Journal: J Nucl Cardiol

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Abstract

Anti-inflammatory effect of rosuvastatin in patients with HIV infection: An FDG-PET pilot study.

Boczar KE, Faller E, Zeng W, Wang J, ... MacPherson P, Dwivedi G
Aims
This study aimed to evaluate markers of systemic as well as imaging markers of inflammation in the ascending aorta, bone marrow, and spleen measured by 18F-FDG PET/CT, in HIV+ patients at baseline and following therapy with rosuvastatin.
Methods and results
Of the 35 HIV+ patients enrolled, 17 were randomized to treatment with 10 mg/day rosuvastatin and 18 to usual care for 6 months. An HIV- control cohort was selected for baseline comparison of serum inflammatory markers and monocyte markers of inflammation. 18F-FDG-PET/CT imaging of bone marrow, spleen, and thoracic aorta was performed in the HIV+ cohort at baseline and 6 months. While CD14++CD16- and CCR2 expressions were reduced, serum levels of IL-7, IL-8, and MCP-1 were elevated in the HIV+ population compared to the controls. There was a significant drop in FDG uptake in the bone marrow (TBRmax), spleen (SUVmax) and thoracic aortic (TBRmax) in the statin-treated group compared to the control group (bone marrow: - 10.3 ± 16.9% versus 5.0 ± 18.9%, p = .0262; spleen: - 9.8 ± 20.3% versus 11.3 ± 28.8%, p = .0497; thoracic aorta: - 19.1 ± 24.2% versus 4.3 ± 15.4%, p = .003).
Conclusions
HIV+ patients had significantly markers of systemic inflammation including monocyte activation. Treatment with low-dose rosuvastatin in the HIV+ cohort significantly reduced bone marrow, spleen and thoracic aortic FDG uptake.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 23 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Boczar KE, Faller E, Zeng W, Wang J, ... MacPherson P, Dwivedi G
J Nucl Cardiol: 23 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34820771
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Abstract

Coronary vasomotor dysfunction portends worse outcomes in patients with breast cancer.

Divakaran S, Caron JP, Zhou W, Hainer J, ... Nohria A, Di Carli MF
Background
Impaired MFR in the absence of flow-limiting CAD is associated with adverse events. Cardiovascular disease is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with breast cancer. We sought to test the utility of MFR to predict outcomes in a cohort of patients with breast cancer.
Methods
We retrospectively studied consecutive patients with breast cancer or breast cancer survivors who underwent cardiac stress PET imaging from 2006 to 2017 at Brigham and Women\'s Hospital. Patients with a history of clinically overt CAD, LVEF < 45%, or abnormal myocardial perfusion were excluded. Subjects were followed from time of PET to the occurrence of a first major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and all-cause death.
Results
The final cohort included 87 patients (median age 69.0 years, 98.9% female, mean MFR 2.05). Over a median follow-up of 7.6 years after PET, the lowest MFR tertile was associated with higher cumulative incidence of MACE (adjusted subdistribution hazard ratio 4.91; 95% CI 1.68-14.38; p = 0.004) when compared with the highest MFR tertile.
Conclusions
In patients with breast cancer, coronary vasomotor dysfunction was associated with incident cardiovascular events. MFR may have potential as a risk stratification biomarker among patients with/survivors of breast cancer.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 23 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Divakaran S, Caron JP, Zhou W, Hainer J, ... Nohria A, Di Carli MF
J Nucl Cardiol: 23 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34820770
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Abstract

Incremental value of F-FDG cardiac PET imaging over dobutamine stress echocardiography in predicting myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.

Zampella E, Assante R, Acampa W, Gaudieri V, ... Petretta M, Cuocolo A
Background
To assess the incremental value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) over dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in predicting myocardial ischemia in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD).
Methods
Forty-one patients with suspected CAD underwent within 7 days apart rest-stress cardiac PET with 82Rb and DSE followed by cardiac 18F-FDG PET imaging. 18F-FDG images were scored on a 0 (no discernible uptake) to 2 (intense uptake) scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of stress-induced ischemia. The incremental value of 18F-FDG PET over DSE in detecting ischemia at 82Rb PET cardiac imaging was assessed by the likelihood ratio chi-square and net reclassification index.
Results
On 82Rb-PET imaging, myocardial ischemia (ischemic total perfusion defect ≥ 5%) was detected in 20 (49%) patients. Inducible ischemia was found in 22 (54%) patients on DSE (biphasic or worsening response pattern in ≥ 1 segment) and in 21 (51%) patients on 18F-FDG PET (uptake score of 2 in ≥ 1 segment). 18F-FDG PET resulted as statistically significant predictor of ischemia on 82Rb-PET. The addition of 18F-FDG PET to DSE increased the likelihood of ischemia on 82Rb-PET (P < .05). 18F-FDG PET was able to reclassify the probability of stress-induced myocardial ischemia on both patient and vessel analyses.
Conclusion
18F-FDG PET performed after dobutamine stress test may provide incremental value to DSE in the evaluation of myocardial ischemia. These results suggest that stress-induced myocardial ischemia can be imaged directly using 18F-FDG PET after dobutamine stress test.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 16 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Zampella E, Assante R, Acampa W, Gaudieri V, ... Petretta M, Cuocolo A
J Nucl Cardiol: 16 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34791621
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Abstract

Impact of residual subtraction on myocardial blood flow and reserve estimates from rapid dynamic PET protocols.

Poitrasson-Rivière A, Moody JB, Renaud JM, Hagio T, ... Ficaro EP, Murthy VL
Background
13N-ammonia and 18F-flurpiridaz require longer delays between rest and stress studies to allow for decay, lowering clinical throughput. In this study, we investigated the impact of residual subtraction on MBF and MFR estimates, as well as its effects on diagnostic accuracy.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 63 patients who underwent a dynamic ammonia rest/stress study and 231 patients from the flurpiridaz 301 trial. Residual subtraction was performed by subtracting the mean pre-injection activity in each sampled region from that region\'s time activity curve. Corrected and uncorrected MBF and MFR were analyzed. Diagnostic accuracy was compared to quantitative coronary angiograms (QCA) for the flurpiridaz population.
Results
With delays between injections above 3 half-lives, and a doubled stress dose, residual activity did not meaningfully increase ammonia MBF (< 5%). For shorter injection delays, stress MBF was overestimated by 13.6% ± 5.0% (P < .001). Residual activity had a large effect on flurpiridaz stress MBF, overestimating it by 37.9% ± 23.2% (P < .001). Comparison to QCA showed a significant improvement in AUC with residual subtraction (from 0.748 to 0.831, P = .001). MFR yielded similar results.
Conclusions
Accounting for residual activity has a marked impact on stress MBF and MFR and improves diagnostic accuracy relative to QCA.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 14 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Poitrasson-Rivière A, Moody JB, Renaud JM, Hagio T, ... Ficaro EP, Murthy VL
J Nucl Cardiol: 14 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34780036
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Abstract

Prognostic value of cardiac inflammation in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT study.

