Topic: Journal Club Selection

Abstract

Transcatheter Closure of Atrial Septal Defect Associated With Pulmonary Artery Hypertension using Fenestrated Devices.

Wang JK, Chiu SN, Lin MT, Chen CA, Lu CW, Wu MH
In patients with pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) associated with atrial septal defect (ASD), closure of ASD may carry significant risks. We aimed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of transcatheter closure of ASD in selected patients with PAH using a fenestrated device followed by pulmonary vasodilator therapy. During the 14.8-year period, 51 ASD patients (10 males, age 46 ± 18 years) with a mean pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) ≥ 35 mm Hg and/or systolic PAP ≥ 60 mm Hg, underwent closure with a fenestrated device. Of them, mean Qp/Qs ratio, systolic PAP and mean PAP were 2.6 ± 1.2, 73 ± 14 mm Hg, and 44 ± 8 mm Hg, respectively. A total of 35 patients received pulmonary vasodilator therapy. The New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class improved at 3 to 6 months follow-up. (p < 0.001) Nineteen patients underwent repeated catheterization. A comparison of the hemodynamic parameters between baseline and repeated catheterization revealed significant decreases in both systolic and mean PAP (77 ± 11 vs 55 ± 14 mm Hg, p < 0.0001 & 48 ± 7 vs 37 ± 8 mm Hg, p = 0.001, respectively), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (5.1 ± 2.3 vs 4.0 ± 1.7 WU, p = 0.011) and PVRi (7.7 ± 3.3 vs 6.2 ± 2.4 WU*m2, p = 0.024). After a follow-up period of 84 ± 45 months, 6 mortalities were noted in which 2 were due to cardiac causes. In conclusion, catheter closure of ASD in patients with PAH using a fenestrated device followed by vasodilator therapy is safe and effective.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.

Am J Cardiol: 14 May 2021; 147:122-128
Wang JK, Chiu SN, Lin MT, Chen CA, Lu CW, Wu MH
Am J Cardiol: 14 May 2021; 147:122-128 | PMID: 33667439
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Abstract

Spontaneous Cervical Artery Dissection in Vascular Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome: A Cohort Study.

Adham S, Billon C, Legrand A, Domigo V, ... Jeunemaitre X, Frank M
Background:
and purpose
Vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a rare inherited connective tissue disorder because of pathogenic variants in the COL3A1 gene. Arterial complications can affect all anatomic areas and about 25% involve supra-aortic trunks (SATs) but no systematic assessment of cervical artery lesions has been made. The primary objective was to determine an accurate prevalence of spontaneous SAT lesions in a large series of patients with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome at diagnosis and during follow-up. Secondary objectives were to study their neurological consequences (transient ischemic attack or stroke) and the possible relationships with sex, genotype, ascertainment status.
Methods
A retrospective review of a monocentric cohort of patients with molecularly proven vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome followed in a tertiary referral center from 2000 to 2017.
Results
One hundred forty-four patients were analyzed, 56.9% (n=82) had SAT lesions: 64.6% females, 74.4% index-case patients. Most lesions were identified in early arterial assessment (48% at first work-up, mean age of 35.7±13.0 years). Cumulative incidence of a first identification of a SAT lesion was 41.7% at 40 years old. On the complete period of survey, 183 SAT lesions (with 132 dissections and 33 aneurysms) were identified, mainly in internal carotid arteries (56.3%) and vertebral arteries (28.9%), more rarely in patients with COL3A1 null mutations (P=0.008). Transient ischemic attack or stroke were reported in n=16 (19.5%) of the 82 patients with SAT lesions without relation with age, sex, treatment, or hypertension.
Conclusions
Cervical artery lesions are frequent and mostly asymptomatic in patients with vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Local dissections and aneurysms are the most frequent type of lesions, but transient ischemic attack or stroke seem rare.



Stroke: 29 Apr 2021; 52:1628-1635
Adham S, Billon C, Legrand A, Domigo V, ... Jeunemaitre X, Frank M
Stroke: 29 Apr 2021; 52:1628-1635 | PMID: 33641388
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Impact:
Abstract

Current Therapeutic Options in Aortic Stenosis.

