Topic: Journal Club Selection

Abstract

Donanemab in Early Alzheimer\'s Disease.

Mintun MA, Lo AC, Duggan Evans C, Wessels AM, ... Salloway SP, Skovronsky DM
Background
A hallmark of Alzheimer\'s disease is the accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide. Donanemab, an antibody that targets a modified form of deposited Aβ, is being investigated for the treatment of early Alzheimer\'s disease.
Methods
We conducted a phase 2 trial of donanemab in patients with early symptomatic Alzheimer\'s disease who had tau and amyloid deposition on positron-emission tomography (PET). Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive donanemab (700 mg for the first three doses and 1400 mg thereafter) or placebo intravenously every 4 weeks for up to 72 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the score on the Integrated Alzheimer\'s Disease Rating Scale (iADRS; range, 0 to 144, with lower scores indicating greater cognitive and functional impairment) at 76 weeks. Secondary outcomes included the change in scores on the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), the 13-item cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer\'s Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog13), the Alzheimer\'s Disease Cooperative Study-Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Inventory (ADCS-iADL), and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), as well as the change in the amyloid and tau burden on PET.
Results
A total of 257 patients were enrolled; 131 were assigned to receive donanemab and 126 to receive placebo. The baseline iADRS score was 106 in both groups. The change from baseline in the iADRS score at 76 weeks was -6.86 with donanemab and -10.06 with placebo (difference, 3.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.12 to 6.27; P = 0.04). The results for most secondary outcomes showed no substantial difference. At 76 weeks, the reductions in the amyloid plaque level and the global tau load were 85.06 centiloids and 0.01 greater, respectively, with donanemab than with placebo. Amyloid-related cerebral edema or effusions (mostly asymptomatic) occurred with donanemab.
Conclusions
In patients with early Alzheimer\'s disease, donanemab resulted in a better composite score for cognition and for the ability to perform activities of daily living than placebo at 76 weeks, although results for secondary outcomes were mixed. Longer and larger trials are necessary to study the efficacy and safety of donanemab in Alzheimer\'s disease. (Funded by Eli Lilly; TRAILBLAZER-ALZ ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03367403.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 12 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print
Mintun MA, Lo AC, Duggan Evans C, Wessels AM, ... Salloway SP, Skovronsky DM
N Engl J Med: 12 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33720637
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Abstract

COVID-19 in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

Broberg CS, Kovacs AH, Sadeghi S, Rosenbaum MS, ... Cotts TB, Aboulhosn JA
Background
Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have been considered potentially high risk for novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) mortality or other complications.
Objectives
This study sought to define the impact of COVID-19 in adults with CHD and to identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes.
Methods
Adults (age 18 years or older) with CHD and with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 were included from CHD centers worldwide. Data collection included anatomic diagnosis and subsequent interventions, comorbidities, medications, echocardiographic findings, presenting symptoms, course of illness, and outcomes. Predictors of death or severe infection were determined.
Results
From 58 adult CHD centers, the study included 1,044 infected patients (age: 35.1 ± 13.0 years; range 18 to 86 years; 51% women), 87% of whom had laboratory-confirmed coronavirus infection. The cohort included 118 (11%) patients with single ventricle and/or Fontan physiology, 87 (8%) patients with cyanosis, and 73 (7%) patients with pulmonary hypertension. There were 24 COVID-related deaths (case/fatality: 2.3%; 95% confidence interval: 1.4% to 3.2%). Factors associated with death included male sex, diabetes, cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension, renal insufficiency, and previous hospital admission for heart failure. Worse physiological stage was associated with mortality (p = 0.001), whereas anatomic complexity or defect group were not.
Conclusions
COVID-19 mortality in adults with CHD is commensurate with the general population. The most vulnerable patients are those with worse physiological stage, such as cyanosis and pulmonary hypertension, whereas anatomic complexity does not appear to predict infection severity.

Copyright © 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 05 Apr 2021; 77:1644-1655
Broberg CS, Kovacs AH, Sadeghi S, Rosenbaum MS, ... Cotts TB, Aboulhosn JA
J Am Coll Cardiol: 05 Apr 2021; 77:1644-1655 | PMID: 33795039
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Abstract

The effect of spironolactone on cardiovascular function and markers of fibrosis in people at increased risk of developing heart failure: the heart \'OMics\' in AGEing (HOMAGE) randomized clinical trial.