Xi XY, Liu Z, Wang LF, Yang MF
Background
18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) imaging is used to detect cardiac inflammation and predict functional outcome in acute myocardial infarction (MI). However, data on the correlation of post-MI acute cardiac inflammation evaluated by 18F-FDG imaging and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) are limited. Therefore, we sought to explore the prognostic value of cardiac 18F-FDG imaging in patients with acute ST-segment elevation MI (STEMI).
Methods
Thirty-six patients with STEMI underwent 18F-FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) 5 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention. 18F-FDG activity in infarcted and remote regions, as well as peri-coronary adipose tissue (PCAT), were measured and expressed as the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Patients were followed to determine the occurrence of MACE.
Results
The infarcted myocardium had a higher 18F-FDG intensity than the remote area. Moreover, the PCAT of culprit coronary arteries showed a higher 18F-FDG uptake than that of non-culprit arteries. Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that increased SUVmax of PCAT [HR 5.198; 95% CI (1.058, 25.537), P = .042] was independently associated with a higher risk of MACE.
Conclusions
Enhanced PCAT activity after acute MI is related to the occurrence of MACE, and 18F-FDG PET/CT plays a promising role in providing prognostic information in patients with STEMI.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 11 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Xi XY, Liu Z, Wang LF, Yang MF
J Nucl Cardiol: 11 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34773185
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Abstract

Comparison of diabetes to other prognostic predictors among patients referred for cardiac stress testing: A contemporary analysis from the REFINE SPECT Registry.

Han D, Rozanski A, Gransar H, Tzolos E, ... Berman DS, Slomka PJ
Background
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is increasingly prevalent among contemporary populations referred for cardiac stress testing, but its potency as a predictor for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) vs other clinical variables is not well delineated.
Methods and results
From 19,658 patients who underwent SPECT-MPI, we identified 3122 patients with DM without known coronary artery disease (CAD) (DM+/CAD-) and 3564 without DM with known CAD (DM-/CAD+). Propensity score matching was used to control for the differences in characteristics between DM+/CAD- and DM-/CAD+ groups. There was comparable MACE in the matched DM+/CAD- and DM-/CAD+ groups (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.97-1.37). By Chi-square analysis, type of stress (exercise or pharmacologic), total perfusion deficit (TPD), and left ventricular function were the most potent predictors of MACE, followed by CAD and DM status. The combined consideration of mode of stress, TPD, and DM provided synergistic stratification, an 8.87-fold (HR 8.87, 95% CI 7.27-10.82) increase in MACE among pharmacologically stressed patients with DM and TPD > 10% (vs non-ischemic, exercised stressed patients without DM).
Conclusions
Propensity-matched patients with DM and no known CAD have similar MACE risk compared to patients with known CAD and no DM. DM is synergistic with mode of stress testing and TPD in predicting the risk of cardiac stress test patients.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 09 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Han D, Rozanski A, Gransar H, Tzolos E, ... Berman DS, Slomka PJ
J Nucl Cardiol: 09 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34757571
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Abstract

Prognostic implication of myocardial perfusion and contractile reserve in end-stage renal disease: A direct comparison of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy and dobutamine stress echocardiography.

Bautz J, Stypmann J, Reiermann S, Pavenstädt HJ, ... Reuter S, Schäfers M
Background
We aimed to compare the prognostic value of myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) and dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) without known coronary artery disease.
Methods
Two-hundred twenty-nine ESRD patients who applied for kidney transplantation at our centre were prospectively evaluated by MPS and DSE. The primary endpoint was a composite of myocardial infarction (MI) or all-cause mortality. The secondary endpoint included MI or coronary revascularization (CR) not triggered by MPS or DSE at baseline.
Results
MPS detected reversible ischemia in 31 patients (13.5%) and fixed perfusion defects in 13 (5.7%) patients. DSE discovered stress-induced wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) in 28 (12.2%) and at rest in 18 (7.9%) patients. MPS and DSE results agreed in 85.6% regarding reversible defects (κ = 0.358; P < .001) and in 90.8% regarding fixed defects (κ = 0.275; P < .001). Coronary angiography detected relevant stenosis > 50% in only 15 of 38 patients (39.5%) with pathological findings in MPS and/or DSE. At a median follow-up of 8 years and 10 months, the primary endpoint occurred in 70 patients (30.6%) and the secondary endpoint in 24 patients (10.5%). The adjusted Cox hazard ratios (HRs) for the primary endpoint were 1.77 (95% CI 1.02-3.08; P = .043) for perfusion defects in MPS and 1.36 (95% CI 0.78-2.37; P = ns) for WMA in DSE. The secondary endpoint was significantly correlated with the findings of both modalities, MPS (HR 3.21; 95% CI 1.35-7.61; P = .008) and DSE (HR 2.67; 95% CI 1.15-6.20; P = .022).
Conclusion
Perfusion defects in MPS are a stronger determinant of all-cause mortality, MI and the need for future CR compared with WMAs in DSE. Given the complementary functional information provided by MPS vs DSE, results are sometimes contradictory, which may indicate differences in the underlying pathophysiology.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Nucl Cardiol: 07 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Bautz J, Stypmann J, Reiermann S, Pavenstädt HJ, ... Reuter S, Schäfers M
J Nucl Cardiol: 07 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34750727
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Abstract

Pulmonary perfusion and NYHA classification improve after cardiac resynchronization therapy.

