Topic: Journal Club Selection

Abstract

Four versus six cycles of CHOP chemotherapy in combination with six applications of rituximab in patients with aggressive B-cell lymphoma with favourable prognosis (FLYER): a randomised, phase 3, non-inferiority trial.

Poeschel V, Held G, Ziepert M, Witzens-Harig M, ... ,
Background
Six cycles of R-CHOP (rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) are the standard treatment for aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. In the FLYER trial, we assessed whether four cycles of CHOP plus six applications of rituximab are non-inferior to six cycles of R-CHOP in a population of patients with B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with favourable prognosis.
Methods
This two-arm, open-label, international, multicentre, prospective, randomised phase 3 non-inferiority trial was done at 138 clinical sites in Denmark, Israel, Italy, Norway, and Germany. We enrolled patients aged 18-60 years, with stage I-II disease, normal serum lactate dehydrogenase concentration, ECOG performance status 0-1, and without bulky disease (maximal tumour diameter <7·5 cm). Randomisation was computer-based and done centrally in a 1:1 ratio using the Pocock minimisation algorithm after stratification for centres, stage (I vs II), and extralymphatic sites (no vs yes). Patients were assigned to receive either six cycles of R-CHOP or four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab. CHOP comprised cyclophosphamide (750 mg/m), doxorubicin (50 mg/m), and vincristine (1·4 mg/m, with a maximum total dose of 2 mg), all administered intravenously on day 1, plus oral prednisone or prednisolone at the discretion of the investigator (100 mg) administered on days 1-5. Rituximab was given at a dose of 375 mg/m of body surface area. Cycles were repeated every 21 days. No radiotherapy was planned except for testicular lymphoma treatment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival after 3 years. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of assigned treatment. A non-inferiority margin of -5·5% was chosen. The trial, which is completed, was prospectively registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00278421.
Findings
Between Dec 2, 2005, and Oct 7, 2016, 592 patients were enrolled, of whom 295 patients were randomly assigned to receive six cycles of R-CHOP and 297 were assigned to receive four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab. Four patients in the four-cycles group withdrew informed consent before the start of treatment, so 588 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. After a median follow-up of 66 months (IQR 42-100), 3-year progression-free survival of patients who had four cycles of R-CHOP plus two doses of rituximab was 96% (95% CI 94-99), which was 3% better (lower limit of the one-sided 95% CI for the difference was 0%) than six cycles of R-CHOP, demonstrating the non-inferiority of the four-cycles regimen. 294 haematological and 1036 non-haematological adverse events were documented in the four-cycles group compared with 426 haematological and 1280 non-haematological adverse events in the six-cycles group. Two patients, both in the six-cycles group, died during study therapy.
Interpretation
In young patients with aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma and favourable prognosis, four cycles of R-CHOP is non-inferior to six cycles of R-CHOP, with relevant reduction of toxic effects. Thus, chemotherapy can be reduced without compromising outcomes in this population.
Funding
Deutsche Krebshilfe.

Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 20 Dec 2020; 394:2271-2281
Poeschel V, Held G, Ziepert M, Witzens-Harig M, ... ,
Lancet: 20 Dec 2020; 394:2271-2281 | PMID: 31868632
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Abstract

Infections Associated with Resterilized Pacemakers and Defibrillators.

