Topic: Journal Club Selection

Abstract
<div><h4>Infective Endocarditis After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: JACC State-of-the-Art Review.</h4><i>Del Val D, Panagides V, Mestres CA, Miró JM, Rodés-Cabau J</i><br /><AbstractText>Infective endocarditis (IE) is a rare but serious complication following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Despite substantial improvements in the TAVR procedure (less invasive) and its expansion to younger and healthier patients, the incidence of IE after TAVR remains stable, with incidence rates similar to those reported after surgical aortic valve replacement. Although IE after TAVR is recognized as a subtype of prosthetic valve endocarditis, this condition represents a particularly challenging scenario given its unique clinical and microbiological profile, the high incidence of IE-related complications, the uncertain role of cardiac surgery, and the dismal prognosis in most patients with TAVR-IE. The number of TAVR procedures is expected to grow exponentially in the coming years, increasing the number of patients at risk of developing this life-threatening complication. Therefore, a detailed understanding of this disease and its complications will be essential to improve clinical outcomes.</AbstractText><br /><br />Copyright © 2023 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.<br /><br /><small>J Am Coll Cardiol: 31 Jan 2023; 81:394-412</small></div>
Del Val D, Panagides V, Mestres CA, Miró JM, Rodés-Cabau J
J Am Coll Cardiol: 31 Jan 2023; 81:394-412 | PMID: 36697140
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<div><h4>Substance Use Disorders Are Prevalent in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease and Are Associated With Increased Healthcare Use.</h4><i>Shalen EF, McGrath LB, Bhamidipati CM, Garcia IC, ... Broberg CS, Khan AM</i><br /><AbstractText>Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) represent a heterogeneous group with significant long-term health risks. Previous studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of psychiatric disorders among adults with CHD; however, little is known about the frequency of co-morbid substance use disorders (SUDs) in patients with CHD. The Oregon All Payer All Claims (APAC) database for the years 2014 to 2017 was queried for adults aged 18 to 65 years with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth or Tenth Revision codes consistent with CHD. Alcohol and substance use were identified by International Classification of Diseases codes for use or dependence and classified in mutually exclusive categories of none, alcohol only, and other drugs (with or without alcohol). Descriptive statistics were used to characterize prevalence and chi-square tests were used to test for associations between variables. A total of 12,366 adults with CHD were identified. The prevalence of substance use was 15.7%. The prevalence of isolated alcohol use was 3.9%. A total of 19% of patients used tobacco. Insurance type, presence of a concurrent mental health diagnosis, and age were associated with substance use, whereas CHD complexity was not. Cardiovascular co-morbidities were more common in patients with reported substance use. Inpatient and emergency care use were higher in those with SUD. In conclusion, this study of substance and alcohol use among adults with CHD demonstrates high rates of co-morbid SUD, particularly among patients with mental health disorders and Medicaid insurance, associated with increased healthcare utilization. We identify a population in need of targeted interventions to improve long-term health.</AbstractText><br /><br />Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.<br /><br /><small>Am J Cardiol: 27 Jan 2023; 192:24-30</small></div>
Shalen EF, McGrath LB, Bhamidipati CM, Garcia IC, ... Broberg CS, Khan AM
Am J Cardiol: 27 Jan 2023; 192:24-30 | PMID: 36709526
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<div><h4>In Vivo Dissection of Chamber-Selective Enhancers Reveals Estrogen-Related Receptor as a Regulator of Ventricular Cardiomyocyte Identity.</h4><i>Cao Y, Zhang X, Akerberg BN, Yuan H, ... Kelly DP, Pu WT</i><br /><b>Background</b><br />Cardiac chamber-selective transcriptional programs underpin the structural and functional differences between atrial and ventricular cardiomyocytes (aCMs and vCMs). The mechanisms responsible for these chamber-selective transcriptional programs remain largely undefined.