Boskovski MT, Gleason TG
Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular disease requiring valve replacement. Valve replacement therapies have undergone progressive evolution since the 1960s. Over the last 20 years, transcatheter aortic valve replacement has radically transformed the care of aortic stenosis, such that it is now the treatment of choice for many, particularly elderly, patients. This review provides an overview of the pathophysiology, presentation, diagnosis, indications for intervention, and current therapeutic options for aortic stenosis.



Circ Res: 29 Apr 2021; 128:1398-1417
Boskovski MT, Gleason TG
Circ Res: 29 Apr 2021; 128:1398-1417 | PMID: 33914604
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Impact:
Abstract

Incidence and Outcomes of Pneumonia in Patients With Heart Failure.

Shen L, Jhund PS, Anand IS, Bhatt AS, ... Solomon SD, McMurray JJV
Background
The incidence of pneumonia and subsequent outcomes has not been compared in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF).
Objectives
This study aimed to examine the rate and impact of pneumonia in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure) and PARAGON-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ARB Global Outcomes in Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction) trials.
Methods
The authors analyzed the incidence of investigator-reported pneumonia and the rates of HF hospitalization, cardiovascular death, and all-cause death before and after the occurrence of pneumonia, and estimated risk after the first occurrence of pneumonia in unadjusted and adjusted analyses (the latter including N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide).
Results
In PARADIGM-HF, 528 patients (6.3%) developed pneumonia after randomization, giving an incidence rate of 29 (95% CI: 27 to 32) per 1,000 patient-years. In PARAGON-HF, 510 patients (10.6%) developed pneumonia, giving an incidence rate of 39 (95% CI: 36 to 42) per 1,000 patient-years. The subsequent risk of all trial outcomes was elevated after the occurrence of pneumonia. In PARADIGM-HF, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for the risk of death from any cause was 4.34 (95% CI: 3.73 to 5.05). The corresponding adjusted HR in PARAGON-HF was 3.76 (95% CI: 3.09 to 4.58).
Conclusions
The incidence of pneumonia was high in patients with HF, especially HFpEF, at around 3 times the expected rate. A first episode of pneumonia was associated with 4-fold higher mortality. (Prospective Comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor With Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure [PARADIGM-HF], NCT01035255; Prospective Comparison of ARNI [Angiotensin Receptor-Neprilysin Inhibitor] With ARB [Angiotensin Receptor Blocker] Global Outcomes in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction [PARAGON-HF], NCT01920711).

Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 26 Apr 2021; 77:1961-1973
Shen L, Jhund PS, Anand IS, Bhatt AS, ... Solomon SD, McMurray JJV
J Am Coll Cardiol: 26 Apr 2021; 77:1961-1973 | PMID: 33888245
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Abstract

Randomized Trial of Interleukin-6 Receptor Inhibition in Patients With Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

Broch K, Anstensrud AK, Woxholt S, Sharma K, ... Aukrust P, Gullestad L
Background
Prompt myocardial revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) reduces infarct size and improves outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). However, as much as 50% of the loss of viable myocardium may be attributed to the reperfusion injury and the associated inflammatory response.
Objectives
This study sought to evaluate the effect of the interleukin-6 receptor inhibitor tocilizumab on myocardial salvage in acute STEMI.
Methods
The ASSAIL-MI trial was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 3 high-volume PCI centers in Norway. Patients admitted with STEMI within 6 h of symptom onset were eligible. Consenting patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to promptly receive a single infusion of 280 mg tocilizumab or placebo. The primary endpoint was the myocardial salvage index as measured by magnetic resonance imaging after 3 to 7 days.
Results
We randomized 101 patients to tocilizumab and 98 patients to placebo. The myocardial salvage index was larger in the tocilizumab group than in the placebo group (adjusted between-group difference 5.6 [95% confidence interval: 0.2 to 11.3] percentage points, p = 0.04). Microvascular obstruction was less extensive in the tocilizumab arm, but there was no significant difference in the final infarct size between the tocilizumab arm and the placebo arm (7.2% vs. 9.1% of myocardial volume, p = 0.08). Adverse events were evenly distributed across the treatment groups.
Conclusions
Tocilizumab increased myocardial salvage in patients with acute STEMI. (ASSessing the effect of Anti-IL-6 treatment in Myocardial Infarction [ASSAIL-MI]; NCT03004703).