Al-Mashat M, Borgquist R, Carlsson M, Arheden H, Jögi J
Background
Evaluation of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) often includes New York Heart Association (NYHA) classification, and echocardiography. However, these measures have limitations. Perfusion gradients from ventilation/perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography (V/P SPECT) are related to left-heart filling pressures and have been validated against invasive right-heart catheterization. The aim was to assess if changes in perfusion gradients are associated with improvements in heart failure (HF) symptoms after CRT, and if they correlate with currently used diagnostic methods in the follow-up of patients with HF after receiving CRT.
Methods and results
Nineteen patients underwent V/P SPECT, echocardiography, NYHA classification, and the quality-of-life scoring system \"Minnesota living with HF\" (MLWHF), before and after CRT. CRT caused improvement in perfusion gradients from V/P SPECT which were associated with improvements in NYHA classification (P = .0456), whereas improvements in end-systolic volume (LVESV) from echocardiography were not. After receiving CRT, the proportion of patients who improved was lower using LVESV (n = 7/19, 37%) than perfusion gradients (n = 13/19, 68%). Neither change in perfusion gradients nor LVESV was associated with changes in MLWHF (P = 1.0, respectively).
Conclusions
Measurement of perfusion gradients from V/P SPECT is a promising quantitative user-independent surrogate measure of left-sided filling pressure in the assessment of CRT response in patients with HF.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Nucl Cardiol: 07 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Al-Mashat M, Borgquist R, Carlsson M, Arheden H, Jögi J
J Nucl Cardiol: 07 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34750725
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Abstract

External validation of the CRAX2MACE model in an Italian cohort of patients with suspected coronary artery disease undergoing stress myocardial perfusion imaging.

Megna R, Petretta M, Assante R, Zampella E, ... Acampa W, Cuocolo A
Background
Prevention and development of diagnostic and therapeutic techniques reduced morbidity and mortality for coronary artery disease (CAD). In this context, the cardiovascular risk assessment for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 2-year (CRAX2MACE) model for prediction of 2-year major adverse cardiac events was developed. We performed an external validation of this model.
Methods
We included 1003 patients with suspected CAD undergoing stress-rest single-photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion imaging at our academic center between March 2015 and April 2019.
Results
Considering the occurrence of MACE (death from any cause, acute myocardial infarction, or late coronary revascularization), for the CRAX2MACE model the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.612 and the Brier score was 0.061. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test estimated a non-optimal fit (χ2 28, P < .001). Considering only hard events (cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction), the external validation of the CRAX2MACE model revealed a Brier score of 0.053 and an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.621. Hosmer-Lemeshow test was calculated by deciles and showed a poor fit (χ2 31, P < .001).
Conclusion
CRAX2MACE model had a limited value for predicting 2-year major adverse cardiovascular events in an external validation cohort of patients with suspected CAD.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Megna R, Petretta M, Assante R, Zampella E, ... Acampa W, Cuocolo A
J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34734366
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Abstract

Potential novel imaging targets of inflammation in cardiac sarcoidosis.

Park J, Young BD, Miller EJ
Cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is an inflammatory disease with high morbidity and mortality, with a pathognomonic feature of non-caseating granulomatous inflammation. While 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a well-established modality to image inflammation and diagnose CS, there are limitations to its specificity and reproducibility. Imaging focused on the molecular processes of inflammation including the receptors and cellular microenvironments present in sarcoid granulomas provides opportunities to improve upon FDG-PET imaging for CS. This review will highlight the current limitations of FDG-PET imaging for CS while discussing emerging new nuclear imaging molecular targets for the imaging of cardiac sarcoidosis.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Park J, Young BD, Miller EJ
J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34734365
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Abstract

Effect of nitroglycerin on splanchnic and pulmonary blood volume.

Okamoto LE, Dupont WD, Biaggioni I, Kronenberg MW, Wright AK
Background
Sublingual nitroglycerin (SL NTG) is useful for treating acute decompensated heart failure, possibly by increasing splanchnic capacitance and reducing left ventricular (LV) preload. We evaluated a radionuclide method to study these effects, initially in subjects without heart failure.
Methods and results
Red blood cells were labelled by an in vitro method. Abdominal and chest images were obtained at rest, showing relative regional blood volumes. The abdomen was then re-imaged during progressive escalation of intrathoracic pressure using continuous positive airway pressure to assess baseline splanchnic capacitance (pressure-volume relationship, PVR) and compliance (slope of PVR). The procedure was repeated after 0.6 mg SL NTG, followed by chest images. Relative splanchnic blood volume increased at rest after SL NTG (P < .002), signifying an increase in splanchnic capacitance. The slope of the splanchnic PVR decreased in proportion to the baseline PVR (P = .0014), signifying increased compliance. The relative pulmonary blood volume decreased in proportion to the increase in splanchnic blood volume (P = .01).
Conclusions
A semi-quantitative radionuclide method demonstrated the effect of SL NTG for increasing splanchnic capacitance and compliance, with a proportional decrease in pulmonary blood volume. These data may be applied to quantitatively evaluate the importance of splanchnic vasodilation as a mechanism of LV preload reduction in the treatment of heart failure.
Clinical trials registration
NCT02425566.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 01 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print
Okamoto LE, Dupont WD, Biaggioni I, Kronenberg MW, Wright AK
J Nucl Cardiol: 01 Nov 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34729682
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Abstract

Normal imaging findings after ascending aorta prosthesis implantation on F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography with computed tomography.

Wahadat AR, Tanis W, Mulders TA, Graven LH, ... Roos-Hesselink JW, Budde RPJ
Background
To diagnose abnormal 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in suspected endocarditis after aortic root and/or ascending aorta prosthesis (ARAP) implantation, it is important to first establish the normal periprosthetic uptake on positron emission tomography with computed tomography (PET/CT).
Methods
Patients with uncomplicated ARAP implantation were prospectively included and underwent 18F-FDG-PET/CT at either 12 (± 2) weeks (group 1) or 52 (± 8) weeks (group 2) after procedure. Uptake on three different locations of the prosthesis (\"cranial anastomosis (CA),\" \"prosthetic heart valve (PHV),\" \"ascending aorta prosthesis (AAP)\") was scored visually (none/low/intermediate/high) and quantitatively (maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and target-to-background ratio (SUVratio).
Results
In total, 20 patients (group 1: n = 10, group 2: n = 10) (mean age 64±7 years, 70% male) were included. Both groups had similar visual uptake intensity for all measured areas (CA: mostly low-intermediate (16/20 (80%)), p = .17; PHV: low-intermediate (16/20 (80%)), p = .88; AAP: low-intermediate (19/20 (95%)), p = .48). SUVmax for CA was 5.6 [4.1-6.1] and 3.8 [3.1-5.9] (median [IQR], p = .19), and around PHV 5.0 [4.1-5.7] and 6.3 [4.6-7.1] (p = .11) for groups 1 and 2, respectively. SUVratio for CA was 2.8 [2.3-3.2] and 2.0 [1.7-2.6] (median [IQR], p = .07) and around PHV 2.5 [2.4-2.8] and 2.9 [2.3-3.5] (median [IQR], p = .26) for groups 1 and 2, respectively.
Conclusion
No significant differences were observed between PET/CT findings at 3 months and 1 year after ARAP implantation, warranting caution in interpretation of PET/CT in the first year after implantation.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Nucl Cardiol: 26 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print
Wahadat AR, Tanis W, Mulders TA, Graven LH, ... Roos-Hesselink JW, Budde RPJ
J Nucl Cardiol: 26 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34708302
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Abstract

Vascular/perivascular inflammation in IgG4-related disease.