<br /><b>Methods</b><br />We nominated candidate chamber-selective enhancers (CSEs) by determining the genome-wide occupancy of 7 key cardiac transcription factors (GATA4, MEF2A, MEF2C, NKX2-5, SRF, TBX5, TEAD1) and transcriptional coactivator P300 in atria and ventricles. Candidate enhancers were tested using an adeno-associated virus-mediated massively parallel reporter assay. Chromatin features of CSEs were evaluated by performing assay of transposase accessible chromatin sequencing and acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27-highly integrative chromatin immunoprecipitation on aCMs and vCMs. CSE sequence requirements were determined by systematic tiling mutagenesis of 29 CSEs at 5 bp resolution. Estrogen-related receptor (ERR) function in cardiomyocytes was evaluated by Cre-loxP-mediated inactivation of ERRα and ERRγ in cardiomyocytes.<br /><b>Results</b><br />We identified 152 832 and 54 824 regions reproducibly occupied by at least 1 transcription factor or P300, in atria or ventricles, respectively. Enhancer activities of 2639 regions bound by transcription factors or P300 were tested in aCMs and vCMs by adeno-associated virus-mediated massively parallel reporter assay. This identified 1092 active enhancers in aCMs or vCMs. Several overlapped loci associated with cardiovascular disease through genome-wide association studies, and 229 exhibited chamber-selective activity in aCMs or vCMs. Many CSEs exhibited differential chromatin accessibility between aCMs and vCMs, and CSEs were enriched for aCM- or vCM-selective acetylation of histone H3 at lysine 27-anchored loops. Tiling mutagenesis of 29 CSEs identified the binding motif of ERRα/γ as important for ventricular enhancer activity. The requirement of ERRα/γ to activate ventricular CSEs and promote vCM identity was confirmed by loss of the vCM gene profile in ERRα/γ knockout vCMs.<br /><b>Conclusions</b><br />We identified 229 CSEs that could be useful research tools or direct therapeutic gene expression. We showed that chamber-selective multi-transcription factor, P300 occupancy, open chromatin, and chromatin looping are predictive features of CSEs. We found that ERRα/γ are essential for maintenance of ventricular identity. Finally, our gene expression, epigenetic, 3-dimensional genome, and enhancer activity atlas provide key resources for future studies of chamber-selective gene regulation.<br /><br /><br /><br /><small>Circulation: 27 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print</small></div>
Cao Y, Zhang X, Akerberg BN, Yuan H, ... Kelly DP, Pu WT
Circulation: 27 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36705030
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Abstract
<div><h4>Sortilin enhances fibrosis and calcification in aortic valve disease by inducing interstitial cell heterogeneity.</h4><i>Iqbal F, Schlotter F, Becker-Greene D, Lupieri A, ... Sonawane AR, Aikawa E</i><br /><b>Aims</b><br />Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common valve disease, which consists of a chronic interplay of inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification. In this study, sortilin (SORT1) was identified as a novel key player in the pathophysiology of CAVD, and its role in the transformation of valvular interstitial cells (VICs) into pathological phenotypes is explored.<br /><b>Methods and results</b><br />An aortic valve (AV) wire injury (AVWI) mouse model with sortilin deficiency was used to determine the effects of sortilin on AV stenosis, fibrosis, and calcification. In vitro experiments employed human primary VICs cultured in osteogenic conditions for 7, 14, and 21 days; and processed for imaging, proteomics, and transcriptomics including single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq). The AVWI mouse model showed reduced AV fibrosis, calcification, and stenosis in sortilin-deficient mice vs. littermate controls. Protein studies identified the transition of human VICs into a myofibroblast-like phenotype mediated by sortilin. Sortilin loss-of-function decreased in vitro VIC calcification. ScRNA-seq identified 12 differentially expressed cell clusters in human VIC samples, where a novel combined inflammatory myofibroblastic-osteogenic VIC (IMO-VIC) phenotype was detected with increased expression of SORT1, COL1A1, WNT5A, IL-6, and serum amyloid A1. VICs sequenced with sortilin deficiency showed decreased IMO-VIC phenotype.<br /><b>Conclusion</b><br />Sortilin promotes CAVD by mediating valvular fibrosis and calcification, and a newly identified phenotype (IMO-VIC). This is the first study to examine the role of sortilin in valvular calcification and it may render it a therapeutic target to inhibit IMO-VIC emergence by simultaneously reducing inflammation, fibrosis, and calcification, the three key pathological processes underlying CAVD.<br /><br />© The Author(s) 2023. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.<br /><br /><small>Eur Heart J: 20 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print</small></div>