Copyright © 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 19 Apr 2021; 77:1845-1855
Broch K, Anstensrud AK, Woxholt S, Sharma K, ... Aukrust P, Gullestad L
J Am Coll Cardiol: 19 Apr 2021; 77:1845-1855 | PMID: 33858620
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Abstract

Myocardial Angiotensin Metabolism in End-Stage Heart Failure.

Pavo N, Prausmüller S, Spinka G, Goliasch G, ... Zuckermann A, Hülsmann M
Background
The myocardium exhibits an adaptive tissue-specific renin-angiotensin system (RAS), and local dysbalance may circumvent the desired effects of pharmacologic RAS inhibition, a mainstay of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) therapy.
Objectives
This study sought to investigate human myocardial tissue RAS regulation of the failing heart in the light of current therapy.
Methods
Fifty-two end-stage HFrEF patients undergoing heart transplantation (no RAS inhibitor: n = 9; angiotensin-converting enzyme [ACE] inhibitor: n = 28; angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]: n = 8; angiotensin receptor neprilysin-inhibitor [ARNi]: n = 7) were enrolled. Myocardial angiotensin metabolites and enzymatic activities involved in the metabolism of the key angiotensin peptides angiotensin 1-8 (AngII) and Ang1-7 were determined in left ventricular samples by mass spectrometry. Circulating angiotensin concentrations were assessed for a subgroup of patients.
Results
AngII and Ang2-8 (AngIII) were the dominant peptides in the failing heart, while other metabolites, especially Ang1-7, were below the detection limit. Patients receiving an ARB component (i.e., ARB or ARNi) had significantly higher levels of cardiac AngII and AngIII (AngII: 242 [interquartile range (IQR): 145.7 to 409.9] fmol/g vs 63.0 [IQR: 19.9 to 124.1] fmol/g; p < 0.001; and AngIII: 87.4 [IQR: 46.5 to 165.3] fmol/g vs 23.0 [IQR: <5.0 to 59.3] fmol/g; p = 0.002). Myocardial AngII concentrations were strongly related to circulating AngII levels. Myocardial RAS enzyme regulation was independent from the class of RAS inhibitor used, particularly, a comparable myocardial neprilysin activity was observed for patients with or without ARNi. Tissue chymase, but not ACE, is the main enzyme for cardiac AngII generation, whereas AngII is metabolized to Ang1-7 by prolyl carboxypeptidase but not to ACE2. There was no trace of cardiac ACE2 activity.
Conclusions
The failing heart contains considerable levels of classical RAS metabolites, whereas AngIII might be an unrecognized mediator of detrimental effects on cardiovascular structure. The results underline the importance of pharmacologic interventions reducing circulating AngII actions, yet offer room for cardiac tissue-specific RAS drugs aiming to limit myocardial AngII/AngIII peptide accumulation and actions.

Copyright © 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Apr 2021; 77:1731-1743
Pavo N, Prausmüller S, Spinka G, Goliasch G, ... Zuckermann A, Hülsmann M
J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Apr 2021; 77:1731-1743 | PMID: 33832600
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Abstract

Transcatheter Versus Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement in Patients With Rheumatic Aortic Stenosis.