Khairy TF, Lupien MA, Nava S, Baez FV, ... Macle L, Khairy P
Background
Access to pacemakers and defibrillators is problematic in places with limited resources. Resterilization and reuse of implantable cardiac devices obtained post mortem from patients in wealthier nations have been undertaken, but uncertainty around the risk of infection is a concern.
Methods
A multinational program was initiated in 1983 to provide tested and resterilized pacemakers and defibrillators to underserved nations; a prospective registry was established in 2003. Patients who received reused devices in this program were matched in a 1:3 ratio with control patients who received new devices implanted in Canada. The primary outcome was infection or device-related death, with mortality from other causes modeled as a competing risk.
Results
Resterilized devices were implanted in 1051 patients (mean [±SD] age, 63.2±18.5 years; 43.6% women) in Mexico (36.0%), the Dominican Republic (28.1%), Guatemala (26.6%), and Honduras (9.3%). Overall, 85% received pacemakers and 15% received defibrillators, with one (55.5%), two (38.8%), or three (5.7%) leads. Baseline characteristics did not differ between these patients and the 3153 matched control patients. At 2 years of follow-up, infections had occurred in 21 patients (2.0%) with reused devices and in 38 (1.2%) with new devices (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.97 to 2.83; P = 0.06); there were no device-related deaths. The most common implicated pathogens wereand .
Conclusions
Among patients in underserved countries who received a resterilized and reused pacemaker or defibrillator, the incidence of infection or device-related death at 2 years was 2.0%, an incidence that did not differ significantly from that seen among matched control patients with new devices in Canada.

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 06 May 2020; 382:1823-1831
Khairy TF, Lupien MA, Nava S, Baez FV, ... Macle L, Khairy P
N Engl J Med: 06 May 2020; 382:1823-1831 | PMID: 32374963
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Abstract

Personalized iPSC-Derived Dopamine Progenitor Cells for Parkinson\'s Disease.

Schweitzer JS, Song B, Herrington TM, Park TY, ... Carter BS, Kim KS

We report the implantation of patient-derived midbrain dopaminergic progenitor cells, differentiated in vitro from autologous induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), in a patient with idiopathic Parkinson\'s disease. The patient-specific progenitor cells were produced under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions and characterized as having the phenotypic properties of substantia nigra pars compacta neurons; testing in a humanized mouse model (involving peripheral-blood mononuclear cells) indicated an absence of immunogenicity to these cells. The cells were implanted into the putamen (left hemisphere followed by right hemisphere, 6 months apart) of a patient with Parkinson\'s disease, without the need for immunosuppression. Positron-emission tomography with the use of fluorine-18-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine suggested graft survival. Clinical measures of symptoms of Parkinson\'s disease after surgery stabilized or improved at 18 to 24 months after implantation. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 13 May 2020; 382:1926-1932
Schweitzer JS, Song B, Herrington TM, Park TY, ... Carter BS, Kim KS
N Engl J Med: 13 May 2020; 382:1926-1932 | PMID: 32402162
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Abstract

WWP1 Gain-of-Function Inactivation of PTEN in Cancer Predisposition.

Lee YR, Yehia L, Kishikawa T, Ni Y, ... Eng C, Pandolfi PP
Background
Patients withhamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) have germline mutations in the tumor-suppressor gene encoding phosphatase and tensin homologue (). Such mutations have been associated with a hereditary predisposition to multiple types of cancer, including the Cowden syndrome. However, a majority of patients who have PHTS-related phenotypes have tested negative formutations. In a previous study, we found that the E3 ubiquitin ligase WWP1 negatively regulates the function of PTEN.
Methods
In a prospective cohort study conducted from 2005 through 2015, we enrolled 431 patients with wild-typewho met at least the relaxed diagnostic criteria of the International Cowden Consortium. Patients were scanned forgermline variants. We used the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data set as representative of apparently sporadic cancers and the Exome Aggregation Consortium data set excluding TCGA (non-TCGA ExAC) and the noncancer Genome Aggregation Database (gnomAD) as representative of population controls without a reported cancer diagnosis. We established both in vitro and murine in vivo models to functionally characterize representativevariants.
Results
The existence of germlinevariants was first established in a family with wild-typewho had oligopolyposis and early-onset colon cancers. A validation series indicated thatgermline variants occurred in 5 of 126 unrelated patients (4%) with oligopolyposis as a predominant phenotype. Germlinevariants, particularly theK740N and N745S alleles, were enriched in patients who did not have PHTS but had prevalent sporadic cancers, including related cancer types in TCGA (odds ratio, 1.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 2.1; P = 0.01). The prioritizedvariants resulted in gain-of-function effects, which led to aberrant enzymatic activation with consequent PTEN inactivation, thereby triggering hyperactive growth-promoting PI3K signaling in cellular and murine models.
Conclusions
In this study involving patients with disorders resulting in a predisposition to the development of multiple malignant neoplasms withoutgermline mutations, we confirmed the function ofas a cancer-susceptibility gene through direct aberrant regulation of the PTEN-PI3K signaling axis. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 27 May 2020; 382:2103-2116
Lee YR, Yehia L, Kishikawa T, Ni Y, ... Eng C, Pandolfi PP
N Engl J Med: 27 May 2020; 382:2103-2116 | PMID: 32459922
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Abstract

Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis, and Angiogenesis in Covid-19.