Iqbal F, Schlotter F, Becker-Greene D, Lupieri A, ... Sonawane AR, Aikawa E
Eur Heart J: 20 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36660854
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<div><h4>Psychosocial Functioning in Transgender Youth after 2 Years of Hormones.</h4><i>Chen D, Berona J, Chan YM, Ehrensaft D, ... Tishelman AC, Olson-Kennedy J</i><br /><b>Background</b><br />Limited prospective outcome data exist regarding transgender and nonbinary youth receiving gender-affirming hormones (GAH; testosterone or estradiol).<br /><b>Methods</b><br />We characterized the longitudinal course of psychosocial functioning during the 2 years after GAH initiation in a prospective cohort of transgender and nonbinary youth in the United States. Participants were enrolled in a four-site prospective, observational study of physical and psychosocial outcomes. Participants completed the Transgender Congruence Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, the Revised Children\'s Manifest Anxiety Scale (Second Edition), and the Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction measures from the NIH (National Institutes of Health) Toolbox Emotion Battery at baseline and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after GAH initiation. We used latent growth curve modeling to examine individual trajectories of appearance congruence, depression, anxiety, positive affect, and life satisfaction over a period of 2 years. We also examined how initial levels of and rates of change in appearance congruence correlated with those of each psychosocial outcome.<br /><b>Results</b><br />A total of 315 transgender and nonbinary participants 12 to 20 years of age (mean [±SD], 16±1.9) were enrolled in the study. A total of 190 participants (60.3%) were transmasculine (i.e., persons designated female at birth who identify along the masculine spectrum), 185 (58.7%) were non-Latinx or non-Latine White, and 25 (7.9%) had received previous pubertal suppression treatment. During the study period, appearance congruence, positive affect, and life satisfaction increased, and depression and anxiety symptoms decreased. Increases in appearance congruence were associated with concurrent increases in positive affect and life satisfaction and decreases in depression and anxiety symptoms. The most common adverse event was suicidal ideation (in 11 participants [3.5%]); death by suicide occurred in 2 participants.<br /><b>Conclusions</b><br />In this 2-year study involving transgender and nonbinary youth, GAH improved appearance congruence and psychosocial functioning. (Funded by the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.).<br /><br />Copyright © 2023 Massachusetts Medical Society.<br /><br /><small>N Engl J Med: 19 Jan 2023; 388:240-250</small></div>
Chen D, Berona J, Chan YM, Ehrensaft D, ... Tishelman AC, Olson-Kennedy J
N Engl J Med: 19 Jan 2023; 388:240-250 | PMID: 36652355
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<div><h4>Aspirin or Low-Molecular-Weight Heparin for Thromboprophylaxis after a Fracture.</h4><i>Major Extremity Trauma Research Consortium (METRC), O\'Toole RV, Stein DM, O\'Hara NN, ... Marvel D, Castillo RC</i><br /><b>Background</b><br />Clinical guidelines recommend low-molecular-weight heparin for thromboprophylaxis in patients with fractures, but trials of its effectiveness as compared with aspirin are lacking.<br /><b>Methods</b><br />In this pragmatic, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority trial, we enrolled patients 18 years of age or older who had a fracture of an extremity (anywhere from hip to midfoot or shoulder to wrist) that had been treated operatively or who had any pelvic or acetabular fracture. Patients were randomly assigned to receive low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) at a dose of 30 mg twice daily or aspirin at a dose of 81 mg twice daily while they were in the hospital. After hospital discharge, the patients continued to receive thromboprophylaxis according to the clinical protocols of each hospital. The primary outcome was death from any cause at 90 days. Secondary outcomes were nonfatal pulmonary embolism, deep-vein thrombosis, and bleeding complications.