methods to improve ablation safety and efficacy continue to progress. Ablation of nonpulmonary vein sites is increasingly being recognized as an important strategy for treating nonparoxysmal AF. Several new ablation techniques and technologies and stroke prophylaxis are being explored. This is a contemporary review on the prevalence, pathophysiology, risk prediction, prophylaxis, treatment options, new insights for optimizing treatment outcomes, and emerging concepts of AF.

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 13 Apr 2020; 75:1689-1713
Chung MK, Refaat M, Shen WK, Kutyifa V, ... Lakkireddy DR,
J Am Coll Cardiol: 13 Apr 2020; 75:1689-1713 | PMID: 32273035
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Abstract

Multiple Plasma Biomarkers for Risk Stratification in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Ejection Fraction.

Chirinos JA, Orlenko A, Zhao L, Basso MD, ... Moore JH, Cappola TP
Background
Better risk stratification strategies are needed to enhance clinical care and trial design in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to assess the value of a targeted plasma multi-marker approach to enhance our phenotypic characterization and risk prediction in HFpEF.
Methods
In this study, the authors measured 49 plasma biomarkers from TOPCAT (Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure With an Aldosterone Antagonist) trial participants (n = 379) using a Multiplex assay. The relationship between biomarkers and the risk of all-cause death or heart failure-related hospital admission (DHFA) was assessed. A tree-based pipeline optimizer platform was used to generate a multimarker predictive model for DHFA. We validated the model in an independent cohort of HFpEF patients enrolled in the PHFS (Penn Heart Failure Study) (n = 156).
Results
Two large, tightly related dominant biomarker clusters were found, which included biomarkers of fibrosis/tissue remodeling, inflammation, renal injury/dysfunction, and liver fibrosis. Other clusters were composed of neurohormonal regulators of mineral metabolism, intermediary metabolism, and biomarkers of myocardial injury. Multiple biomarkers predicted incident DHFA, including 2 biomarkers related to mineral metabolism/calcification (fibroblast growth factor-23 and OPG [osteoprotegerin]), 3 inflammatory biomarkers (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, sTNFRI [soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor I], and interleukin-6), YKL-40 (related to liver injury and inflammation), 2 biomarkers related to intermediary metabolism and adipocyte biology (fatty acid binding protein-4 and growth differentiation factor-15), angiopoietin-2 (related to angiogenesis), matrix metalloproteinase-7 (related to extracellular matrix turnover), ST-2, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide. A machine-learning-derived model using a combination of biomarkers was strongly predictive of the risk of DHFA (standardized hazard ratio: 2.85; 95% confidence interval: 2.03 to 4.02; p < 0.0001) and markedly improved the risk prediction when added to the MAGGIC (Meta-Analysis Global Group in Chronic Heart Failure Risk Score) risk score. In an independent cohort (PHFS), the model strongly predicted the risk of DHFA (standardized hazard ratio: 2.74; 95% confidence interval: 1.93 to 3.90; p < 0.0001), which was also independent of the MAGGIC risk score.
Conclusions
Various novel circulating biomarkers in key pathophysiological domains are predictive of outcomes in HFpEF, and a multimarker approach coupled with machine-learning represents a promising strategy for enhancing risk stratification in HFpEF.

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 23 Mar 2020; 75:1281-1295
Chirinos JA, Orlenko A, Zhao L, Basso MD, ... Moore JH, Cappola TP
J Am Coll Cardiol: 23 Mar 2020; 75:1281-1295 | PMID: 32192654
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Abstract

Diuretic Therapy for Patients With Heart Failure: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.

Felker GM, Ellison DH, Mullens W, Cox ZL, Testani JM

Expansion of extracellular fluid volume is central to the pathophysiology of heart failure. Increased extracellular fluid leads to elevated intracardiac filling pressures, resulting in a constellation of signs and symptoms of heart failure referred to as congestion. Loop diuretics are one of the cornerstones of treatments for heart failure, but in contrast to other therapies, robust clinical trial evidence to guide the use of diuretics is sparse. A nuanced understanding of renal physiology and diuretic pharmacokinetics is essential for skillful use of diuretics in the management of heart failure in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Diuretic resistance, defined as an inadequate quantity of natriuresis despite an adequate diuretic regimen, is a major clinical challenge that generally portends a poor prognosis. In this review, the authors discuss the fundamental mechanisms and physiological principles that underlie the use of diuretic therapy and the available data on the optimal use of diuretics.