Ackermann M, Verleden SE, Kuehnel M, Haverich A, ... Mentzer SJ, Jonigk D
Background
Progressive respiratory failure is the primary cause of death in the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Despite widespread interest in the pathophysiology of the disease, relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the peripheral lung of patients who die from Covid-19.
Methods
We examined 7 lungs obtained during autopsy from patients who died from Covid-19 and compared them with 7 lungs obtained during autopsy from patients who died from acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to influenza A(H1N1) infection and 10 age-matched, uninfected control lungs. The lungs were studied with the use of seven-color immunohistochemical analysis, micro-computed tomographic imaging, scanning electron microscopy, corrosion casting, and direct multiplexed measurement of gene expression.
Results
In patients who died from Covid-19-associated or influenza-associated respiratory failure, the histologic pattern in the peripheral lung was diffuse alveolar damage with perivascular T-cell infiltration. The lungs from patients with Covid-19 also showed distinctive vascular features, consisting of severe endothelial injury associated with the presence of intracellular virus and disrupted cell membranes. Histologic analysis of pulmonary vessels in patients with Covid-19 showed widespread thrombosis with microangiopathy. Alveolar capillary microthrombi were 9 times as prevalent in patients with Covid-19 as in patients with influenza (P<0.001). In lungs from patients with Covid-19, the amount of new vessel growth - predominantly through a mechanism of intussusceptive angiogenesis - was 2.7 times as high as that in the lungs from patients with influenza (P<0.001).
Conclusions
In our small series, vascular angiogenesis distinguished the pulmonary pathobiology of Covid-19 from that of equally severe influenza virus infection. The universality and clinical implications of our observations require further research to define. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 20 May 2020; epub ahead of print
Ackermann M, Verleden SE, Kuehnel M, Haverich A, ... Mentzer SJ, Jonigk D
N Engl J Med: 20 May 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32437596
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Abstract

Inherited Thoracic Aortic Disease: New Insights and Translational Targets.

Fletcher AJ, Syed MBJ, Aitman TJ, Newby DE, Walker NL

Inherited thoracic aortopathies denote a group of congenital conditions that predispose to disease of the thoracic aorta. Aortic wall weakness and abnormal aortic hemodynamic profiles predispose these patients to dilatation of the thoracic aorta, which is generally silent but can precipitate aortic dissection or rupture with devastating and often fatal consequences. Current strategies to assess the future risk of aortic dissection or rupture are based primarily on monitoring aortic diameter. However, diameter alone is a poor predictor of risk, with many patients experiencing dissection or rupture below current intervention thresholds. Developing tools that improve the risk assessment of those with aortopathy is internationally regarded as a research priority. A robust understanding of the molecular pathways that lead to aortic wall weakness is required to identify biomarkers and therapeutic targets that could improve patient management. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the genetically determined mechanisms underlying inherited aortopathies and critically appraise the available blood biomarkers, imaging techniques, and therapeutic targets that have shown promise for improving the management of patients with these important and potentially fatal conditions.



Circulation: 11 May 2020; 141:1570-1587
Fletcher AJ, Syed MBJ, Aitman TJ, Newby DE, Walker NL
Circulation: 11 May 2020; 141:1570-1587 | PMID: 32392100
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Abstract

Genomewide Association Study of Severe Covid-19 with Respiratory Failure.

