Journal: J Cardiovasc Magn Reson

Sorted by: date / impact
Abstract

Feasibility of adenosine stress cardiovascular magnetic resonance perfusion imaging in patients with MR-conditional transvenous permanent pacemakers and defibrillators.

Pavon AG, Porretta AP, Arangalage D, Domenichini G, ... Pascale P, Schwitter J
Background
The use of stress perfusion-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging remains limited in patients with implantable devices. The primary goal of the study was to assess the safety, image quality, and the diagnostic value of stress perfusion-CMR in patients with MR-conditional transvenous permanent pacemakers (PPM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD).
Methods
Consecutive patients with a transvenous PPM or ICD referred for adenosine stress-CMR were enrolled in this single-center longitudinal study. The CMR protocol was performed using a 1.5 T system according to current guidelines while all devices were put in MR-mode. Quality of cine, late-gadolinium-enhancement (LGE), and stress perfusion sequences were assessed. An ischemia burden of ≥ 1.5 segments was considered significant. We assessed the safety, image quality and the occurrence of interference of the magnetic field with the implantable device. In case of ischemia, we also assessed the correlation with the presence of significant coronary lesions on coronary angiography.
Results
Among 3743 perfusion-CMR examinations, 66 patients had implantable devices (1.7%). Image quality proved diagnostic in 98% of cases. No device damage or malfunction was reported immediately and at 1 year. Fifty patients were continuously paced during CMR. Heart rate and systolic blood pressure remained unchanged during adenosine stress, while diastolic blood pressure decreased (p = 0.007). Six patients (9%) had an ischemia-positive stress CMR and significant coronary stenoses were confirmed by coronary angiography in all cases.
Conclusion
Stress perfusion-CMR is safe, allows reliable ischemia detection, and provides good diagnostic value.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 12 Jan 2022; 24:9
Pavon AG, Porretta AP, Arangalage D, Domenichini G, ... Pascale P, Schwitter J
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 12 Jan 2022; 24:9 | PMID: 35022037
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Abstract

Efficient non-contrast enhanced 3D Cartesian cardiovascular magnetic resonance angiography of the thoracic aorta in 3 min.

Fotaki A, Munoz C, Emanuel Y, Hua A, ... Botnar RM, Prieto C
Background
The application of cardiovascular magnetic resonance angiography (CMRA) for the assessment of thoracic aortic disease is often associated with prolonged and unpredictable acquisition times and residual motion artefacts. To overcome these limitations, we have integrated undersampled acquisition with image-based navigators and inline non-rigid motion correction to enable a free-breathing, contrast-free Cartesian CMRA framework for the visualization of the thoracic aorta in a short and predictable scan of 3 min.
Methods
35 patients with thoracic aortic disease (36 ± 13y, 14 female) were prospectively enrolled in this single-center study. The proposed 3D T2-prepared balanced steady state free precession (bSSFP) sequence with image-based navigator (iNAV) was compared to the clinical 3D T2-prepared bSSFP with diaphragmatic-navigator gating (dNAV), in terms of image acquisition time. Three cardiologists blinded to iNAV vs. dNAV acquisition, recorded image quality scores across four aortic segments and their overall diagnostic confidence. Contrast ratio (CR) and relative standard deviation (RSD) of signal intensity (SI) in the corresponding segments were estimated. Co-axial aortic dimensions in six landmarks were measured by two readers to evaluate the agreement between the two methods, along with inter-observer and intra-observer agreement. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Mann-Whitney U (MWU), Bland-Altman analysis (BAA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used for statistical analysis.
Results
The scan time for the iNAV-based approach was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.5 min vs. 12.0 ± 3.0 min for dNAV, P = 0.005). Reconstruction was performed inline in 3.0 ± 0.3 min. Diagnostic confidence was similar for the proposed iNAV versus dNAV for all three reviewers (Reviewer 1: 3.9 ± 0.3 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4, P = 0.7; Reviewer 2: 4.0 ± 0.2 vs. 3.9 ± 0.3, P = 0.4; Reviewer 3: 3.8 ± 0.4 vs. 3.7 ± 0.6, P = 0.3). The proposed method yielded higher image quality scores in terms of artefacts from respiratory motion, and non-diagnostic images due to signal inhomogeneity were observed less frequently. While the dNAV approach outperformed the iNAV method in the CR assessment, the iNAV sequence showed improved signal homogeneity along the entire thoracic aorta [RSD SI 5.1 (4.4, 6.5) vs. 6.5 (4.6, 8.6), P = 0.002]. BAA showed a mean difference of < 0.05 cm across the 6 landmarks between the two datasets. ICC showed excellent inter- and intra-observer reproducibility.
Conclusions
Thoracic aortic iNAV-based CMRA with fast acquisition (~ 3 min) and inline reconstruction (3 min) is proposed, resulting in high diagnostic confidence and reproducible aortic measurements.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jan 2022; 24:5
Fotaki A, Munoz C, Emanuel Y, Hua A, ... Botnar RM, Prieto C
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 09 Jan 2022; 24:5 | PMID: 35000609
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Abstract