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 16 Mar 2020; 75:1178-1195
Felker GM, Ellison DH, Mullens W, Cox ZL, Testani JM
J Am Coll Cardiol: 16 Mar 2020; 75:1178-1195 | PMID: 32164892
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Abstract

Long-Term Outcomes in Women and Men Following Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

Kosmidou I, Leon MB, Zhang Y, Serruys PW, ... Mehran R, Stone GW
Background
Studies examining sex-related outcomes following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) have reported conflicting results.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to examine the sex-related risk of 5-year cardiovascular outcomes after PCI.
Methods
The authors pooled patient-level data from 21 randomized PCI trials and assessed the association between sex and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) (cardiac death, myocardial infarction [MI], or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization [ID-TLR]) as well as its individual components at 5 years.
Results
Among 32,877 patients, 9,141 (27.8%) were women. Women were older and had higher body mass index, more frequent hypertension and diabetes, and less frequent history of surgical or percutaneous revascularization compared with men. By angiographic core laboratory analysis, lesions in women had smaller reference vessel diameter and shorter lesion length. At 5 years, women had a higher unadjusted rate of MACE (18.9% vs. 17.7%; p = 0.003), all-cause death (10.4% vs. 8.7%; p = 0.0008), cardiac death (4.9% vs. 4.0%; p = 0.003) and ID-TLR (10.9% vs. 10.2%; p = 0.02) compared with men. By multivariable analysis, female sex was an independent predictor of MACE (hazard ratio [HR:]: 1.14; 95% confidence interval [CI:]: 1.01 to 1.30; p = 0.04) and ID-TLR (HR: 1.23; 95% CI: 1.05 to 1.44; p = 0.009) but not all-cause death (HR: 0.91; 95% CI: 0.75 to 1.09; p = 0.30) or cardiac death (HR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.29; p = 0.85).
Conclusions
In the present large-scale, individual patient data pooled analysis of contemporary PCI trials, women had a higher risk of MACE and ID-TLR compared with men at 5 years following PCI.

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 13 Apr 2020; 75:1631-1640
Kosmidou I, Leon MB, Zhang Y, Serruys PW, ... Mehran R, Stone GW
J Am Coll Cardiol: 13 Apr 2020; 75:1631-1640 | PMID: 32273029
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Abstract

Effects of Liraglutide on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Diabetes With or Without Heart Failure.

Marso SP, Baeres FMM, Bain SC, Goldman B, ... Buse JB,
Background
More data regarding effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and heart failure (HF) are required.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of liraglutide on cardiovascular events and mortality in LEADER (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results) participants, by HF history.
Methods
In the multinational, double-blind, randomized LEADER trial, 9,340 patients with T2D and high cardiovascular risk were assigned 1:1 to liraglutide (1.8 mg daily or maximum tolerated dose up to 1.8 mg daily) or placebo plus standard care, and followed for 3.5 to 5 years. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class IV HF was an exclusion criterion. The primary composite major adverse cardiovascular events outcome was time to first occurrence of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke. Post hoc Cox regression analyses of outcomes by baseline HF history were conducted.
Results
At baseline, 18% of patients had a history of NYHA functional class I to III HF (liraglutide: n = 835 of 4,668; placebo: n = 832 of 4,672). Effects of liraglutide versus placebo on major adverse cardiovascular events were consistent in patients with (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.65 to 1.02]) and without (HR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.78 to 1.00]) a history of HF (p interaction = 0.53). In both subgroups, fewer deaths were observed with liraglutide (HR: 0.89 [95% CI: 0.70 to 1.14] with HF; HR: 0.83 [95% CI: 0.70 to 0.97] without HF; p interaction = 0.63) versus placebo. No increased risk of HF hospitalization was observed with liraglutide, regardless of HF history (HR: 0.98 [95% CI: 0.75 to 1.28] with HF; HR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.61 to 1.00] without HF; p interaction = 0.22). Effects of liraglutide on the composite of HF hospitalization or cardiovascular death were consistent in patients with (HR: 0.92 [95% CI: 0.74 to 1.15]) and without (HR: 0.77 [95% CI: 0.65 to 0.91]) a history of HF (p interaction = 0.19).
Conclusions
Based on these findings, liraglutide should be considered suitable for patients with T2D with or without a history of NYHA functional class I to III HF. (Liraglutide Effect and Action in Diabetes: Evaluation of Cardiovascular Outcome Results [LEADER]; NCT01179048).