Cleland JGF, Ferreira JP, Mariottoni B, Pellicori P, ... Zannad F, HOMAGE Trial Committees and Investigators
Aims 
To investigate the effects of spironolactone on fibrosis and cardiac function in people at increased risk of developing heart failure.
Methods and results 
Randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial comparing spironolactone (50 mg/day) or control for up to 9 months in people with, or at high risk of, coronary disease and raised plasma B-type natriuretic peptides. The primary endpoint was the interaction between baseline serum galectin-3 and changes in serum procollagen type-III N-terminal pro-peptide (PIIINP) in participants assigned to spironolactone or control. Procollagen type-I C-terminal pro-peptide (PICP) and collagen type-1 C-terminal telopeptide (CITP), reflecting synthesis and degradation of type-I collagen, were also measured. In 527 participants (median age 73 years, 26% women), changes in PIIINP were similar for spironolactone and control [mean difference (mdiff): -0.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.44 to 0.15 μg/L; P = 0.32] but those receiving spironolactone had greater reductions in PICP (mdiff: -8.1; 95% CI -11.9 to -4.3 μg/L; P < 0.0001) and PICP/CITP ratio (mdiff: -2.9; 95% CI -4.3 to -1.5; <0.0001). No interactions with serum galectin were observed. Systolic blood pressure (mdiff: -10; 95% CI -13 to -7 mmHg; P < 0.0001), left atrial volume (mdiff: -1; 95% CI -2 to 0 mL/m2; P = 0.010), and NT-proBNP (mdiff: -57; 95% CI -81 to -33 ng/L; P < 0.0001) were reduced in those assigned spironolactone.
Conclusions 
Galectin-3 did not identify greater reductions in serum concentrations of collagen biomarkers in response to spironolactone. However, spironolactone may influence type-I collagen metabolism. Whether spironolactone can delay or prevent progression to symptomatic heart failure should be investigated.

© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J: 10 Feb 2021; 42:684-696
Cleland JGF, Ferreira JP, Mariottoni B, Pellicori P, ... Zannad F, HOMAGE Trial Committees and Investigators
Eur Heart J: 10 Feb 2021; 42:684-696 | PMID: 33215209
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Abstract

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 Vaccination.

Greinacher A, Thiele T, Warkentin TE, Weisser K, Kyrle PA, Eichinger S
Background
Several cases of unusual thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia have developed after vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the spike protein antigen of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, AstraZeneca). More data were needed on the pathogenesis of this unusual clotting disorder.
Methods
We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 11 patients in Germany and Austria in whom thrombosis or thrombocytopenia had developed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We used a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin antibodies and a modified (PF4-enhanced) platelet-activation test to detect platelet-activating antibodies under various reaction conditions. Included in this testing were samples from patients who had blood samples referred for investigation of vaccine-associated thrombotic events, with 28 testing positive on a screening PF4-heparin immunoassay.
Results
Of the 11 original patients, 9 were women, with a median age of 36 years (range, 22 to 49). Beginning 5 to 16 days after vaccination, the patients presented with one or more thrombotic events, with the exception of 1 patient, who presented with fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the patients with one or more thrombotic events, 9 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 3 had splanchnic-vein thrombosis, 3 had pulmonary embolism, and 4 had other thromboses; of these patients, 6 died. Five patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. None of the patients had received heparin before symptom onset. All 28 patients who tested positive for antibodies against PF4-heparin tested positive on the platelet-activation assay in the presence of PF4 independent of heparin. Platelet activation was inhibited by high levels of heparin, Fc receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, and immune globulin (10 mg per milliliter). Additional studies with PF4 or PF4-heparin affinity purified antibodies in 2 patients confirmed PF4-dependent platelet activation.
Conclusions
Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 can result in the rare development of immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4, which clinically mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (Funded by the German Research Foundation.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 08 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print
Greinacher A, Thiele T, Warkentin TE, Weisser K, Kyrle PA, Eichinger S
N Engl J Med: 08 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33835769
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Abstract

Oncolytic HSV-1 G207 Immunovirotherapy for Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas.