<br /><b>Results</b><br />A total of 12,211 patients were randomly assigned to receive aspirin (6101 patients) or low-molecular-weight heparin (6110 patients). Patients had a mean (±SD) age of 44.6±17.8 years, 0.7% had a history of venous thromboembolism, and 2.5% had a history of cancer. Patients received a mean of 8.8±10.6 in-hospital thromboprophylaxis doses and were prescribed a median 21-day supply of thromboprophylaxis at discharge. Death occurred in 47 patients (0.78%) in the aspirin group and in 45 patients (0.73%) in the low-molecular-weight-heparin group (difference, 0.05 percentage points; 96.2% confidence interval, -0.27 to 0.38; P<0.001 for a noninferiority margin of 0.75 percentage points). Deep-vein thrombosis occurred in 2.51% of patients in the aspirin group and 1.71% in the low-molecular-weight-heparin group (difference, 0.80 percentage points; 95% CI, 0.28 to 1.31). The incidence of pulmonary embolism (1.49% in each group), bleeding complications, and other serious adverse events were similar in the two groups.<br /><b>Conclusions</b><br />In patients with extremity fractures that had been treated operatively or with any pelvic or acetabular fracture, thromboprophylaxis with aspirin was noninferior to low-molecular-weight heparin in preventing death and was associated with low incidences of deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism and low 90-day mortality. (Funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute; PREVENT CLOT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02984384.).<br /><br />Copyright © 2023 Massachusetts Medical Society.<br /><br /><small>N Engl J Med: 19 Jan 2023; 388:203-213</small></div>
Major Extremity Trauma Research Consortium (METRC), O'Toole RV, Stein DM, O'Hara NN, ... Marvel D, Castillo RC
N Engl J Med: 19 Jan 2023; 388:203-213 | PMID: 36652352
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Abstract
<div><h4>The Mechanism and Natural History of Mitral Regurgitation in Cardiac Sarcoidosis.</h4><i>Sykora D, Young KA, Elwazir MY, Bois JP, ... Cooper LT, Rosenbaum AN</i><br /><AbstractText>Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is an infl/ammatory cardiomyopathy that can present with mitral regurgitation (MR), but few studies describe the mechanisms and natural history of MR in CS. We queried an institutional registry of 512 patients with CS for moderate or greater MR at diagnosis. Baseline demographic and echocardiography (TTE) data were collected. MR was classified by Carpentier type. Positron emission tomography was analyzed for 2-deoxy-2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-d-glucose (FDG) avidity of anterolateral and posteromedial papillary muscles. Follow-up TTE and positron emission tomography imaging of patients treated with immunosuppression was analyzed for MR severity and FDG avidity changes. Fifty-four patients were identified. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 39.3%, effective regurgitant orifice 0.34 cm<sup>2</sup>, and MR regurgitant volume 46.3 ml. Carpentier type I was the most common MR mechanism (46.3%). Forty-one patients had follow-up TTE (median follow-up 1.7 years, interquartile range 2.6 years). Evaluating preprocedural follow-up TTE only, MR severity was significantly reduced, with 37% of patients showing reduction by at least 1 severity grade (p = 0.04). With postprocedural TTE included, 61% of patients showed alleviation of MR severity with mean decrease in grade - 0.98 (p <0.001). Sixty-eight percent of patients had anterolateral/posteromedial FDG avidity. Papillary muscle FDG avidity resolved in 80% of patients (n = 20, median follow-up 1.6 years, interquartile range 2.5 years). In conclusion, Carpentier type I functional MR is the most common MR mechanism in CS. MR severity and papillary muscle FDG avidity decrease after treatment, and MR resolution is further strengthened by procedural intervention in a minority of patients, suggesting an overall favorable natural history of MR in CS.</AbstractText><br /><br />Copyright © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.<br /><br /><small>Am J Cardiol: 17 Jan 2023; 191:84-91</small></div>
Sykora D, Young KA, Elwazir MY, Bois JP, ... Cooper LT, Rosenbaum AN
Am J Cardiol: 17 Jan 2023; 191:84-91 | PMID: 36669382
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<div><h4>The Safety of Inpatient Health Care.</h4><i>Bates DW, Levine DM, Salmasian H, Syrowatka A, ... Reynolds ME, Mort E</i><br /><b>Background</b><br />Adverse events during hospitalization are a major cause of patient harm, as documented in the 1991 Harvard Medical Practice Study. Patient safety has changed substantially in the decades since that study was conducted, and a more current assessment of harm during hospitalization is warranted.<br /><b>Methods</b><br />We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the frequency, preventability, and severity of patient harm in a random sample of admissions from 11 Massachusetts hospitals during the 2018 calendar year. The occurrence of adverse events was assessed with the use of a trigger method (identification of information in a medical record that was previously shown to be associated with adverse events) and from review of medical records. Trained nurses reviewed records and identified admissions with possible adverse events that were then adjudicated by physicians, who confirmed the presence and characteristics of the adverse events.