Copyright © 2020. Published by Elsevier Inc.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 16 Mar 2020; 75:1128-1141
Marso SP, Baeres FMM, Bain SC, Goldman B, ... Buse JB,
J Am Coll Cardiol: 16 Mar 2020; 75:1128-1141 | PMID: 32164886
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Abstract

Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes and Beta-Adrenergic Receptor Blockade in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy Cardiomyopathy.

Kamdar F, Das S, Gong W, Klaassen Kamdar A, ... Zhang J, Garry DJ
Background
Although cardiomyopathy has emerged as a leading cause of death in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), limited studies and therapies have emerged for dystrophic heart failure.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to model DMD cardiomyopathy using DMD patient-specific human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived cardiomyocytes and to identify physiological changes and future drug therapies.
Methods
To explore and define therapies for DMD cardiomyopathy, the authors used DMD patient-specific hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes to examine the physiological response to adrenergic agonists and β-blocker treatment. The authors further examined these agents in vivo using wild-type and mdx mouse models.
Results
At baseline and following adrenergic stimulation, DMD hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes had a significant increase in arrhythmic calcium traces compared to isogenic controls. Furthermore, these arrhythmias were significantly decreased with propranolol treatment. Using telemetry monitoring, the authors observed that mdx mice, which lack dystrophin, had an arrhythmic death when stimulated with isoproterenol; the lethal arrhythmias were rescued, in part, by propranolol pre-treatment. Using single-cell and bulk RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), the authors compared DMD and control hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, mdx mice, and control mice (in the presence or absence of propranolol and isoproterenol) and defined pathways that were perturbed under baseline conditions and pathways that were normalized after propranolol treatment in the mdx model. The authors also undertook transcriptome analysis of human DMD left ventricle samples and found that DMD hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes have dysregulated pathways similar to the human DMD heart. The authors further determined that relatively few patients with DMD see a cardiovascular specialist or receive β-blocker therapy.
Conclusions
The results highlight mechanisms and therapeutic interventions from human to animal and back to human in the dystrophic heart. These results may serve as a prelude for an adequately powered clinical study that examines the impact of β-blocker therapy in patients with dystrophinopathies.

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 16 Mar 2020; 75:1159-1174
Kamdar F, Das S, Gong W, Klaassen Kamdar A, ... Zhang J, Garry DJ
J Am Coll Cardiol: 16 Mar 2020; 75:1159-1174 | PMID: 32164890
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Abstract

Transcatheter Correction of Superior Sinus Venosus Atrial Septal Defects as an Alternative to Surgical Treatment.