Friedman GK, Johnston JM, Bag AK, Bernstock JD, ... Markert JM, Gillespie GY
Background
Outcomes in children and adolescents with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma are poor, with a historical median overall survival of 5.6 months. Pediatric high-grade gliomas are largely immunologically silent or \"cold,\" with few tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Preclinically, pediatric brain tumors are highly sensitive to oncolytic virotherapy with genetically engineered herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) G207, which lacks genes essential for replication in normal brain tissue.
Methods
We conducted a phase 1 trial of G207, which used a 3+3 design with four dose cohorts of children and adolescents with biopsy-confirmed recurrent or progressive supratentorial brain tumors. Patients underwent stereotactic placement of up to four intratumoral catheters. The following day, they received G207 (107 or 108 plaque-forming units) by controlled-rate infusion over a period of 6 hours. Cohorts 3 and 4 received radiation (5 Gy) to the gross tumor volume within 24 hours after G207 administration. Viral shedding from saliva, conjunctiva, and blood was assessed by culture and polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Matched pre- and post-treatment tissue samples were examined for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by immunohistologic analysis.
Results
Twelve patients 7 to 18 years of age with high-grade glioma received G207. No dose-limiting toxic effects or serious adverse events were attributed to G207 by the investigators. Twenty grade 1 adverse events were possibly related to G207. No virus shedding was detected. Radiographic, neuropathological, or clinical responses were seen in 11 patients. The median overall survival was 12.2 months (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 16.4); as of June 5, 2020, a total of 4 of 11 patients were still alive 18 months after G207 treatment. G207 markedly increased the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Conclusions
Intratumoral G207 alone and with radiation had an acceptable adverse-event profile with evidence of responses in patients with recurrent or progressive pediatric high-grade glioma. G207 converted immunologically \"cold\" tumors to \"hot.\" (Supported by the Food and Drug Administration and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02457845.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 09 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print
Friedman GK, Johnston JM, Bag AK, Bernstock JD, ... Markert JM, Gillespie GY
N Engl J Med: 09 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33838625
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Abstract

Hypothermic Machine Perfusion in Liver Transplantation - A Randomized Trial.

van Rijn R, Schurink IJ, de Vries Y, van den Berg AP, ... Porte RJ, DHOPE-DCD Trial Investigators
Background
Transplantation of livers obtained from donors after circulatory death is associated with an increased risk of nonanastomotic biliary strictures. Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion of livers may reduce the incidence of biliary complications, but data from prospective, controlled studies are limited.
Methods
In this multicenter, controlled trial, we randomly assigned patients who were undergoing transplantation of a liver obtained from a donor after circulatory death to receive that liver either after hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion (machine-perfusion group) or after conventional static cold storage alone (control group). The primary end point was the incidence of nonanastomotic biliary strictures within 6 months after transplantation. Secondary end points included other graft-related and general complications.
Results
A total of 160 patients were enrolled, of whom 78 received a machine-perfused liver and 78 received a liver after static cold storage only (4 patients did not receive a liver in this trial). Nonanastomotic biliary strictures occurred in 6% of the patients in the machine-perfusion group and in 18% of those in the control group (risk ratio, 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14 to 0.94; P = 0.03). Postreperfusion syndrome occurred in 12% of the recipients of a machine-perfused liver and in 27% of those in the control group (risk ratio, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.91). Early allograft dysfunction occurred in 26% of the machine-perfused livers, as compared with 40% of control livers (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.39 to 0.96). The cumulative number of treatments for nonanastomotic biliary strictures was lower by a factor of almost 4 after machine perfusion, as compared with control. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two groups.
Conclusions
Hypothermic oxygenated machine perfusion led to a lower risk of nonanastomotic biliary strictures following the transplantation of livers obtained from donors after circulatory death than conventional static cold storage. (Funded by Fonds NutsOhra; DHOPE-DCD ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02584283.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 23 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print
van Rijn R, Schurink IJ, de Vries Y, van den Berg AP, ... Porte RJ, DHOPE-DCD Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med: 23 Feb 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33626248
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Abstract

Genome-wide association analysis in dilated cardiomyopathy reveals two new players in systolic heart failure on chromosomes 3p25.1 and 22q11.23.

Garnier S, Harakalova M, Weiss S, Mokry M, ... Trégouët DA, Charron P
Aims 
Our objective was to better understand the genetic bases of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), a leading cause of systolic heart failure.
Methods and results 
We conducted the largest genome-wide association study performed so far in DCM, with 2719 cases and 4440 controls in the discovery population. We identified and replicated two new DCM-associated loci on chromosome 3p25.1 [lead single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs62232870, P = 8.7 × 10-11 and 7.7 × 10-4 in the discovery and replication steps, respectively] and chromosome 22q11.23 (lead SNP rs7284877, P = 3.3 × 10-8 and 1.4 × 10-3 in the discovery and replication steps, respectively), while confirming two previously identified DCM loci on chromosomes 10 and 1, BAG3 and HSPB7. A genetic risk score constructed from the number of risk alleles at these four DCM loci revealed a 27% increased risk of DCM for individuals with 8 risk alleles compared to individuals with 5 risk alleles (median of the referral population). In silico annotation and functional 4C-sequencing analyses on iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes identify SLC6A6 as the most likely DCM gene at the 3p25.1 locus. This gene encodes a taurine transporter whose involvement in myocardial dysfunction and DCM is supported by numerous observations in humans and animals. At the 22q11.23 locus, in silico and data mining annotations, and to a lesser extent functional analysis, strongly suggest SMARCB1 as the candidate culprit gene.
Conclusion 
This study provides a better understanding of the genetic architecture of DCM and sheds light on novel biological pathways underlying heart failure.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J: 02 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print
Garnier S, Harakalova M, Weiss S, Mokry M, ... Trégouët DA, Charron P
Eur Heart J: 02 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33677556
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Abstract

Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, ischaemic ventricular fibrillation, and torsade de pointes: importance of the QT and the coupling interval in the differential diagnosis.