Evidence-based cardiovascular magnetic resonance cost-effectiveness calculator for the detection of significant coronary artery disease.

Pandya A, Yu YJ, Ge Y, Nagel E, ... Bhatia M, Kelle S
Background
Although prior reports have evaluated the clinical and cost impacts of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for low-to-intermediate-risk patients with suspected significant coronary artery disease (CAD), the cost-effectiveness of CMR compared to relevant comparators remains poorly understood. We aimed to summarize the cost-effectiveness literature on CMR for CAD and create a cost-effectiveness calculator, useable worldwide, to approximate the cost-per-quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) of CMR and relevant comparators with context-specific patient-level and system-level inputs.
Methods
We searched the Tufts Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry and PubMed for cost-per-QALY or cost-per-life-year-saved studies of CMR to detect significant CAD. We also developed a linear regression meta-model (CMR Cost-Effectiveness Calculator) based on a larger CMR cost-effectiveness simulation model that can approximate CMR lifetime discount cost, QALY, and cost effectiveness compared to relevant comparators [such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA)] or invasive coronary angiography.
Results
CMR was cost-effective for evaluation of significant CAD (either health-improving and cost saving or having a cost-per-QALY or cost-per-life-year result lower than the cost-effectiveness threshold) versus its relevant comparator in 10 out of 15 studies, with 3 studies reporting uncertain cost effectiveness, and 2 studies showing CCTA was optimal. Our cost-effectiveness calculator showed that CCTA was not cost-effective in the US compared to CMR when the most recent publications on imaging performance were included in the model.
Conclusions
Based on current world-wide evidence in the literature, CMR usually represents a cost-effective option compared to relevant comparators to assess for significant CAD.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 05 Jan 2022; 24:1
Pandya A, Yu YJ, Ge Y, Nagel E, ... Bhatia M, Kelle S
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 05 Jan 2022; 24:1 | PMID: 34986851
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Abstract

Accelerated cardiac T mapping in four heartbeats with inline MyoMapNet: a deep learning-based T estimation approach.

Guo R, El-Rewaidy H, Assana S, Cai X, ... Ngo L, Nezafat R
Purpose
To develop and evaluate MyoMapNet, a rapid myocardial T1 mapping approach that uses fully connected neural networks (FCNN) to estimate T1 values from four T1-weighted images collected after a single inversion pulse in four heartbeats (Look-Locker, LL4).
Method
We implemented an FCNN for MyoMapNet to estimate T1 values from a reduced number of T1-weighted images and corresponding inversion-recovery times. We studied MyoMapNet performance when trained using native, post-contrast T1, or a combination of both. We also explored the effects of number of T1-weighted images (four and five) for native T1. After rigorous training using in-vivo modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) T1 mapping data of 607 patients, MyoMapNet performance was evaluated using MOLLI T1 data from 61 patients by discarding the additional T1-weighted images. Subsequently, we implemented a prototype MyoMapNet and LL4 on a 3 T scanner. LL4 was used to collect T1 mapping data in 27 subjects with inline T1 map reconstruction by MyoMapNet. The resulting T1 values were compared to MOLLI.
Results
MyoMapNet trained using a combination of native and post-contrast T1-weighted images had excellent native and post-contrast T1 accuracy compared to MOLLI. The FCNN model using four T1-weighted images yields similar performance compared to five T1-weighted images, suggesting that four T1 weighted images may be sufficient. The inline implementation of LL4 and MyoMapNet enables successful acquisition and reconstruction of T1 maps on the scanner. Native and post-contrast myocardium T1 by MOLLI and MyoMapNet was 1170 ± 55 ms vs. 1183 ± 57 ms (P = 0.03), and 645 ± 26 ms vs. 630 ± 30 ms (P = 0.60), and native and post-contrast blood T1 was 1820 ± 29 ms vs. 1854 ± 34 ms (P = 0.14), and 508 ± 9 ms vs. 514 ± 15 ms (P = 0.02), respectively.
Conclusion
A FCNN, trained using MOLLI data, can estimate T1 values from only four T1-weighted images. MyoMapNet enables myocardial T1 mapping in four heartbeats with similar accuracy as MOLLI with inline map reconstruction.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 05 Jan 2022; 24:6
Guo R, El-Rewaidy H, Assana S, Cai X, ... Ngo L, Nezafat R
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 05 Jan 2022; 24:6 | PMID: 34986850
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Abstract