Mentias A, Saad M, Desai MY, Krishnaswamy A, ... Kapadia S, Sarrazin MV
Background
Patients with rheumatic aortic stenosis (AS) were excluded from transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) trials.
Objectives
The authors sought to examine outcomes with TAVR versus surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in patients with rheumatic AS, and versus TAVR in nonrheumatic AS.
Methods
The authors identified Medicare beneficiaries who underwent TAVR or SAVR from October 2015 to December 2017, and then identified patients with rheumatic AS using prior validated International Classification of Diseases, Version 10 codes. Overlap propensity score weighting analysis was used to adjust for measured confounders. The primary study outcome was all-cause mortality. Multiple secondary outcomes were also examined.
Results
The final study cohort included 1,159 patients with rheumatic AS who underwent aortic valve replacement (SAVR, n = 554; TAVR, n = 605), and 88,554 patients with nonrheumatic AS who underwent TAVR. Patients in the SAVR group were younger and with lower prevalence of most comorbidities and frailty scores. After median follow-up of 19 months (interquartile range: 13 to 26 months), there was no difference in all-cause mortality with TAVR versus SAVR (11.2 vs. 7.0 per 100 person-year; adjusted hazard ratio: 1.53; 95% confidence interval: 0.84 to 2.79; p = 0.2). Compared with TAVR in nonrheumatic AS, TAVR for rheumatic AS was associated with similar mortality (15.2 vs. 17.7 deaths per 100 person-years (adjusted hazard ratio: 0.87; 95% confidence interval: 0.68 to 1.09; p = 0.2) after median follow-up of 17 months (interquartile range: 11 to 24 months). None of the rheumatic TAVR patients, <11 SAVR patients, and 242 nonrheumatic TAVR patients underwent repeat aortic valve replacement (124 redo-TAVR and 118 SAVR) at follow-up.
Conclusions
Compared with SAVR, TAVR could represent a viable and possibly durable option for patients with rheumatic AS.

Copyright © 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Apr 2021; 77:1703-1713
Mentias A, Saad M, Desai MY, Krishnaswamy A, ... Kapadia S, Sarrazin MV
J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Apr 2021; 77:1703-1713 | PMID: 33832596
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Abstract

Clonal Hematopoiesis and Risk of Progression of Heart Failure With Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction.

Pascual-Figal DA, Bayes-Genis A, Díez-Díez M, Hernández-Vicente Á, ... Sánchez-Cabo F, Fuster JJ
Background
Clonal hematopoiesis driven by somatic mutations in hematopoietic cells, frequently called clonal hematopoiesis of indeterminate potential (CHIP), has been associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes in population-based studies and in patients with ischemic heart failure (HF) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Yet, the impact of CHIP on HF progression, including nonischemic etiology, is unknown.
Objectives
The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical impact of clonal hematopoiesis on HF progression irrespective of its etiology.
Methods
The study cohort comprised 62 patients with HF and LVEF <45% (age 74 ± 7 years, 74% men, 52% nonischemic, and LVEF 30 ± 8%). Deep sequencing was used to detect CHIP mutations with a variant allelic fraction >2% in 54 genes. Patients were followed for at least 3.5 years for various adverse events including death, HF-related death, and HF hospitalization.
Results
CHIP mutations were detected in 24 (38.7%) patients, without significant differences in all-cause mortality (p = 0.151). After adjusting for risk factors, patients with mutations in either DNA methyltransferase 3 alpha (DNMT3A) or Tet methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2) exhibited accelerated HF progression in terms of death (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.79; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31 to 5.92; p = 0.008), death or HF hospitalization (HR: 3.84; 95% CI: 1.84 to 8.04; p < 0.001) and HF-related death or HF hospitalization (HR: 4.41; 95% CI: 2.15 to 9.03; p < 0.001). In single gene-specific analyses, somatic mutations in DNMT3A or TET2 retained prognostic significance with regard to HF-related death or HF hospitalization (HR: 4.50; 95% CI: 2.07 to 9.74; p < 0.001, for DNMT3A mutations; HR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.52 to 6.66; p = 0.002, for TET2 mutations). This association remained significant irrespective of ischemic/nonischemic etiology.
Conclusions
Somatic mutations that drive clonal hematopoiesis are common among HF patients with reduced LVEF and are associated with accelerated HF progression regardless of etiology.

Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier Inc.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Apr 2021; 77:1747-1759
Pascual-Figal DA, Bayes-Genis A, Díez-Díez M, Hernández-Vicente Á, ... Sánchez-Cabo F, Fuster JJ
J Am Coll Cardiol: 12 Apr 2021; 77:1747-1759 | PMID: 33832602
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Impact:
Abstract

Oncolytic HSV-1 G207 Immunovirotherapy for Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas.