Imai S, Tahara N, Igata S, Tahara A, ... Fukumoto Y, Tayama E
Background
Immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is characterized by the infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells and fibrosclerotic inflammation in multiple organs. Although vascular complications are present in some patients with IgG4-RD, vascular and/or perivascular inflammatory activity compared to control subjects remains unknown. This study sought to investigate vascular/perivascular inflammation in IgG4-RD patients compared to control subjects using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT).
Methods
We examined 37 consecutive patients diagnosed as IgG4-RD (29 males, mean age of 64.3 ± 8.3 years old), who underwent FDG-PET/CT. Thirty-seven age- and gender-matched subjects without IgG4-RD were employed as controls. Vascular/perivascular inflammation was quantified by blood-normalized standardized uptake value, known as a target-to-background ratio (TBR).
Results
All IgG4-RD patients presented with multiple region involvements. Twelve (32.4%) of the IgG4-RD patients had vascular complications, all of which appeared in the abdominal aorta. IgG4-RD patients had significantly higher TBR values in the descending aorta, abdominal aorta, and common iliac artery than control subjects. Also, IgG4-RD patients with vascular complication exhibited higher TBR values in the infra-renal aorta and common iliac artery than those without vascular complication.
Conclusions
We found that vascular FDG activity is significantly elevated in IgG4-RD patients regardless of vascular complication than control subjects. FDG-PET/CT is a useful modality for assessing vascular/perivascular inflammation, which may contribute vascular complication in IgG4-RD patients.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 25 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print
Imai S, Tahara N, Igata S, Tahara A, ... Fukumoto Y, Tayama E
J Nucl Cardiol: 25 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34704218
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Abstract

Effect of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony assessed pre-renal transplantation on cardiovascular death post transplantation.

Morgan WS, Ives CW, Farag AA, Kumar V, ... Iskandrian AE, Hage FG
Background
SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) provides an assessment of LV mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) which correlates with CVD outcomes in diverse populations including those awaiting renal transplant (RT). The current study examines the association of LVMD on pre-transplant MPI with long-term CVD mortality post RT.
Methods
We identified consecutive patients who underwent RT at the University of Alabama at Birmingham between 2008 and 2012 from our prospectively collected database. 675 patients in the database underwent MPI and had images amenable for phase analysis. A blinded investigator retrieved the studies and derived LVMD indices including histogram bandwidth (BW), standard deviation (SD), phase peak, phase skewness, and phase kurtosis. The primary outcome was CVD death after RT.
Results
The study cohort had a median age of 54 years, 56% were men, 43% had diabetes, and 7% had prior myocardial infarction. Patients were on dialysis for a median of 3.4 years prior to RT and 34% received living donor transplants. During a median follow-up time after RT of 4.7 years (IQR 3.5 to 6.3 years) 59 patients (9%) succumbed to CVD death. Patients with wider BW, wider SD, lower skewness, and lower kurtosis had an increased risk of CVD death. On multivariate adjustment, BW and skewness remained as independent predictors of CVD deaths.
Conclusions
LVMD by phase analysis of gated SPECT MPI is associated with increased risk of CVD death after RT. This association is independent of demographics, comorbidities, and traditional findings on MPI and added incremental prognostic information. Assessment of LVMD should be considered for risk stratification in these patients.

© 2021. This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply.

J Nucl Cardiol: 21 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print
Morgan WS, Ives CW, Farag AA, Kumar V, ... Iskandrian AE, Hage FG
J Nucl Cardiol: 21 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34677806
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Impact:
Abstract

Post-reconstruction attenuation correction for SPECT myocardium perfusion imaging facilitated by deep learning-based attenuation map generation.

Liu H, Wu J, Shi L, Liu Y, ... Liu YH, Liu C
Background
Attenuation correction can improve the quantitative accuracy of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) images. Existing SPECT-only systems normally can only provide non-attenuation corrected (NC) images which are susceptible to attenuation artifacts. In this work, we developed a post-reconstruction attenuation correction (PRAC) approach facilitated by a deep learning-based attenuation map for myocardial perfusion SPECT imaging.
Methods
In the PRAC method, new projection data were estimated via forwardly projecting the scanner-generated NC image. Then an attenuation map, generated from NC image using a pretrained deep learning (DL) convolutional neural network, was incorporated into an offline reconstruction algorithm to obtain the attenuation-corrected images from the forwardly projected projections. We evaluated the PRAC method using 30 subjects with a DL network trained with 40 subjects, using the vendor-generated AC images and CT-based attenuation maps as the ground truth.
Results
The PRAC methods using DL-generated and CT-based attenuation maps were both highly consistent with the scanner-generated AC image. The globally normalized mean absolute errors were 1.1% ± .6% and .7% ± .4% and the localized absolute percentage errors were 8.9% ± 13.4% and 7.8% ± 11.4% in the left ventricular (LV) blood pool, respectively, and - 1.3% ± 8.0% and - 3.8% ± 4.5% in the LV myocardium for PRAC methods using DL-generated and CT-based attenuation maps, respectively. The summed stress scores after PRAC using both attenuation maps were more consistent with the ground truth than those of the NC images.
Conclusion
We developed a PRAC approach facilitated by deep learning-based attenuation maps for SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging. It may be feasible for this approach to provide AC images for SPECT-only scanner data.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 19 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print
Liu H, Wu J, Shi L, Liu Y, ... Liu YH, Liu C
J Nucl Cardiol: 19 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34671940
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Impact:
Abstract

Hybrid imaging of neuroendocrine tumors in the heart: Union is strength.