A novel approach to determine aortic valve area with phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

Troger F, Lechner I, Reindl M, Tiller C, ... Mayr A, Klug G
Background
Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is the diagnostic routine standard for assessing aortic stenosis (AS). However, its inaccuracies in determining stroke volume (SV) and aortic valve area (AVA) call for a more precise and dependable method. Phase-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (PC-CMR) is a promising tool to push these boundaries. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate a novel approach based on PC-CMR against the gold-standard of invasive determination of AVA in AS compared to TTE.
Methods
A total of 50 patients with moderate or severe AS underwent TTE, cardiac catheterization and CMR. AVA via PC-CMR was determined by plotting momentary flow across the valve against flow-velocity. SV by CMR was measured directly via PC-CMR and volumetrically using cine-images. Invasive SV and AVA were determined via Fick-principle and Gorlin-formula, respectively. TTE yielded SV and AVA using continuity equation. Gradients were calculated via the modified Bernoulli-equation.
Results
SV by PC-CMR (85 ± 31 ml) correlated strongly (r: 0.73, p < 0.001) with cine-CMR (85 ± 19 ml) without significant bias (lower and upper limits of agreement (LLoA and ULoA): - 41 ml and 44 ml, p = 0.83). In PC-CMR, mean pressure gradient correlated significantly with invasive determination (r: 0.36, p = 0.011). Mean AVA, as determined by PC-CMR during systole (0.78 ± 0.25 cm2), correlated moderately (r: 0.54, p < 0.001) with invasive AVA (0.70 ± 0.23 cm2), resulting in a small bias of 0.08 cm2 (LLoA and ULoA: - 0.36 cm2 and 0.55 cm2, p = 0.017). Inter-methodically, AVA by TTE (0.81 ± 0.23 cm2) compared to invasive determination showed similar correlations (r: 0.58, p < 0.001 with a bias of 0.11 cm2, LLoA and ULoA: - 0.30 and 0.52, p < 0.001) to PC-CMR. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility were excellent for AVA (intraclass-correlation-coefficients of 0.939 and 0.827, respectively).
Conclusions
Our novel approach using continuous determination of flow-volumes and velocities with PC-CMR enables simple AVA measurement with no bias to invasive assessment. This approach highlights non-invasive AS grading through CMR, especially when TTE findings are inconclusive.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 05 Jan 2022; 24:7
Troger F, Lechner I, Reindl M, Tiller C, ... Mayr A, Klug G
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 05 Jan 2022; 24:7 | PMID: 34986847
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Abstract

Ventricular flow analysis and its association with exertional capacity in repaired tetralogy of Fallot: 4D flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance study.