Friedman GK, Johnston JM, Bag AK, Bernstock JD, ... Markert JM, Gillespie GY
Background
Outcomes in children and adolescents with recurrent or progressive high-grade glioma are poor, with a historical median overall survival of 5.6 months. Pediatric high-grade gliomas are largely immunologically silent or \"cold,\" with few tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Preclinically, pediatric brain tumors are highly sensitive to oncolytic virotherapy with genetically engineered herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) G207, which lacks genes essential for replication in normal brain tissue.
Methods
We conducted a phase 1 trial of G207, which used a 3+3 design with four dose cohorts of children and adolescents with biopsy-confirmed recurrent or progressive supratentorial brain tumors. Patients underwent stereotactic placement of up to four intratumoral catheters. The following day, they received G207 (107 or 108 plaque-forming units) by controlled-rate infusion over a period of 6 hours. Cohorts 3 and 4 received radiation (5 Gy) to the gross tumor volume within 24 hours after G207 administration. Viral shedding from saliva, conjunctiva, and blood was assessed by culture and polymerase-chain-reaction assay. Matched pre- and post-treatment tissue samples were examined for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes by immunohistologic analysis.
Results
Twelve patients 7 to 18 years of age with high-grade glioma received G207. No dose-limiting toxic effects or serious adverse events were attributed to G207 by the investigators. Twenty grade 1 adverse events were possibly related to G207. No virus shedding was detected. Radiographic, neuropathological, or clinical responses were seen in 11 patients. The median overall survival was 12.2 months (95% confidence interval, 8.0 to 16.4); as of June 5, 2020, a total of 4 of 11 patients were still alive 18 months after G207 treatment. G207 markedly increased the number of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Conclusions
Intratumoral G207 alone and with radiation had an acceptable adverse-event profile with evidence of responses in patients with recurrent or progressive pediatric high-grade glioma. G207 converted immunologically \"cold\" tumors to \"hot.\" (Supported by the Food and Drug Administration and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02457845.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 09 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print
Friedman GK, Johnston JM, Bag AK, Bernstock JD, ... Markert JM, Gillespie GY
N Engl J Med: 09 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33838625
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Impact:
Abstract

Thrombotic Thrombocytopenia after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 Vaccination.

Greinacher A, Thiele T, Warkentin TE, Weisser K, Kyrle PA, Eichinger S
Background
Several cases of unusual thrombotic events and thrombocytopenia have developed after vaccination with the recombinant adenoviral vector encoding the spike protein antigen of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, AstraZeneca). More data were needed on the pathogenesis of this unusual clotting disorder.
Methods
We assessed the clinical and laboratory features of 11 patients in Germany and Austria in whom thrombosis or thrombocytopenia had developed after vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19. We used a standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect platelet factor 4 (PF4)-heparin antibodies and a modified (PF4-enhanced) platelet-activation test to detect platelet-activating antibodies under various reaction conditions. Included in this testing were samples from patients who had blood samples referred for investigation of vaccine-associated thrombotic events, with 28 testing positive on a screening PF4-heparin immunoassay.
Results
Of the 11 original patients, 9 were women, with a median age of 36 years (range, 22 to 49). Beginning 5 to 16 days after vaccination, the patients presented with one or more thrombotic events, with the exception of 1 patient, who presented with fatal intracranial hemorrhage. Of the patients with one or more thrombotic events, 9 had cerebral venous thrombosis, 3 had splanchnic-vein thrombosis, 3 had pulmonary embolism, and 4 had other thromboses; of these patients, 6 died. Five patients had disseminated intravascular coagulation. None of the patients had received heparin before symptom onset. All 28 patients who tested positive for antibodies against PF4-heparin tested positive on the platelet-activation assay in the presence of PF4 independent of heparin. Platelet activation was inhibited by high levels of heparin, Fc receptor-blocking monoclonal antibody, and immune globulin (10 mg per milliliter). Additional studies with PF4 or PF4-heparin affinity purified antibodies in 2 patients confirmed PF4-dependent platelet activation.
Conclusions
Vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCov-19 can result in the rare development of immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia mediated by platelet-activating antibodies against PF4, which clinically mimics autoimmune heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. (Funded by the German Research Foundation.).

Copyright © 2021 Massachusetts Medical Society.