Marketou ME, Kapsoritakis N, Bourogianni O, Patrianakos A, ... Parthenakis F, Koukouraki S
Cardiac neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are particularly rare tumors that can lead to a very poor clinical outcome, partly because of metastases but mainly because of manifestations of the hormonal activity they exhibit. Prompt diagnosis is important in order to start the most effective treatment for their removal or management, with the fewest complications. They are often difficult to diagnose, especially in their early stages. One of the reasons for this is that the heart is an organ with a high rate of metabolism and is located in close proximity to other high-metabolism organs. In addition, the anatomic location and their small size render their diagnosis extremely challenging. In recent years, hybrid imaging methods have revolutionized the diagnostic approach to oncology patients and have established a place in the diagnosis of cardiac NETs, because they provide both anatomical and functional information at the same time. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) and single-photon emission computed tomography/CT (SPECT/CT) are widely used in clinical practice because of the very important metabolic information, the high sensitivity and specificity. However, prospective studies are needed to confirm the true clinical and prognostic value of various hybrid imaging diagnostic techniques in cardiac NETs.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 06 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print
Marketou ME, Kapsoritakis N, Bourogianni O, Patrianakos A, ... Parthenakis F, Koukouraki S
J Nucl Cardiol: 06 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34622428
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Impact:
Abstract

Amiodarone attenuates cardiac Rubidium-82 in consecutive PET/CT scans in a rodent model.

Bentsen S, Bang LE, Hasbak P, Kjaer A, Ripa RS
Background
Risk stratification and diagnosis using Rubidium-82 (82Rb) positron emission tomography (PET) is a routine clinical approach in coronary artery disease (CAD). Various drugs are used to treat CAD; however, whether any of them change the uptake of 82Rb in the heart has not been investigated. The aim of this study is to determine whether drugs used in treatment of CAD affect the uptake of 82Rb in the heart in healthy rats.
Methods
Seventy-seven Sprague-Dawley rats were included in the cross-sectional study. All rats underwent baseline 82Rb PET/CT and divided into eleven groups treated with different drugs. One group was control group (no treatment), eight groups were treated with monotherapy (amiodarone, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), clopidogrel, ticagrelor, atorvastatin, enalapril, amlodipine, metoprolol succinate), and two groups were treated with polypharmacy (ASA, ticagrelor, atorvastatin, amlodipine or ASA, clopidogrel, atorvastatin, amlodipine). Once a day, they were administered pharmacological therapy through oral gavage, and on day seven, follow-up scanned with 82Rb PET/CT.
Results
In the control group without pharmacological treatment, no difference in the standard uptake value (SUV) ratio between heart and muscle from baseline to follow-up (5.8 vs 7.0, P = .3) was found. The group treated with amiodarone had a significantly reduced SUV ratio from baseline to follow-up (5.8 vs 5.1, P = .008). All other drugs investigated had no difference in SUV ratio from baseline to follow-up.
Conclusion
In this study, we showed that drugs normally used to treat CAD do not affect the uptake of 82Rb. However, amiodarone result in a significantly lowered 82Rb uptake, compared to control. This information about amiodarone would probably not change the size assessment of a myocardial perfusion defect in a clinical setting. However, it could change the kinetic parameters when assessing absolute myocardial blood flow in patients treated with amiodarone.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 04 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print
Bentsen S, Bang LE, Hasbak P, Kjaer A, Ripa RS
J Nucl Cardiol: 04 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34611850
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Abstract

The prevalence and predictors of inducible myocardial ischemia among patients referred for radionuclide stress testing.

Rozanski A, Miller RJH, Han D, Gransar H, ... Thomson LB, Berman DS
Background
The frequency of inducible myocardial ischemia has declined in contemporary stress test cohorts, suggesting a need to re-evaluate its optimal use. To-date, however, a comprehensive analysis of the most potent predictors of myocardial ischemia among cardiac stress test patients has not been conducted.
Methods
We assessed 27,615 patients referred for stress-rest SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging between January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2017. Chi-square analysis was used to ascertain the most potent predictors of ischemia.
Results
Among our cohort, CAD status (presence/absence of known CAD), rest left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and typical angina were the most potent predictors of ischemia. The frequency of ischemia was only 6.6% among patients with an LVEF > 55% but 38.1% for patients with LVEF < 45% (P < 0.001). The frequency of myocardial ischemia was fourfold higher among patients with known CAD vs no known CAD (28.0% vs 6.5%, P < 0.001) and approximately threefold higher among patients with typical angina vs patients with atypical symptoms (P < 0.001).
Conclusions
The frequency of myocardial ischemia varies markedly according to the common clinical parameters and is particularly high among patients with known CAD, low LVEF, and typical angina. These observations may be used to develop more cost-effective strategies for referring patients for cardiac stress testing.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 03 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print
Rozanski A, Miller RJH, Han D, Gransar H, ... Thomson LB, Berman DS
J Nucl Cardiol: 03 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34608604
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Impact:
Abstract

Quantitative technetium pyrophosphate and cardiovascular magnetic resonance in patients with suspected cardiac amyloidosis.

Roshankar G, White GC, Cadet S, Fine NM, ... Slomka PJ, Miller RJH
Background
Quantitation of myocardial 99m Tc-pyrophosphate activity may have high diagnostic accuracy, but its correlation with disease burden is unknown. We examined the relationship between 99m Tc-pyrophosphate quantitation and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) measures in patients with suspected transthyretin cardiac amyloidosis (ATTR-CM) or light chain cardiac amyloidosis (AL-CM).
Methods
Consecutive patients who underwent 99mTc-pyrophosphate imaging and CMR were included. ATTR-CM and AL-CM were diagnosed using standard criteria. 99mTc-pyrophosphate images were assessed with standard parameters and quantified with cardiac pyrophosphate activity (CPA) and volume of involvement (VOI). We assessed the association between 99mTc-pyrophosphate image interpretation and CMR tissue characteristics.
Results
Seventy patients were identified, mean age 70.4 ± 11.4 years, with ATTR-CM and AL-CM diagnosed in 22 (31%) and 11 (16%) patients, respectively. In patients with ATTR-CM, there were significant correlations between CPA (r2 = 0.509, P < 0.001) and VOI (r2 = 0.586, P < 0.001) with native myocardial T1 mapping values. Additionally, CPA (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) 1.04, P = 0.016), VOI (aHR 1.12, P = 0.034), and average myocardial T1 (aHR 1.12, P = 0.025) were associated with incidence of heart failure hospitalization or death.
Conclusion
CPA and VOI were correlated with CMR measures of myocardial fibrosis in patients with ATTR-CM. 99mTc-pyrophosphate quantitation may have a role in ATTR-CM disease staging, guiding treatment, or following response to therapy.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print
Roshankar G, White GC, Cadet S, Fine NM, ... Slomka PJ, Miller RJH
J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Oct 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34604925
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Abstract

Serial changes in cardiac sympathetic nervous function after transcatheter aortic valve replacement: A prospective observational study using I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine imaging.