Hansen JH, Duong P, Jivanji SGM, Jones M, ... Qureshi SA, Rosenthal E
Background
The superior sinus venosus atrial septal defect (SVASD) is characterized by deficiency of the common wall between the superior vena cava (SVC) and the right upper pulmonary vein (RUPV), which is no longer committed to the left atrium.
Objectives
This study sought to evaluate the potential for redirecting the SVC and RUPV flow to the right and left atria, respectively, by implantation of a covered stent in the SVC.
Methods
Review of 48 consecutive adult SVASD patients undergoing assessment for correction. Pre-procedural evaluation included cross-sectional imaging and ex vivo simulation using printed or virtual 3-dimensional models.
Results
Transcatheter correction was performed in 25 patients, with a further 6 awaiting stent implantation. Only 8 patients were deemed technically unsuitable. The procedure involved balloon test inflation in the anticipated stent landing zone with simultaneous transesophageal echocardiography and pulmonary venography to confirm defect closure and unobstructed pulmonary venous drainage, followed by deployment of a 10-zig covered Cheatham platinum stent. Stents of lengths between 5 and 8 cm were implanted. A second, uncovered stent was used for anchoring in 9 patients. The RUPV was protected with a high-pressure balloon during stent implantation to prevent pulmonary venous obstruction in 4 patients. The median follow-up period was 1.4 (interquartile range: 0.8 to 1.7) years, with no mortality. Stent embolization occurred in 1 patient; another required drainage of hemopericardium. Cardiac computed tomography after 3 months confirmed unobstructed pulmonary venous return. At latest follow-up, a residual shunt was present in 1 patient.
Conclusions
Transcatheter correction of SVASD may be considered as an alternative to surgery in a substantial proportion of patients.

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 23 Mar 2020; 75:1266-1278
Hansen JH, Duong P, Jivanji SGM, Jones M, ... Qureshi SA, Rosenthal E
J Am Coll Cardiol: 23 Mar 2020; 75:1266-1278 | PMID: 32192652
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Abstract

Tricuspid Intervention Following Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

Deshaies C, Trottier H, Khairy P, Al-Aklabi M, ... Poirier NC,
Background
Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is common among adults with corrected tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) or pulmonary stenosis (PS) referred for pulmonary valve replacement (PVR). Yet, combined valve surgery remains controversial.
Objectives
This study sought to evaluate the impact of concomitant tricuspid valve intervention (TVI) on post-operative TR, length of hospital stay, and on a composite endpoint consisting of 7 early adverse events (death, reintervention, cardiac electronic device implantation, infection, thromboembolic event, hemodialysis, and readmission).
Methods
The national Canadian cohort enrolled 542 patients with TOF or PS and mild to severe TR who underwent isolated PVR (66.8%) or PVR+TVI (33.2%). Outcomes were abstracted from charts and compared between groups using multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression.
Results
Median age at reintervention was 35.3 years. Regardless of surgery type, TR decreased by at least 1 echocardiographic grade in 35.4%, 66.9%, and 92.8% of patients with pre-operative mild, moderate, and severe insufficiency. In multivariable analyses, PVR+TVI was associated with an additional 2.3-fold reduction in TR grade (odds ratio [OR]: 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.25 to 0.77) without an increase in early adverse events (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.46 to 1.57) or hospitalization time (incidence rate ratio: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.93 to 1.46). Pre-operative TR severity and presence of transvalvular leads independently predicted post-operative TR. In contrast, early adverse events were strongly associated with atrial tachyarrhythmia, extracardiac arteriopathy, and a high body mass index.
Conclusions
In patients with TOF or PS and significant TR, concomitant TVI is safe and results in better early tricuspid valve competence than isolated PVR.

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 09 Mar 2020; 75:1033-1043
Deshaies C, Trottier H, Khairy P, Al-Aklabi M, ... Poirier NC,
J Am Coll Cardiol: 09 Mar 2020; 75:1033-1043 | PMID: 32138963
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Abstract

Complement C5 Protein as a Marker of Subclinical Atherosclerosis.