Ellinghaus D, Degenhardt F, Bujanda L, Buti M, ... Karlsen TH,
Background
There is considerable variation in disease behavior among patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). Genomewide association analysis may allow for the identification of potential genetic factors involved in the development of Covid-19.
Methods
We conducted a genomewide association study involving 1980 patients with Covid-19 and severe disease (defined as respiratory failure) at seven hospitals in the Italian and Spanish epicenters of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Europe. After quality control and the exclusion of population outliers, 835 patients and 1255 control participants from Italy and 775 patients and 950 control participants from Spain were included in the final analysis. In total, we analyzed 8,582,968 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and conducted a meta-analysis of the two case-control panels.
Results
We detected cross-replicating associations with rs11385942 at locus 3p21.31 and with rs657152 at locus 9q34.2, which were significant at the genomewide level (P<5×10) in the meta-analysis of the two case-control panels (odds ratio, 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.48 to 2.11; P = 1.15×10; and odds ratio, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.47; P = 4.95×10, respectively). At locus 3p21.31, the association signal spanned the genes , , , ,and . The association signal at locus 9q34.2 coincided with theblood group locus; in this cohort, a blood-group-specific analysis showed a higher risk in blood group A than in other blood groups (odds ratio, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.75; P = 1.48×10) and a protective effect in blood group O as compared with other blood groups (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.79; P = 1.06×10).
Conclusions
We identified a 3p21.31 gene cluster as a genetic susceptibility locus in patients with Covid-19 with respiratory failure and confirmed a potential involvement of the ABO blood-group system. (Funded by Stein Erik Hagen and others.).

Copyright © 2020 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 16 Jun 2020; epub ahead of print
Ellinghaus D, Degenhardt F, Bujanda L, Buti M, ... Karlsen TH,
N Engl J Med: 16 Jun 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32558485
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Abstract

Monotherapy with a P2Y inhibitor or aspirin for secondary prevention in patients with established atherosclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Chiarito M, Sanz-Sánchez J, Cannata F, Cao D, ... Ferrante G, Stefanini GG
Background
Antiplatelet therapy is recommended among patients with established atherosclerosis. We compared monotherapy with a P2Y inhibitor versus aspirin for secondary prevention.
Methods
In this systematic review and meta-analysis, all randomised trials comparing P2Y inhibitor with aspirin monotherapy for secondary prevention in patients with cerebrovascular, coronary, or peripheral artery disease were evaluated for inclusion. On Dec 18, 2019, we searched PubMed, Embase, BioMedCentral, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Additionally, we reviewed references from identified articles and searched abstracts from 2017 to 2019 presented at relevant scientific meetings. Data about year of publication, inclusion and exclusion criteria, sample size, baseline patients\' features including the baseline condition determining study inclusion (ie, cerebrovascular, coronary, or peripheral artery disease), P2Y inhibitor type and dosage, aspirin dosage, endpoint definitions, effect estimates, follow-up duration, and percentage of patients lost to follow-up were collected. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were used as metric of choice for treatment effects with random-effects models. Co-primary endpoints were myocardial infarction and stroke. Key secondary endpoints were all-cause death and vascular death. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I index. This study is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018115037).
Findings
A total of nine randomised trials were identified and included in this study, and 42 108 patients randomly allocated to a P2Y inhibitor (n=21 043) or aspirin (n=21 065) were included in our analyses. Patients who received a P2Y inhibitor had a borderline reduction for the risk of myocardial infarction compared with those who received aspirin (OR 0·81 [95% CI 0·66-0·99]; I=10·9%). Risks of stroke (OR 0·93 [0·82-1·06]; I=34·5%), all-cause death (OR 0·98 [0·89-1·08]; I=0%), and vascular death (OR 0·97 [0·86-1·09]; I=0%) did not differ between patients who received a P2Y inhibitor and those who received aspirin. Similarly, the risk of major bleeding (OR 0·90 [0·74-1·10]; I=3·9%) did not differ between patients who received a P2Y inhibitor and those who received aspirin. The number needed to treat to prevent one myocardial infarction with P2Y inhibitor monotherapy was 244 patients. Findings were consistent regardless of the type of P2Y inhibitor used.
Interpretation
Compared with aspirin monotherapy, P2Y inhibitor monotherapy is associated with a risk reduction for myocardial infarction and a comparable risk of stroke in the setting of secondary prevention. The benefit of P2Y inhibitor monotherapy is of debatable clinical relevance, in view of the high number needed to treat to prevent a myocardial infarction and the absence of any effect on all-cause and vascular mortality.
Funding
Italian Ministry of Education.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 08 May 2020; 395:1487-1495
Chiarito M, Sanz-Sánchez J, Cannata F, Cao D, ... Ferrante G, Stefanini GG
Lancet: 08 May 2020; 395:1487-1495 | PMID: 32386592
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Abstract

Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19: a multinational registry analysis.

Mehra MR, Desai SS, Ruschitzka F, Patel AN
Background
Hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, often in combination with a second-generation macrolide, are being widely used for treatment of COVID-19, despite no conclusive evidence of their benefit. Although generally safe when used for approved indications such as autoimmune disease or malaria, the safety and benefit of these treatment regimens are poorly evaluated in COVID-19.
Methods
We did a multinational registry analysis of the use of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine with or without a macrolide for treatment of COVID-19. The registry comprised data from 671 hospitals in six continents. We included patients hospitalised between Dec 20, 2019, and April 14, 2020, with a positive laboratory finding for SARS-CoV-2. Patients who received one of the treatments of interest within 48 h of diagnosis were included in one of four treatment groups (chloroquine alone, chloroquine with a macrolide, hydroxychloroquine alone, or hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide), and patients who received none of these treatments formed the control group. Patients for whom one of the treatments of interest was initiated more than 48 h after diagnosis or while they were on mechanical ventilation, as well as patients who received remdesivir, were excluded. The main outcomes of interest were in-hospital mortality and the occurrence of de-novo ventricular arrhythmias (non-sustained or sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation).
Findings
96 032 patients (mean age 53·8 years, 46·3% women) with COVID-19 were hospitalised during the study period and met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 14 888 patients were in the treatment groups (1868 received chloroquine, 3783 received chloroquine with a macrolide, 3016 received hydroxychloroquine, and 6221 received hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide) and 81 144 patients were in the control group. 10 698 (11·1%) patients died in hospital. After controlling for multiple confounding factors (age, sex, race or ethnicity, body-mass index, underlying cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, diabetes, underlying lung disease, smoking, immunosuppressed condition, and baseline disease severity), when compared with mortality in the control group (9·3%), hydroxychloroquine (18·0%; hazard ratio 1·335, 95% CI 1·223-1·457), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (23·8%; 1·447, 1·368-1·531), chloroquine (16·4%; 1·365, 1·218-1·531), and chloroquine with a macrolide (22·2%; 1·368, 1·273-1·469) were each independently associated with an increased risk of in-hospital mortality. Compared with the control group (0·3%), hydroxychloroquine (6·1%; 2·369, 1·935-2·900), hydroxychloroquine with a macrolide (8·1%; 5·106, 4·106-5·983), chloroquine (4·3%; 3·561, 2·760-4·596), and chloroquine with a macrolide (6·5%; 4·011, 3·344-4·812) were independently associated with an increased risk of de-novo ventricular arrhythmia during hospitalisation.
Interpretation
We were unable to confirm a benefit of hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine, when used alone or with a macrolide, on in-hospital outcomes for COVID-19. Each of these drug regimens was associated with decreased in-hospital survival and an increased frequency of ventricular arrhythmias when used for treatment of COVID-19.
Funding
William Harvey Distinguished Chair in Advanced Cardiovascular Medicine at Brigham and Women\'s Hospital.

Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lancet: 21 May 2020; epub ahead of print
Mehra MR, Desai SS, Ruschitzka F, Patel AN
Lancet: 21 May 2020; epub ahead of print | PMID: 32450107
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Abstract

Prognosis of unrecognised myocardial infarction determined by electrocardiography or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: systematic review and meta-analysis.