Kadoya Y, Zen K, Tamaki N, Nakamura S, ... Yaku H, Matoba S
Background
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) can rapidly improve cardiac sympathetic nervous function (CSNF) within 2 weeks in patients with aortic stenosis (AS). However, whether such short-term improvements will be sustained thereafter remains unclear.
Methods
Patients with severe AS who underwent TAVR between October 2017 and June 2019 were enrolled in this single-center, prospective, observational study. 123I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine imaging was performed at baseline, within 2 weeks after TAVR, and at 6 to 12 months post-TAVR to evaluate the heart-mediastinum ratio (H/M) and washout rate.
Results
Of 183 consecutive patients, 75 (19 men; median age: 86 years) were evaluated. The late H/M significantly improved within 2 weeks after TAVR (P = .041) and further improved over 6 to 12 months after TAVR (P = .041). Multivariate analysis revealed that the baseline mean aortic valve pressure gradient (mPG) was an independent predictor of mid-term improvement in the late H/M (> 0.1) (P = .037). Patients with a high baseline mPG (≥ 58 mmHg) exhibited a significantly greater increase in the late H/M than those with a low baseline mPG (< 42 mmHg) (0.24 vs 0.01; P = .029).
Conclusion
CSNF demonstrated sustained improvement from within 2 weeks after TAVR until 6 to 12 months later. Such improvement was related to baseline hemodynamic AS severity.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 23 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Kadoya Y, Zen K, Tamaki N, Nakamura S, ... Yaku H, Matoba S
J Nucl Cardiol: 23 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34561849
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Impact:
Abstract

ASNC Imaging Indications (ASNC-I): Multisocietal indications for radionuclide imaging in the multimodality context-Series rationale and methodology.

Bourque JM, Einstein AJ, Dorbala S
Background
Appropriate use criteria (AUC) enhance application of cardiovascular imaging techniques but have been applied in limited settings, primarily in common cardiovascular disease processes. There are several complex systemic diseases with cardiovascular implications and special populations with unique cardiovascular considerations that could benefit from appropriateness analysis. Moreover, the high medical complexity of these topics indicate they would benefit from high-yield expert consensus recommendations of the available imaging options. The ASNC Imaging Indications (ASNC-I2) Series will provide a concise overview of relevant disease processes and their multimodality evaluation and will provide consensus clinical indications, diagnostic criteria, and clinical algorithms with representative clinical cases.
Methods
For each ASNC-I2 document, a diverse writing group and rating panel will be composed of experts from societies pertinent to the topic, including relevant imaging societies and clinical societies that manage the disease under evaluation. The rating panel will follow robust modified Delphi methodology and commonly-accepted appropriateness methods to create consensus diagnostic criteria, clinical algorithms, and clinical indications that they will then rate with level of agreement recorded. The clinical and imaging experts will provide concise, high-yield clinical summaries of the disease process, the non-imaging evaluation, and multimodality imaging. Relevant cases will be provided highlighting application of the diagnostic criteria and clinical algorithms.
Conclusion
The ASNC Imaging Indications (ASNC-I2) Series will complement the diverse portfolio of documents from ASNC. It will use a multisocietal approach with robust appropriateness methodology to guide use of radionuclide imaging in the multimodality imaging context for the cardiovascular care of patients.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 23 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Bourque JM, Einstein AJ, Dorbala S
J Nucl Cardiol: 23 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34561848
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Impact:
Abstract

Predictive values of left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony for CRT response in heart failure patients with different pathophysiology.

He Z, Li D, Cui C, Qin HY, ... Wang C, Zhou W
Background
Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) patients with different pathophysiology may influence mechanical dyssynchrony and get different ventricular resynchronization and clinical outcomes.
Methods
Ninety-two dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and fifty ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients with gated single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were included in this retrospective study. Patients were classified based on the concordance between the left ventricular (LV) lead and the latest contraction or relaxation position. If the LV lead was located on or adjacent to both the latest contraction and relaxation position, the patient was categorized into the both match group; if the LV lead was located on or adjacent to the latest contraction or relaxation position, the patient was classified into the one match group; if the LV lead was located on or adjacent to neither the latest contraction nor relaxation position, the patient was categorized to the neither group. CRT response was defined as [Formula: see text] improvement of LV ejection fraction at the 6-month follow-up. Variables with P < .05 in the univariate analysis were included in the stepwise multivariate model.
Results
During the follow-up period, 58.7% (54 of 92) for DCM patients and 54% (27 of 50) for ICM patients were CRT responders. The univariate analysis and stepwise multivariate analysis showed that QRS duration, systolic phase bandwidth (PBW), diastolic PBW, diastolic phase histogram standard deviation (PSD), and left ventricular mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) concordance were independent predictors of CRT response in DCM patients; diabetes mellitus and left ventricular end-systolic volume were significantly associated with CRT response in ICM patients. The intra-group comparison revealed that the CRT response rate was significantly different in the both match group of DCM (N = 18, 94%) and ICM (N = 24, 62%) patients (P = .016). However, there was no significant difference between DCM and ICM in the one match and neither group. For the inter-group comparison, Kruskal-Wallis H-test revealed that CRT response was significantly different in all the groups of DCM patients (P < .001), but not in ICM patients (P = .383).
Conclusions
Compared with ICM patients, systolic PBW, diastolic PBW and PSD have better predictive and prognostic values for the CRT response in DCM patients. Placing the LV lead in or adjacent to the latest contraction and relaxation position can improve the clinical outcomes of DCM patients, but it does not apply to ICM patients.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 16 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
He Z, Li D, Cui C, Qin HY, ... Wang C, Zhou W
J Nucl Cardiol: 16 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34535872
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Abstract

Effect of changes in perfusion defect size during serial stress myocardial perfusion imaging on cardiovascular outcomes in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention after myocardial infarction.