Martínez-López D, Roldan-Montero R, García-Marqués F, Nuñez E, ... Vázquez J, Martin-Ventura JL
Background
The mechanisms underlying early atherosclerotic plaque formation are not completely understood. Moreover, plasma biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis are lacking.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to analyze the temporal and topologically resolved protein changes taking place in human aortas with early atherosclerosis to find new potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets.
Methods
The protein composition of healthy aortas (media layer) or with early atheroma (fatty streak and fibrolipidic, media and intima layers) was analyzed by deep quantitative multiplexed proteomics. Further analysis was performed by Western blot, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma levels of complement C5 were analyzed in relation to the presence of generalized (>2 plaques) or incipient (0 to 2 plaques) subclinical atherosclerosis in 2 independent clinical cohorts (PESA [Progression of Early Subclinical Atherosclerosis] [n = 360] and NEFRONA [National Observatory of Atherosclerosis in Nephrology] [n = 394]).
Results
Proteins involved in lipid transport, complement system, immunoglobulin superfamily, and hemostasis are increased in early plaques. Components from the complement activation pathway were predominantly increased in the intima of fibrolipidic plaques. Among them, increased C5 protein levels were further confirmed by Western blot, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry, and associated with in situ complement activation. Plasma C5 was significantly increased in individuals with generalized subclinical atherosclerosis in both PESA and NEFRONA cohorts, independently of risk factors. Moreover, in the PESA study, C5 plasma levels positively correlated with global plaque volume and coronary calcification.
Conclusions
Activation of the complement system is a major alteration in early atherosclerotic plaques and is reflected by increased C5 plasma levels, which have promising value as a novel circulating biomarker of subclinical atherosclerosis.

Copyright © 2020 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 27 Apr 2020; 75:1926-1941
Martínez-López D, Roldan-Montero R, García-Marqués F, Nuñez E, ... Vázquez J, Martin-Ventura JL
J Am Coll Cardiol: 27 Apr 2020; 75:1926-1941 | PMID: 32327104
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Abstract

Cardiac Overexpression of PDE4B Blunts β-Adrenergic Response and Maladaptive Remodeling in Heart Failure.

Karam S, Margaria JP, Bourcier A, Mika D, ... Leroy J, Vandecasteele G

The cAMP-hydrolyzing phosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) is a key negative regulator of cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) stimulation. PDE4B deficiency leads to abnormal Ca handling and PDE4B is decreased in pressure overload hypertrophy, suggesting that increasing PDE4B in the heart is beneficial in heart failure (HF).We measured PDE4B expression in human cardiac tissues, developed two transgenic mouse lines with cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of PDE4B (PDE4B-TG), and an adeno-associated virus serotype 9 encoding PDE4B (AAV9-PDE4B). Myocardial structure and function were evaluated by echocardiography, ECG, and in Langendorff-perfused hearts. Cyclic AMP and PKA activity were monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer, I by whole cell patch-clamp, and cardiomyocyte shortening and Ca transients with an Ionoptix system. HF was induced by 2 weeks infusion of isoproterenol (Iso) or transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Cardiac remodeling was evaluated by serial echocardiography, morphometric analysis and histology.PDE4B protein was decreased in human failing hearts. The first PDE4B-TG mouse line (TG15) had a ~15-fold increase in cardiac cAMP-PDE activity and a ~30% decrease in cAMP content and fractional shortening associated with a mild cardiac hypertrophy that resorbed with age. Basalmyocardial function was unchanged, but β-AR stimulation of cardiac inotropy, cAMP, PKA, I, Ca transients and cell contraction were blunted. Endurance capacity and life expectancy were normal. Moreover, these mice were protected from systolic dysfunction, hypertrophy, lung congestion and fibrosis induced by chronic Iso treatment. In the second PDE4B-TG mouse line (TG50), markedly higher PDE4B overexpression, resulting in a ~50-fold increase in cardiac cAMP-PDE activity caused a ~50% decrease in fractional shortening, hypertrophy, dilatation and premature death. In contrast, mice injected with AAV9-PDE4B (10 viral particles/mouse) had a ~50% increase in cardiac cAMP-PDE activity which did not modify basal cardiac function but efficiently prevented systolic dysfunction, apoptosis and fibrosis, while attenuating hypertrophy induced by chronic Iso infusion. Similarly, AAV9-PDE4B slowed contractile deterioration, attenuated hypertrophy and lung congestion and prevented apoptosis and fibrotic remodeling in TAC.Our results indicate that a moderate increase in PDE4B is cardioprotective and suggest that cardiac gene therapy with PDE4B might constitute a new promising approach to treat HF.



Circulation: 07 Apr 2020; epub ahead of print
Karam S, Margaria JP, Bourcier A, Mika D, ... Leroy J, Vandecasteele G
Circulation: 07 Apr 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32264695
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Abstract

Inherited Thoracic Aortic Disease: New Insights and Translational Targets.