Zhao X, Hu L, Leng S, Tan RS, ... Zhong Y, Zhong L
Background
Four-dimensional (4D) flow cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) allows quantification of biventricular blood flow by flow components and kinetic energy (KE) analyses. However, it remains unclear whether 4D flow parameters can predict cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) as a clinical outcome in repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). Current study aimed to (1) compare 4D flow CMR parameters in rTOF with age- and gender-matched healthy controls, (2) investigate associations of 4D flow parameters with functional and volumetric right ventricular (RV) remodelling markers, and CPET outcome.
Methods
Sixty-three rTOF patients (14 paediatric, 49 adult; 30 ± 15 years; 29 M) and 63 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (14 paediatric, 49 adult; 31 ± 15 years) were prospectively recruited at four centers. All underwent cine and 4D flow CMR, and all adults performed standardized CPET same day or within one week of CMR. RV remodelling index was calculated as the ratio of RV to left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volumes. Four flow components were analyzed: direct flow, retained inflow, delayed ejection flow and residual volume. Additionally, three phasic KE parameters normalized to end-diastolic volume (KEiEDV), were analyzed for both LV and RV: peak systolic, average systolic and peak E-wave.
Results
In comparisons of rTOF vs. healthy controls, median LV retained inflow (18% vs. 16%, P = 0.005) and median peak E-wave KEiEDV (34.9 µJ/ml vs. 29.2 µJ/ml, P = 0.006) were higher in rTOF; median RV direct flow was lower in rTOF (25% vs. 35%, P < 0.001); median RV delayed ejection flow (21% vs. 17%, P < 0.001) and residual volume (39% vs. 31%, P < 0.001) were both greater in rTOF. RV KEiEDV parameters were all higher in rTOF than healthy controls (all P < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, RV direct flow was an independent predictor of RV function and CPET outcome. RV direct flow and RV peak E-wave KEiEDV were independent predictors of RV remodelling index.
Conclusions
In this multi-scanner multicenter 4D flow CMR study, reduced RV direct flow was independently associated with RV dysfunction, remodelling and, to a lesser extent, exercise intolerance in rTOF patients. This supports its utility as an imaging parameter for monitoring disease progression and therapeutic response in rTOF. Clinical
Trial registration:
https://www.clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT03217240.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jan 2022; 24:4
Zhao X, Hu L, Leng S, Tan RS, ... Zhong Y, Zhong L
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jan 2022; 24:4 | PMID: 34980199
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Abstract

Normal sex and age-specific parameters in a multi-ethnic population: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study of the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Hearts and Minds cohort.

Luu JM, Gebhard C, Ramasundarahettige C, Desai D, ... Friedrich MG, CAHHM Study Investigators
Background
Despite the growing utility of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for cardiac morphology and function, sex and age-specific normal reference values derived from large, multi-ethnic data sets are lacking. Furthermore, most available studies use a simplified tracing methodology. Using a large cohort of participants without history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors from the Canadian Alliance for Healthy Heart and Minds, we sought to establish a robust set of reference values for ventricular and atrial parameters using an anatomically correct contouring method, and to determine the influence of age and sex on ventricular parameters.
Methods and results
Participants (n = 3206, 65% females; age 55.2 ± 8.4 years for females and 55.1 ± 8.8 years for men) underwent CMR using standard methods for quantitative measurements of cardiac parameters. Normal ventricular and atrial reference values are provided: (1) for males and females, (2) stratified by four age categories, and (3) for different races/ethnicities. Values are reported as absolute, indexed to body surface area, or height. Ventricular volumes and mass were significantly larger for males than females (p < 0.001). Ventricular ejection fraction was significantly diminished in males as compared to females (p < 0.001). Indexed left ventricular (LV) end-systolic, end-diastolic volumes, mass and right ventricular (RV) parameters significantly decreased as age increased for both sexes (p < 0.001). For females, but not men, mean LV and RVEF significantly increased with age (p < 0.001).
Conclusion
Using anatomically correct contouring methodology, we provide accurate sex and age-specific normal reference values for CMR parameters derived from the largest, multi-ethnic population free of CVD to date.
Clinical trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02220582. Registered 20 August 2014-Retrospectively registered, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02220582 .

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jan 2022; 24:2
Luu JM, Gebhard C, Ramasundarahettige C, Desai D, ... Friedrich MG, CAHHM Study Investigators
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jan 2022; 24:2 | PMID: 34980185
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Abstract

Association of left atrial strain by cardiovascular magnetic resonance with recurrence of atrial fibrillation following catheter ablation.