Zampella E, Mannarino T, Gaudieri V, D\'Antonio A, ... Cuocolo A, Acampa W
Background
We evaluated the prognostic value of changes in perfusion defect size (PDS) on serial MPS in patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
Methods
We enrolled 112 patients treated with primary PCI after AMI who underwent two stress MPS within 1 month and after 6 months. Improvement in PDS was defined as a reduction ≥5%. Remodeling was defined as an increase in left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volume index ≥20%. Cardiac events included cardiac death, nonfatal MI, unstable angina, repeated revascularization, and heart failure.
Results
During a median follow-up of 86 months, 22 events occurred. Event rate was higher (P < .01) in patients with worsening of PDS compared to those with unchanged or improved PDS. Moreover, patients with remodeling had a higher (P < .001) event rate compared to those without. At Cox analysis, worsening of PDS and remodeling resulted independent predictors of events (both P < .01). Patients with both worsening of PDS and remodeling had the worst event-free survival (P <.001).
Conclusion
In patients treated with primary PCI after AMI, worsening of PDS and remodeling are associated to higher risk of events at long-term follow-up. Gated stress MPS improves risk stratification in these patients.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 12 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Zampella E, Mannarino T, Gaudieri V, D'Antonio A, ... Cuocolo A, Acampa W
J Nucl Cardiol: 12 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34519009
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Impact:
Abstract

[F]FDG and [F]NaF as PET markers of systemic atherosclerosis progression: A longitudinal descriptive imaging study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Reijrink M, de Boer SA, Te Velde-Keyzer CA, Sluiter JKE, ... Mulder DJ, Slart RHJA
Background
While [18F]-fluordeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) uptake is associated with arterial inflammation, [18F]-sodium fluoride ([18F]NaF) is a marker for arterial micro-calcification. We aimed to investigate the prospective correlation between both PET markers over time and whether they are prospectively ([18F]FDG) and retrospectively ([18F]NaF) related to progression of systemic arterial disease in a longitudinal study in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
Methods
Baseline [18F]FDG PET/Low Dose (LD) Computed Tomography (CT) scans of ten patients with early T2DM without cardiovascular history (70% men, median age 63 years) were compared with five-year follow-up [18F]NaF/LDCT scans. Systemic activity was expressed as mean target-to-background ratio (meanTBR) by dividing the maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of ten arteries by SUVmean of the caval vein. CT-assessed macro-calcifications were scored visually and expressed as calcified plaque (CP) score. Arterial stiffness was assessed with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). Five-year changes were expressed absolutely with delta (Δ) and relatively with %change.
Results
Baseline meanTBR[18F]FDG was strongly correlated with five-year follow-up meanTBR[18F]NaF (r = 0.709, P = .022). meanTBR[18F]NaF correlated positively with ΔCPscore, CPscore at baseline, and follow-up (r = 0.845, P = .002 and r = 0.855, P = .002, respectively), but not with %change in CPscore and PWV.
Conclusion
This proof-of-concept study demonstrated that systemic arterial inflammation is an important pathogenetic factor in systemic arterial micro-calcification development.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Nucl Cardiol: 12 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Reijrink M, de Boer SA, Te Velde-Keyzer CA, Sluiter JKE, ... Mulder DJ, Slart RHJA
J Nucl Cardiol: 12 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34519008
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Impact:
Abstract

The prognostic value of positron emission tomography in the evaluation of suspected cardiac sarcoidosis.

Patel VN, Pieper JA, Poitrasson-Rivière A, Kopin D, ... Murthy VL, Koelling T
Objectives
To assess the prognostic value of positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in patients undergoing evaluation for known or suspected cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) while not on active immunotherapy.
Background
Previous studies have attempted to identify the value of PET imaging to aid in risk stratification of patients with CS, however, most cohorts have included patients currently on immunosuppression, which may confound scan results by suppressing positive findings.
Methods
We retrospectively analyzed 197 patients not on immunosuppression who underwent 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET scans for evaluation of known or suspected CS. The primary endpoint of the study was time to ventricular arrhythmia (VT/VF), or death. Candidate predictors were identified by univariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Independent predictors were identified by performing multivariable Cox regression with stepwise forward selection.
Results
Median follow-up time was 531 [IQR 309, 748] days. 41 patients met the primary endpoint. After stepwise forward selection, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-0.99, P = 0.02), history of VT/VF (HR 4.19, 95% CI 2.15-8.17, P < 0.001), and summed rest score (SRS) (HR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.12, P = 0.01) were predictive of the primary endpoint. Quantitative and qualitative measures of FDG uptake on PET were not predictive of clinical events.
Conclusions
Among untreated patients who underwent PET scans to evaluate known or suspected CS, LVEF, history of VT/VF, and SRS were associated with adverse clinical outcomes.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 08 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Patel VN, Pieper JA, Poitrasson-Rivière A, Kopin D, ... Murthy VL, Koelling T
J Nucl Cardiol: 08 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34505261
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Impact:
Abstract

Combining body mass index with waist circumference to assess coronary microvascular function in patients with non-obstructive coronary artery disease.

Wang R, Li X, Huangfu S, Yao Q, ... Yan R, Li S
Background
Coronary microvascular dysfunction (CMD) may precede clinically overt coronary artery disease (CAD). Overall and central obesity (CO) are major risk factors for CAD. This study sought to investigate the subclinical significance of body adiposity patterns based on the CMD risk.
Methods
A total of 128 patients with non-obstructive CAD were prospectively enrolled. Patients were categorized into 4 anthropometric groups: normal weight and non-CO (NWNCO, n = 41), normal weight and CO (NWCO, n = 20), excess weight and non-CO (EWNCO, n = 26), and excess weight and CO (EWCO, n = 41). Patients underwent rest/stress electrocardiography-gated 13N-ammonia positron emission tomography to measure absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF), myocardial flow reserve (MFR), hemodynamic parameters, and cardiac function.
Results
Resting MBF did not differ between groups (P = .36). Compared with the NWNCO group, hyperemic MBF and MFR were significantly lower in the NWCO and EWCO groups. Notably, patients with NWCO presented the lowest hyperemic MBF and MFR and the highest incidence of CMD. Waist circumference was an independent risk factor for CMD (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10, P = .02).
Conclusion
In patients with non-obstructive CAD, CO may be associated with an increased risk of CMD to better fit the study findings which did not assess management or monitoring of MBF and MFR.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Wang R, Li X, Huangfu S, Yao Q, ... Yan R, Li S
J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34476781
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Impact:
Abstract

Effect of respiratory motion correction and CT-based attenuation correction on dual-gated cardiac PET image quality and quantification.