N Engl J Med: 08 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print
Greinacher A, Thiele T, Warkentin TE, Weisser K, Kyrle PA, Eichinger S
N Engl J Med: 08 Apr 2021; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33835769
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Impact:
Abstract

Perioperative Neurological Evaluation and Management to Lower the Risk of Acute Stroke in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac, Nonneurological Surgery: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

Benesch C, Glance LG, Derdeyn CP, Fleisher LA, ... American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention
Perioperative stroke is a potentially devastating complication in patients undergoing noncardiac, nonneurological surgery. This scientific statement summarizes established risk factors for perioperative stroke, preoperative and intraoperative strategies to mitigate the risk of stroke, suggestions for postoperative assessments, and treatment approaches for minimizing permanent neurological dysfunction in patients who experience a perioperative stroke. The first section focuses on preoperative optimization, including the role of preoperative carotid revascularization in patients with high-grade carotid stenosis and delaying surgery in patients with recent strokes. The second section reviews intraoperative strategies to reduce the risk of stroke, focusing on blood pressure control, perioperative goal-directed therapy, blood transfusion, and anesthetic technique. Finally, this statement presents strategies for the evaluation and treatment of patients with suspected postoperative strokes and, in particular, highlights the value of rapid recognition of strokes and the early use of intravenous thrombolysis and mechanical embolectomy in appropriate patients.



Circulation: 07 Apr 2021:CIR0000000000000968; epub ahead of print
Benesch C, Glance LG, Derdeyn CP, Fleisher LA, ... American Heart Association Stroke Council; Council on Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology; Council on Cardiovascular and Stroke Nursing; Council on Clinical Cardiology; and Council on Epidemiology and Prevention
Circulation: 07 Apr 2021:CIR0000000000000968; epub ahead of print | PMID: 33827230
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Abstract

The role of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 in cardiomyocyte injury after myocardial infarction.

Li L, Fu W, Gong X, Chen Z, ... Wang WE, Zeng C
Aims
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 4 (GRK4) has been reported to play an important role in hypertension, but little is known about its role in cardiomyocytes and myocardial infarction (MI). The goal of present study is to explore the role of GRK4 in the pathogenesis and progression of MI.
Methods and results
We studied the expression and distribution pattern of GRK4 in mouse heart after MI. GRK4 A486V transgenic mice, inducible cardiomyocyte-specific GRK4 knockout mice, were generated and subjected to MI with their control mice. Cardiac infarction, cardiac function, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, autophagic activity, and HDAC4 phosphorylation were assessed. The mRNA and protein levels of GRK4 in the heart were increased after MI. Transgenic mice with the overexpression of human GRK4 wild type (WT) or human GRK4 A486V variant had increased cardiac infarction, exaggerated cardiac dysfunction and remodelling. In contrast, the MI-induced cardiac dysfunction and remodelling were ameliorated in cardiomyocyte-specific GRK4 knockout mice. GRK4 overexpression in cardiomyocytes aggravated apoptosis, repressed autophagy, and decreased beclin-1 expression, which were partially rescued by the autophagy agonist rapamycin. MI also induced the nuclear translocation of GRK4, which inhibited autophagy by increasing HDAC4 phosphorylation and decreasing its binding to the beclin-1 promoter. HDAC4 S632A mutation partially restored the GRK4-induced inhibition of autophagy. MI caused greater impairment of cardiac function in patients carrying the GRK4 A486V variant than in WT carriers.
Conclusion
GRK4 increases cardiomyocyte injury during MI by inhibiting autophagy and promoting cardiomyocyte apoptosis. These effects are mediated by the phosphorylation of HDAC4 and a decrease in beclin-1 expression.

Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author(s) 2020. For permissions, please email: [email protected]

Eur Heart J: 06 Apr 2021; 42:1415-1430
Li L, Fu W, Gong X, Chen Z, ... Wang WE, Zeng C
Eur Heart J: 06 Apr 2021; 42:1415-1430 | PMID: 33280021
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Impact:
Abstract