Fletcher AJ, Syed MBJ, Aitman TJ, Newby DE, Walker NL

Inherited thoracic aortopathies denote a group of congenital conditions that predispose to disease of the thoracic aorta. Aortic wall weakness and abnormal aortic hemodynamic profiles predispose these patients to dilatation of the thoracic aorta, which is generally silent but can precipitate aortic dissection or rupture with devastating and often fatal consequences. Current strategies to assess the future risk of aortic dissection or rupture are based primarily on monitoring aortic diameter. However, diameter alone is a poor predictor of risk, with many patients experiencing dissection or rupture below current intervention thresholds. Developing tools that improve the risk assessment of those with aortopathy is internationally regarded as a research priority. A robust understanding of the molecular pathways that lead to aortic wall weakness is required to identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets that could improve patient management. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the genetically determined mechanisms underlying inherited aortopathies and critically appraise the available blood biomarkers, imaging techniques, and therapeutic targets that have shown promise for improving the management of patients with these important and potentially fatal conditions.



Circulation: 11 May 2020; 141:1570-1587
Fletcher AJ, Syed MBJ, Aitman TJ, Newby DE, Walker NL
Circulation: 11 May 2020; 141:1570-1587 | PMID: 32392100
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Abstract

Desmoplakin Cardiomyopathy, a Fibrotic and Inflammatory Form of Cardiomyopathy Distinct from Typical Dilated or Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy.

Smith ED, Lakdawala NK, Papoutsidakis N, Aubert G, ... McNally EM, Helms AS

Mutations in desmoplakin (), the primary force transducer between cardiac desmosomes and intermediate filaments, cause an arrhythmogenic form of cardiomyopathy that has been variably associated with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Clinical correlates ofcardiomyopathy have been limited to small case series.Clinical and genetic data were collected on 107 patients with pathogenicmutations and 81 patients with pathogenicmutations as a comparison cohort. A composite outcome of severe ventricular arrhythmia was assessed.andcohorts included similar proportions of probands (41% vs. 42%) and patients with truncating mutations (98% vs. 100%). Left ventricular (LV) predominant cardiomyopathy was exclusively present amongpatients (55% vs. 0% for , p<0.001), whereas right ventricular (RV) cardiomyopathy was present in only 14% ofpatients vs. 40% for(p<0.001). ARVC diagnostic criteria had poor sensitivity forcardiomyopathy. LV late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) was present in a primarily subepicardial distribution in 40% ofpatients (23/57 with MRIs). LV LGE occurred with normal LV systolic function in 35% (8/23) ofpatients. Episodes of acute myocardial injury (chest pain with troponin elevation and normal coronary angiography) occurred in 15% ofpatients and were strongly associated with LV LGE (90%), even in cases of acute myocardial injury with normal ventricular function (4/5, 80% with LGE). In 4cases with F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans, acute LV myocardial injury was associated with myocardial inflammation misdiagnosed initially as cardiac sarcoidosis or myocarditis. LVEF <55% was strongly associated with severe ventricular arrhythmias forcases (p<0.001, sensitivity 85%, specificity 53%). RVEF <45% was associated with severe arrhythmias forcases (p<0.001) but was poorly associated forcases (p=0.8). Frequent PVCs were common among patients with severe arrhythmias for both(80%) and(91%) groups (p=NS).cardiomyopathy is a distinct form of arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy characterized by episodic myocardial injury, left ventricular fibrosis that precedes systolic dysfunction, and a high incidence of ventricular arrhythmias. A genotype specific approach for diagnosis and risk stratification should be used.



Circulation: 05 May 2020; epub ahead of print
Smith ED, Lakdawala NK, Papoutsidakis N, Aubert G, ... McNally EM, Helms AS
Circulation: 05 May 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32372669
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Abstract

Role of Deranged Energy Deprivation Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Cardiac and Renal Disease in States of Perceived Nutrient Overabundance.