Benjamin MM, Moulki N, Waqar A, Ravipati H, ... Sanagala T, Syed MA
Background
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a progressive condition, which is characterized by inflammation/fibrosis of left atrial (LA) wall, an increase in the LA size/volumes, and decrease in LA function. We sought to investigate the relationship of anatomical and functional parameters obtained by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR), with AF recurrence in paroxysmal AF (pAF) patients after catheter ablation.
Methods
We studied 80 consecutive pAF patients referred for ablation, between January 2014 and December 2019, who underwent pre- and post-ablation CMR while in sinus rhythm. LA volumes were measured using the area-length method and included maximum, minimum, and pre-atrial-contraction volumes. CMR-derived LA reservoir strain (ℇR), conduit strain (ℇCD), and contractile strain (ℇCT) were measured by computer assisted manual planimetry. We used a multivariate logistical regression to estimate the independent predictors of AF recurrence after ablation.
Results
Mean age was 58.6 ± 9.4 years, 75% men, mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 1.7, 36% had prior cardioversion and 51% were taking antiarrhythmic drugs. Patients were followed for a median of 4 years (Q1-Q3 = 2.5-6.2 years). Of the 80 patients, 21 (26.3%) patients had AF recurrence after ablation. There were no significant differences between AF recurrence vs. no recurrence groups in age, gender, CHA2DS2-VASc score, or baseline comorbidities. At baseline, patients with AF recurrence compared to without recurrence had lower LV end systolic volume index (32 ± 7 vs 37 ± 11 mL/m2; p = 0.045) and lower ℇCT (7.1 ± 4.6 vs 9.1 ± 3.7; p = 0.05). Post-ablation, patients with AF recurrence had higher LA minimum volume (68 ± 32 vs 55 ± 23; p = 0.05), right atrial volume index (62 ± 20 vs 52 ± 19 mL/m2; p = 0.04) and lower LA active ejection fraction (24 ± 8 vs 29 ± 11; p = 0.05), LA total ejection fraction (39 ± 14 vs 46 ± 12; p = 0.02), LA expansion index (73.6 ± 37.5 vs 94.7 ± 37.1; p = 0.03) and ℇCT (6.2 ± 2.9 vs 7.3 ± 1.7; p = 0.04). Adjusting for clinical variables in the multivariate logistic regression model, post-ablation minimum LA volume (OR 1.09; CI 1.02-1.16), LA expansion index (OR 0.98; CI 0.96-0.99), and baseline ℇR (OR 0.92; CI 0.85-0.99) were independently associated with AF recurrence.
Conclusion
Significant changes in LA volumes and strain parameters occur after AF ablation. CMR derived baseline ℇR, post-ablation minimum LAV, and expansion index are independently associated with AF recurrence.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jan 2022; 24:3
Benjamin MM, Moulki N, Waqar A, Ravipati H, ... Sanagala T, Syed MA
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 02 Jan 2022; 24:3 | PMID: 34980165
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Abstract

Myocardial involvement in children with post-COVID multisystem inflammatory syndrome: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance based multicenter international study-the CARDOVID registry.

Aeschlimann FA, Misra N, Hussein T, Panaioli E, ... Pushparajah K, Raimondi F
Background
Recent evidence shows an association between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and a severe inflammatory syndrome in children. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) data about myocardial injury in children are limited to small cohorts. The aim of this multicenter, international registry is to describe clinical and cardiac characteristics of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) associated with COVID-19 using CMR so as to better understand the real extent of myocardial damage in this vulnerable cohort.
Methods and results
Hundred-eleven patients meeting the World Health Organization criteria for MIS-C associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), having clinical cardiac involvement and having received CMR imaging scan were included from 17 centers. Median age at disease onset was 10.0 years (IQR 7.0-13.8). The majority of children had COVID-19 serology positive (98%) with 27% of children still having both, positive serology and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). CMR was performed at a median of 28 days (19-47) after onset of symptoms. Twenty out of 111 (18%) patients had CMR criteria for acute myocarditis (as defined by the Lake Louise Criteria) with 18/20 showing subepicardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). CMR myocarditis was significantly associated with New York Heart Association class IV (p = 0.005, OR 6.56 (95%-CI 1.87-23.00)) and the need for mechanical support (p = 0.039, OR 4.98 (95%-CI 1.18-21.02)). At discharge, 11/111 (10%) patients still had left ventricular systolic dysfunction.
Conclusion
No CMR evidence of myocardial damage was found in most of our MIS-C cohort. Nevertheless, acute myocarditis is a possible manifestation of MIS-C associated with SARS-CoV-2 with CMR evidence of myocardial necrosis in 18% of our cohort. CMR may be an important diagnostic tool to identify a subset of patients at risk for cardiac sequelae and more prone to myocardial damage.
Clinical trial registration
The study has been registered on ClinicalTrials.gov, Identifier NCT04455347, registered on 01/07/2020, retrospectively registered.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 29 Dec 2021; 23:140
Aeschlimann FA, Misra N, Hussein T, Panaioli E, ... Pushparajah K, Raimondi F
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 29 Dec 2021; 23:140 | PMID: 34969397
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Abstract