COVID-19 in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

Broberg CS, Kovacs AH, Sadeghi S, Rosenbaum MS, ... Cotts TB, Aboulhosn JA
Background
Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have been considered potentially high risk for novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) mortality or other complications.
Objectives
This study sought to define the impact of COVID-19 in adults with CHD and to identify risk factors associated with adverse outcomes.
Methods
Adults (age 18 years or older) with CHD and with confirmed or clinically suspected COVID-19 were included from CHD centers worldwide. Data collection included anatomic diagnosis and subsequent interventions, comorbidities, medications, echocardiographic findings, presenting symptoms, course of illness, and outcomes. Predictors of death or severe infection were determined.
Results
From 58 adult CHD centers, the study included 1,044 infected patients (age: 35.1 ± 13.0 years; range 18 to 86 years; 51% women), 87% of whom had laboratory-confirmed coronavirus infection. The cohort included 118 (11%) patients with single ventricle and/or Fontan physiology, 87 (8%) patients with cyanosis, and 73 (7%) patients with pulmonary hypertension. There were 24 COVID-related deaths (case/fatality: 2.3%; 95% confidence interval: 1.4% to 3.2%). Factors associated with death included male sex, diabetes, cyanosis, pulmonary hypertension, renal insufficiency, and previous hospital admission for heart failure. Worse physiological stage was associated with mortality (p = 0.001), whereas anatomic complexity or defect group were not.
Conclusions
COVID-19 mortality in adults with CHD is commensurate with the general population. The most vulnerable patients are those with worse physiological stage, such as cyanosis and pulmonary hypertension, whereas anatomic complexity does not appear to predict infection severity.

Copyright © 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 05 Apr 2021; 77:1644-1655
Broberg CS, Kovacs AH, Sadeghi S, Rosenbaum MS, ... Cotts TB, Aboulhosn JA
J Am Coll Cardiol: 05 Apr 2021; 77:1644-1655 | PMID: 33795039
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Impact:
Abstract

Relationship of LVEF and Myocardial Scar to Long-Term Mortality Risk and Mode of Death in Patients With Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

Klem I, Klein M, Khan M, Yang EY, ... Heitner JF, Shah DJ
Background
Nonischemic cardiomyopathy is a leading cause of reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and is associated with high mortality risk from progressive heart failure and arrhythmias. Myocardial scar on cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging is increasingly recognized as a risk marker for adverse outcomes; however, left ventricular dysfunction remains the basis for determining a patient\'s eligibility for primary prophylaxis with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. We investigated the relationship of LVEF and scar with long-term mortality and mode of death in a large cohort of patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy.
Methods
This study is a prospective, longitudinal outcomes registry of 1020 consecutive patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy who underwent clinical cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging for the assessment of LVEF and scar at 3 centers.
Results
During a median follow-up of 5.2 (interquartile range, 3.8, 6.6) years, 277 (27%) patients died. On survival analysis, LVEF ≤35% and scar were strongly associated with all-cause (log-rank test P=0.002 and P<0.001, respectively) and cardiac death (P=0.001 and P<0.001, respectively). Whereas scar was strongly related to sudden cardiac death (SCD; P=0.001), there was no significant association between LVEF ≤35% and SCD risk (P=0.57). On multivariable analysis including established clinical factors, LVEF and scar are independent risk markers of all-cause and cardiac death. The addition of LVEF provided incremental prognostic value but insignificant discrimination improvement by C-statistic for all-cause and cardiac death, but no incremental prognostic value for SCD. Conversely, scar extent demonstrated significant incremental prognostic value and discrimination improvement for all 3 end points. On net reclassification analysis, the addition of LVEF resulted in no significant improvement for all-cause death (11.0%; 95% CI, -6.2% to 25.9%), cardiac death (9.8%; 95% CI, -5.7% to 29.3%), or SCD (7.5%; 95% CI, -41.2% to 42.9%). Conversely, the addition of scar extent resulted in significant reclassification improvement of 25.5% (95% CI, 11.7% to 41.0%) for all-cause death, 27.0% (95% CI, 11.6% to 45.2%) for cardiac death, and 40.6% (95% CI, 10.5% to 71.8%) for SCD.
Conclusions
Myocardial scar and LVEF are both risk markers for all-cause and cardiac death in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. However, whereas myocardial scar has strong and incremental prognostic value for SCD risk stratification, LVEF has no incremental prognostic value over clinical measures. Scar assessment should be incorporated into patient selection criteria for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement.