Packer M

Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors reduce the risk of serious heart failure and adverse renal events, but the mechanisms that underlie this benefit are not understood. Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is distinguished by two intriguing features - ketogenesis and erythrocytosis. Both reflect the induction of a fasting-like and hypoxia-like transcriptional paradigm that is capable of restoring and maintaining cellular homeostasis and survival. In the face of perceived nutrient and oxygen deprivation, cells activate low-energy sensors, which include sirtuin-1 (SIRT1), adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and hypoxia inducible factors (especially HIF-2α); these enzymes and transcription factors are master regulators of hundreds of genes and proteins that maintain cellular homeostasis. The activation of SIRT1 (through its effects to promote gluconeo-genesis and fatty acid oxidation) drives ketogenesis, and working in concert with AMPK, it can directly inhibit inflammasome activation and maintain mitochondrial capacity and stability. Hypoxia inducible factors act to promote oxygen delivery (by stimulating erythropoietin and erythrocytosis) and decrease oxygen consumption. Most importantly, the activation of SIRT1, AMPK and HIF-2α enhances autophagy, a lysosome-dependent degradative pathway that removes dangerous constituents, particularly damaged mitochondria and peroxisomes, which are major sources of oxidative stress and triggers of cellular dysfunction and death. SIRT1 and AMPK also act on sodium transport mechanisms to reduce intracellular sodium concentrations. Interestingly, type 2 diabetes, obesity, chronic heart failure and chronic kidney failure are characterized by the accumulation of intracellular glucose and lipid intermediates that are perceived by cells as indicators of energy overabundance. The cells respond by down-regulating SIRT1, AMPK and HIF-2α, thus leading to an impairment of autophagic flux and acceleration of cardiomyopathy and nephropathy. SGLT2 inhibitors reverse this maladaptive signaling by triggering a state of fasting and hypoxia mimicry, which includes activation of SIRT1, AMPK and HIF-2α, enhanced autophagic flux, reduced cellular stress, decreased sodium influx into cells, and restoration of mitochondrial homeostasis. This mechanistic framework clarifies the findings of large-scale randomized trials and the close association of ketogenesis and erythrocytosis with the cardioprotective and renoprotective benefits of these drugs.



Circulation: 12 Mar 2020; epub ahead of print
Packer M
Circulation: 12 Mar 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32164457
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Abstract

The NCDR Left Atrial Appendage Occlusion Registry.

Freeman JV, Varosy P, Price MJ, Slotwiner D, ... Curtis JP, Masoudi FA
Background
Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation has been evaluated in 2 randomized trials; post-approval clinical data are limited.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to describe the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) LAAO Registry and present patient, hospital, and physician characteristics and in-hospital adverse event rates for Watchman procedures in the United States during its first 3 years.
Methods
The authors describe the LAAO Registry structure and governance, the outcome adjudication processes, and the data quality and collection processes. They characterize the patient population, performing hospitals, and in-hospital adverse event rates.
Results
A total of 38,158 procedures from 495 hospitals performed by 1,318 physicians in the United States were included between January 2016 and December 2018. The mean patient age was 76.1 ± 8.1 years, the mean CHADS-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, 65 years of age and older, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, female) score was 4.6 ± 1.5, and the mean HAS-BLED (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile international normalized ratio, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly) score was 3.0 ± 1.1. The median annual number of LAAO procedures performed for hospitals was 30 (interquartile range: 4 to 56) and for physicians was 12 (interquartile range: 0 to 14). Procedures were canceled or aborted in 7% of cases; among cases in which a device was deployed, 98.1% were implanted with <5-mm leak. Major in-hospital adverse events occurred in 2.16% of patients; the most common complications were pericardial effusion requiring intervention (1.39%) and major bleeding (1.25%), whereas stroke (0.17%) and death (0.19%) were rare.
Conclusions
The LAAO Registry has enrolled >38,000 patients implanted with the device. Patients were generally older with more comorbidities than those enrolled in the pivotal trials; however, major in-hospital adverse event rates were lower than reported in those trials.

Copyright © 2020 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Mar 2020; epub ahead of print
Freeman JV, Varosy P, Price MJ, Slotwiner D, ... Curtis JP, Masoudi FA
J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Mar 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32238316
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This program is still in alpha version.