<br /><b>Results</b><br />In a random sample of 2809 admissions, we identified at least one adverse event in 23.6%. Among 978 adverse events, 222 (22.7%) were judged to be preventable and 316 (32.3%) had a severity level of serious (i.e., caused harm that resulted in substantial intervention or prolonged recovery) or higher. A preventable adverse event occurred in 191 (6.8%) of all admissions, and a preventable adverse event with a severity level of serious or higher occurred in 29 (1.0%). There were seven deaths, one of which was deemed to be preventable. Adverse drug events were the most common adverse events (accounting for 39.0% of all events), followed by surgical or other procedural events (30.4%), patient-care events (which were defined as events associated with nursing care, including falls and pressure ulcers) (15.0%), and health care-associated infections (11.9%).<br /><b>Conclusions</b><br />Adverse events were identified in nearly one in four admissions, and approximately one fourth of the events were preventable. These findings underscore the importance of patient safety and the need for continuing improvement. (Funded by the Controlled Risk Insurance Company and the Risk Management Foundation of the Harvard Medical Institutions.).<br /><br />Copyright © 2023 Massachusetts Medical Society.<br /><br /><small>N Engl J Med: 12 Jan 2023; 388:142-153</small></div>
Bates DW, Levine DM, Salmasian H, Syrowatka A, ... Reynolds ME, Mort E
N Engl J Med: 12 Jan 2023; 388:142-153 | PMID: 36630622
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<div><h4>Novel Utilization of Ultrasound Enhancing Agents in Complex Congenital Heart Disease Following Superior Cavopulmonary Connection.</h4><i>Chaszczewski KJ, Linder JR, Campbell MJ, Convery M, ... Kozyak BW, Quartermain MD</i><br /><b>Background</b><br />Children with single ventricle congenital heart disease (CHD) typically undergo a superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC) as the second stage in their surgical palliation. Postoperatively, stenoses of the SCPC and branch pulmonary arteries (PAs) can occur. If there are clinical concerns and echocardiography is insufficient for diagnosis, patients undergo invasive evaluation with exposure to radiation and anesthesia. The use of ultrasound enhancing agents (UEAs) to improve echocardiographic diagnostic capabilities has not previously been described in this population.<br /><b>Methods</b><br />A single center, retrospective case review of children who underwent an echocardiogram with UEA, following SCPC from 3/1/2020 - 4/15/2022 at the Children\'s Hospital of Philadelphia. Twenty-two patients with hypoxemia or concern for obstruction following SCPC underwent UEA echocardiography. Extracted clinical data included patient demographics, echocardiographic images, angiography, surgical and transcatheter intervention as well as available follow-up data.<br /><b>Results</b><br />Six of the 22 UEA echocardiograms demonstrated stenosis or occlusion of either the SCPC or a PA. All six underwent cardiac catheterization - angioplasty was performed in 5 of these 6 patients, while one patient underwent surgical revision. Sixteen of 22 UEA echocardiograms demonstrated no evidence of stenosis. Ten of these 16 improved, while 6 experienced persistent hypoxemia prompting referral for cardiac catheterization. Angiography confirmed the UEA echocardiogram findings (absence of stenosis) in 4 of these 6 patients. There were no adverse reactions related to UEA administration.<br /><b>Conclusions</b><br />Echocardiography with UEAs is a valuable and safe adjunctive imaging modality following SCPC, particularly when 2D and color imaging is limited. This novel application of UEAs in complex CHD patients provides an \"angiogram-like\" image, better delineating vessel walls and improving assessment of postoperative obstruction. As experience with UEAs increases in the CHD population, there may be opportunities to decrease invasive and costly procedures, while expediting the care of patients in need of intervention.<br /><br />Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.<br /><br /><small>J Am Soc Echocardiogr: 12 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print</small></div>
Chaszczewski KJ, Linder JR, Campbell MJ, Convery M, ... Kozyak BW, Quartermain MD
J Am Soc Echocardiogr: 12 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36642236