Circulation: 05 Apr 2021; 143:1343-1358
Klem I, Klein M, Khan M, Yang EY, ... Heitner JF, Shah DJ
Circulation: 05 Apr 2021; 143:1343-1358 | PMID: 33478245
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Abstract

Cardiovascular Risk in Patients With Psoriasis: JACC Review Topic of the Week.

Garshick MS, Ward NL, Krueger JG, Berger JS
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects 2% to 3% of the U.S. population. The immune response in psoriasis includes enhanced activation of T cells and myeloid cells, platelet activation, and up-regulation of interferons, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukins (ILs) IL-23, IL-17, and IL-6, which are linked to vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis development. Patients with psoriasis are up to 50% more likely to develop cardiovascular disease (CV) disease, and this CV risk increases with skin severity. Major society guidelines now advocate incorporating a psoriasis diagnosis into CV risk prediction and prevention strategies. Although registry data suggest treatment targeting psoriasis skin disease reduces vascular inflammation and coronary plaque burden, and may reduce CV risk, randomized placebo-controlled trials are inconclusive to date. Further studies are required to define traditional CV risk factor goals, the optimal role of lipid-lowering and antiplatelet therapy, and targeted psoriasis therapies on CV risk.

Copyright © 2021 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

J Am Coll Cardiol: 05 Apr 2021; 77:1670-1680
Garshick MS, Ward NL, Krueger JG, Berger JS
J Am Coll Cardiol: 05 Apr 2021; 77:1670-1680 | PMID: 33795041
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Abstract

BMP9 and BMP10 Act Directly on Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells for Generation and Maintenance of the Contractile State.

Wang L, Rice M, Swist S, Kubin T, ... Schneider A, Braun T
Background
Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) show a remarkable phenotypic plasticity, allowing acquisition of contractile or synthetic states, but critical information is missing about the physiologic signals, promoting formation, and maintenance of contractile VSMCs in vivo. BMP9 and BMP10 (bone morphogenetic protein) are known to regulate endothelial quiescence after secretion from the liver and right atrium, whereas a direct role in the regulation of VSMCs was not investigated. We studied the role of BMP9 and BMP10 for controlling formation of contractile VSMCs.
Methods
We generated several cell type-specific loss- and gain-of-function transgenic mouse models to investigate the physiologic role of BMP9, BMP10, ALK1 (activin receptor-like kinase 1), and SMAD7 in vivo. Morphometric assessments, expression analysis, blood pressure measurements, and single molecule fluorescence in situ hybridization were performed together with analysis of isolated pulmonary VSMCs to unravel phenotypic and transcriptomic changes in response to absence or presence of BMP9 and BMP10.
Results
Concomitant genetic inactivation of Bmp9 in the germ line and Bmp10 in the right atrium led to dramatic changes in vascular tone and diminution of the VSMC layer with attenuated contractility and decreased systemic as well as right ventricular systolic pressure. On the contrary, overexpression of Bmp10 in endothelial cells of adult mice dramatically enhanced formation of contractile VSMCs and increased systemic blood pressure as well as right ventricular systolic pressure. Likewise, BMP9/10 treatment induced an ALK1-dependent phenotypic switch from synthetic to contractile in pulmonary VSMCs. Smooth muscle cell-specific overexpression of Smad7 completely suppressed differentiation and proliferation of VSMCs and reiterated defects observed in adult Bmp9/10 double mutants. Deletion of Alk1 in VSMCs recapitulated the Bmp9/10 phenotype in pulmonary but not in aortic and coronary arteries. Bulk expression analysis and single molecule RNA-fluorescence in situ hybridization uncovered vessel bed-specific, heterogeneous expression of BMP type 1 receptors, explaining phenotypic differences in different Alk1 mutant vessel beds.
Conclusions
Our study demonstrates that BMP9 and BMP10 act directly on VSMCs for induction and maintenance of their contractile state. The effects of BMP9/10 in VSMCs are mediated by different combinations of BMP type 1 receptors in a vessel bed-specific manner, offering new opportunities to manipulate blood pressure in the pulmonary circulation.



Circulation: 05 Apr 2021; 143:1394-1410
Wang L, Rice M, Swist S, Kubin T, ... Schneider A, Braun T
Circulation: 05 Apr 2021; 143:1394-1410 | PMID: 33334130
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This program is still in alpha version.