Schultz J, Siekkinen R, Tadi MJ, Teräs M, ... Saraste A, Teuho J
Background
Dual-gating reduces respiratory and cardiac motion effects but increases noise. With motion correction, motion is minimized and image quality preserved. We applied motion correction to create end-diastolic respiratory motion corrected images from dual-gated images.
Methods
[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-FDG) PET images of 13 subjects were reconstructed with 4 methods: non-gated, dual-gated, motion corrected, and motion corrected with 4D-CT (MoCo-4D). Image quality was evaluated using standardized uptake values, contrast ratio, signal-to-noise ratio, coefficient of variation, and contrast-to-noise ratio. Motion minimization was evaluated using myocardial wall thickness.
Results
MoCo-4D showed improvement for contrast ratio (2.83 vs 2.76), signal-to-noise ratio (27.5 vs 20.3) and contrast-to-noise ratio (14.5 vs 11.1) compared to dual-gating. The uptake difference between MoCo-4D and non-gated images was non-significant (P > .05) for the myocardium (2.06 vs 2.15 g/mL), but significant (P < .05) for the blood pool (.80 vs .86 g/mL). Non-gated images had the lowest coefficient of variation (27.3%), with significant increase for all other methods (31.6-32.5%). MoCo-4D showed smallest myocardial wall thickness (16.6 mm) with significant decrease compared to non-gated images (20.9 mm).
Conclusions
End-diastolic respiratory motion correction and 4D-CT resulted in improved motion minimization and image quality over standard dual-gating.

© 2021. The Author(s).

J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Schultz J, Siekkinen R, Tadi MJ, Teräs M, ... Saraste A, Teuho J
J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34476780
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Impact:
Abstract

Added value of coronary artery calcium score in the reporting of SPECT versus PET myocardial perfusion imaging.

Mouden M, Jager PL, van Dalen JA, van Dijk JD
Background
Knowledge of coronary artery calcium score (CACS) influences the interpretation of myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) with SPECT; however, the impact on PET interpretation remains unclear. We compared the added value of CACS to reporting MPI using SPECT vs PET.
Methods
We retrospectively included 412 patients. 206 patients who underwent Rb-82 PET were propensity-based matched to a cohort of 4018 patients who underwent cadmium-zinc-telluride SPECT MPI to obtain a comparable group of 206 SPECT patients. Next, we created four image sets: SPECT MPI-only, PET-only, SPECT + CACS, and PET + CACS. Two physicians interpreted the 824 images as normal, equivocal, or abnormal for ischemia or irreversible defects. Additionally, event rates were compared between PET and SPECT groups during 30-month follow-up.
Results
PET yielded more scans interpreted as normal than SPECT (88% vs 80%, respectively, P = 0.015). Adding CACS to SPECT increased the percentage of normal scans to 86% (P = 0.014), whereas this effect was absent for PET (90%, P = 0.77). Annualized event rates for images interpreted as normal did not differ and varied between 0.7 and 2.0% (P > 0.084).
Conclusion
Adding CACS correctly increased the percentage of normal scans for SPECT MPI but not for PET, possibly limiting the effect of adding CACS to reporting PET.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Mouden M, Jager PL, van Dalen JA, van Dijk JD
J Nucl Cardiol: 02 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34476779
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Impact:
Abstract

Multimodality imaging to distinguish between benign and malignant cardiac masses.

Aghayev A, Cheezum MK, Steigner ML, Mousavi N, ... Di Carli MF, Blankstein R
Background
To compare the diagnostic accuracy of CMR and FDG-PET/CT and their complementary role to distinguish benign vs malignant cardiac masses.
Methods
Retrospectively assessed patients with cardiac mass who underwent CMR and FDG-PET/CT within a month between 2003 and 2018.
Results
72 patients who had CMR and FDG-PET/CT were included. 25 patients (35%) were diagnosed with benign and 47 (65%) were diagnosed with malignant masses. 56 patients had histological correlation: 9 benign and 47 malignant masses. CMR and FDG-PET/CT had a high accuracy in differentiating benign vs malignant masses, with the presence of CMR features demonstrating a higher sensitivity (98%), while FDG uptake with SUVmax/blood pool ≥ 3.0 demonstrating a high specificity (88%). Combining multiple (> 4) CMR features and FDG uptake (SUVmax/blood pool ratio ≥ 3.0) yielded a sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 88% to diagnose malignant masses. Over a mean follow-up of 2.6 years (IQR 0.3-3.8 years), risk-adjusted mortality were highest among patients with an infiltrative border on CMR (adjusted HR 3.1; 95% CI 1.5-6.5; P = .002) or focal extracardiac FDG uptake (adjusted HR 3.8; 95% CI 1.9-7.7; P < .001).
Conclusion
Although CMR and FDG-PET/CT can independently diagnose benign and malignant masses, the combination of these modalities provides complementary value in select cases.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 01 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Aghayev A, Cheezum MK, Steigner ML, Mousavi N, ... Di Carli MF, Blankstein R
J Nucl Cardiol: 01 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34476778
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Impact:
Abstract

Efficacy and safety of cardiac shock wave therapy for patients with severe coronary artery disease: A randomized, double-blind control study.

Jia N, Zhang R, Liu B, Liu B, ... Yao Z, He Q
Background
Previous studies proved the efficacy of cardiac shock wave therapy (CSWT) for coronary artery disease (CAD) patients who are not candidate for reperfusion therapy. Randomized control trials are limited. We try to explore the efficacy and safety of CSWT for patients with severe CAD.
Methods
Thirty patients with severe CAD who had obvious ischemia on myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) were enrolled and randomly assigned to the CSWT group or the control group. They had received optimal medication treatment for at least three months. Nine sessions of shock wave therapy were conducted over 3 months. CSWT group received the real treatment, while the control group received the pseudo-treatment. Clinical symptom, imaging outcomes and safety parameters were compared between two groups.
Results
After treatment, regional stress score (P = .023), improvement rate (IR) of ischemic area (IA) stress (P < .001) and IR of IA difference (P < .001) were significantly favor CSWT group. The interaction of summed rest score (P < .001), summed stress score (P = .004), summed difference score (P = .036) were significantly improved in the CSWT group compared to the control group. Seattle angina questionnaire, quality of life (QOL) and the distance of six-minute walking test (6MWT) were improved in both groups without significant difference between them. Hemodynamic parameters were stable during procedure. Myocardial injury markers showed no changes in two groups.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrated CSWT could effectively and safely improve myocardial perfusion in patients with severe CAD. Clinical symptom, QOL and 6MWT were all improved after treatment, but no significant difference between two groups.

© 2021. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology.

J Nucl Cardiol: 01 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print
Jia N, Zhang R, Liu B, Liu B, ... Yao Z, He Q
J Nucl Cardiol: 01 Sep 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 34476776
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Impact:

This program is still in alpha version.