Yang Y, Li W, Zhu H, Pan XF, ... Cai X, Huang Y
Objective
To evaluate the prognosis of unrecognised myocardial infarction determined by electrocardiography (UMI-ECG) or cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (UMI-CMR).
Design
Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.
Data sources
Electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar.
Study selection
Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported adjusted relative risks, odds ratios, or hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for all cause mortality or cardiovascular outcomes in participants with unrecognised myocardial infarction compared with those without myocardial infarction.
Data extraction and synthesis
The primary outcomes were composite major adverse cardiac events, all cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality associated with UMI-ECG and UMI-CMR. The secondary outcomes were the risks of recurrent coronary heart disease or myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Pooled hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were reported. The heterogeneity of outcomes was compared in clinically recognised and unrecognised myocardial infarction.
Results
The meta-analysis included 30 studies with 253 425 participants and 1 621 920 person years of follow-up. UMI-ECG was associated with increased risks of all cause mortality (hazard ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.30 to 1.73), cardiovascular mortality (2.33, 1.66 to 3.27), and major adverse cardiac events (1.61, 1.38 to 1.89) compared with the absence of myocardial infarction. UMI-CMR was also associated with increased risks of all cause mortality (3.21, 1.43 to 7.23), cardiovascular mortality (10.79, 4.09 to 28.42), and major adverse cardiac events (3.23, 2.10 to 4.95). No major heterogeneity was observed for any primary outcomes between recognised myocardial infarction and UMI-ECG or UMI-CMR. The absolute risk differences were 7.50 (95% confidence interval 4.50 to 10.95) per 1000 person years for all cause mortality, 11.04 (5.48 to 18.84) for cardiovascular mortality, and 27.45 (17.1 to 40.05) for major adverse cardiac events in participants with UMI-ECG compared with those without myocardial infarction. The corresponding data for UMI-CMR were 32.49 (6.32 to 91.58), 37.2 (11.7 to 104.20), and 51.96 (25.63 to 92.04), respectively.
Conclusions
UMI-ECG or UMI-CMR is associated with an adverse long term prognosis similar to that of recognised myocardial infarction. Screening for unrecognised myocardial infarction could be useful for risk stratification among patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease.

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

BMJ: 06 May 2020; 369:m1184
Yang Y, Li W, Zhu H, Pan XF, ... Cai X, Huang Y
BMJ: 06 May 2020; 369:m1184 | PMID: 32381490
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Abstract

Oral fluconazole use in the first trimester and risk of congenital malformations: population based cohort study.

Zhu Y, Bateman BT, Gray KJ, Hernandez-Diaz S, ... Straub L, Huybrechts KF
Objective
To examine the risk of congenital malformations associated with exposure to oral fluconazole at commonly used doses in the first trimester of pregnancy for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Design
Population based cohort study.
Setting
A cohort of pregnancies publicly insured in the United States, with data from the nationwide Medicaid Analytic eXtract 2000-14.
Participants
Pregnancies of women enrolled in Medicaid from three or more months before the last menstrual period to one month after delivery, and infants enrolled for three or more months after birth.
Interventions
Use of fluconazole and topical azoles was established by requiring one or more prescriptions during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Main outcome measures
Risk of musculoskeletal malformations, conotruncal malformations, and oral clefts (primary outcomes), associated with exposure to oral fluconazole, diagnosed during the first 90 days after delivery, were examined.
Results
The study cohort of 1 969 954 pregnancies included 37 650 (1.9%) pregnancies exposed to oral fluconazole and 82 090 (4.2%) pregnancies exposed to topical azoles during the first trimester. The risk of musculoskeletal malformations was 52.1 (95% confidence interval 44.8 to 59.3) per 10 000 pregnancies exposed to fluconazole versus 37.3 (33.1 to 41.4) per 10 000 pregnancies exposed to topical azoles. The risks of conotruncal malformations were 9.6 (6.4 to 12.7) versus 8.3 (6.3 to 10.3) per 10 000 pregnancies exposed to fluconazole and topical azoles, respectively; risks of oral clefts were 9.3 (6.2 to 12.4) versus 10.6 (8.4 to 12.8) per 10 000 pregnancies, respectively. The adjusted relative risk after fine stratification of the propensity score was 1.30 (1.09 to 1.56) for musculoskeletal malformations, 1.04 (0.70 to 1.55) for conotruncal malformations, and 0.91 (0.61 to 1.35) for oral clefts overall. Based on cumulative doses of fluconazole, the adjusted relative risks for musculoskeletal malformations, conotruncal malformations, and oral clefts overall were 1.29 (1.05 to 1.58), 1.12 (0.71 to 1.77), and 0.88 (0.55 to 1.40) for 150 mg of fluconazole; 1.24 (0.93 to 1.66), 0.61 (0.26 to 1.39), and 1.08 (0.58 to 2.04) for more than 150 mg up to 450 mg of fluconazole; and 1.98 (1.23 to 3.17), 2.30 (0.93 to 5.65), and 0.94 (0.23 to 3.82) for more than 450 mg of fluconazole, respectively.
Conclusions
Oral fluconazole use in the first trimester was not associated with oral clefts or conotruncal malformations, but an association with musculoskeletal malformations was found, corresponding to a small adjusted risk difference of about 12 incidents per 10 000 exposed pregnancies overall.