Rosso R, Hochstadt A, Viskin D, Chorin E, ... Banai S, Viskin S
Aims
Distinctive types of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) respond differently to different forms of therapy. We therefore performed the present study to define the electrocardiographic characteristics of different forms of polymorphic VT.
Methods and results
We studied 190 patients for whom the onset of 305 polymorphic VT events was available. The study group included 87 patients with coronary artery disease who had spontaneous polymorphic VT triggered by short-coupled extrasystoles in the absence of myocardial ischaemia. This group included 32 patients who had a long QT interval but nevertheless had their polymorphic VT triggered by ectopic beats with short coupling interval, a subcategory termed \'pseudo-torsade de pointes] (TdP). For comparison, we included 50 patients who had ventricular fibrillation (VF) during acute myocardial infarction (\'ischaemic VF\' group) and 53 patients with drug-induced TdP (\'true TdP\' group). The QT of patients with pseudo-TdP was (by definition) longer than that of patients with polymorphic VT and normal QT (QTc 491.4 ± 25.2 ms vs. 447.3 ± 55.6 ms, P < 0.001). However, their QT was significantly shorter than that of patients with true TdP (QTc 564.6 ± 75.6 ms, P < 0.001). Importantly, the coupling interval of the ectopic beat triggering the arrhythmia was just as short during pseudo-TdP as during polymorphic VT with normal QT (359.1 ± 38.1 ms vs. 356.6 ± 39.4 ms, P = 0.467) but was much shorter than during true TdP (581.2 ± 95.3 ms, P < 0.001).
Conclusions
The coupling interval helps discriminate between polymorphic VT that occurs despite a long QT interval (pseudo-TdP) and polymorphic arrhythmias striking because of a long QT (true TdP).

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2021. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J: 09 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print
Rosso R, Hochstadt A, Viskin D, Chorin E, ... Banai S, Viskin S
Eur Heart J: 09 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33693589
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Abstract

Association of Phosphodiesterase-5 Inhibitors Versus Alprostadil With Survival in Men With Coronary Artery Disease.

Andersson DP, Landucci L, Lagerros YT, Grotta A, ... Lehtihet M, Holzmann MJ
Background
Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (PDE5i) treatment is associated with reduced mortality compared with no treatment for erectile dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI).
Objectives
This study sought to investigate the association between treatment with PDE5i or alprostadil and outcomes in men with stable coronary artery disease.
Methods
All Swedish men with a prior MI or revascularization who received PDE5i or alprostadil during 2006 through 2013 at >6 months after the event were included, using the Swedish Patient Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register. Cox regression was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for all-cause mortality, MI, heart failure, cardiovascular mortality, noncardiovascular mortality, cardiac revascularization, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke in men treated with PDE5i versus alprostadil.
Results
This study included 16,548 men treated with PDE5i and 1,994 treated with alprostadil. The mean follow-up was 5.8 years, with 2,261 deaths (14%) in the PDE5i group and 521 (26%) in the alprostadil group. PDE5i compared with alprostadil treatment was associated with lower mortality (hazard ratio: 0.88; 95% confidence interval: 0.79 to 0.98) and with similar associations for MI, heart failure, cardiovascular mortality, and revascularization. When quintiles (q) of filled PDE5i prescriptions were compared using q1 as reference, patients in q3, q4, and q5 had lower all-cause mortality. Among alprostadil users, those in q5 had a lower all-cause mortality compared to q1.
Conclusions
In men with stable coronary artery disease, treatment with PDE5i is associated with lower risks of death, MI, heart failure, and revascularization compared with alprostadil treatment. Although the decrease in all-cause mortality was PDE5i dose dependent, the data do not permit the inference of causality or any clinical benefits of PDE5i because of the observational study design.

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 29 Mar 2021; 77:1535-1550
Andersson DP, Landucci L, Lagerros YT, Grotta A, ... Lehtihet M, Holzmann MJ
J Am Coll Cardiol: 29 Mar 2021; 77:1535-1550 | PMID: 33766260
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Abstract

Atherosclerotic Carotid Plaque Composition and Incident Stroke and Coronary Events.