Cardiovascular magnetic resonance detects microvascular dysfunction in a mouse model of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Ku MC, Kober F, Lai YC, Pohlmann A, ... Carrier L, Niendorf T
Background
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) related myocardial vascular remodelling may lead to the reduction of myocardial blood supply and a subsequent progressive loss of cardiac function. This process has been difficult to observe and thus their connection remains unclear. Here we used non-invasive myocardial blood flow sensitive CMR to show an impairment of resting myocardial perfusion in a mouse model of naturally occurring HCM.
Methods
We used a mouse model (DBA/2 J; D2 mouse strain) that spontaneously carries variants in the two most susceptible HCM genes-Mybpc3 and Myh7 and bears the key features of human HCM. The C57BL/6 J (B6) was used as a reference strain. Mice with either B6 or D2 backgrounds (male: n = 4, female: n = 4) underwent cine-CMR for functional assessment at 9.4 T. Left ventricular (LV) wall thickness was measured in end diastolic phase by cine-CMR. Quantitative myocardial perfusion maps (male: n = 5, female: n = 5 in each group) were acquired from arterial spin labelling (cine ASL-CMR) at rest. Myocardial perfusion values were measured by delineating different regions of interest based on the LV segmentation model in the mid ventricle of the LV myocardium. Directly after the CMR, the mouse hearts were removed for histological assessments to confirm the incidence of myocardial interstitial fibrosis (n = 8 in each group) and small vessel remodelling such as vessel density (n = 6 in each group) and perivascular fibrosis (n = 8 in each group).
Results
LV hypertrophy was more pronounced in D2 than in B6 mice (male: D2 LV wall thickness = 1.3 ± 0.1 mm vs B6 LV wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.0 mm, p < 0.001; female: D2 LV wall thickness = 1.0 ± 0.1 mm vs B6 LV wall thickness = 0.8 ± 0.1 mm, p < 0.01). The resting global myocardial perfusion (myocardial blood flow; MBF) was lower in D2 than in B6 mice (end-diastole: D2 MBFglobal = 7.5 ± 0.6 vs B6 MBFglobal = 9.3 ± 1.6 ml/g/min, p < 0.05; end-systole: D2 MBFglobal = 6.6 ± 0.8 vs B6 MBFglobal = 8.2 ± 2.6 ml/g/min, p < 0.01). This myocardial microvascular dysfunction was observed and associated with a reduction in regional MBF, mainly in the interventricular septal and inferior areas of the myocardium. Immunofluorescence revealed a lower number of vessel densities in D2 than in B6 (D2 capillary = 31.0 ± 3.8% vs B6 capillary = 40.7 ± 4.6%, p < 0.05). Myocardial collagen volume fraction (CVF) was significantly higher in D2 LV versus B6 LV mice (D2 CVF = 3.7 ± 1.4% vs B6 CVF = 1.7 ± 0.7%, p < 0.01). Furthermore, a higher ratio of perivascular fibrosis (PFR) was found in D2 than in B6 mice (D2 PFR = 2.3 ± 1.0%, B6 PFR = 0.8 ± 0.4%, p < 0.01).
Conclusions
Our work describes an imaging marker using cine ASL-CMR with a potential to monitor vascular and myocardial remodelling in HCM.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 30 Jan 2021; 23:63
Ku MC, Kober F, Lai YC, Pohlmann A, ... Carrier L, Niendorf T
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 30 Jan 2021; 23:63 | PMID: 34053450
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Abstract

Quantification of myocardial hemorrhage using T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance at 1.5T with ex-vivo validation.

Chen Y, Ren D, Guan X, Yang HJ, ... Zeng M, Dharmakumar R
Background
T2* cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is commonly used in the diagnosis of intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH). For quantifying IMH with T2* CMR, despite the lack of consensus studies, two different methods [subject-specific T2* (ssT2*) and absolute T2* thresholding (aT2* < 20 ms)] are interchangeably used. We examined whether these approaches yield equivalent information.
Methods
ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients (n = 70) were prospectively recruited for CMR at 4-7 days post revascularization and for 6-month follow up (n = 43). Canines studies were performed for validation purposes, where animals (n = 20) were subject to reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) and those surviving the MI (n = 16) underwent CMR at 7 days and 8 weeks and then euthanized. Both in patients and animals, T2* of IMH and volume of IMH were determined using ssT2* and aT2* < 20 ms. In animals, ex-vivo T2* CMR and mass spectrometry for iron concentration ([Fe]Hemo) were determined on excised myocardial sections. T2* values based on ssT2* and absolute T2* threshold approaches were independently regressed against [Fe]Hemo and compared. A range of T2* cut-offs were tested to determine the optimized conditions relative to ssT2*.
Results
While both approaches showed many similarities, there were also differences. Compared to ssT2*, aT2* < 20 ms showed lower T2* and volume of IMH in patients and animals independent of MI age (all p < 0.005). While T2* determined from both methods were highly correlated against [Fe]Hemo (R2 = 0.9 for both), the slope of the regression curve for ssT2* was significantly larger as compared to aT2* < 20 ms (0.46 vs. 0.32, p < 0.01). Further, slightly larger absolute T2* cut-offs (patients: 23 ms; animals: 25 ms) showed similar IMH characteristics compared to ssT2*.
Conclusion
Current quantification methods have excellent capacity to identify IMH, albeit the T2*of IMH and volume of IMH based on aT2* < 20 ms are smaller compared to ssT2*. Thus the method used to quantify IMH from T2* CMR may influence the diagnosis for IMH.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 29 Jan 2021; 23:104
Chen Y, Ren D, Guan X, Yang HJ, ... Zeng M, Dharmakumar R
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 29 Jan 2021; 23:104 | PMID: 34587984
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Impact:
Abstract