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2019. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

BMJ: 19 May 2020; 369:m1494
Zhu Y, Bateman BT, Gray KJ, Hernandez-Diaz S, ... Straub L, Huybrechts KF
BMJ: 19 May 2020; 369:m1494 | PMID: 32434758
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Abstract

Replacement Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse: Relation to Mitral Regurgitation, Ventricular Remodeling and Arrhythmia.

Constant Dit Beaufils AL, Huttin O, Jobbe-Duval A, Senage T, ... Selton-Suty C, Le Tourneau T
Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a frequent disease that can be complicated by mitral regurgitation (MR), heart failure, arterial embolism, rhythm disorders and death. Left ventricular (LV) replacement myocardial fibrosis, a marker of maladaptive remodeling, has been described in patients with MVP, but the implications of this finding remain scarcely explored. We aimed at assessing the prevalence, pathophysiological and prognostic significance of LV replacement myocardial fibrosis through late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with MVP.
Methods:
Four hundred patients (53±15 years, 55% male) with MVP (trace to severe MR by echocardiography) from 2 centers, who underwent a comprehensive echocardiography and LGE CMR, were included. Correlates of replacement myocardial fibrosis (LGE+), influence of MR degree, and ventricular arrhythmia were assessed. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular events (cardiac death, heart failure, new-onset atrial fibrillation, arterial embolism, and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia).
Results:
Replacement myocardial fibrosis (LGE+) was observed in 110 patients (28%; 91 myocardial wall including 71 basal inferolateral wall, 29 papillary muscle). LGE+ prevalence was 13% in trace-mild MR, 28% in moderate and 37% in severe MR, and was associated with specific features of mitral valve apparatus, more dilated LV and more frequent ventricular arrhythmias (45 vs 26%, P<0.0001). In trace-mild MR, despite the absence of significant volume overload, abnormal LV dilatation was observed in 16% of patients and ventricular arrhythmia in 25%. Correlates of LGE+ in multivariable analysis were LV mass (OR 1.01, 95% CI [1.002-1.017], P=0.009) and moderate-severe MR (OR: 2.28, 95% CI [1.21-4.31], P=0.011). LGE+ was associated with worse 4-year cardiovascular event-free survival (49.6±11.7 in LGE+ vs 73.3±6.5% in LGE-, P<0.0001). In a stepwise multivariable Cox model, MR volume and LGE+ (HR: 2.6 [1.4-4.9], P=0.002) were associated with poor outcome. Conclusions: LV replacement myocardial fibrosis is frequent in patients with MVP, is associated with mitral valve apparatus alteration, more dilated LV, MR grade, ventricular arrhythmia, and is independently associated with cardiovascular events. These findings suggest a MVP-related myocardial disease. Finally, CMR provides additional information to echocardiography in MVP.




Circulation: 11 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print
Constant Dit Beaufils AL, Huttin O, Jobbe-Duval A, Senage T, ... Selton-Suty C, Le Tourneau T
Circulation: 11 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33706538
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