Bos D, Arshi B, van den Bouwhuijsen QJA, Ikram MK, ... Kavousi M, van der Lugt A
Background
Increasing evidence suggests that atherosclerotic plaque composition rather than plaque size is linked to ischemic cardiovascular events, yet largescale population-based data in asymptomatic individuals remain scarce.
Objectives
This study sought to investigate carotid plaque composition in relation to incident stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD) in a population-based setting.
Methods
Between 2007 and 2012, 1,349 persons (mean age 72 years, 49.5% women) from the population-based Rotterdam Study who were free from a history of stroke or CHD, in whom carotid ultrasonography showed subclinical atherosclerosis, and who underwent high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the carotid arteries to assess plaque characteristics. These included the presence of specific plaque components (intraplaque hemorrhage [IPH], lipid-rich necrotic core, and calcification), and measures of plaque size (maximum plaque thickness and presence of stenosis of more than 30%). Individuals were continuously followed for the occurrence of stroke or CHD until January 1, 2015. The authors used Cox regression models to assess the association of the plaque characteristics with the incidence of stroke and CHD, with adjustments for age, sex, and cardiovascular risk factors.
Results
During a median of 5.1 years\' follow-up for stroke and 4.8 years for CHD, 51 individuals had a stroke and 83 developed CHD. Independent of maximum plaque thickness and cardiovascular risk factors, the presence of IPH was associated with incident stroke and CHD (fully adjusted hazard ratio: 2.42 [95% confidence interval: 1.30 to 4.50], and 1.95 [95% confidence interval: 1.20 to 3.14]). Presence of a lipid-rich necrotic core and calcification were not associated with stroke or CHD.
Conclusions
The presence of IPH in the carotid atherosclerotic plaque is an independent risk factor for stroke and CHD. These findings indicate the promise of IPH as a marker of plaque vulnerability in healthy persons with subclinical atherosclerosis.

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 22 Mar 2021; 77:1426-1435
Bos D, Arshi B, van den Bouwhuijsen QJA, Ikram MK, ... Kavousi M, van der Lugt A
J Am Coll Cardiol: 22 Mar 2021; 77:1426-1435 | PMID: 33736825
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Abstract

The management of secondary mitral regurgitation in patients with heart failure: a joint position statement from the Heart Failure Association (HFA), European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), and European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) of the ESC.

Coats AJS, Anker SD, Baumbach A, Alfieri O, ... Seferovic PM, Prendergast B
Secondary (or functional) mitral regurgitation (SMR) occurs frequently in chronic heart failure (HF) with reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, resulting from LV remodelling that prevents coaptation of the valve leaflets. Secondary mitral regurgitation contributes to progression of the symptoms and signs of HF and confers worse prognosis. The management of HF patients with SMR is complex and requires timely referral to a multidisciplinary Heart Team. Optimization of pharmacological and device therapy according to guideline recommendations is crucial. Further management requires careful clinical and imaging assessment, addressing the anatomical and functional features of the mitral valve and left ventricle, overall HF status, and relevant comorbidities. Evidence concerning surgical correction of SMR is sparse and it is doubtful whether this approach improves prognosis. Transcatheter repair has emerged as a promising alternative, but the conflicting results of current randomized trials require careful interpretation. This collaborative position statement, developed by four key associations of the European Society of Cardiology-the Heart Failure Association (HFA), European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI), European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI), and European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA)-presents an updated practical approach to the evaluation and management of patients with HF and SMR based upon a Heart Team approach.

© The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur Heart J: 17 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print
Coats AJS, Anker SD, Baumbach A, Alfieri O, ... Seferovic PM, Prendergast B
Eur Heart J: 17 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33734354
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Abstract

Clonal Hematopoiesis and Risk of Progression of Heart Failure With Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

Pascual-Figal DA, Bayes-Genis A, Díez-Díez M, Hernández-Vicente Á, ... Sánchez-Cabo F, Fuster JJ
Background
Clonal hematopoiesis driven by somatic mutations in hematopoietic cells, frequently called clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in population-based studies and in patients with ischemic heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Yet, the impact of CHIP on HF progression, including nonischemic etiology, is unknown.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical impact of clonal hematopoiesis on HF progression irrespective of its etiology.
Methods
The study cohort comprised 62 patients with HF and LVEF <45% (age 74 ± 7 years, 74% men, 52% nonischemic, and LVEF 30 ± 8%). Deep sequencing was used to detect CHIP mutations with a variant allelic fraction >2% in 54 genes. Patients were followed for at least 3.5 years for various adverse events including death, HF-related death, and HF hospitalization.
Results
CHIP mutations were detected in 24 (38.7%) patients, without significant differences in all-cause mortality (p = 0.151). After adjusting for risk factors, patients with mutations in either DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) or Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) exhibited accelerated HF progression in terms of death (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31 to 5.92; p = 0.008), death or HF hospitalization (HR: 3.84; 95% CI: 1.84 to 8.04; p < 0.001) and HF-related death or HF hospitalization (HR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.15 to 9.03; p < 0.001). In single gene-specific analyses, somatic mutations in DNMT3A or TET2 retained prognostic significance with regard to HF-related death or HF hospitalization (HR: 4.50; 95% CI: 2.07 to 9.74; p < 0.001, for DNMT3A mutations; HR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.52 to 6.66; p = 0.002, for TET2 mutations). This association remained significant irrespective of ischemic/nonischemic etiology.
Conclusions
Somatic mutations that drive clonal hematopoiesis are common among HF patients with reduced LVEF and are associated with accelerated HF progression regardless of etiology.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Apr 2021; 77:1747-1759
Pascual-Figal DA, Bayes-Genis A, Díez-Díez M, Hernández-Vicente Á, ... Sánchez-Cabo F, Fuster JJ
J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Apr 2021; 77:1747-1759 | PMID: 33832602
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Impact:
Abstract