Influence of the arterial input sampling location on the diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance stress myocardial perfusion quantification.

Milidonis X, Franks R, Schneider T, Sánchez-González J, ... Plein S, Chiribiri A
Background
Quantification of myocardial blood flow (MBF) and myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) perfusion requires sampling of the arterial input function (AIF). While variation in the AIF sampling location is known to impact quantification by CMR and positron emission tomography (PET) perfusion, there is no evidence to support the use of a specific location based on their diagnostic accuracy in the detection of coronary artery disease (CAD). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of stress MBF and MPR for different AIF sampling locations for the detection of abnormal myocardial perfusion with expert visual assessment as the reference.
Methods
Twenty-five patients with suspected or known CAD underwent vasodilator stress-rest perfusion with a dual-sequence technique at 3T. A low-resolution slice was acquired in 3-chamber view to allow AIF sampling at five different locations: left atrium (LA), basal left ventricle (bLV), mid left ventricle (mLV), apical left ventricle (aLV) and aortic root (AoR). MBF and MPR were estimated at the segmental level using Fermi function-constrained deconvolution. Segments were scored as having normal or abnormal perfusion by visual assessment and the diagnostic accuracy of stress MBF and MPR for each location was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
Results
In both normal (300 out of 400, 75 %) and abnormal segments, rest MBF, stress MBF and MPR were significantly different across AIF sampling locations (p < 0.001). Stress MBF for the AoR (normal: 2.42 (2.15-2.84) mL/g/min; abnormal: 1.71 (1.28-1.98) mL/g/min) had the highest diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 80 %, specificity 85 %, area under the curve 0.90; p < 0.001 versus stress MBF for all other locations including bLV: normal: 2.78 (2.39-3.14) mL/g/min; abnormal: 2.22 (1.83-2.48) mL/g/min; sensitivity 91 %, specificity 63 %, area under the curve 0.81) and performed better than MPR for the LV locations (p < 0.01). MPR for the AoR (normal: 2.43 (1.95-3.14); abnormal: 1.58 (1.34-1.90)) was not superior to MPR for the bLV (normal: 2.59 (2.04-3.20); abnormal: 1.69 (1.36-2.14); p = 0.717).
Conclusions
The AIF sampling location has a significant impact on MBF and MPR estimates by CMR perfusion, with AoR-based stress MBF comparing favorably to that for the current clinical reference bLV.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Jan 2021; 23:35
Milidonis X, Franks R, Schneider T, Sánchez-González J, ... Plein S, Chiribiri A
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Jan 2021; 23:35 | PMID: 33775247
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Abstract

Motion compensated whole-heart coronary cardiovascular magnetic resonance angiography using focused navigation (fNAV).