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<div><h4>Diagnosis of cardiac sarcoidosis in patients presenting with cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmias.</h4><i>Hatipoglu S, Gardezi SKM, Azzu A, Baksi J, ... Pennell DJ, Mohiaddin R</i><br /><b>Objective</b><br />Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) may present with cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmias. There are limited data on this subgroup of patients with CS. Advanced imaging including cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) and cardiac 18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) are used for diagnosis. This study aimed to describe advanced imaging patterns suggestive of CS among patients presenting with cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmias.<br /><b>Methods</b><br />An imaging database of a CS referral centre (Royal Brompton Hospital, London) was screened for patients presenting with cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmias and having imaging features of suspected CS. Patients diagnosed with definite or probable/possible CS were included.<br /><b>Results</b><br />Study population included 60 patients (median age 49 years) with male predominance (76.7%). The left ventricle was usually non-dilated with mildly reduced ejection fraction (53.4±14.8%). CMR studies showed extensive late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) with 5 (4-8) myocardial segments per patient affected; the right ventricular (RV) side of the septum (28/45) and basal anteroseptum (28/45) were most frequently involved. Myocardial inflammation by FDG-PET was detected in 45 out of 58 patients vs 11 out of 33 patients with oedema imaging available on CMR. When PET was treated as reference to detect myocardial inflammation, CMR oedema imaging was 33.3% sensitive and 77% specific.<br /><b>Conclusions</b><br />In patients with CS presenting with cardiac arrest or life-threatening arrhythmias, LGE was located in areas where the cardiac conduction system travels (basal anteroseptal wall and RV side of the septum). While CMR was the imaging technique that raised possibility of cardiac scarring, oedema imaging had low sensitivity to detect myocardial inflammation compared with FDG-PET.<br /><br />© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2023. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.<br /><br /><small>Heart: 10 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print</small></div>
Hatipoglu S, Gardezi SKM, Azzu A, Baksi J, ... Pennell DJ, Mohiaddin R
Heart: 10 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36627181
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<div><h4>Biventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy in a Patient Presenting With a New Cerebrovascular Event.</h4><i>Madnawat H, Atallah I, Ahmad A, Harjai K</i><br /><AbstractText>Noncompaction (NC) cardiomyopathy (NCCM) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous cardiomyopathy (CM) caused by failure to compact the intertrabecular recesses of the myocardium. This condition usually affects the apical segment of the left ventricle, yet there are noted basal segment, biventricular, and right ventricular predominant cases. NCCM is largely diagnosed in the pediatric population; however, there is increasing recognition in older patients with heart failure and stroke and patients with arrhythmias. Treatment focuses on symptomatic management of heart failure, anticoagulation, and implantable cardiac defibrillators.</AbstractText><br /><br />Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.<br /><br /><small>Am J Cardiol: 06 Jan 2023; 190:110-112</small></div>
Madnawat H, Atallah I, Ahmad A, Harjai K
Am J Cardiol: 06 Jan 2023; 190:110-112 | PMID: 36621285
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<div><h4>Complications Associated with Transesophageal Echocardiography in Transcatheter Structural Cardiac Interventions.</h4><i>Hasnie A, Parcha V, Hawi R, Trump M, ... Arora P, Arora G</i><br /><b>Background</b><br />Transesophageal echocardiograms (TEEs) performed during transcatheter structural cardiac interventions may have higher complications than those performed in the non-operative setting or even those performed during cardiac surgery. However, there are limited data on complications associated with TEE during these procedures. We evaluated the prevalence of major complications among these patients in the United States (US).