Platelet Reactivity in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndromes Awaiting Surgical Revascularization.

Nakashima CAK, Dallan LAO, Lisboa LAF, Jatene FB, ... Gurbel PA, Nicolau JC
Background
Dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended for patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Approximately 10% to 15% of these patients will undergo coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery for index events, and current guidelines recommend stopping clopidogrel at least 5 days before CABG. This waiting time has clinical and economic implications.
Objectives
This study aimed to evaluate if a platelet reactivity-based strategy is noninferior to standard of care for 24-h post-CABG bleeding.
Methods
In this randomized, open label noninferiority trial, 190 patients admitted with ACS with indications for CABG and on aspirin and P2Y12 receptor inhibitors, were assigned to either control group, P2Y12 receptor inhibitor withdrawn 5 to 7 days before CABG, or intervention group, daily measurements of platelet reactivity by Multiplate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Vienna, Austria) with CABG planned the next working day after platelet reactivity normalization (pre-defined as ≥46 aggregation units).
Results
Within the first 24 h of CABG, the median chest tube drainage was 350 ml (interquartile range [IQR]: 250 to 475 ml) and 350 ml (IQR: 255 to 500 ml) in the intervention and control groups, respectively (p for noninferiority <0.001). The median waiting period between the decision to undergo CABG and the procedure was 112 h (IQR: 66 to 142 h) and 136 h (IQR: 112 to 161 h) (p < 0.001), respectively. In the intention-to-treat analysis, a 6.4% decrease in the median in-hospital expenses was observed in the intervention group (p = 0.014), with 11.2% decrease in the analysis per protocol (p = 0.003).
Conclusions
A strategy based on platelet reactivity-guided is noninferior to the standard of care in patients with ACS awaiting CABG regarding peri-operative bleeding, significantly shortens the waiting time to CABG, and decreases hospital expenses. (Evaluation of Platelet Aggregability in the Release of CABG in Patients With ACS With DAPT; NCT02516267).

Copyright © 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 15 Mar 2021; 77:1277-1286
Nakashima CAK, Dallan LAO, Lisboa LAF, Jatene FB, ... Gurbel PA, Nicolau JC
J Am Coll Cardiol: 15 Mar 2021; 77:1277-1286 | PMID: 33706868
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Abstract

Replacement Myocardial Fibrosis in Patients with Mitral Valve Prolapse: Relation to Mitral Regurgitation, Ventricular Remodeling and Arrhythmia.

Constant Dit Beaufils AL, Huttin O, Jobbe-Duval A, Senage T, ... Selton-Suty C, Le Tourneau T
Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a frequent disease that can be complicated by mitral regurgitation (MR), heart failure, arterial embolism, rhythm disorders and death. Left ventricular (LV) replacement myocardial fibrosis, a marker of maladaptive remodeling, has been described in patients with MVP, but the implications of this finding remain scarcely explored. We aimed at assessing the prevalence, pathophysiological and prognostic significance of LV replacement myocardial fibrosis through late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in patients with MVP.
Methods:
Four hundred patients (53±15 years, 55% male) with MVP (trace to severe MR by echocardiography) from 2 centers, who underwent a comprehensive echocardiography and LGE CMR, were included. Correlates of replacement myocardial fibrosis (LGE+), influence of MR degree, and ventricular arrhythmia were assessed. The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular events (cardiac death, heart failure, new-onset atrial fibrillation, arterial embolism, and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia).
Results:
Replacement myocardial fibrosis (LGE+) was observed in 110 patients (28%; 91 myocardial wall including 71 basal inferolateral wall, 29 papillary muscle). LGE+ prevalence was 13% in trace-mild MR, 28% in moderate and 37% in severe MR, and was associated with specific features of mitral valve apparatus, more dilated LV and more frequent ventricular arrhythmias (45 vs 26%, P<0.0001). In trace-mild MR, despite the absence of significant volume overload, abnormal LV dilatation was observed in 16% of patients and ventricular arrhythmia in 25%. Correlates of LGE+ in multivariable analysis were LV mass (OR 1.01, 95% CI [1.002-1.017], P=0.009) and moderate-severe MR (OR: 2.28, 95% CI [1.21-4.31], P=0.011). LGE+ was associated with worse 4-year cardiovascular event-free survival (49.6±11.7 in LGE+ vs 73.3±6.5% in LGE-, P<0.0001). In a stepwise multivariable Cox model, MR volume and LGE+ (HR: 2.6 [1.4-4.9], P=0.002) were associated with poor outcome. Conclusions: LV replacement myocardial fibrosis is frequent in patients with MVP, is associated with mitral valve apparatus alteration, more dilated LV, MR grade, ventricular arrhythmia, and is independently associated with cardiovascular events. These findings suggest a MVP-related myocardial disease. Finally, CMR provides additional information to echocardiography in MVP.