Roy CW, Heerfordt J, Piccini D, Rossi G, ... Schwitter J, Stuber M
Background
Radial self-navigated (RSN) whole-heart coronary cardiovascular magnetic resonance angiography (CCMRA) is a free-breathing technique that estimates and corrects for respiratory motion. However, RSN has been limited to a 1D rigid correction which is often insufficient for patients with complex respiratory patterns. The goal of this work is therefore to improve the robustness and quality of 3D radial CCMRA by incorporating both 3D motion information and nonrigid intra-acquisition correction of the data into a framework called focused navigation (fNAV).
Methods
We applied fNAV to 500 data sets from a numerical simulation, 22 healthy subjects, and 549 cardiac patients. In each of these cohorts we compared fNAV to RSN and respiratory resolved extradimensional golden-angle radial sparse parallel (XD-GRASP) reconstructions of the same data. Reconstruction times for each method were recorded. Motion estimate accuracy was measured as the correlation between fNAV and ground truth for simulations, and fNAV and image registration for in vivo data. Percent vessel sharpness was measured in all simulated data sets and healthy subjects, and a subset of patients. Finally, subjective image quality analysis was performed by a blinded expert reviewer who chose the best image for each in vivo data set and scored on a Likert scale 0-4 in a subset of patients by two reviewers in consensus.
Results
The reconstruction time for fNAV images was significantly higher than RSN (6.1 ± 2.1 min vs 1.4 ± 0.3, min, p < 0.025) but significantly lower than XD-GRASP (25.6 ± 7.1, min, p < 0.025). Overall, there is high correlation between the fNAV and reference displacement estimates across all data sets (0.73 ± 0.29). For simulated data, healthy subjects, and patients, fNAV lead to significantly sharper coronary arteries than all other reconstruction methods (p < 0.01). Finally, in a blinded evaluation by an expert reviewer fNAV was chosen as the best image in 444 out of 571 data sets (78%; p < 0.001) and consensus grades of fNAV images (2.6 ± 0.6) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) than uncorrected (1.7 ± 0.7), RSN (1.9 ± 0.6), and XD-GRASP (1.8 ± 0.8).
Conclusion
fNAV is a promising technique for improving the quality of RSN free-breathing 3D whole-heart CCMRA. This novel approach to respiratory self-navigation can derive 3D nonrigid motion estimations from an acquired 1D signal yielding statistically significant improvement in image sharpness relative to 1D translational correction as well as XD-GRASP reconstructions. Further study of the diagnostic impact of this technique is therefore warranted to evaluate its full clinical utility.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Jan 2021; 23:33
Roy CW, Heerfordt J, Piccini D, Rossi G, ... Schwitter J, Stuber M
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Jan 2021; 23:33 | PMID: 33775246
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Abstract

Non-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance detection of myocardial fibrosis in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

Raucci FJ, Xu M, George-Durrett K, Crum K, ... Markham LW, Soslow JH
Background
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) leads to progressive cardiomyopathy. Detection of myocardial fibrosis with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) is critical for clinical management. Due to concerns of brain deposition of gadolinium, non-contrast methods for detecting and monitoring myocardial fibrosis would be beneficial.
Objectives
We hypothesized that native T1 mapping and/or circumferential (εcc) and longitudinal (εls) strain can detect myocardial fibrosis.
Methods
156 CMRs with gadolinium were performed in 66 DMD boys and included: (1) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), (2) LGE, (3) native T1 mapping and myocardial tagging (εcc-tag measured using harmonic phase analysis). LGE was graded as: (1) presence/absence by segment, slice, and globally; (2) global severity from 0 (no LGE) to 4 (severe); (3) percent LGE using full width half maximum (FWHM). εls and εcc measured using feature tracking. Regression models to predict LGE included native T1 and either εcc-tag or εls and εcc measured at each segment, slice, and globally.
Results
Mean age and LVEF at first CMR were 14 years and 54%, respectively. Global εls and εcc strongly predicted presence or absence of LGE (OR 2.6 [1.1, 6.0], p = 0.029, and OR 2.3 [1.0, 5.1], p = 0.049, respectively) while global native T1 did not. Global εcc, εls, and native T1 predicted global severity score (OR 2.6 [1.4, 4.8], p = 0.002, OR 2.6 [1.4, 6.0], p = 0.002, and OR 1.8 [1.1, 3.1], p = 0.025, respectively). εls correlated with change in LGE by severity score (n = 33, 3.8 [1.0, 14.2], p = 0.048) and εcc-tag correlated with change in percent LGE by FWHM (n = 34, OR 0.2 [0.1, 0.9], p = 0.01).
Conclusions
Pre-contrast sequences predict presence and severity of LGE, with εls and εcc being more predictive in most models, but there was not an observable advantage over using LVEF as a predictor. Change in LGE was predicted by εls (global severity score) and εcc-tag (FWHM). While statistically significant, our results suggest these sequences are currently not a replacement for LGE and may only have utility in a very limited subset of DMD patients.



J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Jan 2021; 23:48
Raucci FJ, Xu M, George-Durrett K, Crum K, ... Markham LW, Soslow JH
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson: 28 Jan 2021; 23:48 | PMID: 33910579
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This program is still in alpha version.