<br /><b>Methods</b><br />A retrospective cohort study was conducted using an electronic health record database (TriNetX Research Network) from large academic medical centers across the US for patients undergoing TEE during transcatheter structural interventions from January 2012 to January 2022. Using the American Society of Echocardiography endorsed ICD-10 codes, patients undergoing TEE during a transcatheter structural cardiac intervention, including transaortic, mitral or tricuspid valve repair, left atrial appendage occlusion, atrial septal defect closure, patent foramen ovale closure, and paravalvular leak repair were identified. The primary outcome was major complications within 72 hours of the procedure (composite of bleeding, esophageal and upper respiratory tract injury). The secondary aim was the frequency of major complications, death, or cardiac arrest within 72 hours of patients who completed intraoperative TEE during surgical valve replacement.<br /><b>Results</b><br />Among 12,043 adult patients (mean age: 74 years old, 42% females) undergoing TEE for transcatheter structural cardiac interventions, 429 (3.6%) patients had a major complication. Complication frequency was higher in patients on anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy compared with those not on therapy (3.9% vs. 0.5%, RR: 8.09, p < 0.001). Compared with those aged <65 years, patients aged ≥ 65 years had a higher frequency of major complications (3.9% vs. 2.2%, RR: 1.75, p < 0.001). Complication frequency was similar among males and females (3.5% vs 3.7%, RR: 0.96, p = 0.67). Among 28,848 patients who completed surgical valve replacement with TEE guidance, 728 (2.5%) suffered a major complication.<br /><b>Conclusions</b><br />This study found that more than 3% of patients undergoing TEE during transcatheter structural cardiac interventions have a major complication which is more common among those on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy or who were elderly. With a shift of poor surgical candidates to less invasive percutaneous procedures, the future of TEE-guided procedures relies on comprehensive risk discussion and updating practices beyond conventional methods to minimize risk for TEE-related complications.<br /><br />Copyright © 2023. Published by Elsevier Inc.<br /><br /><small>J Am Soc Echocardiogr: 04 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print</small></div>
Hasnie A, Parcha V, Hawi R, Trump M, ... Arora P, Arora G
J Am Soc Echocardiogr: 04 Jan 2023; epub ahead of print | PMID: 36610496
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<div><h4>Association of sodium intake with adverse left atrial function and left atrioventricular coupling in Chinese.</h4><i>Yin L, Mei J, Dong J, Qu X, Jiang Y</i><br /><b>Objectives</b><br />High sodium intake is strongly associated with hypertension and obesity. This study aims to investigate the relationship between 24-h urinary sodium (a surrogate measure of sodium intake), ambulatory blood pressure parameters, left atrial function, and left atrioventricular coupling. Further, we intend to examine whether blood pressure and BMI might be mediators of the relationship between 24-h urinary sodium and subclinical cardiac function.<br /><b>Methods</b><br />Our study had 398 participants, all of whom were subjected to 24-h urine collection, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurement, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging.<br /><b>Results</b><br />The average age of the participants was 55.70 ± 11.30 years old. The mean urinary sodium of the participants was 172.01 ± 80.24 mmol/24 h. After adjusting for age, sex, history of diabetes, smoking status, alcohol consumption, and use of diuretics, 24-h urinary sodium was correlated with multiple ambulatory blood pressure parameters, BMI, left atrial function, and the left atrioventricular coupling index (LACI) (P < 0.05). Mediation analysis showed that BMI explained 16% of the indirect effect of 24-h urinary sodium and left atrial function and 30% of the indirect effect of LACI. Independent of the mediator, 24-h urinary sodium had a significant direct effect on left atrial function and left atrioventricular coupling.<br /><b>Conclusions</b><br />Higher 24-h urinary sodium was associated with a greater BMI as well as poor left atrial function and left atrioventricular coupling, and the BMI mediated the relationship between 24-h urinary sodium and subclinical left cardiac function. Furthermore, and more importantly, 24-h urinary sodium may have directly affected the left atrial function and left atrioventricular coupling independent of intermediary factors.<br /><br />Copyright © 2022 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.<br /><br /><small>J Hypertens: 01 Jan 2023; 41:159-170</small></div>
Yin L, Mei J, Dong J, Qu X, Jiang Y
J Hypertens: 01 Jan 2023; 41:159-170 | PMID: 36453659
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This program is still in alpha version.