Circulation: 11 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print
Constant Dit Beaufils AL, Huttin O, Jobbe-Duval A, Senage T, ... Selton-Suty C, Le Tourneau T
Circulation: 11 Mar 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33706538
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Abstract

Discordance of High-Sensitivity Troponin Assays in Patients With Suspected Acute Coronary Syndromes.

Karády J, Mayrhofer T, Ferencik M, Nagurney JT, ... Koenig W, Hoffmann U
Background
High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) assays have different analytic characteristics.
Objectives
The goal of this study was to quantify differences between assays for common analytical benchmarks and to determine whether they may result in differences in the management of patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
Methods
The authors included patients with suspected ACS enrolled in the ROMICAT (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction/Ischemia Using Computer Assisted Tomography) I and II trials, with blood samples taken at emergency department presentation (ROMICAT-I and -II) or at 2 and 4 h thereafter (ROMICAT-II). hs-cTn concentrations were measured using 3 assays (Roche Diagnostics, Elecsys 2010 platform; Abbott Diagnostics, ARCHITECT i2000SR; Siemens Diagnostics, HsVista). Per blood sample, we determined concordance across analytic benchmarks (<limit of detection [<LOD]/LOD-99th percentile/>99th percentile). Per-patient, the authors determined concordance of management recommendations (rule-out/observe/rule-in) per the 0/2-h algorithm, and their association with diagnostic test findings (coronary artery stenosis >50% on coronary computed tomography angiography or inducible ischemia on perfusion imaging) and ACS.
Results
Among 1,027 samples from 624 patients (52.8 ± 10.0 years; 39.4% women), samples were classified as <LOD (56.3% vs. 10.4% vs. 41.2%; p < 0.001), LOD-99th percentile (36.5% vs. 83.5% vs. 52.6; p < 0.001), >99th percentile (7.2% vs. 6.0% vs. 6.2%) by Roche, Abbott, and Siemens, respectively. A total of 37.4% (n = 384 of 1,027) of blood samples were classified into the same analytical benchmark category, with low concordance across benchmarks (<LOD 11.1%; LOD-99th percentile 29.3%; >99th percentile 43.6%). Serial samples were available in 242 patients (40.1% women; mean age: 52.8 ± 8.0 years). The concordance of management recommendations across assays was 74.8% (n = 181 of 242) considering serial hs-cTn measurements. Of patients who were recommended to discharge, 19.6% to 21.1% had positive diagnostic test findings and 2.8% to 4.3% had ACS at presentation.
Conclusions
Caregivers should be aware that there are significant differences between hs-cTn assays in stratifying individual samples and patients with intermediate likelihood of ACS according to analytical benchmarks that may result in different management recommendations. (Rule Out Myocardial Infarction by Computer Assisted Tomography [ROMICAT]; NCT00990262) (Multicenter Study to Rule Out Myocardial Infarction by Cardiac Computed Tomography [ROMICAT-II]; NCT01084239).

Copyright © 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 29 Mar 2021; 77:1487-1499
Karády J, Mayrhofer T, Ferencik M, Nagurney JT, ... Koenig W, Hoffmann U
J Am Coll Cardiol: 29 Mar 2021; 77:1487-1499 | PMID: 33766254
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Abstract

The role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 in cardiomyocyte injury after myocardial infarction.

Li L, Fu W, Gong X, Chen Z, ... Wang WE, Zeng C
Aims
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) has been reported to play an important role in hypertension, but little is known about its role in cardiomyocytes and myocardial infarction (MI). The goal of present study is to explore the role of GRK4 in the pathogenesis and progression of MI.
Methods and results
We studied the expression and distribution pattern of GRK4 in mouse heart after MI. GRK4 A486V transgenic mice, inducible cardiomyocyte-specific GRK4 knockout mice, were generated and subjected to MI with their control mice. Cardiac infarction, cardiac function, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, autophagic activity, and HDAC4 phosphorylation were assessed. The mRNA and protein levels of GRK4 in the heart were increased after MI. Transgenic mice with the overexpression of human GRK4 wild type (WT) or human GRK4 A486V variant had increased cardiac infarction, exaggerated cardiac dysfunction and remodelling. In contrast, the MI-induced cardiac dysfunction and remodelling were ameliorated in cardiomyocyte-specific GRK4 knockout mice. GRK4 overexpression in cardiomyocytes aggravated apoptosis, repressed autophagy, and decreased beclin-1 expression, which were partially rescued by the autophagy agonist rapamycin. MI also induced the nuclear translocation of GRK4, which inhibited autophagy by increasing HDAC4 phosphorylation and decreasing its binding to the beclin-1 promoter. HDAC4 S632A mutation partially restored the GRK4-induced inhibition of autophagy. MI caused greater impairment of cardiac function in patients carrying the GRK4 A486V variant than in WT carriers.
Conclusion
GRK4 increases cardiomyocyte injury during MI by inhibiting autophagy and promoting cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These effects are mediated by the phosphorylation of HDAC4 and a decrease in beclin-1 expression.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J: 06 Apr 2021; 42:1415-1430
Li L, Fu W, Gong X, Chen Z, ... Wang WE, Zeng C
Eur Heart J: 06 Apr 2021; 42:1415-1430 | PMID: 33280021
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Abstract

Cardiovascular Disease in Chronic Kidney Disease: Pathophysiological Insights and Therapeutic Options.

Jankowski J, Floege J, Fliser D, Böhm M, Marx N
Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) exhibit an elevated cardiovascular risk manifesting as coronary artery disease, heart failure, arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. Although the incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular events is already significantly higher in patients with early CKD stages (CKD stages 1-3) compared with the general population, patients with advanced CKD stages (CKD stages 4-5) exhibit a markedly elevated risk. Cardiovascular rather than end-stage kidney disease (CKD stage 5) is the leading cause of death in this high-risk population. CKD causes a systemic, chronic proinflammatory state contributing to vascular and myocardial remodeling processes resulting in atherosclerotic lesions, vascular calcification, and vascular senescence as well as myocardial fibrosis and calcification of cardiac valves. In this respect, CKD mimics an accelerated aging of the cardiovascular system. This overview article summarizes the current understanding and clinical consequences of cardiovascular disease in CKD.



Circulation: 15 Mar 2021; 143:1157-1172
Jankowski J, Floege J, Fliser D, Böhm M, Marx N
Circulation: 15 Mar 2021; 143:1157-1172 | PMID: 33720773
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Abstract

Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissection in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Cohort Study.

Adham S, Billon C, Legrand A, Domigo V, ... Jeunemaitre X, Frank M
Background:
and purpose
Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare inherited connective tissue disorder because of pathogenic variants in the COL3A1 gene. Arterial complications can affect all anatomic areas and about 25% involve supra-aortic trunks (SATs) but no systematic assessment of cervical artery lesions has been made. The primary objective was to determine an accurate prevalence of spontaneous SAT lesions in a large series of patients with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome at diagnosis and during follow-up. Secondary objectives were to study their neurological consequences (transient ischemic attack or stroke) and the possible relationships with sex, genotype, ascertainment status.
Methods
A retrospective review of a monocentric cohort of patients with molecularly proven vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome followed in a tertiary referral center from 2000 to 2017.
Results
One hundred forty-four patients were analyzed, 56.9% (n=82) had SAT lesions: 64.6% females, 74.4% index-case patients. Most lesions were identified in early arterial assessment (48% at first work-up, mean age of 35.7±13.0 years). Cumulative incidence of a first identification of a SAT lesion was 41.7% at 40 years old. On the complete period of survey, 183 SAT lesions (with 132 dissections and 33 aneurysms) were identified, mainly in internal carotid arteries (56.3%) and vertebral arteries (28.9%), more rarely in patients with COL3A1 null mutations (P=0.008). Transient ischemic attack or stroke were reported in n=16 (19.5%) of the 82 patients with SAT lesions without relation with age, sex, treatment, or hypertension.
Conclusions
Cervical artery lesions are frequent and mostly asymptomatic in patients with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Local dissections and aneurysms are the most frequent type of lesions, but transient ischemic attack or stroke seem rare.



Stroke: 29 Apr 2021; 52:1628-1635
Adham S, Billon C, Legrand A, Domigo V, ... Jeunemaitre X, Frank M
Stroke: 29 Apr 2021; 52:1628-1635 | PMID: 33641388
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This program is still in alpha version.